EcoHub A Commuter Terminal on Chicagoâ€™s Waterfront Adam T. Reed
TTU College of Architecture Masters Design Thesis Spring/Fall 2008 Prof. Jim White :: Prof. Saif Haq
ECO HUB A Commuter Terminal On Chicagoâ€™s Waterfront by Adam Reed A Thesis In Architecture Submitted to the Architecture Faculty of the College of Architecture Of Texas Tech University in Partial Fulfillment for The Degree of MASTERS OF ARCHITECTURE ________________________________________________ Jim White, AIA :: Chairman of the Committee (Thesis Instructor) _________________________________________________ Saif Haq, PhD :: Thesis Advisor _________________________________________________ Jim White, AIA :: Research Schematics Instructor Accepted ______________________________________ Andrew Vernooy, AIA :: Dean, College of Architecture ______________________________________ Month, Year
Before I Begin: Nearly every year on the last day of classes I try to stop by my professor’s offices and offer my thanks. Brought up believing that it is but the kindness you show that will be returned to you, I strive to show my sincere and humble appreciation for the wisdom—and criticism— they instill in me every year. This year is a little different. This year I’ll be saying thank you in the most cumulative and collective manner possible. This year is my last year. This year is both a thank you and a goodbye. A handshake seems hardly appropriate (or possible) to express my emotions to those who have, over the last five years, sketched me as a designer, quantified me as a an engineer, painted me as an artist, programmed me into a programmer, sculpted me into a builder, envisioned me as a visionary, and formed all of that into that which we all want to be proud of— an architect. The only way I can thank each and every one of you is both with a gift and a promise. The gift is this thesis: a culmination of one year’s research and five years of training, thirty-some-odd sleepless nights, two computer crashes, a roll of sketch paper, eight precedent studies, five schematic iterations, every weekend of my summer, a sliced finger, a final presentation, and endless trips to Varsity. The promise is that I will take forth that which you have given me and apply it to make this world better.
There are some people who cannot say that they had such a short impact on my life. For I have known them for much longer and they are the sole reason for me being the man that they always told me I could become. Mom, Dad, and Lance—thank you. Thank you for your belief in me, your invaluable support, your time, and your resources. I’ll never know another human being more sincerely dedicated to my success than my own mom. I’ve never been more driven to be a good role model if not for my younger brother, Lance. Dad, I’m not sure there will ever be a better investment than the one you’ve put into me the past twenty three years. I have mentioned time and time again that my girlfriend, Crista, could pass first year design with the amount of time I spend talking about architecture around her. She has been more than just my sanity and my stronghold the past five years. She has, and continues to be my best friend and the most compelling reason to love all that you have and all that you may never see. To all of my family, in blood and in friendship, thank you for the memories, the opportunities, the friendship and the lessons. Here is my final thank you. Enjoy.
List of Illustrations
Context 76 Introduction 79 Site Plans 80 Ecology 82 Neighboring Structures 86 Circulation Patterns 92 Site Analysis 107 Issues
13 Theory 14 Introduction 18 Overview 28 Issues 32 Precedent I: 34 Precedent II: 37 Precedent III: 39 Facility 40 Background 43 Mission Statement and Issues 54 Mobile Units 55 Precedent I: 58 Precedent II: 60 Precedent III:
114 Design Response 115 Thesis 116 Schematic Design 127 Preliminary Design 135 Structures + Systems + Qualifying 142 Final Design 168
References & Works Cited
Project Statement: The former Meigs Field on Chicagoâ€™s Northerly Island transformed the way aviation and civic activity could co-exist. Along the cityâ€™s waterfront, planes would trace their paths along the marinas and parks below. After its closing in 2003, the island has sat dormant, contributing nothing to the urban environment socially, culturally, or economically. With such close proximity to the museum district and Soldier Field, this area is primed for multi-modal integration. The existing utilities, context, and heritage all play integral roles in the ability for a hybrid facility type to not only service the Chicago waterfrontâ€™s transportation needs, but its ecological needs, as well.
Assertion: A congested network of traffic is the lifeblood of interaction and can be an established point of departure for sustainable transportation solutions.
Thesis: The existing ecological context can influence the design of a responsive multimodal terminal servicing transportation and civic needs for both tourists and commuters.
The Story In today’s society, travelers and commuters have become the contemporary warriors of the urban environment. Tourists and businessmen utilize virtually every form of transportation on a daily basis, often spending more time in idle cars or congested airports than at their destination. Imagine how much pollution, how many resources are contributed to these “hubs” and “pods” of transportation. Imagine what it would be like to solve a city’s congestive tourist needs and local business routes from a singular location that not only provides multi-modal transportation, but a way to boost a tangled network of existing transportation types into an ecological and civic experience. Chicago’s Northerly Island once housed Meigs Airfield, a small set of runways that stretched the length of the peninsula near Soldier Field and the Museum district. Although inactive and in need of serious renovation, Meigs Field sits near the hub of five major modes of transportation that service the cultural epicenter of Chicago. To the west, Burnham Harbor is the anchoring point of many private yachts and tour/party boats. Just north of the strip is the ever-buzzing Solidarity Drive which stretches from the main shore at the Field Museum past the Shedd Aquarium and terminates at the Adler Planetarium. This road sees taxi, bus, and shuttle traffic 24/7. Across Burnham Harbor is the Metra Electric commuter rail (with station) which stretches across the lakeshore for miles. Small planes and private corporate jets could still utilize the abandoned landing strip if re-evaluated and incorporated into a hub of transportation services. With all of the rails and sails that cut through this scenic lakefront property, it is necessary to observe the one mode of transportation that does not insult or harm it: pedestrians. Many people walk and jog the paths and shores provided in the museum district, and even down Northerly Island’s “park-like” bleakness. And as most modern (or postmodern) architecture is designed to be viewed as passing whisps from a car
window or as a static image in a magazine, the opportunity to design for the pedestrian can once again be reclaimed as the sustainable option as it was before the 1900’s. The paradox lies in the ability to organize and compress the many modes of transportation into an ecologically friendly facility that accommodates vehicular routes and landscape. This culture of congestion is not one unfamiliar to architects. Rem Koolhaas, as my preeminent source of congestive theory has dealt with programmatic hybridity and capacity more than virtually any other contemporary architect. And when addressing sustainability and ecological responsibility, I will be looking mainly to the city of Chicago itself for answers to today’s design accountability issues. Facility-wise, the epistemology of transportation building types as well as visitor’s centers and museums will be an area of focus (as this transit hub will not only service the passerby, but the inquirer and destination seeker, as well.) Issues such as density, proximity, expanse, and influence will be theoretically based in the most profitable examples of current and historic multi-modal transportation documented. As well, non-building (or rather non-architectural) topics will be researched and addressed to look at both contextual and design-approach opportunities that would normally be outside the realm of new construction or urban design. Therefore, contextual sensitivity becomes the major issue in this project as it comes in the form of historical, cultural, psychological, geographical, and economic entities. The history and existing condition of Burnham’s plan for the Chicago waterfront is detailed out in his masterplan which encompasses the Northerly Island site. Being careful not to disrupt the existing architecture and sense of place will to be somewhat of a challenge, but more importantly, a requirement of sustainable (longevitydriven) design.
Theory 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 1.9 1.10 1.11 1.12 1.13 1.14 1.15 1.16 1.17 1.18 1.19 1.20 1.21
Collection of Fare cards. Joe Caronetti, thesubwaynut.com Density and the Urban Condition, Anushka Kalbag, Pratt Institute design project Pedestrians Traversing the Lower Don, Toronto. Weiss/Manfredi Architects. www. torontoist.com East River Esplanade of Lower Manhattan, SHop Architects. From Nan Ellin’s Inte gral Urbanism, precis. “Etching” Suburban Transformations, Paul Lukez Etching: Abandoned Railroad Tracks, from www.disordered.com “Excision” Suburban Transformations, Paul Lukez Excision: Zaha Hadid’s BMW Plant, from www.arcspace.com “Entropy” Suburban Transformations, Paul Lukez Entropy: Ruins at Xcaret, photo by author “Infill” Suburban Transformations, Paul Lukez Infill: Battery Park, from traceurbanism.worldpress.com “Absorption” Suburban Transformations, Paul Lukez Absorption: Related Westside Yards, Goldman Sachs and KPF, from relatedwest sideyards.com “Wrapping” Suburban Transformations, Paul Lukez Wrapping: Seattle Public Library, Rem Koolhaas & OMA, from seattleprimatege nomics.com “Parasitic” Suburban Transformations, Paul Lukez Parasitic: Licenza, Italy, photo by author “Morphing” Suburban Transformations, Paul Lukez Morphing: Morphing Camden, from www.acrosa.com/miami/intro.htm Chicago from Grant Park, from chicagoadventures.com
Theory (cont.) * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * *
Diagram: Opening in Structure for Baggage and Transportation, from Binney, Mar cus. Architecture of Rail: The Way Ahead, (London: Academy Editions, 1995). Diagram: Multiple Route Terminals, from Developing Around Transit: Strategies and Solutions That Work, Robert T. Dunphy, ed. Diagram: Existing transportation routes, by author Site plan, Zeebrugge Sea Terminal, from S,M,L,XL, p. 585 Terminal Model, from Ten Architects, p. 337 Zeebrugge Sea Terminal, from S.M.L.XL, 586-7 Interior of Terminal, from S.M.L.XL, p.594-5 Section, from S.M.L.XL, p.590-1 Plan showing roads, from S.M.L.XL, p.589 IIT Train terminal, www.OMA.eu Work stations, www.OMA.eu Learning Center from Street, www.OMA.eu Aerial view of campus, www.iit.edu google images rapid search Spatial Intervention, www.OMA.eu Under Construction, www.iit.eu Open area, www.iit.eu Public space in Tribune, www.OMA.eu View of pod from canal, vincent.callebaut.org Digital model showing tower and pod, vincent.callebaut.org Night rendering of light emission, vincent.callebaut.org Concept diagram showing influences, vincent.callebaut.org Day rendering showing hanging vegetation, vincent.callebaut.org Cafeteria with natural daylighting, vincent.callebaut.org
Facility 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.7 * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * *
Passing train, from http://pacific-islander.blogspot.com/2007_02_01_archive.html Crossing the Ferry-Scene on the Pee Dee, William Ranney, 1846, oil on canvas Hoboken Terminal, from www.philly2hoboken.com The â€˜Lâ€™ in Chicago, Ill, from www.carsareevil.com Traffic Congestion on Highway, from www.msnbc.com/news/2027856.jpg Urban Transportation Planning In The US - A Historical Overview/Nov 1992 Rail station security surveillance, from www.arinc.com Proposed METRA LRT cars, from http://metraconnects.metrarail.com Existing METRA cars, from http://ctabrownline.com/fullertonconstruction_pop.html Yokohama Port aerial view, from The Yokohama Project Edge condition, from The Yokohama Project Multi-purpose event space, from The Yokohama Project Longitudinal Rendering, from The Yokohama Project Harborside, from The Yokohama Project Landside, from The Yokohama Project Distribution of Program, from The Yokohama Project Grass roof, from The Yokohama Project Trails and tracks, from The Yokohama Project Grass roof detail and construction, from The Yokohama Project Diagrams showing stacking, structure, and circulation, from The Yokohama Project Ticketing and Ferry Operations, from Breen, Ann and Dick Rigby. The New Water front: A Worldwide Urban Success Story, (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1996). Details Showing Metaphor and Structure, from The New Waterfront: A Worldwide Urban Success Story. Under the Canopy, from Transport Facilities: New Concepts in Architecture & De sign, (Tokyo: Meisei Publications, 1997).
