For more info, enter 61 at www.LMTfreeinfo.com
For more info, enter 61 at www.LMTfreeinfo.com
JULY/AUGUST 2010 • VOL 11, NO. 4 • www.LMTinfo.com
ACHIEVING EFFICIENCIES THROUGH PRACTICES & PRODUCTS
FEATURES LUBRICATION STRATEGIES 6
Lube Surveys And Consolidation Efforts
Managers of world-class lubrication programs consider these two activities to be key factors in their success.
Ray Thibault, CLS, OMA I & II, Contributing Editor
PROCESS IMPROVEMENTS 12
Determining Moisture Levels In Oils At A Power Plant Technology has been marching on and on since development of the Karl Fischer titration method of oil analysis.
R.C.J. Wilson, CEnv. IEng. MEI, MRSC, Ferrybridge C Power Station
THE FUNDAMENTALS 16
A Snowball’s Chance In Maintenance Think in terms of the snowball effect to do lots more with lots less. Daniel J. Erwin, CMRP, The Dow Chemical Company
Part I: How To Begin Maintenance Planning
DEPARTMENTS 5 28 30
From Our Perspective Problem Solvers Supplier Index
Does your team really need a planner, and who should it be? Raymond L. Atkins, Contributing Editor
UTILITIES MANAGER ■ Big Money Talks William C. Livoti
■ Maintaining Belt Drives For Maximum Savings Bill Hillman, Ludeca, Inc.
GI Bill Will Pay For CMRP Certification Exams The Society for Maintenance and Reliability Professionals Certifying Organization (SMRPCO) has announced that the Certified Maintenance and Reliability Professional (CMRP) certification program has been approved by the Department of Veterans Affairs, and will be added to the list of certification exams for which military personnel and veterans are eligible to receive reimbursement. For more information, visit www.smrp.org
www.LMTinfo.com | 3
ACHIEVING EFFICIENCIES THROUGH PRACTICES & PRODUCTS
July/August 2010 • Volume 11, No. 4 ARTHUR L. RICE President/CEO firstname.lastname@example.org
BILL KIESEL Executive Vice President/Publisher email@example.com
JANE ALEXANDER Editor-In-Chief firstname.lastname@example.org
RICK CARTER Executive Editor email@example.com
KENNETH E. BANNISTER RAY THIBAULT, CLS, OMA I & II RAYMOND L. ATKINS Contributing Editors
Director of Creative Services firstname.lastname@example.org
Editorial/Production Assistant email@example.com
Direct Mail firstname.lastname@example.org
Reprint Manager 800-382-0808, ext. 131 email@example.com
Editorial Office 1300 South Grove Ave., Suite 105 Barrington, IL 60010 847-382-8100 / FAX 847-304-8603 www.LMTinfo.com
Subscriptions FOR INQUIRIES OR CHANGES CONTACT JEFFREY HEINE, 630-739-0900 EXT. 204 / FAX 630-739-7967
For more info, enter 62 at www.LMTfreeinfo.com
Achieving Efﬁciencies Through Practices & Products Apply for a free, one-year subscription at
LUBRICATION MANAGEMENT & TECHNOLOGY
Lubrication Management & Technology (ISSN 19414447) is published bi-monthly by Applied Technology Publications, Inc., 1300 S. Grove Avenue, Suite 105, Barrington, IL 60010. Periodical postage paid at Barrington, IL and additional offices. Arthur L. Rice, III, President/CEO. Circulation records are maintained at Lubrication Management & Technology, Creative Data, 440 Quadrangle Drive, Suite E, Bolingbrook, IL 60440. Lubrication Management & Technology copyright 2010. No part of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted without written permission from the publisher. Annual subscription rates for nonqualified people: North America, $140; all others, $280 (air). No subscription agency is authorized by us to solicit or take orders for subscriptions. Postmaster: Please send address changes to Lubrication Management & Technology, Creative Data, 440 Quadrangle Drive, Suite E, Bolingbrook, IL 60440. Please indicate position, title, company name, company address. For other circulation information call (630) 739-0900. Canadian Publications Agreement No. 40886011. Canada Post returns: IMEX, Station A, P.O. Box 54, Windsor, ON N9A 6J5, or email: cpcreturns@wdsmail. com. Submissions Policy: Lubrication Management & Technology gladly welcomes submissions. By sending us your submission, unless otherwise negotiated in writing with our editor(s), you grant Applied Technology Publications, Inc., permission, by an irrevocable license, to edit, reproduce, distribute, publish and adapt your submission in any medium, including via Internet, on multiple occasions. You are, of course, free to publish your submission yourself or to allow others to republish your submission. Submissions will not be returned. Printed in U.S.A.
FROM OUR PERSPECTIVE
Ken Bannister, Contributing Editor
‘I’ll Triple-Size, Please!’
’ve always enjoyed spending time with people older than myself. As a young design engineer, I would seek out draftsmen, engineers and managers who were close to retirement and spend quality “think” time with them. This gave me a chance to learn about innovations that took place long before I was born. That’s how I became so fascinated with the 1920s—an era marked by phenomenal thinking and change fueled by the likes of Einstein, Edison, Ford and, of particular interest to readers of this magazine, Bijur. In 1923, Joseph Bijur revolutionized industry by developing a self-contained, engineered lubrication pump and centralized lubrication-delivery system for oil. Known as the Centralized Single Line Resistance (SLR) system, it was designed for the automobile, which, at the time, had over 50 points the driver had to lubricate on a per-trip, daily or weekly basis. Bijur’s invention reduced this effort to a mere pull of a handle that would send oil everywhere it was needed via a metering device set up at each lubrication point. Centralized automated lubrication was born! Bijur clearly would have studied the singlepoint gravity oiling devices in use at the time. They employed a small reservoir, a variable-aperture bleed screw, a spring-tensioned follower plate (for grease) and a wick or brush first developed in the early 1800s for steam-engine bearings. He also probably studied Elijah McCoy’s steam-pressurized single-point oiling device that used engine steam to automatically force-feed lubrication to a point. (This product worked so well that from the 1870s on, railroads would shun other designs in favor of “the real McCoy.”) Later, Bijur harnessed the automobile’s own vacuum system to truly automate his lubrication system, making his product a common part of every car in the ’30s and ’40s (and up until 1961 on Rolls-Royce cars). It also became a standard option in the machine-tool industry, which ultimately led to it being the most copied automated lubrication system ever. It was so efficient that the
rate of mechanical failures was reduced to a third of what it had been previously. Tripling equipment life was great for the equipment itself— but not so good for those who were selling OEM automotive parts!
It’s time to learn from the past. Automated lubrication systems can triple the life of equipment. In 1924, a year after Bijur’s centralized system hit the market, Chicago’s Alemite Die Casting bought out Cleveland’s Allyne-Zerk Company. The deal mated Alemite’s High-Pressure Lubricating grease gun (designed in 1916) with Oscar Zerk’s compact push-style grease and oil fitting. This union was significant in that the grease zerk fitting eventually replaced Bijur’s centralized system, based on cost—and, of course, the fact that many more parts could be sold! Bijur went on to introduce other automated lubrication systems, as did companies like Trabon (the Series Progressive Divider system); Lincoln (the Single Line Positive Displacement Injector system); Farval (the Dualine Positive Displacement Injector system); and Tecalamit (the Pumpto-Point system). All of these players essentially produced iterations of each other’s designs— and today offer sophisticated computer-controlled devices that self-diagnose system effectiveness. Two things haven’t changed over time: 1) Automated lubrication systems still triple effective equipment life; and 2) Manual greasing/oiling systems are still cheap to purchase, but terribly expensive to manage effectively. Isn’t it about time that you learned from the past? Isn’t it time to triple-size your equipment’s life? LMT firstname.lastname@example.org
www.LMTinfo.com | 5
This article continues a discussion that began in a feature entitled “Key Factors In A World-Class Lubrication Program,” published in the March/April 2010 issue of LMT.
