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8 11 Design Studio Air Atinder Handa 638238 S1 2014 Tutors: Finn & Victor

12 21 27 33 33 35

46 47 51 57 67 77 89 101 103

A.1 A.2 A.3 A.4 A.5 A.6

B.1 B.2 B.3 B.4 B.5 B.6 B.7 B.8

Introduction Part A

Design Futuring Design Computation Composition / Generation Conclusion Learning Outcomes Appendix - Algorithmic Sketchbook

Part B

Research Field Case Study 1.0 Case Study 2.0 Technique Development Technique Prototypes Technique Proposal Learning Outcomes Algorithmic Secthbook

111 113 121 134 145 149

C.1 C.2 C.1 C.1 C.1

Part C

Design Concept Tectonic Elements Final Model LAGI Brief Learning Outcomes and Objectives


Atinder Handa Currently doing my 3rd Year Bachelors of Environments (Architecture Major) @ The University of Melbourne I completed my 1st Year Bachelors of Design (Architecture) @ Deakin University. My previous studios include Design Studio: Water and Design Studios 1A & 1B (@ Deakin). My most latest project was the boat house in Studio Water. I completed my high school in Melbourne and went straight into Architecture, without knowing what design is. However the experience of designing for me was life changing. I soon understood the importance of design and what can be achieved through the use of good design. I have never used parametric modeling before however I have done computer modeling and renderings in software various software such as Maxwell, Sketchup, Microstation, Revit, Lumion and Rhino, with the addition of Adobe Creative Suite.


I see the future of Architecture in design assistive computer modelling which helps achieve greater sustainability through the use of creative technologies and greater human interaction, in this journal I will be exploring these ideas.

Figure 1: Above is from Computer Aided Modeling @ Deakin, it was remodeling an existing part of the campus and producing almost photo-realistic renderings in Microstation.

The similarities with all the software that I have used so far is that they make it easier to digitally model the building, however they are not part of the design process, they do not assist in solving the design problem. This is what I intend on achieving with Rhino + Grasshopper.

Figure 2: Below is of my latest project done in Studio Water which was modelled in Revit and rendered in Lumion.









Throughout the evolution of architecture throughout the ages, new theories about architecture are developed that precede the existing framework of ideas and knowledge.

In contemporary architecture the view of sustainability and how to approach it is continually evolving. In technological aspects the biggest problem highlights by Fry is “Mobilize (ing) appropriate technologies at the scale needed to make a real difference�1. This in itself makes the future focus of architecture more apparent.

The future of Architectural Theory and sustainability is vitally dependent on computational sustainability. Computational sustainability is the used to help development and implementation of design based solutions for greater sustainability. 1. Tony Fry, Design Futuring, (Oxford: Berg, 2009), pg. 5.


RESPONSIVE FACADE Al Bahar Towers - Aedas Architects

The Al Bahar Tower is a perfect example of computational sustainability and intelligence based design. Certain parts of the towers are wrapped in a dynamic screen that can open up and close as can be seen in Figure 3. The screen is made up off triangle shaped elements which can be seen in Figure 4, they sit 2m from the glass. Figure 5 shows how these elements connect together. The major benefit of this is that it reduces “solar gain by more than 50 percent”2 . This design contributes to the inhabitants by limiting the amount of direct blinding sunlight. However the greatest achievement of this building is its contribution to the field of architecture and computational sustainability. The screen design was achieved using a parametric approach 2 which allowed the designers to manipulate and analyse how

the screen responds to various scenarios such as different sun positions. This would not have been possible if done manually (at least very time consuming), I believe this is exactly the point of using computers to help design. They allow multiple iterations of various designs to quickly analyse the best design solution. This highlights how parametrics as a part of computational sustainability allow for greater sustainability through the use of computers and particularly parametrics to achieve more efficient and effective design solutions. 2.’‘Al Bahar Towers Responsive Facade / Aedas”, Karen Cilento, ArchDaily, last modified 5 September 2012 , http://www.archdaily. com/270592/al-bahar-towers-responsive-facade-aedas/