Theory * * * * *
Approaching the Station, from Transport Facilities: New Concepts in Architecture & Design, (Tokyo: Meisei Publications, 1997). Drawings and Site Plan, from Transport Facilities: New Concepts in Architecture & Design, (Tokyo: Meisei Publications, 1997).
Context 3.1 * * * * * * * * *
Chicago XV, Greatest Hits, cover label Rescuing an injured osprey on Northerly Island, from Advocacy for Animals, www. advocacy.britannica.com. Overgrown grass on Northerly Island, from www.citynoise.com Chicago Annual Rainfall and Min/Max Temperature, from http://www.wordtravels. com/Cities/Illinois/Chicago/Climate Burnham Park Yacht Club, East entrance, from http://www.bpyc.com/ Boats in Burnham Harbor, from http://www.bpyc.com/ Swimming the 5k marathon, from http://womenwhoride.typepad.com Depth Chart, by author Section through harbor, proposed Parks & Planes Museum, from http://184.108.40.206/
There is not a single theory that doesn’t rely upon others as either a precursor or an antithesis. Therefore, no singular theory would solve all of the project’s issues fully or directly. Looking at three different (but not unrelated) theories will yield a multi-scalar understanding of both Northerly Island, as well as Chicago’s waterfront. From here, facility and contextual issues will be more clearly linked and assessed.
Culture of Congestion (Rem Koolhaas) As the societal assessment of 21st century cities
Sustainable Transportation As the tool for mainstream accessibility
Integral Urbanism (Nan Ellin)
As the agent for design decisions
Culture of Congestion_ Rem Koolhaas discusses a â€œculture of congestionâ€? in places that promote density and, therefore, amalgamated program requirements. Congestion, in this sense, does not refer to a crowding or slowing of a particular process, but rather an intensification or fusion of events, forms, and services. Certainly a transportation hub, with multiple transit options, will deal with congestive intermodality as a way to create hybrid spaces and a themed identity.
1.2 Congestive intermodality: Density and the Urban Environment
Sustainable Transportation_ This contemporary cultural theory looks at planning and design at an urban scale, developing and involving entities that participate in local governmental and civic operations. This theory sprouts from the seeds of sustainability by means of public transportation. The options are weighed, crossreferenced, and enacted to create corridors of â€œaccessibility, not mobility.â€? The stewardship principle of experiencing and learning from the immediate environment is captivating when considering the programmable possibilities to do so.
1.3 Pedestrians traversing the Lower Don in Toronto
Integral Urbanism_ Despite the name, Integral Urbanism focuses much more on the building scale (and micro-theory) than might seem. There are five qualities that define Nan Ellinâ€™s theory1: 1) Hybridity, 2) Connectivity, 3) Porosity, 4) Authenticity, and 5) Vulnerability. Of these, this project will focus on the relationship between hybridity and connectivity with respect to building type and its relationship with the environment, as well as porosity within the function and flow of the materials and programs.
1.4 East River Esplanade of Lower Manhattan, SHoP Architects
Nan Ellin, Integral Urbanism, p.8.
The application of theory(ies): Each of the three theories can be applied methodologically to the project through overall integration of principle. Each calls for a social responsibility at the edge of design and integrity. Each denotes existing characteristics that define “urban” for the 21st century. Each theory advocates a “smart structure” that results from an analysis of both the tangible and phenomenological aspects of either the facility or the context. By looking at congestive theory as a sustainable (even ecological) condition, it makes sense that the people who interact with naturally occurring forms should mimic and re-interpret them into built forms. And people have to get around. So, transportative theory (when using hybridity, connectivity, and porosity) becomes naturally stitched into the landscape. It utilizes the same vocabulary that nature does when dealing with
introducing new forms. Runoff, absorption, deposit, etch, mix, wrap, parasite, host, compactiveness, fluidity, foreign, symbiosis... just a sample of the methods that nature applies as design principles. Coupling the very nature of congestive movement and sustainable transportation will render a result that benefits both the user and the site. Experimental “erasures” and “writings” will create surface structures that relate (additionally or subtractively) to the landscape. Hybrid forms of transportation will mix with hybrid forms of structure to create spaces with identity and relevance. Utilizing the vocabulary above, the following are a few theoretical design strategies to be examined:1
Early Schematic Sketch, June 2008
Paul Lukez, Suburban Transformations, 2007, 27-32.
Etching_ 1.5 â€œEtching marks the site, leaving a trace of past interventions or future intentions. This registration can be left through... the minimal addition of material to delineate the trace.â€?
1.6 Etching: Abandoned Railroad Tracks
Excision_ 1.7 “An excision is a precise and deliberate cut through an existing urban context or building. It slices through a fabric or mass... motivated by the need to liberate, reveal, or explore parts of buildings as well as connect remote or inaccessible points or destinations.”
1.8 Excision: Zaha Hadid’s BMW Plant
Entropy_ 1.9 “Entropy is ever-present as a natural force. The durability of a building’s lifecycle is a function of the materials used and the method of construction.”
1.10 Entropy: Ruins in Xcaret, Mexico
Infill_ 1.11 â€œInfill is about filling or constructing a void. The void can be territorial... or about filling the gap between two preexisting buildings or structures. Infill is important in creating continuity in our environments [and] involves taking advantage of existing capacity. [Infill] can slow the rate at which rural landscapes and functioning ecosystems are paved over by development.â€?
1.12 Infill: Battery Park
Absorption_ 1.13 â€œAbsorption describes the change that occurs when the space around a building or object is encroached upon. The process can be gradual or accelerated, yet in both cases the original object is no longer distinguishable as a separate entity from its surrounding context.â€?
1.14 Absorption: Related Westside Yards
Wrapping_ 1.15 “Wrapping sheathes an existing volume or surface in a new skin, redefining the boundary between the interior and exterior.” The depth of skin need not be limited to the width of a wall, and can entail the creation of thicker, habitable zones of space.”
1.16 Wrapping: Seattle Public Library
Parasitic_ 1.17 â€œA larger construction can serve as an armature, or host, to smaller embedded accretions of forms and spaces... so that its original form is no longer identifiable.â€?
1.18 Parasitic: Licenza, Italy
Morphing_ 1.19 â€œIn morphing, the material and volume of a form remain constant, while its shape and configuration transform and mutate into new forms. Forms may be subtly refined or radically altered.â€?
1.20 Morphing: Morphing Camden
Theoretical design issues to explore: Identity- To assess the current identity of the parkscape and represent that in the building. Connectivity- To manage multi-directional traffic and services and promote the site as a viable destination unto itself. Integration- To look at “one environment,” not “built and natural environment.”1
1 Dr. Amy Freeman Lee, interview with Prof. David Driskill, Texas Tech College of Architecture, 1985
Identity Goal: The project should act as a landmark for itself, but absorb as much of the existing environment and charac- ter as possible. Performance Requirement: Design a parasitic struc- ture that embeds itself into a hosting context. Potential Design Response: Exaggerate, at- tenuate, distill, idealize, and erode the elemental factors of vernacular forms.1
Performance Requirement: Express local building crafts with the newest technologies and methods.
Potential Design Response: Design according to appropriate waterfront standards.2 Potential Design Response: Use regional ma- terials and proper construction types.
1 Malcolm Quantrill, Plain Modern: The Architecture of Brian MacKayLyons, 2005, 64. 2 See Appendix A
Connectivity Goal: The site should foster integration of various trans- portation types and ease of travel for commuters. Performance Requirement: Relate “etchings” of ex- isting travel with architectural connectors. Potential Design Response: Provide for con- course space and public/ private interchanges.
Performance Requirement: Position structure and accessibility points according to openings and “exci- sions” in the system.
Potential Design Response: Operate with open spaces that allow for ease of wayfinding and traversing. Single-Route Terminals: If vehicle storage occurs off site, a terminal station on a single-route system will generally require double the platform space needed by in-line stations. For rail systems, crossover or tail tracks near the station are needed for the storage and reversing of vehicles.
Multiple-Route Terminals: A terminal station at which concurrently operating routes converge will require space for the parallel storage of vehicles as well as one or two parallel platforms for each route.
Integration Goal: To create appreciation for (and observation of) both the natural and manmade context that creates the overall landscape. Performance Requirement: Create systems of in door and outdoor spaces that relate to one another. Potential Design Response: Ventilate surfaces and materials that will create porous boundar- ies. Performance Requirement: Introduce programs and spaces that will be used to observe nature and people. Potential Design Response: Create trails, grasslands, decks, and information centers to bring awareness to natural and built condi- tions.
“Not only would the boats turn into floating entertainment worlds, but their destinations-the terminals- would shed their utilitarian character and become attractions... that effortlessly swallows, entertains, and processes the traveling masses.” -Rem Koolhaas, SMLXL, 581.