Lube Surveys And Consolidation Efforts Want to establish a new lubrication program or improve an existing one? Managers of world-class programs consider these two activities to be key factors in their success. Ray Thibault, CLS, OMA I & II Contributing Editor
quipment reliability is compromised by poor lubrication practices every day. Training can only go so far. Companies also need to revisit the way they manage their lubricants, including the number of products they may be using.
The lube survey All lubrication activities revolve around the lube survey. Still, it’s surprising to see how many companies have either never done a survey or never updated an old one. A lube survey can be a long, tedious process. It must be done correctly and reported in a manner that will be useful. Specialized stand-alone software can be purchased from lubricant suppliers, but if an existing PM tool such as CMMS is available, it should be utilized. While the survey should be conducted with the help of the lubricant supplier, lubrication champions and lubricators with knowledge of the plant and equipment need to guide the process. This is a joint team effort— all parties should be aware of their responsibilities. There are several ways to conduct a survey. The most common method for large plants is to survey area-by-area. In smaller plants, the process flow through the plant can be utilized. Each piece of equipment lubricated in the plant needs to be visited and recorded on preprinted forms that have been designed (and furnished) by the lubricant supplier to meet the plant’s needs. The information can then be transferred to an Excel or Access spreadsheet, which then can be incorporated in the company’s PM program.
6 | LUBRICATION MANAGEMENT & TECHNOLOGY
Table I. Typical Lube Survey Data Reporting System ID #
Main Hydraulic Hunker Hydraulic Hydraulic Pump Motor Bearings Extruder Gearbox Gearbox Motor Bearings Press Bushings Guide Rolls
Oil Change Interval
Oil Analysis Frequency
Oil Analysis Determined OA
AN (As Needed) AN
Recommended Sump Capacity Lubricant (Gallons)
Rando HD 46 Rando HD 46 Starplex 2 Meropa 220 Starplex 2 Multifak EP 0 Spindura 10
6 Months 2X/week
6 Months 2X/week
Conducting the survey with the lubricant supplier recording the data is an excellent opportunity to discuss problem areas that should be noted on the form. The actual data compiled on the lube survey is what you feel you need to adequately reflect the key factors in lubricating your equipment. Each plant is unique, so it’s important to work with your lubricant supplier to design a system that will reflect all the information necessary to properly lubricate the site’s equipment. An example of a data reporting system is shown in Table I. Table I reflects the minimum amount of information to be included in the lube survey; additional categories can be added to fit a plant’s needs. The following data, in some form, is mandatory: ■ Asset/Equipment Number: This data is crucial. It differentiates and identifies equipment in your PM system and allows you to go back and check the maintenance history. ■ Manufacturer: This allows users to go back in the system to get information from the OEM manual, if available. ■ Equipment Description: This is how lubricators and maintenance personnel refer to the equipment as identified in the system. ■ Lubricated Component/Lube Points: Since there are usually multiple lube points on a machine, this information field is important to ensure that the correct lubricant is used on the right component. (Table I describes different components for the same machine, many of which use a different lubricant.) ■ Recommended Lubricant: The previous lubricant is used as a guide if switching to a new lubricant. Most lubricant companies have cross-out lists with their equivalent to a competitive product. (Many a lube survey will show that the wrong lubricant has been used for years. This occurs because the wrong lubricant was originally used and had JULY/AUGUST 2010
Quarterly Had used Ronex MP Had used GX 80W-90 Had used Ronex MP Trabon Lubricator Had used Spinesstic 10
been crossed out incorrectly over the years by different suppliers.) When in doubt, check the OEM manual. This is not needed on every piece of equipment, but should be done on critical equipment. If you’re still unsure, contact the OEM directly. (Many OEM manuals are simply out of date.) The responsibility for correct selection, however, lies with the lubricant supplier. ■ PM Frequencies: These apply to lubricant checks, addition, change and oil analysis. After the survey is complete, users should work with the lube supplier to establish optimum PM intervals. Check to see how frequencies have worked in the past—especially on machines that have had lubrication problems. PM frequencies also have to be practical, based on manpower in the plant. ■ Comments: The comment field is a place where the team can note significant observations. It’s important to point out anything unusual with the equipment that should be noted on the survey for future improvement action. Comments such as “machine runs hot,” “oil is cloudy,” “dirty containers used to transfer oil,” etc., can be helpful.
Remember: A lube survey is a requirement for improving your lubrication program. This document is a foundation from which all other lubrication work activities build. Your plant’s lubrication champion needs to coordinate and work closely with your lube supplier to initiate the survey—and follow up with recommended actions when it is completed. The survey then needs to be properly integrated in your PM program and updated on a timely basis.
www.LMTinfo.com | 7
Table II. 80% of Applications
Li Complex EP (ISO VG 150/220)
Polyurea (ISO VG ~100)
High-Speed Coupling Grease
Table III. 20% of Applications High Temperature
Clay or Polyurea
Aluminum or Calcium Complex
Consolidation The Pareto Principle applies to lubrication, just like it does to many other activities. Normally, 80% of your equipment is lubricated by 20% of your lubricants. This leaves plenty of room to consolidate the number of products used— which can offer significant savings in manpower, storage and administrative costs while minimizing addition of the wrong lubricant. The lube survey provides the information necessary to consolidate the number of products used. Here are some tips for consolidation based on lubricant types and equipment: Grease… Your greatest consolidation opportunity usually lies with grease. Many plants have far more greases than they need. (FYI: Some using 20 or more grease types have been able to consolidate to five or less and realize better equipment performance.) Tables II and III suggest grease types to use by application. The most common grease thickener type is lithium complex. This grease type can be used in different applications by varying the base-oil viscosity. Minimization of different thickener types will reduce compatibility problems that occur when too many grease types are available. (It’s easy to add the wrong grease.) Centrifugal pumps… With centrifugal pumps, OEMs typically recommend R&O oils, with ISO VG ranging from 32-68. In some cases, AW hydraulic oils have been recommended. Except in very cold climates, an ISO 68 is usually a good compromise for yearround use. In cold climates, an ISO 32 may be used for centrifugal pumps. Hydraulics… Most common hydraulic oils are antiwear with ISO VG of 32, 46 and 68. (Some companies have consolidated to ISO 46 for their systems.) Always consult the OEM before consolidating to one grade. Hydraulic systems typically should run between 13 cSt and 54 cSt at the operating temperature. The optimum is between 25-36 cSt. The normal operating temperature for hydraulic systems is between 110 F and 120 F, and usually doesn’t exceed 140 F. As an example, let’s assume that we need to consider two operating temperatures in our hydraulic systems, one being 110 F and the other 130 F. Which hydraulic oil—ISO 32, 46 or 68, with a viscosity index of 98—will meet both requirements and stay within the optimum of 25-36 cSt? The correct answer: The ISO 46 hydraulic oil with a viscosity of 44.2 cSt best fits the optimum viscosity at those two temperatures. The viscosity at 110 F is 38 cSt; at 130 F, the viscosity is 24.4 cSt—making the ISO 46 fit better than the grades of 32 and 68. Given these 8 | LUBRICATION MANAGEMENT & TECHNOLOGY
New from WD-40 Company: BLUE WORKSâ„˘ Industrial Grade, specialty maintenance products. Ask your distributor for details on how you can experience outstanding performance from a line that meets your rigorous technical requirements.