Figure 3: Wikiarquitectura, Al Bahar Towers 29, 2013, Digital Image,


Figure 5: Wikiarquitectura, Responsive Facada, 2013, Digital Diagram, http://

Figure 4: Wikiarquitectura, Al Bahar Secuencia 2, 2013, Digital Diagram, http://

Figure 6: Construction Week Online, Al Bahar-New, 2013, Digital Image,


PARA ECO HOUSE Tongji University Team

The Para Eco House uses a multi-layer skin approach to make the building sustainable. The first layer is the external energy layer, this skin “consists of lattice frame with parametric components” 3, it is responsive to the wind and sun condition on the outside. As can be seen in Figure 11 the holes in the parametric components are modelled to reflect the change in wind pressure and Figure 9 & 10 show how external layer blocks light on the elevations that don’t require it and allows it where required with the addition of PV units. The middle layer is a thermal layer and Figure 7 shows the internal layer which is visible from the inside. The main difference between this approach towards sustainabilitlty and others is that Tongji University Team fabricated an all-in-one solution for the walls of the house. For example the Al Bahar Towers used a shading screen that was computerised, Aedas Ar-

chitects built their solution on top off an existing building element. The main benefit of this is that it can be easily replicated and implement on various projects, whereas the all-in-one solution for Para Eco House has to be customised for different projects. These are two examples of how different approaches towards sustainability produce two different slightly different outcomes. Personally I think it is important to have solutions that can be implemented on existing buildings as this is the biggest source of current energy use and possible the fastest way to reduce overall building energy usages. 3. “Para Eco House / Tongji University Team”, Alison Furuto, ArchDaily, last modified 5 September 2012, http://www.archdaily. com/289503/para-eco-house-tongji-university-team/.

Figure 7: Jia Dongfang, Wet Land, 2013, Digital Image,


Figure 8: Tongji University Team, Model Render, 2013, Digital Illustration, http://www.archd

Figure 9 & 10: Tongji University Team, Component Analysis Detail, 2013, Digital Diagrams, ae%C2%89%C2%93a%C2%8D/

Figure 11: Tongji University Team, Ventilation Analysis Diagram, 2013, Digital Diagrams,


HUMAN INTERACTION + SUSTAINABILITY “Therefore no partial sustainabilities are possible since all of them are interdependent” 4

-Ivonne Cruz

The previous examples of the Al Bahar Towers and the Para Eco House highlight how parametrics help as a design assistive technology to help design more sustainable buildings purely in relation to their environmental performance. The view held by Cruz is that when we measure sustainability in a certain field it is not representative off the overall sustainability. Other forms of sustainability must be considered within this definition. Human interaction with the built form can be considered one of those sustain abilities. For the example of the pervious precedent projects I would consider the impacts of the parametric efforts on the human interactions between the building and the inhibitors. In the case of the Al Bahar towers the major interaction between the shading screen and the inhabitant is the relief the occupant has when the shading device blocks out annoying sun light and allows great views when there is no direct sunlight. Now it becomes more apparent that these towers are a success in environmental (energy) sustainability however they are not very interactive for they do not spark interest or curiosity from the humans that the building is built for.


The Eco Para House on the other hand sparks curiosity (possibly not intentionally) just from the visual characteristics of the design. The first step of human interaction is the interest phase, however the next step is the emotional manipulation of the person inside the building to get them to relax and feel welcomed and claim. If the design can achieve this while not sacrificing the environmental sustainability. The improvement of the human interaction with the architecture is what i would consider to be one of the principle sustainability measures. This view is supported by Steenson and Scharmen who argue that interaction design can be used to create “Relationships between people, their tools, and their environments” 5. Now the question remains why does human interaction or interaction design matter? Interaction Design is a different approach to what traditional architecture schools teach, the art of form and space and “The most interesting and instructive work is often found at the overlap of different approaches”5. For future projects the best approach would be to incorporate multiple approaches from possibly different fields.

REFERENCE LIST: 1. Fry, Tony. Design Futuring. Oxford: Berg, 2009. 4. Cruz, Ivonne. “Sustainability re-examined through a Human Development perspective”. Revista Internacional Sostenibilidad, Tecnología y Humanismo 2 (N.A Month 2007). 5. “Architecture needs to interact”, Molly Wright Steenson & Fred Scharmen, Domus, last modified 22 June 2011,





COMPUTING + DESIGN Impact of Computing on Modern day Architecture As discussed in the readings and tutorial the biggest impact of computers on the design process is the ability to produces multiple iterations of the design very quickly1. On top of this computing allows for unexpected outcomes, which simply can not be achieved through manual design. The variation in types of geometries that designers can explore (play) with is almost limitless due to the use of modern modeling technologies such as NURBS. The transition from parametric lead to the use of generative parametric modelling1. This allowed the introduction of scripting to the design scene. Scripting allows the designer to produce designs that are obedient to certain rules also known as algorithms. For example the Water Cube (Figure 12) and the Birds Nest (Figure 13) both exhibit properties of computational design, the repetitive and variable nature of the skins is only con-


ceivable through the use of parametric design. Newer designs such as the Atlanta Falcons Concept of a Stadium (Figure 14) takes the computational approach a step further by integrating responsive materials into the design. A tensile fabric “allowing (s) the opening to dynamically morph depending on the event�2, this is an example of how computing is allowing the architect to explore the realm of material creativity. New forms of software allow the designer to integrate multiple evidence sources to the model, a perfect example of this was the Para Eco House (A.1) the design team modelled the wind characteristics of the site and were able to design a facade responsive to those characteristics. Many other forms of data could be used, for example a building that changes various characteristics such as lighting and temperature in response to how people are feeling when they are inside through facial analysis (cam).