Theory_Precedent Study 32
Zeebrugge Sea Terminal Zeebrugge, Belgium Rem Koolhaas competition, 1989 This competition entry was an ambitious attempt in both scale and program. Koolhaas attempted to encapsulate the “coming century’s diversity and contradiction”1 by creating spaces that accept trains, roads, observers, and maritime traffic at the same time. The building accepts the most congested inputs: “intersecting roads serving both public and private traffic, pedestrian routes connecting to the land, catwalks leading to ships, etc.”2 Koolhaas, therefore, notes that the base is the most unstable part as it is the most active area with the most interaction of forces and events. A “working Babel”3 he calls it.
Theory_Precedent Study The project alludes to maritime travel while dealing with congestive theory on land. To organize these cross-cultures, Koolhaas implements the use of free section. He perceives the skin of the building to be nothing more than a superficial membrane, and therefore, secondary to the structure that creates the intended form. Koolhaas looks at travel as the experience and encounters implicit in different means of transportation. He therefore takes a great deal of programmable space and allots it to the â€œdestination sequenceâ€? of events that one can enjoy while moving throughout the terminal. Large lobbies, retail, media centers, and corporate lounges act as theatres for the tourist and business commuter. ____________ 1,2 Raphael Moneo. Theoretical Anxiety and Design Strategies in the Work of Eight Contemporary Architects, 336 3 Rem Koolhaas. S,M,L,XL, 579.
Theory_Precedent Study 34
McCormick Tribune Campus Chicago, Ill Rem Koolhaas, OMA 2003
This project includes a bookstore, auditorium, foodcourt, computer facilities, and meeting halls. Its intention is to link the east and west sides of campus by means of public space and sustainable transportation options. While visitors in the immediate area travel by foot or bicycle, they can commute to the rest of Chicago by means of shuttle, bus, or light rail. The existing infrastructure of the elevated steel rail (the L) was given prominance and attention by means of architectural intervention.
Theory_Precedent Study 35
â€œTo us the conundrum implies a building that is able to (re)urbanize the largest possible area with the least amount of (built) substance.â€? -Rem Koolhaas, www.OMA.eu
Status: Competition 1997, 1st Prize. Completion 2003 Site: In the center of historic Mies van der Rohe campus, underneath the metro, neighboring a Mies pavilion Program: 10,690 m2: campus center Client: Illinois Institute of Technology Budget: $US35m (from www.OMA.eu)
Theory_Precedent Study 36 The activities were not stacked, but rather positioned into an â€œinvolved mosaicâ€?1 to respond directly to the urban environment. Without fragmenting the overall building, each of the constituent parts is articulated according to its specific needs and positioned to respond precisely to contextual influence to create neighborhoods (twenty-four hour, commercial, entertainment, academic, utilitarian), parks and other urban elements in miniature.
Term by Rem Koolhaas, www.OMA.eu
Theory_Precedent Study 37
French architect Vincent Callebaut designed the Anti-Smog project as an attempt to raise awareness to issues regarding Parisâ€™ pollutive lifestyle along the canals. The organically designed scheme has two components (a tower and a podlike structure) which is docked on the old railway bridge spanning the canal. The pod (known as the Solar Drop) will have a 250 square metre photovoltaic blue roof which will capture the sun and convert it into energy for the pod. The main structure of the pod is made up of polyester fibers which are strengthened along its main profiles with steel banding. The whole structure is then covered in titanium dioxide which reacts with ultra violet light to reduce pollution.
Paris, France Vincent Callebaut 2007
Theory_Precedent Study “As an auto cleaning building it will also be able to absorb and recycle by means of photo catalytic technology the smog cloud generated by the huge amounts of traffic on the near by Parisian belt” -from skyscrapercity.com
38 The pod will also be completely energy efficient by means of two planted arches running along the top that collect rainwater that filters into a purified lagoon (centerpiece of the pod). The tower will act as a wind collector. The core of the tower will be covered in digital screens which will constantly beam the news and announcement for pedestrians. “A ribbon like banister unfurls itself down the length of the tower the main body of which is moves in accordance with the direction of the dominant wind.”1 The skin of the tower will be covered with greenery and punctuated with slits which hold the wind turbines. At the top of the tower a suspended public garden will offer spectacular views of Paris. 1 from http://vincent.callebaut.org/page1-imgourcq.html
Multimodal Terminal Example & History_
2.2 Crossing the Ferry-Scene on the Pee Dee, William Ranney, 1846, oil on canvas
2.3 Hoboken Terminal, ca.1890’s.
Passenger transport has always been intermodal.1 Some of the earliest examples involved people switching from carriages to ferries at the edge of rivers that were too deep to ford. In the 1800s, people who lived inland connected from train to ship for overseas voyages. Hoboken Terminal in Hoboken, New Jersey was built to let commuters to New York City from New Jersey switch to ferries to cross the Hudson River in order to get to Manhattan. (A massive ferry slip, now in ruins, was incorporated into the terminal building.) Later, when a subway was built through tunnels under the Hudson, now called the PATH, a station stop was added to Hoboken Terminal. More recently, the New Jersey Transit’s Hudson-Bergen Light Rail system has included a stop there, but it is a relatively long walk from the terminal building. Ferry service has been revived,
1 “intermodal passenger transport” article, www.wikipedia. com, accessed Feb. 9, 2008.
2.4 The ‘L’ in Chicago, Ill.
2.5 Traffic Congestion on Highway
but passengers must exit the terminal and walk across the pier to the slip. Many large cities with “intracity rail” link the rail network with the bus network. This enables riders to get to places that are not serviced directly by rail or would be too far for walking. In Chicago, for instance, to travel from the Loop to the Museum of Science and Industry, one must take the ‘L’ to Garfield Boulevard then transfer to a bus to the museum. Interest in multimodal transportation comes from the problems caused by traffic congestion worldwide and a shared interest in accessability and ease of both communication and travel. Traffic congestion has been increasing world-wide as a result of increased motorization, urbanization, population growth and massive shifts in population density. Urban cores see the bulk of this. Congestion therefore reduces efficiency of transportation infrastructure and increases travel time, air pollution and fuel consumption. The United States saw large increases in both motorization and urbanization starting in the 1920s that led to migration of the population from the sparsely populated rural areas and
2.6 Urban Highway Traffic vs. Travel Time, Urban Transportation Planning In The US - A Historical Overview/Nov 1992
2.7 Rail station security surveillance
the densely packed urban areas into suburbs. This was the start of the phenomenon known as “sprawl.” The industrial economy eventually replaced the agricultural economy, which lead the population to move from rural areas to urban centers. At the same time, motorization was causing cities to expand because motorized transportation could not support the population density that the existing mass transit systems could support. Eventually, much of public transit was released from privatized subsidation and the “general public” could afford the service.1 Recently, multimodality has seen involvement from the federal and state governments, motivated by an interest in homeland security. Many systems proposed in recent years involve surveillance of the roadways, which is a priority of homeland security.2 The most current articles of research going into the issue regard sustainability and emergency control. Multimodal urban hubs can play a significant part in rapid mass evacuation of people in the event of mass casualty, disaster, or threat. 1 See Appendix B 2 Torin Monahan, War Rooms of the Street: Surveillance Practices in Transportation Control Centers, 367-389.
Mission Statement: Create a multimodal transit center that fosters a sense of sustainability through both transit and environment. Facility design issues to explore:
Preservation- How to rehabilitate the lost character of Meigs Field as a functioning airfield. â€œPOIâ€?- How to create a point of interest on an urban peninsula. Responsiveness- How the building will respond to annual and daily climate changes. Intermodality- Encourage various transportation options that access different areas.
Preservation Goal: Preserve the history of Meigs Field as a functioning
airfield. Performance Requirement: Create a marketable image of the airfield to businessmen and tourists.
Potential Design Response: Extend to other nearby sites via transportation or landscape.
Potential Design Response: Provide services such as grounds tours and informational media.
Potential Design Response: Become an alternative to Oâ€™Hare and Midway.
Potential Design Response: Express water front appeal.
Performance Requirement: Address air traffic safety and pollution concerns sustainably. Potential Design Response: Use natural planting to create boundaries and screen imposing security.
Potential Design Response: Flight schedules will adapt to regional influences such as temperature, time of day, capacity, wind and migratory patterns, etc.
NOTE: (Only small and private aircraft will be able to access the 3000â€™ runway. This is an environ- mental incentive with regards to both lower fuel emissions and lighter arrival scheduling.)
Potential Design Response: Re-position landing strip to accomodate smaller aircraft turning radii (in turn maximizing land use.)
Point of Interest Goal: Create a multimodal center that is a terminus and point of interest for visitors. Performance Requirement: Be flexible enough to host as many events with as little built context as possible. Potential Design Response: Utilize versatile surfaces above and under open structure. Performance Requirement: Design for a pedestrian scale. Potential Design Response: Create a â€œstreetscapeâ€? that continues through the terminal.
Potential Design Response: Create unique pedestrian activities.
Potential Design Response: Design in eleva- tion and section to establish pedestrian scale.
Point of Interest (cont.) Performance Requirement: Create retail, services, and attractions that will interest visitors and commuters. Potential Design Response: Excursions and tours of Northerly Island. Potential Design Response: Boat observatory and Restaurant.
Potential Design Response: Boardwalk with retail and outdoor activities.
(Bike shops, kite flying, rowing, sailing, fishing, outdoor productions, air shows.)
Responsiveness Goal: Assertively respond to climate changes. Performance Requirement: Take advantage of natural energy sources. Potential Design Response: Place building for maximum site impact.
Potential Design Response: Harness wind from lake using wind generative resources.
Potential Design Response: Use photovoltaic systems to catch daylight and store it for energy use.
Potential Design Response: Use trees and green roofs to direct drainage and respond to wind/ sun.
Responsiveness (cont.) Performance Requirement: Create varying day to night ambiance. Potential Design Response: Adjust lighting to contrast with darkness of penninsula.
Potential Design Response: Replace daytime venues with night time venues using similar spaces.
Potential Design Response: Allow for facade to change from day to night by means of dynamic glazing and louver systems.
Responsiveness (cont.) Performance Requirement: Utilize sky and water as design tools. Potential Design Response: Allow structure to reflect the sky and lake by using glass curtain walls. Potential Design Response: Draw from themes on the lakefront to create an architec- ture that responds to the natural context.
Facility_Issues 51 Bus
Intermodality Goal: Encourage transportation options allowing access to different areas. Performance Requirement: Solve all transfer issues sustainably. Potential Design Response: Create switches at close distances, either spatially in plan or by accelerating travel paths.