For a free sample,* visit BlueWorksBrand.com/sample and enter Offer Code LMP
* While supplies last. Offer available to Industrial Professionals only. Offer not available in Alaska or Hawaii. Please see online Sample Request Form for full details. ÂŠ2010 WD-40 Company
For more info, enter 63 at www.LMTfreeinfo.com
50-State VOC compliant
The Pareto Principle also can be applied in lubrication. Normally, 80% of your equipment is lubricated by 20% of your lubricant products. conditions, ISO 46 would be the best choice for consolidation purposes. However, before consolidating to one hydraulic oil (of which ISO 46 is the most common), consult with the OEM and your lubricant supplier. (Note: This example doesn’t apply to hydraulic pumps exposed to cold temperatures. Both vane and axial piston pumps need a viscosity < 860 cSt for proper startup. Typically, high V.I. oils would be used for mobile equipment during cold startup conditions.) Gear oils… Viscosity selection for gear oils is based on the speed of the pinion. For parallel, right-angle and intersecting shafts, the most common ISO viscosity grades are 150, 220 and 320. For worm and hypoid gears, the most common viscosity grade is 460, with ISO 680 in slow-speed, heavily loaded worm gears. The most common viscosity grade for non-worm and hypoid gears is 220. When consolidating, be sure to have the minimum viscosity. It is better to be one grade higher than lower. Too high a viscosity results in additional energy usage and heat generation—but it protects the gears from metal-to-metal contact. Synthetics like PAOs allow, in many cases, consolidation to a lower ISO grade with the same protection. As an example, consider a hot-running parallel shaft gear lubricated with an ISO 320 mineral oil at 180 F. Using an ISO 220 PAO will give nearly the same viscosity at the operating temperature (and usually result in lower energy and a cooler-running gearbox).
Remember: Consolidation can help you realize cost savings through minimization of lubricants. Consolidation also reduces the risk of adding the wrong lubricant. While it naturally follows a lube survey, it should be practiced continuously. Coming up Many companies have adopted lubrication best practices with great success. An upcoming article will focus on a large manufacturing company that began building a world-class program 10 years ago. It’s still reaping the benefits. LMT Acknowledgements The author thanks Matt Mazanek, of H & W Petroleum, for providing lube survey information for this article. He has successfully conducted many of these surveys, and is one of the best at organizing and completing the task. Contributing Editor Ray Thibault is based in Cypress (Houston), TX. An STLE-Certified Lubrication Specialist and Oil Monitoring Analyst, he conducts extensive training in a number of industries. Telephone: (281) 257-1526; e-mail: email@example.com.
Correction On page 12 of Ray’s May/June 2010 LMT article “The Case Of The Crucial Spare,” the following statement was made: “After matching the SEM results with the component metallurgy, the investigators concluded that the wear came from the inboard cover (bronze) and the deflector (grey cast)—components that have only a minor impact on pump performance.”
10 | LUBRICATION MANAGEMENT & TECHNOLOGY
Unfortunately, the metallurgical designations were inadvertently transposed in this published statement, making parts of it incorrect. The statement should instead have reflected the fact that “the wear came from the inboard cover (grey cast) and the deflector (bronze)…” The author regrets any confusion this error may have caused.
Hy-Pro’s Heavy Hitters
“Hy-Pro Has Fluid Contamination Under Control with Innovative Filtration Products, Support, and Solutions”
Hy-Pro has the solution to make varnish vanish . . . SVR Ion Charge Bonding technology removes varnish causing contaminant while still in solution. Stop varnish before it stops you! Contact Hy-Pro for the proven solution to restore and maintain the health of your turbine lube oil.
Portable filtration systems for a range of fluid types & viscosities. Condition reservoirs with high efficiency particulate and water removal elements. Filter fluids in bulk storage or during transfer.
Dedicated Filtration Systems Install permanent off-line filtration and know your fluid is always clean.
Vacuum dehydration removes free & dissolved water, particles, and gasses rapidly. Extend oil life and reclaim spent oil. Hydraulic and lube oils.
DFE Rated Filter Element Upgrades Upgrade to Hy-Pro and save money! Lower your ISO codes and extend hydraulic component & bearing life. Rapid delivery & improved reliability.
Put Hy-Pro on your lube team
and arm yourself with the tools and industry expertise to maximize reliability from your hydraulic & lube assets.
Made in U.S.A., ISO 9001 Certified Fishers, Indiana U.S.A. +1.317.849.3535 For more info, enter 64 at www.LMTfreeinfo.com
Coalesce skids rapidly remove free water & particles from turbine oil with high single pass efficiency and lower ISO codes!
An advancement over Karl Fischer titration...
Determining Moisture Levels In Oils At A Power Plant Technology has been marching on and on since development of the “gold standard” of oil analysis. Here’s how one British power plant has been benefiting from a leader of that parade. R.C.J. Wilson CEnv. IEng. MEI, MRSC Ferrybridge C Power Station
n modern conventional power stations, the overall condition of the fluids that lubricate large, high-value machinery is critical. In particular, moisture in the oil can wash out critical anti-oxidative compounds, contributing to lubricant oxidation and subsequent loss of lubricant performance. Although Karl Fischer (KF) titrations have been used over the years to measure the degree of water in oil, this analytical method does, in fact, have some limitations. Three years ago, the Ferrybridge C Power Station in West Yorkshire, England, began moving from its use of the KF method to use of Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) analysis to measure and control the level of water contamination in lubricating fluids. The result? Accurate data in less time—and with less complication—than the “gold-standard” Karl Fischer method.
12 | LUBRICATION MANAGEMENT & TECHNOLOGY
0.5 0.45 % Moisture in Oil
IR Pal A2
0.25 0.2 0.15 0,1 0.05 01/04/09
Date Fig. 1. Comparison between FTIR and KF titration in measuring moisture in lubricating oil
Lubrication monitoring at Ferrybridge Ferrybridge C Power Station is a 2000MW coal and biomass co-firing power station. Its four enormous steam turbines and main feed pumps produce enough power for two million homes—or 4% of the United Kingdom’s daily electricity requirements. The power from one steam turbine would be sufficient to power six Queen Mary 2 cruise liners traveling at full speed. Each turbine shaft is over 170’ long and exceedingly heavy, with 12 support bearings lubricated by mineral oil. This lubricating oil serves more than one purpose: It is also the control oil for operating the turbine governor valves and steam admission valves. Thus, it is mandatory for the oil to be monitored and kept within the required specification. Since the level of moisture in the oil changes over time as a function of environmental and operating conditions, it is also imperative to rapidly obtain accurate analytical information. To do all this, Ferrybridge has turned to the A2 Technologies iPAl FTIR analyzer equipped with the TumblIR transmission cell system (see Sidebar). As shown in Fig. 1, testing the FTIR analysis against Ferrybridge’s KF titration method showed a good correlation between the two techniques. Since the trend in the amount of water present is monitored, absolute values are JULY/AUGUST 2010
not necessary. Even with KF measurements, absolute values are not measured, since results may be biased by the amount of sample used and the inherent immiscibility of oil and water. Therefore, repeat measurements are made with both FTIR and KF (many times with the KF). Because FTIR measurements are so quick, repetitive measurements are faster and easier. The small discrepancies between the two methods are not significantly different from those obtained by carrying out two KF tests on the same sample. Having gained confidence in the accuracy and reliability of the FTIR method, Ferrybridge has largely eliminated KF measurements. An example of how the plant uses FTIR can be seen in Fig. 2, where A2’s iPAL system tracked the level of moisture in both the turbine oil and the main feed-pump oil. When the moisture in the lubricating fluid is greater than the allowable specification, corrective action is taken to remove the water in the oil. There are two methods to adjust the moisture content of the turbine oil: 1. The turbine gland steam pressure is manually adjusted if the unit is to operate at a lower-than-normal load. 2. A mechanical device that separates water from oil is used to remove moisture from the turbine main oil tank. www.LMTinfo.com | 13
% Moisture in Lube Oil
0.14 0.12 0.1 0.08 0.06 Fig. 2. Measurements of moisture in lubricating oil for Unit 1 main turbine and main boiler feed pump, in 2009
0.04 0.02 0 18-Dec
In addition to monitoring the level of water in oil and alerting plant personnel to take corrective action when necessary, the iPAl FTIR analyzer is used to track the effectiveness of the methods the site uses to eliminate water and return the oil to acceptable moisture limits. The benefits of FTIR analysis There are numerous reasons why Ferrybridge has turned to FTIR analysis of its lubricating oils—eliminating much of its KF analyses in the process. FTIR is quicker and more straightforward than KF, no toxic reagents are required and it’s easy to train personnel on its use. As analytically accurate as KF (and in some cases, more so), the iPAL FTIR system can go beyond determining moisture levels in oil. Using pre-calibrated, on-board methods on the same sample, it can measure other important specifications, including additive depletion, overall condition/oxidation and oil in water for discharge purposes. One of this FTIR system’s greatest benefits, however, is the fact that it affords real-time analysis, on site. This, in turn, lets personnel immediately ascertain the condition of a
lubricating fluid. If an oil is found to be out of specification, on-site testing allows corrective action to be taken—and the effectiveness of such actions to be determined—virtually in real time. All of this can be accomplished before the initial results from an off-site testing lab could even be reported. The FTIR system is important for another reason: It increases Ferrybridge’s level of confidence in results that it does obtain from off-site testing labs. The plant has found that if lubricants are not sampled, packaged and sealed correctly for shipment, there can be a significant difference in moisture testing reports. In the past, results obtained from outside labs frequently were found to be, at best, suspect and, at worst, completely inaccurate. Carrying out on-site testing with the FTIR analyzer serves as an important cross-check on off-site lab testing. A2’s iPAL FTIR analyzer has become a vital part of the Ferrybridge on-site testing protocol. In fact, the plant has so much faith in this technology that its use is now being extended to more applications at the site. LMT R.C.J. Wilson, CEnv. IEng. MEI, MRSC, is Environmental & Performance manager at the Ferrybridge C Power Station.