Figure 14: HKS, Falcons Stadium, 2013 , Digital Rendering,

Figure 12: Ole Sorensen, The Water Cube, 2012 , Digital Photograph,


Figure 13: Edwin Lee, The Water Cube, 2008 , Digital Photograph,

HUMAN INTERACTION + COMPUTING The other approach that was not considered in the previous examples was where the computation is not used during the design process, but rather the during the lifespan of the design. An example of this is “Connection” shown in Figure 15 & 16, it is an light installation that was added to a bridge. It adapts to the environment around it by changing colors to that which reflect the human movement and geometry at that specific time. As Tan mentioned “There are two kinds of input required (for building) to recognise its environment”3. Active inputs require the participants to manually adjust the building, whereas Passive inputs are when “the system

(building) senses the participants behavior and collects data through the use of sensors”3. This form of computing and human interaction can almost be considered Design Assistive, the designer can use algorithms in the interactive system within the building to control how the building reacts to the participants rather just be static and stuck in time. This shift will allow buildings to become more dynamic by using design computation while the building is active. 3. LiHuang Linus Tan, “Interactive Architecture” (Masters., University of Melbourne, 2012), pg. 25.

Figure 16: Open Buildings, Connection, 2011 , Digital Photograph,


Figure 15: Open Buildings, Connection, 2011 , Digital Photograph,

REFERENCE LIST: 1. Oxman, Rivka & Robert. Theories of the Digital in Architecture, London: Routledge Taylor & Francis Group, N.A Year. 2. HKS, ‘Falcons Concept’, HKSLine, (2013), <> [accessed 22 March 2014] 3. Tan, LiHuang Linus, “Interactive Architecture”. Masters., University of Melbourne, 2012.






PARAMETRICS + ANALYSIS Composition / Generative

Figure 18 (next page) shows an example of what can be achieved by using parametric modelling and analysis. This is an example of a design modelled in GrassHopper and the analysis conducted in AutoDesk Ecotect. The analysis of “Incident Analysis” & “Shading Percentage”1 produces data that can be used to apply various modifications to the parametric model such as offsets within the skin to reflect the various heating and cooling spots on the model. The shift seen here is that the designer is relying on the data provided through analysis to generate the model itself. Rather than the designer understanding the analysis and then inputting that information into the model through their manual modelling skills, the designer is directly implementing that data in the model.


This highlights the negative impacts of generative design. This process of design can be limiting in terms of the overall possibilities , by this I mean that once the designer has started on a parametric model he turn this focus to fine-tuning or playing with that model, rather than start a fresh model. In terms of environmental sustainability the generative approach produces more effective and efficient designs that are more responsive in more ways to the individual site. A perfect example of this is the Gherkin as Freiberger examples “The shafts the wedges create spiral up the building and interact optimally with the air currents caused by the building’s outward shape”3. This is the next level up from just maximizing natural air ventilation and influx of natural sunlight.

One of the finalists for the Bentley Generative Design Competition was One Blackfriars Rd by Ian Simpson Architects (Figure 17). The development of the design was achieved through the use of various software such as Bentley Architecture and Generative Components. Parametrics were used for modeling the “Form and develop internal spaces, structural column positions, glazing schemes, and façade geometry”2.

When we compare this generative approach to composition, we mainly see that generative is better for environmental sustainability however it can be questionable when designing for human interaction. (To be continued on next page...)

The major advantages of generative parametric modeling highlighted by these projects is that they allow the design to be more responsive to the various design ideas and site analysis such as wind or sun modeling. On top of this parametrics allows faster scripting of the design if the design concept is very clear in the designers head.

2. “Innovation in Generative Design”, Bentley, last modi-

1. “Parametric Skins”, Hassan Ragab, Behance, last modified N.A,

fied N.A, Be+Inspired+Awards+Event/generative+design.htm. 3. “Perfect buildings: the maths of modern architecture”, Marianne Freiberger, Plus, last modified 1 March 2007, content/perfect-buildings-maths-modern-architecture

COMPOSITION / GENERATION Figure 17: Bentley, FInalist, N.A Year , Digital Rendering,


HUMAN INTERACTION + GENERATIVE The only open question in regards to generative design and the impact on design for human interaction is that does the implication of computers within the design environment take away something of a personal touch with the design that can be noticed by human that experience the design. Even though we can create (what we think are) more responsive designs in relation to our understand-


ing of human interaction, the question is do we lose something that is not clear to us. Taking a direct review of composition and generative, it appears that generative produces more responsive designs. This question will be explored further into my research on design assistive modelling and its impacts on sustainability and human interaction.