Potential Design Response: Use new techno- logical strategies, such as â€œpeople movers,â€? to distribute passengers to their mode of trans- portation.
Potential Design Response: Define paths with materials approved in The HOK Guidebook to
Sustainable Design, second edition.1
Low-E Glass Natural Plants Low VOC Recycled Material
1 The HOK Guidebook to Sustainable Design, second edition, Sandra Mendler, William Odell, and Mary Ann Lazarus, eds. (Hoboken, NJ: Wiley & Sons, 2006).
Performance Requirement: Provide “access” and “connectivity” rather than “mobility.”
ACCESS= Reaching more places efficiently. MOBILITY= Going further faster. Potential Design Response: Interlock various transportation paths. Potential Design Response: Vary distances of access per transportation type.
Potential Design Response: Create a system of cross traffic that will respond to on-site circulation.
air 10+ miles
LRT 5 miles boat 1 mile
Pedestrian <1 mile Bus/ Shuttle 2 miles
Intermodality (cont.) Performance Requirement: Promote jobs and programmable space that supports commerce revolving around sustainable transportation concepts. Potential Design Response: Bus tokens, bike shops, and water rides mixed into retail and information kiosks. Potential Design Response: Revolve outdoor activities around open spaces that are linked to indoor and outdoor esplanades. (Fishing, rowing, kite flying, biking, plays, music.)
Facility_Mobile Units 54
METRA *Note: All specifications are for the new fleet
of METRA to be released by August 2010.
Vehicle Type: Double-ended, articulated car,
multiple unit operation up to four cars.
Fleet Size: 130 operable. 6 of which service the
vicinity of the site.
Vehicle Height: 12’-6” Vehicle Width: 8’-10” Vehicle Length: 92’-8” Vehicle Weight: 97,000 lbs. Passenger Capacity: 160 passengers, 76 seated Travel Speed: Top-65 mph, Average-25 to 35 mph Body: Lightweight, welded steel, with reinforced
fiberglass covering operator cab and weatherproof articu-
lated (bending) section. Designed for 30 year life.
Cooling/Heating: Heating, ventilation, and A/C system Wheels: Steel-tired with acoustic dampening Doors: Four sliding doorways per car Special Features: ADA accessible/ Smart Card Power Requirements: 20 KWH per hour of operation Vehicle Cost: $1.8 million each
Facility_Precedent Study 55
The Yokohama Project (Yokohama International Port Terminal)
Yokohama, Japan Foreign Office Architects 1995-2002
The Yokohama Project is a linear string of multi-use facilities encapsulated by public parks and outdoor jogging trails. Large cruise ships board next to the outboarding docks, which flow seamlessly into the buildings interior and roof forms. While this project is much larger than the one that this program prescribes, it has many of the same contextual elements and aesthetic components.
Facility_Precedent Study 56
The variation between the seaside identity and the landside identity gives senses of floating and embedding from different approaches. The water face is much more nautical and streamline to reflect the cruise ships than the vehicular drive-in, which dips into the heart of the building and allows for easy access to the programs within.
Facility_Precedent Study 57
Facility_Precedent Study 58
Hamburg Ferry Terminal
Hamburg, Germany Alsop and Stormer/ William Alsop Architects 1990-1992
The 186m long terminal has a covered esplanade that shields commuters from the sun and rain. Along the dock, restaurants, retail, offices, and service centers are located for waiting passengers. 129,000 square feet of terminal is divided into 6 floors. Each floor is divided into independent functions to allow the larger cruise ships and ferries to access the dockside. One end of the terminal is used specifically for ferry passenger operations. The rest of the first floor is restaurants, shopping, and flex space. The top two floors are office space that offer wonderful views of the skyline. The terminal is located just minutes from Hamburgâ€™s CBD.1
1 Breen, Ann and Dick Rigby. The New Waterfront: A Worldwide Urban Success Story, (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1996).
Facility_Precedent Study 59 The Hamburg Ferry Terminal uses nautical themes in the design to emphasize its functiona and identity in the environment. A subtle mix of port windows and mast-like bracing members wrap from bow to stern of the building.
Facility_Precedent Study 60
Kasai Rinkai Park Water Bus Landing
Tokyo, Japan Taniguchi & Assoc. 2000 As a transfer station for the urban park, the water bus landing brings visitors off of a scenic dock and waterfront into a light and breezy pavilion. The economical building type utilizes fabric canopies and glass walls to achieve a simpe and clean appearance.
The exposed construction and terracing of platforms is something to look at as a case study.
Airfield Ticketing Facts
Attendants will be linked to both local and regional air traffic. Therefore, each attendant will need a computer station and phone service to check with air traffic control & TSA. Close proximity to the baggage handling will be a neccessity, as well.
Goals To keep the ticketing station as open, but secure, as possible. To create minimal traffic while waiting for available
Needs Ticketing kiosks, self check-in, attendant stations, network connection, comfortable lighting conditions.
Area Requirements Should be close to baggage handling. Visible connection to security, concourse, and passenger dropoff.
Airfield Baggage Handling
To efficiently transfer baggage from building to air-
Baggage moves parallel to, but seperate from, passengers on both departure and arrival. The baggage is transfered to private control after going through ticketing agent. It is returned to owner after plane arrives via baggage claim space.
craft through an integrated system.
Issues Security, Privacy, Axiality
Needs Conveyor belts, sorting area, transportation means, loading/unloading space
Area Requirements Should be below level of passenger circulation. Sorting area can be outdoors, but covered.
To create an integrated concourse with the outdoors by means of materials and light. To create comfort and flexibility.
Issues Security, segregation, scale, attaching, function, identity
Air Concourse Retail, Lounge, Restrooms
Needs Ample seating, information monitors, intercom system, retail/ cafe space, horizontal people movers, vending, seperate restrooms and retail from rest of airfield.
Area Requirements Clear distinction between circulation and seating. Visibility to airfield and baggage claim. Ventilation and lighting should be compliant with local Energy Code.
The defining character of the airfield. Where passengers will spend the most time as they wait to board aircraft. Given the size of the terminal, the concourse will act as the gate and possibly apron area for the aircaft.
The control tower is the single most important part of the airfield. Without it, any air travel is impossible. The control tower also has to be the most visible space from the airside of the building. The connection between control tower, TSA, and aircraft is done chiefly through wireless satellite communications. The tower must be able to operate as an independent area.
Goals To create a tower that can both function as an air traffic control tower as well as an observation deck for viewing downtown.
Issues Privacy, security, visibility
Needs Control panels, rooftop equipment, large glass windows, means of vertical circulation
Area Requirements Code compliance with TSA Standards and Chicago Transit Authority guidelines.
Ticketing TSA Offices
Facts Ticketing stations can be automated and as simple as computer stations (similar to kiosks). Daily passes or weekly passes can be obtained. The ticketing area doesnâ€™t have to be as far from the concourse as the airside ticketing because security and baggage is not a personnel issue.
Goals Ticketing station will adopt the minimal requirements needed to get passengers on and off the METRA. It will act more as an information booth than a checking station.
Area Requirements Waiting, queuing space, seating and tactile surfaces for visually impaired.
Ticket vending. Intercom system to alert of arriving METRA cars, communication with operations and security personnel.
METRA LRT Ticketing
METRA Platform and Track Corridor
This area is dangerous and should be marked with clear signage and waiting areas. Light rail systems are unique in that passengers approach the platform perpindicular from the railcars. Therefore, the platforms are usually narrow and linear to collect riders. The corridor is a single 2 way track that can board next to or inside of the facility. The Platform is split on either side of the track for boarding and unloading of passengers from the cars. Waiting should be close enough to the tracks but far enough for safety and comfort.
Approach, safety, visibility, noise
Needs Tactile surfaces, screening bars, signals, schedules and natural light
Area Requirements ADA accessibility, restrooms, sustainable integration
To make the platform safe, integrated, and as environmentally sensitive as possible. The corridor and platform should be clearly accessible to all commuter needs.
Kiosks, Lounge & Cafe
As sustainability is one of the facility goals, most of the retail activities on the grounds will be temporary installments that do not leave a permanent trace on the environment.
Goals To create recognizable, fully functional kiosks and recreation areas that cleverly integrate sustainable design concepts into consumer needs. Kiosks will act as both vending and informational centers.
Issues Mobility, scheduling, accessibility, variety
Needs Lounge areas, cafes, and kiosks need electronic capabilities, storage, and security if left alone. Storage for kiosks and patterns of rotation will need to be mapped out.
Area Requirements Adjacency to indoor and outdoor activities, covering, operator.
Water taxi platforms and slips
The most sustainable form of vehicular traffic. The water taxis and tour boats cover various areas of the siteâ€™s perimeter. Slips will be used for longer storage of boats, and the platforms will be used for loading and unloading of passengers. These can be covered or open air.
Goals To create accessible movement on and off the site through waterway traffic. As well, the sense of boardwalk circulation should inspire a lively outdoor environment.
Safety, accessibility, fluidity
Water Taxi Platforms
Needs Docking equipment, covered waiting areas (natural or built), signaling, schedules, kiosks, circulation for pedestrians, and tactile surfaces.
Area Requirements Open air transfer, lateral platforms, queuing stations, Burnham Harbor code compliance. Nature Trails
Learning Center Classrooms
The classrooms will be transitions to the indoor/outdoor environment. Most times, the classes will be held on the grounds amongst the wildlife. Classes will need to be secured from potential hazards that children could encounter.
Goals To create areas where learning is attained through involvement and interaction. Encourage flexibility of space and transition of building’s “edge conditions.”
CENTRAL TERMINAL Short Term Parking
Issues Safety, security, visibility, encroachment, accessibility, shelter
Needs Audio/Visual equipment, seating, study space, books, learning equipment, presentation space.
Area Requirements Should meet Chicago Building Code requirements for educational occupancy types as well as IBC and ADA standards. Adjacent to central information center and away from airfield, METRA platforms, and secluded areas.
Business Center Conference Space and Auditorium
With incoming businessmen from O’Hare and Midway and weekday commuters from the Chicago region, the building will act as a field command center for those needing to “wire in” to their business remotely. The proximity to downtown and McCormick Place also place the need for flexible business space.