Using A2’s iPAL FTIR System To analyze a sample, the operator places a drop of neat used oil on the lower TumblIR window mounted in the surface of the iPAL FTIR analyzer, then rotates a second, gimbal-mounted window into place, thereby creating a reproducible 100-micron gap that holds the oil. The system comes equipped with a pre-calibrated, automated method for determining the amount of water in oil, and a simple command initiates the transmission IR method. The unit then collects, analyzes and reports the data. Since the system is capable of accurately analyzing water as low as 200 ppm (with no sample preparation), detection limits are not at issue. A2 has developed a surfactant-using method that allows quantitative detection of water in lubricating oil down to 65 ppm. For more info, enter 01 at www.LMTfreeinfo.com
14 | LUBRICATION MANAGEMENT & TECHNOLOGY
For more info, enter 65 at www.LMTfreeinfo.com
A Snowball’s Chance In Maintenance Looking for ways to do a lot, lot more with a lot, lot less? Here’s a personal perspective on how to start things rolling in a big way.
Daniel J. Erwin, CMRP The Dow Chemical Company
nyone involved in maintenance and reliability knows that for every issue, there are probably one or more programs, tests, techniques, acronyms and/or buzzwords, among other things, that should remedy the problem. For example, reliability engineers are expected to: find the root cause of failures; increase MTBF (Mean Time Between Failure); decrease MTTR (Mean Time To Repair); boost equipment output; reduce maintenance spending; improve OEE (Overall Equipment Effectiveness)…These types of things reflect the technical aspects of our business; they’re our focus. If, however, you’re working on the managerial side of maintenance and reliability, you have a number of other things on your mind as well.
Besides managing the technical side of maintenance and reliability (see above), you’re also probably managing budgets and people, or, to be more specific, managing the allocation of maintenance hours. That’s a game-changer. While the overall goal may be the same—increase reliability, fix things faster, spend less, etc.— the buzzwords are different. The key phrase? “Do more with less.” I speak from experience. During my stint in a managerial role, I dealt with personnel cuts, resource reallocation and bringing on new hires. In light of market conditions at the time, overtime was essentially not allowed. Pieces of equipment were temporarily taken off-line, which meant the other equipment had to run more reliably in order to meet the required production. To top it off, the mix of product steadily increased in size and weight, putting more strain on our already stressed, older equipment. I quickly realized that too much work was left at the end of my available maintenance craftsman hours. I was pushing people to not only fight all the fires, but to make things better. Still, there were just too many equipment failures to deal with.
16 | LUBRICATION MANAGEMENT & TECHNOLOGY
A SPECIAL SUPPLEMENT TO LUBRICATION MANAGEMENT & TECHNOLOGY
My goal was to ‘steal’ craftsman hours from firefighting and begin building a snowball of progressive improvements. For us, time to make improvements was much like the Loch Ness Monster—it rarely surfaced, and when it did, only a few people were around to see it. Those lucky enough to “catch a glimpse” were rarely prepared to deal with it. That’s when it hit me: My singular goal was not just to extend the time between failures (or engage in some other narrowly focused mission). It was to somehow “steal” craftsman hours back from the inefficiency of firefighting, and use those hours to begin building a snowball of progressive improvements. The snowball effect Times are tough all over. The economic slump has hurt most sectors. Those of us in the maintenance arena need to ensure that we’re using those resources that we have managed to retain in the most efficient and effective way possible. All the acronyms, programs, techniques and technologies need to be viewed in the perspective of the “snowball effect.” If you can implement a technology that makes a piece of equipment run just one hour longer between failures, that one craftsman hour may be used to implement an equipment modification that leads to increased production capacity. The increased production capacity may allow slightly more production flexibility and, combined with the available craftsman hour, may allow for more in-depth and/or more accurate preventive maintenance (PM) tasks—even, perhaps, open up an opportunity to just do a PM. You can see the pattern. Where to start If your maintenance department is like most, trying to squeeze some time out of your team’s days to implement some great new “something or other” might seem virtually impossible. It’s not. To start, put your attention on items that don’t require much in terms of workforce time-input or budgetary expenditures. As improvements are made and the results realized, more time- and dollar-intensive projects can be implemented. For example, if your MRO stores have always just “been there,” you may be paying unneeded up-charges to “overnight” parts when critical machinery fails. A review of your critical equipment with respect to spare parts may reveal some glaring discrepancies that could lead to large, unnecessary costs in the form of lost production, downtime and the price of and/or expediting of parts. Savings from those things alone would most likely pay to ensure that the parts are in stores when you need them. JULY/AUGUST 2010
That said, what are some things you can do to help boost the effectiveness and efficiency of your maintenance workforce? First, know your equipment. This is essential in being able to concentrate your efforts where they make the greatest impact. After that, the possibilities are virtually endless. It all depends on how “outside the box” you can and are willing to think—and how far outside that box you are allowed to go. Here are a few idea generators: ■ A thorough analysis of PM tasks can help eliminate antiquated, unneeded and, in some cases, “kneejerk” tasks. Such an analysis can also help ensure that any missing tasks that would add value are put into the system. ■ As mentioned previously, a project that ensures the right number of the right kind of critical spare parts are on hand can eliminate a lot of unneeded resource expenditures and unnecessary loss of production. ■ Automating aspects of maintenance through the use of tools such as automatic lubricators can recoup small amounts of man-hours that will add up to a sizeable amount of “extra” maintenance time per year. ■ A more costly example would be installing real-time analytical tools, such as vibration transmitters, temperature probes/monitors, flow and/or pressure switches or on-stream lubricant moisture sensors. The real-time analysis can help an organization catch and/or track undesirable conditions, a slow-progressing failure, a major upset or an impending catastrophic event. This allows for the repair or replacement of equipment before an unexpected failure occurs—or, at least, allows for a plan to be developed to calmly and systematically handle a failure should it happen. ■ Transforming small maintenance inspections and tasks into operator-based maintenance tasks (with necessary training) not only can get craftsman man-hours back, it could also lead to improved information collection— operators typically being in day-to-day contact with their equipment. Such tasks could include checking oil levels, match marks, alignment settings, etc., as well as making minor adjustments, adding oil or grease and tracking machine conditions through the use of analytical tools. This approach can be taken in both union and nonunion environments. www.LMTinfo.com | 17
The previous bullet points are just a start. The list of strategies for capturing and eliminating inefficiencies goes on and on. Like anything, the more you put in, the more you get out. If resources are limited, focus on the biggest bang for your buck—and know the initial returns may be small or slow. This is the snowball effect… Start rolling You just need to get your snowball rolling. Over time, it will develop into an avalanche of recovered man-hours, reduced costs and improved production. With limited resources, make sure you don’t waste your time on the smaller things, or on trying to perfect a project like a PM task or spare-part optimization to the nth degree. Also remember that you can’t do this alone. The phrase “pushing a rope” is very apt. You must have buy-in from all parts of the organization. If management doesn’t buy in, you’ll have no backing. If the operations or production side of your business doesn’t buy in, you’ll have a hard time implementing anything at best, and may create an adversary at worst. Finally, if the maintenance organization doesn’t buy in, implementation of anything could be difficult and slow—and improvements could be doomed to failure.