Goals To create options for corporate passengers to work in isolation or use conference spaces and schedule lecture/ events in the auditoriums. To link this with sustainable strategies in business through various techniques.
Networking, privacy, capability, flexibility, technology
Needs Audio/Visual equipment, WI/FI, proper task lighting, private work stations, private gathering stations, business center and supply station, print center.
Adjacent to both the airfield concourse and the METRA platform. Room for circulation and privacy. Adequate lighting and privacy screening. Openness to the both the public and private areas of the facility.
Terminals Shuttle Pick-Up
With as much traffic as the terminals will see, security and organization is important and should be central to all operations. A security infrastructure will link clusters of the building to monitor both transportation issues and grounds conditions.
To create low-profile, but effective security stations. Offices should be accessible to those in need of reaching them, but private enough to ensure comfort for those visiting the station as non-commuters. Management and marketing personnel will be grouped closely to effectively encourage collaboration.
Issues Adjacency, privacy, connectivity, daylighting
Needs Audio/Visual equipment, network connections, office supplies, printers, copiers, conference stations, conveying means, receptionist, lounge, private restrooms, parking, adequate lighting and ventilation, noise reduction.
No Cubile Arrangements. Open floorplan. Consult IBC and Graphic Standards for Office requirements.
SPACE SUMMARY SPACE SUMMARY
General Administrative, Operations, and Security Stations
Economic Analysis: Site Location- Chicago, IL/ Parks District Cost
Building Cost 189,228 sqft @ $250/sqft
Land Cost 480,000 sqft @ $150/sqft
Site Work $15,000,000 x 15%
Architectural Fees $15,000,000 x 9%
Construction Loan Cost $121,557,000 x 10%
Contengency Cost $15,000,000 x 8%
Income TOTAL INCOME 189,228 sqft @ $50/sqft
Payback $136,262,700/ $9,461,400
= 15 yrs.
Note: These figures reflect anticipated square footages up to the Preliminary Design Phase. Final square footages shown on boards.
Context_Introduction Northerly Island_ Northerly Island is a 91 acre manmade peninsula on the southern bank of Grant Park in Chicago, Illinois. Originally designed by Daniel Burnham as a string of parkscape along Lake Michigan (see right), it has seen a drastic cut in scale due to the cost of infill, labor, and available waterfront real-estate. In 1933, it was the site of the “Century of Progress” World’s Fair. (See image below) Envisioned by Burnham as one of the two manmade peninsulas along Chicago’s harbor, Northerly Island has some unique geographical and contextual conditions. It is home of many native species of prairie grasses and migratory birds.
World’s Fair 1933-1934_ The World’s Fair featured technologies in both the agricultural and transportational fields. Transportation was a central theme of the exhibition. It attracted nearly 2 million visitors in one year. Air, water, and rail transit acted as both a
means for taking visitors on and off the island, as well as a spectacle of revolutionary mystique. A secondary theme was the celebration of (and growing interest in) ecological specimens. From an early time, these two independent and even incongruous entities have been a part of Northerly Island’s makeup.
“As indicated by the color green on the original plan, the island was to be populated by trees and grass for the public enjoyment by all. However, drafted less than six years after the Wright brothers’ historic flight, the 1909 plan does not envision any airports for Chicago.” -Wikipedia article on Meigs Field1 Meigs Field_ In 1947, Meigs Field opened and quickly became the busiest single-runway airfield in the nation. The original runway was 3,895’x150,’ making it accessible only to small single engine aircraft. Northerly Island is owned by the Chicago Park District, however Meigs Field operated independently by the Chicago Department of Aviation until its controversial closing in 2003. On March 30, Mayor Richard Daley ordered a midnight crew of bulldozers to enter the private property and destroy the runway. Dozens of private airplanes were stranded and some unaware arrivals crashed once hitting the ransacked runway. It has sat dormant since. Some activist 1
Wikipedia, “Meigs Field”, accessed March 19, 2008.
groups, chiefly the “Friends of Meigs Field”, still petition for revitalization and awareness of the site.
The Museum District and Soldier Field_ Presently, Northerly Island is covered by overgrown grass patches and crumbled remnants of concrete swaths. Jogging trails, most of which are inadvertent and rugged, are the only connections of human involvement to the rest of the thriving museums and marina. To the north of the old runway sits the Adler Planetarium. It dots the busy boulevard, Solidarity Drive which passes by the undeniably famous Shedd Aquarium and Field Museum of Natural History. Tucked along the westernmost banks of the airfield is Burnham Harbor and the yacht club. Beyond that is Soldier Field, the recently refurbished home of “da Bears.”1 Pedestrian trails stretch along the entire rim of the nestled marina. They weave through the grasses and wildlife that have managed to survive on Northerly Island. The existing airport still stands (pictured right) although it is used for office space and storage, now. With so much potential, and existing infrastructure, the spirit of Meigs Field can be born anew. Acting as a central depot for commuters and incoming businessmen, a sensitive approach to the context of the area could serve as a good example to all. 1
colloquialism for the NFL franchise, the Chicago Bears.
PARK Shedd Aquarium
The Field Museum
N McCormick Place
Wildlife and Vegitation_ Chicago is home to over 300 species of migratory songbirds.1 Northerly Island is a natural encounter for birds along the Mississippi Flyway path in the summer (see next page). The McCormick Place is responsible for the death of hundreds of birds every year2 as a result of its large glass facades and shady treelined shores. Rerouting them, by means of natural barriers, would help the population of the fly patterns. Regional shore-birds include ducks, gulls, loons, snipes, and kingfishers.3 As well, several types of fish occupy the waters around Northerly Island (all available for fishermen.) Coho Salmon, and Yellow Perch are the most plentiful.4 Native grasses such as savanna prairie and wildflowers are important to the breeding and foraging of birds and microecological species. Much of the grass on Northerly Island can be preserved and integrated into the transportation terminal. Opportunities for integration and exploration arise by addressing the sanctification of Northerly Island as an active part of Chicago’s community. 1 A Bird’s Eye View of the Migratory Bird Routes, “Chicago Bird Habitats,” http://www.cityofchicago.org/Environment/BirdMigration/sub/miss_flyway.html, Accessed Feb. 10, 2008. 2 “Chicago Bird Habitats” 3 “Chicago Bird Habitats” 4 “Chicago Bird Habitats”
* Rescuing an injured osprey on Northerly Island
Existing migratory flight pattern
Proposed alteration to flight pattern
Context_Neighboring Structures 82
Neighboring Structures_ Shedd Aquarium
The former Meigs Field shares close proximity with a wide range of structures. The Shedd Aquarium and Field Museum are fine examples of eclectic Beaux Arts mixed with Greek and Roman form. Soldier Field has undergone a hyper-techtonic transformation as it mixes Greek porticos with orbiting metal disks. The megastructure convention hall known as â€œThe McCormick Placeâ€? is clearly in contrast to the smaller Adler Planetarium and existing airfield. The site, as well is at the crossroads of a series of parks and trails that covers the lakefront into downtown, the Museum District, and Soldier Field.
Soldier Field Burnham Park Yacht Club
Parks and Trails
decommissioned airfield structures
Context_Neighboring Structures 83
Adler Planetarium_ The Adler Planetarium was built in 1930. It was one of the first planetariums built in the western hemisphere. It houses an auditorium, observatory, star-gazing terraces, interactive facilities, children’s programs, solariums, and museums. The architect, Ernest Grunsfeld, purposefully made sure that the building was modest (it is reputed as being the least attractive of the “Big Three” Museums in the area) but create a learning experience far more valuable than worldly aesthetic could achieve.
Shedd Aquarium_ Designed by Graham, Anderson, Probst & White in 1933, the Shedd Aquarium has seen two major additions to the original structure, known as “Neptune’s Temple.” The attached fanned amphitheatre holds much of the aquarium’s shows and animal presentations. 25’ underground sits another 27,000 exhibit that holds marine life from many ecosystems from around the world. The exterior is chiefly constructed of white Georgian marble for the rotunda and glass along the lakeside. It covers 440,000 square feet. It’s highest point is just over 70’ and uses a soybean roof.
Context_Neighboring Structures 84
Field Museum of Natural History_ The Field Museum is the most popular cultural attraction in the city. It was originally part of the Worldâ€™s Columbian Exhibition in 1893. Since, it has undergone major restoration and expansion. Along with dozens of other exhibits, the museum houses a collection of early transportation, including rail, air, and water powered vehicles. The museum is built in Beaux Arts fashion and covers just under 400,000 square feet of lakefront property.
Soldier Field_ Soldier Field is the smallest of all NFL stadiums, holding 61,500. It officially opened in 1924 and was named for the American soldiers who had died in combat. Doric columns create a portico around the outside of the stadium. The newest addition in 2003 added glass bowls above the columns which dip and soar at undulating heights. It has received both praise and disdain at local and national levels.
Context_Neighboring Structures 85
McCormick Place_ The largest convention center in the United States. It is now a collection of exposition complexes clustered around Burnham Harbor’s entrance. The original building was constructed of heavy trusses and glass curtain walls (which have been deadly to birds thinking it is a forest.) The glass face along the waterfront is relatively low profile and not used as much as its landbound additions.
Burnham Park Yacht Club_ The yacht club is a modest building along the marina’s interior. Inside, members can eat at the restaurant, track current sailing conditions, or purchase equipment from the store. It is roughly 10,000-15,000 square feet. Red brick walls and a 1960’s influenced roofing structure.
Context_Circulation Patterns 86
Bus/Shuttle System (existing)_ Chicagoâ€™s bus and shuttle system operates under the Chicago Transit Authority and has vehicles that service the Museum District 24 hours a day. Busses cary groups to and from the CBD to the museums along Solidarity Drive, while shuttles run from the McCormick Center through Soldier Field to drop off businessmen and commuters. Currently, the busses do not stretch down S. Lynn White Rd. (which accesses Northerly Island and the abandoned airport.) Taxi service, however, will take you there.1
1 Telephone conversation with Tisha Sanders, operator for 1-800-TAXICAB in Chicago, Ill. March 25, 2008.
S. Lynn White Rd.
Context_Circulation Patterns 87
Air traffic (proposed)_ While no air traffic has occured after 2003, the site is still primed for re-construction of a smaller runway that could provide for both alleviation from overcrowded O’Hare and Midway airports outside of town as well as more accessibility to Chicago’s commercial and cultural center. Air traffic is the only transportation type that deals with severe change in altitude and vertical congestion. Meig’s operates as a 18/36 type runway, meaning that planes can take off either going southbound (180°) or northbound (360°) alternating in single patterns.1 Because of the size of the runway (3895’x150’), only small single engine aircraft and hybrid engine corporate jets (HCJ’s) can use the runway.