Develop a plan. Think into the future, as far you can with what you know. Envision your defined goal, and tailor the actions to achieve it despite your work constraints. As you develop your plan, make sure you are working with all stakeholders in the organization to promote understanding, build relationships and gather input. A little “politicking” goes a long way. Present the goal so that those affected by it want to follow you— that’s true leadership. Remember, typically the less a project costs in terms of craftsman hours and maintenance dollars, the more time and energy it requires of the reliability engineer and supporting staff. Steel yourself. It may take lots of personal input to propel your small snowball in the right direction. Still, if you stick with it and bring the organization along, the result will be of a size, shape and momentum of which you can be proud. LMT Dan Erwin has spent the last nine years serving in a number of maintenance and reliability roles. He currently is a reliability engineering specialist with Dow Chemical’s Union Carbide Cellosize and Polyox Production Units, in Institute, WV. A Certified Maintenance & Reliability Professional, Erwin holds a B.S. in Mechanical Engineering from The University of Wisconsin - Platteville. Telephone: (304) 747-1045; e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
International Maintenance Excellence Conference September 22 to 24
Join the Experts in Toronto IMEC is organized by:
This sixth-annual gathering of industry and academic experts from around the world will again offer unparalleled insight to modern maintenance and asset-management techniques for plant and facility professionals. Hosted by Dr. Andrew Jardine of the University of Toronto’s Centre for Maintenance Optimization & Reliability Engineering, and co-produced with Maintenance Technology magazine, IMEC 2010 offers two days of keynote presentations and one day of in-depth workshops at the University’s conference venue in the heart of downtown Toronto. With a dinner at the famed CN Tower included, and unlimited opportunity to discuss the issues with international experts, IMEC 2010 provides a well-rounded, exciting learning opportunity for maintenance professionals everywhere. For more information about IMEC 2010, please contact Bill Kiesel at email@example.com or 847-382-8100, ext. 116 Registration online at www.imec.ca
For more info, enter 66 at www.LMTfreeinfo.com
18 | LUBRICATION MANAGEMENT & TECHNOLOGY
A SPECIAL SUPPLEMENT TO LUBRICATION MANAGEMENT & TECHNOLOGY
How To Begin Maintenance Planning This month, the author takes an in-depth look at why you need a planner and who it should be.
Raymond L. Atkins Contributing Editor
hen my children were small, Santa Claus—yours truly— liked to assemble presents late on Christmas Eve. Once the kids were asleep, I would get out my trusty pliers, adjustable wrench, two screwdrivers and, in light of the festive nature of the enterprise, perhaps a cup of eggnog. Mrs. Claus would put on some holiday music and bring out a plate of cookies, at which point I would get to work. I always enjoyed great success with this process…that is until I encountered the Big Red Playhouse. Let’s get this out of the way up front: The Big Red Playhouse job went south because I wasn’t prepared. I didn’t have a plan. I got off to a late start putting the thing together. Then, once I opened that large cardboard box, I was confronted with dozens of oddly shaped pieces of red and yellow plastic—but no instruction manual. Yup, the unexpected had occurred (as it tends to do). Looking at all those little pieces, fasteners and clips, I knew common sense couldn’t save me. Even worse, I realized that I needed four different sizes of Allen wrenches. I didn’t have any Allen wrenches. Pressure was added when upper management—Mrs. Claus—advised me of the disaster in store for us if the gift recipients awoke to learn that Santa had failed them. So, for the next six hours, I did the best I could with what I had, finishing up right around sunrise. While the playhouse didn’t look like the picture on the box (and several pieces of red plastic were left over), at least it held together. Of course, if it hadn’t been for the fact that the kids ran right by the playhouse on their way to play in the box it came in, I would have been in serious trouble. www.LMTinfo.com | 19
Lessons learned I’ve thought about the Big Red Playhouse—not fondly—many times since that night. An amusing story, it’s also a very real example of what can go wrong when a job isn’t planned. To begin, I was overconfident the project would get done—I had always managed to finish it in the past. As it turned out, I really didn’t have enough time to do the job (but I didn’t know it). Since this was the first time I had ever tried to build a Big Red Playhouse, I was unfamiliar with the correct procedure. I had no written instructions, parts list or bill of material. To add insult to injury, I lacked the correct tools. Adding injury to insult, I cut my hand on a screw around 3 a.m. (which just goes to show what can happen when you get in a hurry and don’t know what you’re doing). And finally—once it had become apparent that the deadline might not be met—management added to my stress by pointedly reminding me of my obligations. No matter. I plowed ahead. The job had to get done. What this means to you If my Big Red Playhouse experience doesn’t strike a chord with you, I submit that a) you don’t have children yet, and/ or b) you are new to the maintenance trade. What happened to me that long-ago Christmas Eve happens every day in hundreds, if not thousands, of maintenance organizations around the world. Technicians are sent out to perform tasks for which they are not prepared. Jobs are guaranteed to go wrong because maintenance personnel don’t have enough time to complete them. Projects are doomed to fail because millwrights lack written instructions, comprehensive illustrations and diagrams and/or adequate parts lists. Work schedules and productivity are jeopardized because multi-crafts don’t have access to the proper tools and are unfamiliar with specific procedures. Worker well-being is put at risk because safety protocols aren’t clear. Last but not least, good employees are subjected to undue pressure when the schedule begins to lag and the search for the guilty begins. Once this scenario is set into motion, we sit back and hope for yet another miracle. Sometimes we get one; more often, we don’t. We end up over budget and behind schedule for a task that may have to be done again because it was performed incorrectly the first time. (If we were lucky, no one got hurt in this mayhem.) Remember the old adage: “When it comes to maintenance management, we are only as good as our last 30 days.” Who among us wants to base our maintenance strategy on luck? What we need is good planning. Gearing up If you’re going to succeed as a maintenance manager, YOU MUST PLAN YOUR WORK. Unfortunately, in a 20 | LUBRICATION MANAGEMENT & TECHNOLOGY
sluggish economy, management may be hesitant to approve the expense associated with adding positions—even one as crucial as a maintenance planner. The prevailing mind-set in hard times seems to be that the maintenance department should just buckle down and work harder and longer. Positions such as planner, scheduler, maintenance clerk and even reliability engineer all pay for themselves in very short order. As such, they are a wise investment, rather than an unnecessary expense. It isn’t a case that a maintenance department ought to have such positions staffed. Rather, it is a documented fact that no maintenance organization can be completely successful without filling these roles. Once the decision has been made to begin planning your work, the first step is to select and train a planner. Often a maintenance organization will promote from within and select one of its better millwrights or technicians for the job. This promotion structure is good for morale and laudable for that very reason, but ultimately the success or failure of this approach depends entirely on the individual qualities of the chosen candidate. Maintenance managers and HR professionals should keep in mind that the skills and talents that make for an excellent maintenance professional out on the plant floor may not always translate well into an office setting. Innate knowledge of the plant’s processes and machine centers is not necessarily a guarantee of success. A good candidate for the planner position will be a person with a passion for details—not necessarily a perfectionist, but close to it. At a minimum, this individual will realize the importance of the accuracy of information and the clarity of its presentation. The job also calls for someone with excellent organizational skills, who can “see” the big picture and convey its elements onto a written page in the chronological order in which the job steps should occur. This critical component means the planner must be an effective writer. Moreover, the planner must have the ability to view the job as a contiguous whole and envision what might go wrong, then must be able to allow for those potential pitfalls and have the appropriate contingency plans prepared. The chosen candidate also must be capable of reading, understanding and distilling technical information down to its essence. He/she should be familiar with the manufacturing process, but not necessarily have come from the maintenance organization—or even from the plant— to be a success. Capturing the benefits For planning to become a successful part of your maintenance strategy, it must become part of your maintenance culture. This enculturation cannot take place if it appears that planning is only being done when it’s convenient for management—or because it’s what the home office wants. JULY/AUGUST 2010
A SPECIAL SUPPLEMENT TO LUBRICATION MANAGEMENT & TECHNOLOGY
Planning will have little benefit for the organization if the maintenance staff views it as ‘just more paperwork to keep the ‘suits’ happy.’ Consequently, planners can’t be pulled away from their duties and assigned to other tasks, such as supervision, scheduling or even general maintenance. Maintenance planning will fail under these conditions. More importantly, management will assume planning is being performed because the job has been filled. In other words, the function of planning will be seen as having had no effect on reliability. Keep in mind that planning will have little benefit for your organization if it’s viewed as a nuisance by the maintenance staff—i.e., just more paperwork that “they” have come up with to keep the “suits” happy—and is only done by rote. Everyone in the department must own the concept of planned work and understand its importance. ■ They must be educated to appreciate both the function and the purpose of planning, as well as the fact that it is not simply another flavor of the week.