1 Interview with Dr. Jerald Sherer. Grandfather and retired pilot living in Jasper, AL. March 29, 2008.
Context_Circulation Patterns 88
Pedestrian/Bicycle (existing)_ The shores of the marina are networked with running and biking trails that sit anywhere from 1’ to 6’ above the water line. Trails extend on through the museum district and into Grant Park. Chicago is an unusually healthy city, with residents eager to use the outdoor beauty as a backdrop for exercise and leisure. Most paths along the water are shaded by trees and concrete paved. Grass buffers seperate them from the marina, and a 15’ seawalls seperate them from the lake.1
Data collected from photographs of the area.
Context_Circulation Patterns 89
Water-locked (existing)_ Burnham Harbor has 1120 docks and mooring stations. The marina is a very peaceful and quiet area for both the water savvy and the nature inclined. In the summer, sailboats speckle the waters and provide for attractive scenery. Yachts that park in the slips become exhibition pieces for those walking the shore. Sailboat mast heights are not to exceed 30’ as a local provision. The yacht club is just on the other side of the marina, at the narrowest gap between Northerly Island and mainland. Water taxis take museum goers to and from Navy Pier (about 1.3 miles north of Northerly Island). Oftentimes, antique sailboats and pirate ships will dock along the harbor to showcase true nautical character and offer rides to tourists. Party barges depart from Navy Pier, where guests dine on larger boats that travel far enough out on Lake Michigan to frame the entire Chicago skyline. The only beach along Chicago’s waterfront is on Northerly Island, just south of the Adler Planetarium. It is protected from water traffic and gets no deeper than 12’
Context_Circulation Patterns 90
“L” and METRA Light Rail (existing)_ The “L” (often times called the “El” or the “Elevated Rail”) runs along South Lakeshore Drive at its closest point to Northerly Island. It is the oldest rapid transit system in the city and accesses most all of downtown Chicago. At the closest hub to Northerly Island, the L is located 35’ above the lake height. This is still, however, below street level because of the way that Lakeshore Drive cuts through Soldier Field.
0’ Not to scale
S. Lakeshore Drive
S. Museum Campus Dr.
The “L” & METRA
Purple- The L Pink- The Metra
Context_Circulation Patterns 91
Composite shows the crossing of the aforementioned transit types. A noticable cluster of stops and depots are situated right between the McCormic Center and Soldier Field. Sequential layers of travel bisect the lakeside, each at different elevations, speeds, and durations.
Context_Site Analysis 92
Context_Site Analysis 93 GRANT
PARK Shedd Aquarium
As stated before, the site undergoes two major changes in elevation: The first is the apparent change between the harbor and the edge of Northerly Island, the second is the broader change in elevations between Northerly Island and Soldier Field. The latter being crucial in addressing offsite circulation. The site itself does not change elevation by any difference greater than 4’. Much of the soil on the island is a product of the clayey glacial till from thousands of years ago. The upper 3’ is composed chiefly of loam.1 1 From vPlants, “Why focus on the Chicago region?”, www. vplants.org. Accesed March 29, 2008.
Section B: by author
Section A: proposed Parks & Planes Museum, from Friends of Meigs Field
The Field Museum
section B McCormick Place
Context_Site Analysis 94
x 8.8 x
Context_Site Analysis 95
Climate Chicago is known for its freezing winters and windy summer days. The charts below will describe the amount of sun and rain that the site will be exposed to on an average annual basis. Temperatures range from the 20â€™s in the winter to the 70â€™s in the summer. Chicago averages 84 clear days out of the year.
Context_Site Analysis 96
Climate GRANT Hutchinson Field
PARK Shedd Aquarium
The Field Museum
Winter winds come off the lake much stronger than the summer breezes. The illustration above shows the predominant directions of wind and intensity (in mph.)
Context_Site Analysis 97
The following report was generated by Climate Consultant 3, a piece of software designed by UCLA to determine multivariate conditions about the climate of certain regions. All readings are in reference to Midway International Airport (9.1 miles southwest of Northerly Island.)
Context_Site Analysis 98
Climate (report from Climate Consultant 3)
Context_Site Analysis 99
Climate (report from Climate Consultant 3)
Context_Site Analysis 100
Climate (report from Climate Consultant 3)
Context_Site Analysis 101
Climate (report from Climate Consultant 3)
Context_Site Analysis 102
Climate (report from Climate Consultant 3)
Context_Site Analysis 103
Climate (report from Climate Consultant 3)
Context_Site Analysis 104
Climate (report from Climate Consultant 3)
Context_Site Analysis 105
Climate (report from Climate Consultant 3)
Context_Site Analysis 106
Climate (report from Climate Consultant 3)
Contextual design issues to explore: Learn- How to co-exist and benefit from the immediate context.
Tie- Integrating the context of the adjacent parks with that of Northerly Island. Expand- Reach past the immediate context to allow for interaction with Chicago waterfront.
Learn Goal: Encourage awareness of Northerly Island’s native
Performance Requirement: Create a seamless dialogue between the natural context and built environment. Potential Design Response: Integrate the landscape into the buildings.
Potential Design Response: Allow for interaction between native animals and visitors by means of observation terraces and guided tours.
Performance Requirement: Approach building as “crisis management,” not “exhibition architecture.” Potential Design Response: Protect species from infringement through respecting natural barriers. habitat
Learn (cont.) Performance Requirement: Establish information centers to aid in the understanding of contextual sensitivity. Potential Design Response: Create a system of informational kiosks that can be moved and arranged in diferent places. Potential Design Response: Host learning events both on the grounds and in media rooms (amphitheatres and auditoriums.)
Goal: Form a connection both visually and physically with the Museum District and Soldier Park.
Performance Requirement: Provide the opportunity for social interaction and enriching urban experience. Potential Design Response: Create public grounds that link both sides of the marina.
Potential Design Response: Strengthen the connection between the Museum District and Northerly Island by improving edge conditions and widening roadways.
Potential Design Response: Provide for pedestrian interaction with checkpoints.
Performance Requirement: Unify the design disjunction of the Museum District and Soldier Field.
Potential Design Response: Adopt both fluid waterfront forms and solid elemental forms.
Potential Design Response: Approach enclosure conditions as separate entities with simi- lar aesthetic dialogue.
Potential Design Response: Mix heights and masses to frame the surrounding context.
Expand Goal: Advocate “smart travel” along the Chicago waterfront. Performance Requirement: Create equity through “access.” Potential Design Response: Allow for visitors and commuters to reach any point along the Chicago waterfront via transportation types. Performance Requirement: Provide access to waterfront businesses and attractions. Potential Design Response: Site acts as a magnet from O’Hare and Midway, as well as for cross-harbor commerce (small aircraft and ferries.) Potential Design Response: Create business along the marina that will attract visitors to the site. Potential Design Response: Design an allée that will move people along the waterfront.
Performance Requirement: Clearly define interactive extents of pedestrian waterfront. Potential Design Response: Create a system of terracing, natural boundaries, and natural/ man-made ratios.
Potential Design Response: Use materials and pathways to guide pedestrians along the edges of the lake.
Thesis Interpreted 115
The final design for the multi-modal terminal came from looking at the facility not only as a set of functioning parts on site but as a complete integration of the site, itself. After realizing that the aim of such a project would be to blur the predisposition of “natural context” vs. “built context”, it became obvious that the nuances of devices much more intrinsic than a building type would render “the context”-- whether it be civic, ecological, or transportational. Describing the project as not only a summation of study of working definitions (pp. 19-26) but as a manifestation of response and responsibility allowed me to weave hybrid forms and programs quite effortlessly. Throughout the next few pages I will attempt to trace my moves, retrospectively, in order to catalog my year-long design response to the charge that: “The existing ecological context can influence the design of a responsive multimodal terminal servicing transportation and civic needs for both tourists and commuters.”
“Staging” of Structure-- An overlay study
Schematic Design 117
Schematic Application: After completing my research and program requirements, I was ready to design. My initial steps of design followed a methodology that I have employed for years as both a catalyst and, at times, a last resort for design emergency. I call it â€œJUST START DRAWING.â€? It was very soon into my schematic design (using the word design loosely at this point) that I realized this point of departure was not going to work nor did it do justice to what I was trying to achieve. I did learn two things, however, from this exercise: 1) No arbitrary moves 2) Look before you touch
So, it was back to the site.
Primary site iterations
Schematic Design 118
Early site catalog-- Building, Vegitation, Surface, Terrain
The site, 91 acres of unredeemed landscape, has nearly 7 different eco-zones that are distinct from one another in terms of perennial growth based on climate needs and symbiotic relationships between plant and animal. Every square inch of the peninsula is pedestrian accessible, but the most caustic environment is the land around the old runway. Because of this, the logical choice was to place the new (and smaller) runway in its old footprint. This became the first barrier in public/private interaction.
Site study showing existing viewsheds and predominant winds
In order for the site design to respond directly to my thesis statement, I considered approachable viewing corridors and possible LRT infrastructure routes. My site began to take shape as a result of the contextual, civic, and transportative needs.
I started constructing study models and generating forms that responded to both the site and the symbolic nature of the the project I was wanting to express. This, in essence, was helpful in seeing the manipulative nature of unformed space as parts move and relationships are generated.
Schematic Design 120
Since the existing “El” sat nearly 25’ above street level, that put it 35’ above grade on my site because of the way Northerly Island sits below the parkfront. Almost immediately I started sketching a “lifted terminal.”
Concept sketches of elevated terminal
The tracks would continue from the interchange station at the same elevation as they currently were, but a bridge would carry them across the marina and into my floating terminal. As interest in an elevated commuter station spawned images in my head, I began sketching possible arrangements of space that mimicked the cradling shape of the marina as a semblance of nurture and passage-- two themes that seemed to fit my design intent for a sustainable transportation hub. I submitted two schemes for review. Each acted as perched terminals with greenway connectors and an underbelly of retail and learning facilities.