■ They need to understand and appreciate the company’s expectation that assigned work is done according to plan. ■ They must also come to realize that both the work order and the written job plan are living documents, and that if an error is discovered or a better method envisioned, then this information must be shared with the planner. You now have information you need to make the case for a planner. Next time, we will revisit the specifics of the process and how to write a good job plan. LMT Ray Atkins is a retired maintenance professional (and award-winning author), based in Rome, GA. He spent his last five years in industry as a maintenance supervisor with Temple-Inland. Web: www.raymondlatkins.com; e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
7-Step Best Practice Lubrication Program Professional Self-Directed Implementation ToolKit
Tap into your Liquid Gold for less than $20 per day!* Whether you’re looking to increase asset utilization and maintainability, reduce contamination, downtime, energy consumption and/or your carbon footprint, or simply cut your maintenance and operating costs, you’re ready for a 7-Step Best Practice lubrication program! For more information on this “expert in a box” approach to successful lubrication programs, contact ENGTECH Industries at 519.469.9173 or email email@example.com * Amortized over one year
For more info, enter 67 at www.LMTfreeinfo.com
www.LMTinfo.com | 21
Will you achieve
Sustainability for the New Energy Era? Join the SAP for Utilities 2010 community and work together with SAP, ASUG and your peers to find the latest solutions and strategies that will help you achieve sustainability in an increasingly challenging and ever-changing energy landscape. Now is the time to invest in your utilityâ€™s future by exploring best practices and methodologies that will put you on top of your game. Access to Information AMI Asset Lifecycle Management Best Practices Business Network Transformation Capital Projects Change Management Compliance CRM / CIS / CRB Demand Response Developing KPIs Document Management Emissions Enterprise Architecture Environmental Health & Safety GIS Industry Value Network Integration Management of Change MDUS Meter to Cash Mobility Portfolio Transformation Rate Configuration Release Strategy Reliability
Renewables Reporting Service Management Smart Grid Standard Business Process Models Sustainability System Performance System Sizing Usability Value / Total Cost of Ownership
September 19-22, 2010 Hyatt Regency Huntington Beach Huntington Beach, California
www.sap-for-utilities.com For more info, enter 68 at www.LMTfreeinfo.com
ÂŠ 2010 by Eventure Events, LLC. All rights reserved. Eventure and SAP for Utilities logos are trademarks of Eventure Events, LLC. The SAP logo is a trademark or registered trademark of SAP AG in Germany and several other countries and is reproduced with the permission of SAP AG. All other products and service names mentioned are the trademarks of their respective companies.
BIG MONEY TALKS XX UM William C. Livoti
Calculating True Motor Efficiency
he Energy Independence Security Act of 2007 (EISA) becomes law December 19, 2010. A portion of EISA covers induction motors from 1-500 hp. It’s safe to say most end users will be affected. What does EISA have to do with calculating true motor efficiency? More than you would think. At some point, you’ll need to replace a motor covered by EISA. Replacing it with a duplicate that meets the new law would seem to make perfect sense. Not so fast! Before rushing a purchase order through, take time to determine: ■ Motor efficiency versus nameplate ■ Motor efficiency versus load To clarify: Yes, you’ll improve overall efficiency around two efficiency points by replacing a standard efficient motor with a new EISA premium efficient model. There’s much more to be gained, however, by making a few calculations. Facts Motor nameplate data doesn’t identify precise motor efficiency—only a range as defined by NEMA. An induction motor is highly efficient when operating close to its rated torque and speed, but it still has five major components of loss: iron loss, copper loss, frictional loss, windage loss and sound loss. Together, they add up to the total loss of the motor. Frictional, windage and sound losses are constant, independent of shaft load and typically very small. The major losses are from iron and copper. Iron loss is essentially constant and independent of shaft load, while copper represents a I2R loss, which is shaftload dependent. Since iron loss is voltage-dependent, it will reduce with reducing voltage. Most electric motors are designed to run at 50% to 100% of rated load, with maximum efficiency usually near 75%. Thus, a 10 hp motor has an acceptable load range of 5 hp to 10 hp, with peak efficiency at 7.5 hp. Motor efficiency tends
VOLUME VOLUME 52 // NO. NO. 32
to decrease dramatically below about 50% load. The range of good efficiency, however, varies with individual motors and tends to extend over a broader range for larger units. A motor is considered under-loaded when it’s in the range where efficiency drops significantly with decreasing load. Throw in a poor motor rewind, and you could have a far-less-efficient motor than the nameplate data indicates. It is also a well-known fact that motor pumping systems (most pumps are motor-driven) operate at less than 40% efficiency. Clearly, there’s an opportunity to save additional energy by reducing the size of the motor. Calculating Keep these points in mind when you set out to calculate true motor efficiency: ■ Use power, amperage or slip measurements to identify the load imposed on the operating motor. ■ Obtain a motor part-load efficiency value consistent with the approximated load from the manufacturer. Or, if direct-read power measurements are available, derive a revised load estimate using both the power measurement at the motor terminals and the part-load efficiency. Help If your company tracks energy savings and justifies projects based on documented payback, evaluating your motor performance/load is important. Help is out there. Several commercially available devices will do these calculations for you. If you don’t have the resources within your plant to make the calculations, contact a local EASA (Electrical Apparatus Service Association) shop that offers this service. UM Bill Livoti is a fluid power and power industry engineer with Baldor Electric Company. Telephone: (864) 281-2118; e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
UTILITIES UTILITIES MANAGER MANAGER || 23 23
UM UTILITIES MANAGER
Maintaining Belt Drives For Maximum Savings You might be surprised at how much energy is wasted when these systems operate poorly. Bill Hillman Ludeca, Inc.
roperly maintained V-belt drives can be up to 97% efficient. Poorly operating belt drives can waste as much as 10% additional input power. Letâ€™s consider a scenario that ignores motor losses and only considers losses in the belt drive. With electricity costs of seven cents per kWh, a rotor operating three shifts per day, five days per week and requiring 50 horsepower from a belt drive would consume over $16,000 of power annually. An additional drop in efficiency of only 5% would result in increased costs of over $800 per year. In some industries, such belt drives may comprise more than 50% of the total drive population. This example clearly shows that big savings can be realized by properly maintaining them.
24 | UTILITIES MANAGER
VOLUME 5 / NO. 3
UTILITIES MANAGER UM
Belt misalignment, heat, worn pulleys and improper tensioning can eat away at a belt’s efficiency and an operation’s profits. Problems that can cause loss of efficiency in belt drives include belt misalignment, heat, worn pulleys and improper belt tensioning.
■ The belts may need re-tensioning.