Exploded Axonometric of Major Components
Schematic Design 121
Scheme 1 :: Sections through terminal
Scheme 2 :: Connectivity and adjacency section
Scheme 2 :: Partial section/ elevation 0’ 20’
Schematic Design 122
Schematic Design 123
Scheme 1 relied upon the building as a buffer between the runway apron and the waterfront. The lightrail would pass through the center of both the lightrail terminal and the airport terminal while allowing pedestrians to use the first floor open-air space primarily for interacting with the landscape and shopping. Small sail boats, yachts, and water taxis would track into a dredged inlet that also featured a floating pontoon -structured amphitheatre for performance productions and lakeside spectacles.
240’ Scheme 1 Floor Plans 1 + 2
Schematic Design 124
Scheme 2 spans the marina at the shortest crossing distance. On the east side, jets taxi up to the terminal where the business center overlooks the waterfront. The light rail crosses 35’ above the marina and sailboats have clearance to pass below. In this scenario, the west bank becomes the learning center, docks, and train terminal. The two schemes were presented for review and led to a unanimous, and slightly disheartening, revelation:
240’ Scheme 2 Floor Plans 1 + 2
Schematic Design 125
I was married to a form...
Schematic Design 126
Summer was apporoaching and I took with me the notion that the train should stop once, in a single terminal, fed by other spaces. â€œThere is no sense in the air terminal and the train terminal acting as two separate hubs.â€? Prof. Haq went on to sketch This is what you have...
This is what you want.
And it was a busy summer
Preliminary Design 128
I came back in the Fall with a series of parti diagrams that established my principle design concepts:
Primary masses + pivoting dock
> A lifted garden > A minimal footprint > A habitable landscape > A tethering of masses While considering civic, ecological, and transportative goals, a hybrid building form began to emerge from a series of purposeful moves.
A lifting of a roof plane gave me two gardens, one for shaded plant life and one for full sun varieties. A retractable boat dock gave use for not only a water taxi byway but for civic functions such as outdoor movies, as well. Pulling a pocket of the landscape up as if it were inflated allowed for retail to flow onto the boardwalk and have a landscaped shell over the parking.
Circulation routes + primary structure Parti diagram showing basic design concepts
Preliminary Design 129
Preliminary Application: Preliminary design started with diagrams and sections. As mentioned in my program, designing for multiple modes of transportation was best organized if viewed in section. The premise of my design came from the notion that a light rail (lifted above grade) could dock at a central point where it was both accessible from the civic waterfront and the private airside spaces. I implemented the Modernist design concept of a lifted roof garden to replace any buildable footprint below. So as to introduce native ecological wildlife and plantlife into the building, I developed a comprehensive catalog of indigenous species and their place on site. (see next page) Exploded Axonometric
Perspective looking South
Section perspective showing diaphrams
Preliminary Design 130
Ecological catalog version 1
Renderings from a preliminary model which show approaching views of the structure. Both terminals are tethered with sky bridges incorporated into a truss system. These bridges were later refined as the primary structure went from a series of rolled steel frames to an external tubular steel shell. The profile of the building remained the same. Large, spanning overhangs take flight over the boardwalk and outdoor amphitheatre while the folded roof opened up to indigenous plant growth and bird life.
Preliminary Design 131
Preliminary Design 132
0’ 30’ 60’
Preliminary Floor Plans
0’ 15’ 30’ Preliminary Sections
Preliminary Design 133
Prelim Review: After presenting the new design, all previous issues regarding the functionality of the building as a light rail terminal were solved but a new problem began to take form. I was an aesthetic design concern that seemed to block any sense of poetics my project had going for it. The circulation core that allowed for controlled access to the air side seemed to weigh the building down and desensitized its connection with the site. If the building was meant to look “in flight,” the oversized column was just grounding the concept.
0’ 15’ 30’
Preliminary Design 134
Structures + Systems + Qualifying
Structures + Systems Design 136
Building BUILDING Section :: 1/32”=1’-0” A.Longitudinal LATITUDINAL SECTION 0
SCALE 3/32 =1 -0
B. LONGITUDINAL BUILDING SECTION SCALE 3/32 =1 -0
Latitudinal Building Section :: 1/32”=1’-0” 0
Structures + Systems Design 137
SUNSHADING DEVICE WELDED TO T.S. FRAME
EXTERIOR LIGHTING ALONG SHADING DEVICE CAVITY (AS PER ELECTRICAL SPECIFICATIONS)
T.S. 1X2X450 @ 34’-2” O.C. (TYP) KAWNEER 1600 S.G. LOW-E GLAZING SYSTEM
AUTOMATED HORIZ. LOUVERS (FRAMING SYSTEM) TRIANGULATED SUPER TRUSS FRAME (2’-6” EQ.) @ 34’-2” O.C. (TYP)
PHOTOVOLTAIC SOLAR SCREEN
T.S. UNIT BEYOND
7”X11” STRUCTURAL STEEL CHANNEL SPOT WELDED TO T.S. FRAME
5/8” GYP. BD. 4” DOUBLE BOXED BATT. INSULATION 12’X12’ RECYCLED STRUCTPLEX SOUNDSTOP EXTERIOR WALL UNITS (TYP. CLADDING) RECYCLED WOOD LOUVER GLAZING FRAME (CAPEVIEW LOCAL) LOW-E STRUCTURAL GLASS
0 Auditorium Wall Section
Structures + Systems Design 138
SUNSHADING DEVICE WELDED TO T.S. FRAME
KAWNEER 1600 S.G. LOW-E GLAZING SYSTEM
TRIANGULATED SUPER TRUSS FRAME (2’-6” EQ.) @ 34’-2” O.C. (TYP) FLASHING T.S. UNIT BEYOND
5/8” GYP. BD. 7”X11” STRUCTURAL STEEL CHANNEL SPOT WELDED TO T.S. FRAME 4” DOUBLE BOXED BATT. INSULATION 12’X12’ RECYCLED STRUCTPLEX SOUNDSTOP EXTERIOR WALL UNITS (TYP. CLADDING) T.S. 1X2X450 @ 34’-2” O.C. (TYP) LOW-E STRUCTURAL GLASS BEYOND FLASHING PROJECTOR CASING
0 Exhibition Wall Section
Structures + Systems Design 139
STORM WATER HARVEST 8” ROOF DRAIN
7” EXTENSIVE GREEN ROOF UNITS
SUBSTRATE ROOFING 2” MTL. DECKING W/ RIGID INSUL. 1” RECYCLED COMPOSITE ROOF PLATE (8’X12’) T.S. 1X2X450 @ 34’-2” O.C. (TYP) 1’-2” X 8” STEEL TUBE PURLINS WELDED TO T.S. @ 8’-0” O.C. (TYP) TRIANGULATED SUPER TRUSS FRAME (2’-6” EQ.) @ 34’-2” O.C. (TYP) 4” DOUBLE BOXED BATT. INSUL. W/ METAL CASING STORM WATER COLLECTION AND DOWNSPOUTS TUBULAR STEEL COLUMN WELDED TO T.S. FRAME @34’-2” O.C. (TYP) SKYBRIDGE BEYOND
0 Roof Garden Section
Structures + Systems Design 140
INTEGRATED STRUCTURAL + SPATIAL SYSTEMS
Both the structuralskeletonand membrane a cta s responders t o sustainableconcepts. The tubular steel comes from recycled Illinois Steel products mined and reprocesse Chicago. TheS tructplex Soundstop sheathing panels,a second-lifematerial, a re made fromhighg loss polycarbonate l ayers specializedin absorbing a cousticalnoisea ndU V. Thei ncreasingcomplexity o f materiallife-cyclesrequiresan understanding of the built environment a s ecological, t opological,and structuralprovisionsthat facilitatehuman activities. Therefore, t hea rrangement o f the two wingso f the facilityb ecomeviewing portalsfor boththeinteriorandexteriorlandscapes.Perchedatopan inflatedbermwhich housesr etail, administrative, parkingand mechanicalspace, the terminalis ablet o separateprogramatic requirements whilebafflingnoisepollution fromtherunway.Utilizing the hollow berm spacea llowsf or more expansive a ndo pen interior s paces.
Planting Material Moisture Retention Mat Drainage Board 40-mil Root Barrier Protection Fabric & EPDM 1/2” DensDeck Prime 2” Rigid Foam Insulation 4’x8’ Carlisle Metal Tray
ROOFTOP GARDEN PLANTING TRAY
Tubular Steel Purlins
Glazing system Intake grill
STRUCTURAL TUBE AND MECHANICAL HOUSING
NATURAL VENTILATION SYSTEM
Structures + Systems Design 141
Final Design 143
Final Presentation Board
Final Design 144
THE SITE: Northerly Island is a 91-acre peninsula along the Lake Michigan shoreline just south of downtown Chicago. It acts as an extension of the popular Museum District and Soldier Field. Northerly Island was onceived by architect and planner Daniel H. Burnham, who imagined Northerly Island as one of a series of manmade island parks stretching from Grant Park on the north to Jackson Park on the south and providing breathtaking views of the lake and the city’s unparalleled skyline. Northerly Island was one of the sites of A Century of Progress, the 1933–1934 World’s Fair. Throughout the 1930s and 1940s, Northerly Island featured pathways, trees, grass, and a beach. In 1947, the park was converted to a small airport known as Meigs Field, which remained in use until 2003. Today, Burnham’s vision is being restored by a master plan to turn the northern half into an area for active use and the southern half into native landscape, restored shoreline, and woodland habitat. Context Plan 0
Final Design 145
RESPONSIVE HABITAT: ECOLOGICAL ROOF GARDEN+BIRD SANCTUARY McCormick Place is the cause of death for hundreds of migratory birds every year. After about a five hour flight over Lake Michigan, these birds seek shelter in what they believe to be a forest only to find themselves nose diving into a solid glass wall. Placing a roof garden and sanctuary parks at the city’s fringe preserves nearly 30 migratory species of birds. With the building located in the Mississippi flyway zone, people take an active yet passive role in the overall function of the park front as a necessary part of their daily commute. As the trails and waterfront reveal the natural tendencies of migratory existence with native flora and fauna, the learning center allows for human observation and interaction with both. Switchgrass is a fast-growing, energy-retaining perennial plant. For every one unit of energy put into the production of such grass, five units of energy is harvested in the form of ethanol, burnable bio-mass, feedstock, and compost. By harvesting selective trays, a habitat is kept for those birds that remain on the site year round while still providing the energy and fertilizer needed to keep this facility running. Roof + Site Plan 0
Final Design 146
FP1 Boardwalk Level
Final Design 147
FP2 Platform Level
Final Design 148
FP3 Business Center Level
Final Design 149
South Elevation 0 10’ 20’ 40’
East Elevation 0 10’ 20’ 40’
North Elevation 0 10’ 20’ 40’
West Elevation 0 10’ 20’
Final Design 150
THE MARITIME OBSERVATORY The U.S. B rig Niagarais a reproduction of Commodore OliverHazardPerryâ€™srelief flagshipwhichwas used in a majorbattleo f the War of 1812. H er mission is top resentlivinghistoryw ithp rogramsdesignedtot each visitorsboth historical a ndc ontextual r elevanceof suchs hips.A f ullyr econstructed versionoft heo riginalv essel sits grounded t o the marinafloor and entertains dailytoursand exhibits.TheNiagarais a squared-rigged, three-masted w arshipo riginally a rmedw ithe ighteencarronades and two long guns. On the berthingdeck were sleeping quartersfortheofficersandcrew,s torerooms, sail bin, and a woodstove.Magazinesf or shotand gunpowder were stored in the hold below deck .