Belt misalignment. . . Belt-drive misalignment is a common cause of premature belt failure. Belt-drive performance is greatly reduced when misalignment causes increased belt wear and belt fatigue. Misaligned belts can fail quite rapidly due to the additional stresses imposed on the drive. Misaligned belts also increase machine vibration. The energy required to produce the vibration is wasted, adding to increased efficiency losses. Properly aligned belts will greatly increase both belt and pulley service life. The industry standard for V-belt alignment requires that the belts be aligned to within 1/10 in. per ft. of distance between center of shafts and 1/16 in. for synchronous belts. For V-belts, this means that with a shaft-to-shaft center distance of 60 in., the misalignment can total ½ in. and still meet the standard. Modern belt-alignment tools allow for much greater precision than the standard requires. Uneven wear of belts and pulleys is an indication of misalignment problems—which need to be corrected before replacing these components.
■ The sheaves may be excessively worn.
Heat. . . According to a Dayco and Gates reference, belt life is cut in half by every 35 F degree temperature rise above 85 F. Belt life should be 15,000 - 20,000 hours. This means that at three shifts per day, five days per week, a set of belts should last from 1.7 to 2.2 years. One study even predicts 25,000 hours at 85 F. Belt temperatures should be held below 140 F; above that point, belt life will drop to about 6500 hours. Totally enclosed belt guards trap heat, making them a problem. Guards are for safety and to prevent debris from falling into belts and pulleys. Vent guards on the sides and near the top so heat can escape. Belt guards should conform to OSHA regulations. Keep belts as cool as possible. Measure operating pulley groove temperature with an infrared thermometer or infrared camera to see if temperatures are higher than those suggested above. If they are, the belt is probably slipping—which leads to the question of what should be done. The typical response is: “Tighten the belts.” That’s incorrect. The right answer? “Address the problem causing the belts to slip.” Potential problems include: VOLUME 5 / NO. 3
■ The belts may be damaged.
■ The belts may be misaligned. ■ The belts may not be matched in length. Worn pulleys. . . Worn sheaves may reduce belt life by as much as 50%. Use a sheave gage and check sheaves for wear. The total wear should not exceed 1/32 in. If sheaves are replaced every three belt changes and belt life is as stated above, sheaves should last 6.5 years. The top of the belt should not be below the outside diameter of the sheave. The belt should not contact the bottom of the pulley groove. (A shiny groove bottom is an indication of contact.) Move pulleys in as close to bearings as possible, to reduce loads on bearings. Reducing the load on a bearing by half can increase bearing life by a factor of 8. Larger sheaves can increase belt life. Increase both the driver and driven-pulley diameters by the same percentage, and speeds will remain the same. Larger pulleys reduce bearing loads because they allow for more contact area between the belt and pulley, permitting operation with less belt tension. Improper belt tensioning. . . Belt tension charts show the amount of tension that will allow a belt to deliver maximum horsepower—which is usually much more tension than is required by the application. Contact the belt manufacturer and provide drive information to get more accurate tension information for the applicable loads. The proper tension for a belt is the minimum tension at which the belt will not slip under the maximum load. Belts should not squeal on startup. If a belt is adjusted to proper tension and the drive squeals on startup, the drive is probably inappropriate for the application. If belt drives are properly maintained and fail frequently, the drive may not be properly engineered. Call the belt manufacturer and provide drive information to determine proper application. UTILITIES MANAGER | 25
UM UTILITIES MANAGER
Don’t just tighten belts when they slip. Identify the problem that’s causing the slipping and deal with it. Belt-changing tips ■ Don’t pry belts off pulleys. Loosen motor-base bolts or the adjusting screw to release belt tension. Rolling belts on with a screwdriver may damage cords, causing the belt to be thrown off the pulley or turn over in the groove. ■ Tighten pulley-bushing bolts in proper sequence to prevent axial runout on pulleys. ■ Check and correct motor soft foot. Evidence of soft foot correction on belt drives is rare. Many craftspeople think motor shims are used only for shaft-to-shaft alignment. Soft foot conditions can also exist in belt-drive motors. ■ Tension belts with a belt-tensioning tool. Run machine then re-tension. After 24 hours, re-tension belts again. Proper tension is the lowest tension at which the belt will not slip under maximum load. Over-tensioning shortens both belt and bearing life. ■ Don’t use belt dressings. Oil and grease shorten belt life. ■ Check pulley runout with a dial indicator. Correct any runout problems before changing belts. ■ Don’t mix brands of belts, and don’t mix new belts with old. ■ Beware thick-sided pulleys when aligning belts as they may introduce error into the alignment. The goal is to align the belts, not the pulley faces. The best laser pulley-alignment tools offer optional magnetic targets that can be adjusted for different sheave-wall thicknesses. UM
Bill Hillman is a technical contributor for LUDECA, INC., vendor of laser pulley-alignment tools. Telephone: (903) 407-9488 or (972) 429-3670; e-mail: email@example.com
The Case for Laser Alignment: A Personal Perspective Many years ago, my wife gave me a battery-powered electric screwdriver as a gift. While I graciously accepted it, I didn’t think I would ever use it. In fact, I wondered why anyone would want one! I had more than a dozen regular screwdrivers in my toolbox; they had served me quite well over the years. I saw this new version as a gimmick for the gullible. How could I have been so wrong? The electric screwdriver soon became one of my favorite tools. I went through a similar shift in thinking about laser belt-alignment tools. When I first heard about the technology, I wondered why I would want such a device when all I needed was a piece of string. Perhaps I’m just a slow learner. After trying out a laser belt-alignment tool, I realized that it was far superior to anything I had used previously for aligning pulleys and belts. The accuracy achieved, ease of use and speed of performing the alignment makes this tool a requirement for good belt-drive maintenance. Belts are not aligned unless the shafts are parallel. Getting the shafts parallel can be difficult with strings and straight edges; a laser alignment tool makes the job quick and easy. An additional, more important advantage of the advanced laser belt-alignment tool is that I don’t need anyone to help me align a drive. As I move a machine, the laser striking my targets on the opposing pulley allows me to see when I reach proper alignment—a one-man operation! … BH
For more info, enter 251 at www.LMTfreeinfo.com
26 | UTILITIES MANAGER
VOLUME 5 / NO. 3
Invest in Gold
Electric motors consume 63 percent of all electricity used in U.S. industry. Designed and built to meet or exceed NEMA Premium® efficiency standards, Baldor•Reliance® Super-E® motors run cooler, last longer and cost less every minute they operate.
• Energy Efficient • Unmatched Quality
Fractional to 15,000 Hp, Baldor•Reliance Super-E motors reduce your electricity costs with a return on your investment that’s as good as gold.
• Superior Reliability
• Quickest Delivery Available
©2008 Baldor Electric Company
For more info, enter 69 at www.LMTfreeinfo.com
Rechargeable Leak-Detection Kit
he Spectroline® OPK-340 Industrial Leak-Detection Kit features the cordless, rechargeable Optimax™ 3000 bluelight LED leak-detection flashlight with a 20-ft. inspection range and an LED life of 50,000 hours. The kit provides dyes for both water-based systems and synthetic and petroleum-based fluids, which pinpoint leaks by glowing when illuminated by the flashlight. Dye cleaner, AC and DC chargers and fluorescence-enhancing glasses are included. Spectronics Corp. Westbury, NY
Renewal Service Reformulates Oils & Chemicals
ull Circle Renewal™ from Rock Valley Oil & Chemical Co. processes used oils and chemicals back to their original specification or will reformulate them to meet specific application needs. Because the service reduces inventory and disposal expenses, cost savings compared to purchasing new fluids can reach 60%, according to the company. Rock Valley Oil & Chemical Co. Rockford, IL For more info, enter 32 at www.LMTfreeinfo.com
For more info, enter 30 at www.LMTfreeinfo.com
Fluid & Air Nozzle For High-Temp PD Pumps
Low-Friction Shaft-Sealing Solution
il-Rite’s spray nozzle for the PurgeX® positive displacement pump allows for function near machinery operating at high temperatures. Co-axial tubing delivers both fluid and air to the target area, but keeps the dispensing mechanism at a safe distance from the heat source. The PurgeX is integrated into machinery as a lubrication system, where it can create an adjustable spray without the use of multiple lines and an air regulator. Oil-Rite Corp. Manitowoc, WI
For more info, enter 31 at www.LMTfreeinfo.com
28 | LUBRICATION MANAGEMENT & TECHNOLOGY
he low-friction Waveseal® from SKF features a specially molded radial lip design that forms a sinusoidal, or wave, pattern around the shaft surface of rotating machinery. This type of pattern allows lubricant to be pumped back to the bearings, promoting optimized lubricant retention while sealing out contaminants. The Waveseal is an alternative to conventional double-lip seals. Its design leads to a cooler-running seal and reduced lip pressure and shaft wear.