C. PROJECTED SECTION
Final Design 151
PROJECTED LATITUDINAL SECTION
Final Design 152
Roof Garden Perspective Looking North
Final Design 153
Business Center Auditorium
Final Design 154
Final Design 155
Skybridge Facing East
Final Design 156
Final Design 157
Final Design 158
Final Design 159
Final Design 160
Final Design 161
Final Design 162
Final Design 163
Final Design 164
Final Design 165
Final Design 166
Final Design 167
PEDESTRIAN TRAFFIC VEHICULAR TRAFFIC AIRCRAFT > LR T
PEDESTRIAN C CirculationTRAFFI + Massing Axonometric VEHICULAR TRAFFIC AIRCRAFT > LRT
Appendix A: from Shoreline Appearance and Design, National Park Service. (Washington, DC: Roy Mann Assoc., 1975).
Appendix B: from U.S. Department of Transportation.
References and Works Cited 170 A Bird’s Eye View of the Migratory Bird Routes, “Chicago Bird Habitats,” http://www.cityofchicago.org/Environment/BirdMi gration/sub/miss_flyway.html, Accessed Feb. 10, 2008. Adrian Smith + Gordon Gill Architecture, “Eco-Bridge,” http://www.smithgill.com/ecobridge.htm, Accessed Jan. 30, 2008. Albers, Linden Bess. A Transportation Hub, TTU CoA Thesis (2006). Binney, Marcus. Architecture of Rail: The Way Ahead, (London: Academy Editions, 1995). Bolis, Bruno. Edifici Per I Transporti, (Milan: Linero Docente Presso, 1947). Breen, Ann and Dick Rigby. The New Waterfront: A Worldwide Urban Success Story, (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1996). Center City Environment and Transportation, U.S. Department of Transportation (Washington, DC: Public Technology, 1977). Creating More Connected Roadway and Pathway Networks, “Roadway Connectivity,” TDM Encyclopedia, http://www.vtpi.org/ tdm/tdm116.htm, Accessed Feb. 1, 2008. Developing Around Transit: Strategies and Solutions That Work, Robert T. Dunphy, ed. (New York: Urban Land Institute, 2004). Dewar, David and Fabio Todeschini. Rethinking Urban Transport After Modernism, (New York: Ashgate, 2004). Dovey, Kim. Fluid City: Transforming Melbourne’s Urban Waterfront, (New York: Routledge, 2005). Droege, Peter. The Renewable City: A Comprehensive Guide to an Urban Revolution, (London: Wiley-Academy, 2006). Edwards, Brian. The Modern Terminal: New Approaches to Airport Architecture, (New York: E & FN SPON, 1998). Ellin, Nan. Integral Urbanism, (New York: Routledge, 2006). Friends of Meigs Field, http://220.127.116.11/, Accessed Feb. 3, 2008. Hejduk, John. Between Spaces: Smith-Miller + Hawkinson Architecture, Judith Turner Photography, (New York: Princeton Architectural Press, 2000).
References and Works Cited 171 Kelly, Keith. Supermodern Architecture & Transportation, TTU CoA Thesis (2003). Ken Smith, Landscape Architect, Jane Amidon, ed., (New York: Princeton Architectural Press, 2006). Koolhaas, Rem. S,M,L,XL, (New York: Monacelli Press, 1998). “Light Rail Transit,” TDM Encyclopedia, http://www.vtpi.org/tdm/tdm121.htm, Accessed Feb. 1, 2008. Lukez, Paul. Suburban Transformations, (New York: Princeton Architectural Press, 2007). Mertens, Sander. Wind Energy in the Built Environment, (Essex, UK: Multi-Science, 2006). Meigs Field News, “Chicago to Open Private Heliport on Public Lakefront Land,” 2/10/06, http://18.104.22.168/html/news/ news_curr.html#06-02-10_heliport, Accessed Feb.9, 2008. “Meigs Field,” Wikipedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Meigs_Field, Accessed Feb. 9, 2008. Meyer, John. Urban Transit: The Private Challenge to Public Transportation, Charles A. Lave, ed. (San Francisco: Ballinger Publishing Company, 1985). Mississippi Flyway, “North American Migration Flyways,” http://www.birdnature.com/flyways.html, Accessed Feb. 10, 2008. Moneo, Raphael. Theoretical Anxiety and Design Strategies in the Work of Eight Contemporary Architects, (Cambridge: The MIT Press, 2004). Monahan, Torin. War Rooms of the Street: Surveillance Practices in Transportation Control Centers, [The Communication Re view, 2007]. “Northerly Island,” Chicago Parks District, http://www.chicagoparkdistrict.com/index.cfm/fuseaction/parks.detail/object_ id/5235D96E-2F1C-4C63-80B7-C9E7C589E0BA.cfm, Accessed Feb. 9, 2008. Perlman, Dan and Jeffrey Milder. Practical Ecology for Planners, Developers, and Citizens, (Washington, DC: Island Press, 2005).
References and Works Cited 172 Quantrill, Malcolm. Plain Modern: The Architecture of Brian MacKay-Lyons, (New York: Princeton Architectural Press, 2005). Richards, Brian. New Movement in Cities, (London: Studio Vista, 1966). Shoreline Appearance and Design, National Park Service. (Washington, DC: Roy Mann Assoc., 1975). Sommers, Jessica. Fentress Bradburn Architects’ Gateway to the West, (Mulgrave, Victoria: The Images Publishing Group, 2006). State Safety Office, “Walkable Communities,” Florida Department of Transportation, http://www.gdrc.org/uem/sustran/12steps. pdf, Accessed Feb. 4, 2008. Sustainable Cities: Concepts and Strategies for Eco-City Development, Bob Walter, Lois Arkin, Richard Crenshaw, eds., (Los Angeles: EHM, 1992). “Sustainable Solutions for Urban Transportation Hub,” Langan Engineering and Environmental Services, http://www.langan. com/queensplaza.asp, Accessed Jan. 30, 2008. Sustainable Transportation, “Automobile Dependency,” SUSTRAN, http://www.gdrc.org/uem/sustran/sustran-principles.html, Accessed Feb. 4, 2008. Sustainable Transportation, “Changing Consumption Patterns: Transportation Planning and Management,” SUSTRAN, http:// www.gdrc.org/uem/sustran/sustran-principles.html, Accessed Feb. 4, 2008. Sustainable Transportation, “Distinguishing Between Accessibility and Mobility,” SUSTRAN, http://www.gdrc.org/uem/ sustran/access-mobility.html, Accessed Feb. 2, 2008. Sustainable Transportation, “Guidelines For Environmentally Sound Transportation,” SUSTRAN, http://www.gdrc.org/uem/sus tran/oecd-guidelines.html, Accessed Feb. 4, 2008. Sustainable Transportation, “Guiding Principles for Sustainable Transportation,” SUSTRAN, http://www.gdrc.org/uem/sustran/ sustran-principles.html, Accessed Feb. 4, 2008.
References and Works Cited 173 Sustainable Transportation, “Job Types Related to Sustainability,” SUSTRAN, http://www.gdrc.org/uem/sustran/sustran-princi ples.html, Accessed Feb. 4, 2008. Sustainable Transportation, “Key Issues in Sustainable Transportation,” SUSTRAN, http://www.gdrc.org/uem/sustran/sustran- principles.html, Accessed Feb. 4, 2008. Sustainable Transportation, “Some Economic Benefits for Sustainable Transportation,” SUSTRAN, http://www.gdrc.org/uem/ sustran/sustran-principles.html, Accessed Feb. 4, 2008. Sustainable Transportation Types, www.ecotopia.com/st/, Accessed Jan. 30, 2008. Ten Principles for Successful Development Around Transit, Robert Dunphy, Deborah Myerson, Michael Pawlukiewicz, eds. (New York: Urban Land Institute and Bank of America, 2003). The HOK Guidebook to Sustainable Design, second edition, Sandra Mendler, William Odell, and Mary Ann Lazarus, eds. (Hoboken, NJ: Wiley & Sons, 2006). Thomas, Randall and Max Fordham. Sustainable Urban Design: An Environmental Approach, (New York: Spon Press, 2003). Transit Improvements and Transit Oriented Development, “Success Stories: Examples of TDM Programs that Work,” TDM Encyclopedia, http://www.vtpi.org/tdm/tdm71.htm#_Toc133540703, Accessed Jan. 29, 2008. Transport Facilities: New Concepts in Architecture & Design, (Tokyo: Meisei Publications, 1997). Transport Spaces, (Melbourne, Australia: The Images Publishing Group, 1999). Using Public Transit to Create More Accessible and Livable Neighborhoods, “Transit Oriented Development,” TDM Encyclo pedia, http://www.vtpi.org/tdm/tdm45.htm, Accessed Feb. 1, 2008. Vincent Callebaut Architectures, http://vincent.callebaut.org/, Accessed Feb. 9, 2008. Zaera-Polo, Alejandro. The Yokohama Project, (New York: ACTAR, 2003).