SKF USA, Inc. Lansdale, PA For more info, enter 33 at www.LMTfreeinfo.com JULY/AUGUST 2010
Automated Protection From Overfilling
S Sliding Vane Pumps With Optional Heating
lackmer® has upgraded the 2.5” and 3” models of its NP Series Sliding Vane Pumps with optional electric heating. The option can be used in place of jacketed heads to provide pump heating for applications that normally require jackets, including the handling of asphalt, bitumen, molasses and lube oils. The company continues to offer jacketed heads for customers needing NP pumps with steam and hot-oil capabilities.
IS-TECH’s Automated Overfill Protection System (AOPS) is designed to prevent dangerous overfill conditions in terminals, tank farms and process vessels. This AOPS is a low-cost, stand-alone, independent, non-PE logic solver suitable for use up to SIL 3. Rated for -30 to +75 C, the AOPS can be installed in the harshest process units near the tank and communicate with the control system via hardwire, Modbus, Ethernet or wireless.
SIS-TECH Houston, TX For more info, enter 36 at www.LMTfreeinfo.com
Blackmer Grand Rapids, MI For more info, enter 34 at www.LMTfreeinfo.com
Petroleum-Product Test Manual
STM International’s latest edition of Manual 1, Significance of Tests for Petroleum Products includes analytical procedures and specifications for a range of petroleum products. The book also cross-references and lists ISO, API, OECD, IP, EPA, DIN and EPS methods, where applicable. Topics include sampling techniques, fuel oxygenates, lubricant base fluids and more. Updates include chapters on biodiesel, synthetic fuel oils and how to determine inorganic species in petroleum products. ASTM International West Conshohocken, PA
For more info, enter 35 at www.LMTfreeinfo.com JULY/AUGUST 2010
For more info, enter 70 at www.LMTfreeinfo.com www.LMTinfo.com | 29
JULY/AUGUST 2010 Volume 11, No. 4 •
ACHIEVING EFFICIENCIES THROUGH PRACTICES & PRODUCTS
A2 Technologies ................................ www.a2technologies.com ....................... 61..................... 2
1300 South Grove Avenue, Suite 105 Barrington, IL 60010 PH 847-382-8100 FX 847-304-8603
ATP Lists ............................................ www.atplists.com .................................... 71................... 30
Baldor Electric Company................. www.baldor.com ..................................... 69................... 27
Des-Case Corporation ..................... www.descase.com/extreme .................... 62..................... 4 Engtech Industries Inc...................... www.engtechindustries.com .................. 67................... 21 Eventure Events - SAP ...................... www.sap-for-utilities.com ...................... 68................... 22 FosteReprints ..................................... www.fostereprints.com........................... 71................... 32 Hy-Pro Filtration .............................. www.hyprofiltration.com....................... 64................... 11 IMEC .................................................. www.imec.ca ............................................ 66................... 18 Inpro/Seal Co..................................... www.inpro-seal.com/CDR ..................... 73..................BC NSK Corporation ............................. www.nskamericas.com ........................... 65................... 15 OILMiser Technology....................... www.oilmiser.com................................... 70................... 29 Royal Purple ...................................... www.royal-purple-industrial.com......... 72................... 31
OH, KY, TN 135 N. Rocky River Road Berea, OH 44017 440-463-0907; Fax 440-891-1254 JOHN DAVIS firstname.lastname@example.org AL, CA, CO, DE, FL, GA, MD, MS, NC, NJ, SC, PA, VA, WV, DC 1750 Holmes Drive West Chester, PA 19382 610-793-3093; Fax 610-793-3094 JIM HANLEY email@example.com
WD-40 ............................................... www.blueworksbrand.com .................... 63..................... 9
Access LMTfreeinfo.com and enter the circle number of the product in which you are interested, or you can search even deeper and link directly to the advertiser’s website.
AR, AZ, NV, NM, OK, UT 3629 N. Sonoran Heights Mesa, AZ 85207 480-396-9585; Fax 480-264-4789 JERRY PRESTON firstname.lastname@example.org
Submissions Policy: Lubrication Management &Technology gladly welcomes submissions. By sending us your submission, unless otherwise negotiated in writing with our editor(s), you grant Applied Technology Publications, Inc., permission, by an irrevocable license, to edit, reproduce, distribute, publish, and adapt your submission in any medium, including via Internet, on multiple occasions. You are, of course, free to publish your submission yourself or to allow others to republish your submission. Submissions will not be returned.
CT, ME, MA, NH, NY, RI, VT, ON, QC P.O. Box 1059 Osterville, MA 02655 508-428-3331; Fax 508-428-2545 VINCENT LeGENDRE email@example.com
Customized, Targeted Lists For Your Marketing Needs
Ellen Sandkam www.atplists.com 1300 S. Grove Ave., Suite 105, Barrington, IL 60010 847-382-8100 x110 / 800-223-3423 x110 firstname.lastname@example.org / email@example.com
For more info, enter 71 at www.LMTfreeinfo.com
LUBRICATION MANAGEMENT & TECHNOLOGY
IL, IN, KS, LA, MI, MN, MO, OR, TX, WA,WI, BC 1300 South Grove Avenue, Suite 105 Barrington, IL 60010 847-382-8100 x108; Fax 847-304-8603 TOM MADDING firstname.lastname@example.org IA, MT, NE, ND, SD, WY, AB, MB, SK 1300 South Grove Avenue, Suite 105 Barrington, IL 60010 847-382-8100 x106; Fax 847-304-8603 ARTHUR L. RICE email@example.com CLASSIFIED ADVERTISING 3629 N. Sonoran Heights Mesa, AZ 85207 480-396-9585; Fax 480-264-4789 JERRY PRESTON firstname.lastname@example.org
“...we extended drain intervals from every 15 days to every three months AND reduced engine repairs and replacements.” Luis Garza Kingfisher Marine Most efforts to improve operating efficiency and lower maintenance costs are labor intensive and involve painful cultural changes. Numerous progressive companies have experienced significant cost savings simply by upgrading lubricants. You can learn how by reading the special report ‘Lowest Total Cost of Ownership’. This special report includes extensive case studies that document real-world savings through lubricant upgrades. Get your FREE copy of the ‘Lowest Total Cost of Ownership’ today by calling 866-447-5173 . . .
For more information on Royal Purple, visit royal-purple-industrial.com today.
For more info, enter 72 at www.LMTfreeinfo.com
Inpro/Seal Company has been in the business of bearing protection for rotating equipment for 32 years and counting. We have been supplying bearing protection for the IEEE-841 motors since they were first introduced. It is only logical that we would expand into the field of motor shaft current mitigation to protect motor bearings. The CDR is:
ROBUST Machined entirely out of solid corrosion resistant
and highly conductive bronze, the CDR/MGS is capable of carrying 12+ continuous amps. They are made exclusively by the Inpro/Seal Company in Rock Island, IL, to ensure consistent quality and same-day shipments when required.
RELIABLE The CDR and MGS (Motor Grounding Seal)
products were developed in our own Research and Experimentation Laboratory and then extensively tested and evaluated by professional motor manufacturing personnel. Our standard guarantee of unconditional customer satisfaction of product performance applies. We stand behind our products.
REALISTIC When you order a CDR or MGS from Inpro/Seal, you are assured of the complete responsibility for technology and performance from a single source. We want to earn the right to be your first choice for complete bearing protection.
For more information visit www.inpro-seal.com/CDR or contact 800-447-0524 for your Inpro/Seal Representative.
For more info, enter 73 at www.LMTfreeinfo.com