Figure 18: Hassan Ragab, Examples & Exercises, N.A Year , Digital diagrams,






CONCLUSION Part A was pretty much understanding the impact (good and bad) of the introduction of computers, more specifically of parametric modelling into the design process. Then using this understanding to consider how we would approach our design tasks. My intended design approach is to come up with something using generative design that is responsive to the site. However this approach will take it a step further by integrating creative approaches to sustainability and integrate this with the human interaction with the building and improving the overall connection with sustainability and my design idea. The main benefit of this approach will be that people will become more comfortable with the use of sustainable technologies that are integrated with the design of the building. Firstly this will help increase the footprint of sustainable architecture and secondly it will improve the publicâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s appreciation of sustainable technologies and get them to use less energy.

LEARNING OUTCOMES The main gain to my knowledge was the understanding of how to use grasshopper to produce my complex designs. I have always been wondering how I could design buildings that were heavily articulated using site data such as foot traffic, wind patterns, shading patterns and noise patterns. Now I know how I can achieve that. If I had access to this knowledge and software in the previous studios, well... I would have done really good by producing designs that were more design responsive then spending all my time laboring away with drawings and figuring out the form and spaces.







This week the task was to create some sort of repetative structure, I didnt go with a horizontal but circular structure.



This is a low lying shelter.




This is a curved geometry that is polar arrayed and the lines are split into parts and positioned with spheres




This is random stuff done in GrassHopper and Rhino + Maxwell





This is random stuff done in GrassHopper and Rhino + Maxwell








Sectioning is a fabrication/designing method (process) used for 3d Models production. Instead of producing the surface, it uses “a series of profiles while following the line of the edges of the surface geometry. It is a way to produce both: surface and structure.”1, it has two major fabrication methods waffling and contouring. The key for this material system is that it allows the surface and structure to be one, however there are design implication from this.

Waffling (Figure 20) uses a 2 directional approach where there are profiles running in two directions and Countering is one directional because it uses profiles running in one direction. In terms of fabrication and structural stability the waffle structure inter-connect using pre-fabricated slits in the profiles. Contouring (Figure 19) is more detailed in terms of its representation of the 3d form, however for fabrication it requires more profiles that can be time consuming and costly to produce. It represents opportunities that allow for more detailed manipulation of the form, which can mean parametric implementation on a smaller scale. The problem in terms of constructability is connecting the profiles and getting them to stand without using connections at the edge of the profiles to achieve the full effect. Figure 21 & 22 show part of OneMain Street project, these small details on the overall frame highlights how contouring represents a form of opportunity and limitation for form fabrication. The major variables that can alter the appearance or the feeling of the form is the profile depth and the spacing of the profile. The OneMain Street project highlights one example of a high resolution contouring production of a 3d form which was achieved by decreasing the profile spacing and depth. While the Między Zębami bistro (Figure 23) shows an example of a low resolution waffle production of a 3d form, this is because in the bistro the form is not as apparent because of


the large spacing between the 2 directional profiles. This is an example of how the fabrication method can influence the final design, for low-resolution models the major design experience becomes the fabrication itself rather than the form that the fabrication as meant to exhibit.

“Accepting informed manufacturing potentialities is a principal strategy in realizing innovative contemporary architectural design intentions.” 2 -Kolarevic & Klinger Kolarevic & Klinger’s ideals of integrating manufacturing within the design process thus creating informed manufacturing is as example of how possibilities and constraints of sectioning must be considered when designing using this technique. A potential design implication could be the effect of looking into the profile, for example when a person looks directly into the profile they can see through, so the design has to incorporate this by making the these parts more visually responsive. 1. “Sectioning,” Klaus Teltenkötter, FH MAINZ University of Applied Science, last modified 14 April 2014, http://de.fh-mainz. de/design-strategies/principles/sectioning/. 2. Branko Kolarevic and Kevin R. Klinger, Manufacturing Material Effects: Rethinking Design and Making in Architecture, (New York; London: Routledge, 2008), 7.

FIGURE 23: Między Zębami bistro






REFERENCE LIST: 1. “Sectioning,” Klaus Teltenkötter, FH MAINZ University of Applied Science, last modified 14 April 2014, http:// 2. Kolarevic, Branko, and Kevin R. Klinger, eds. Manufacturing Material Effects: Rethinking Design and Making in Architecture. New York; London: Routledge, 2008.

FIGURES: 19. Ragad, Hassan Contouring, 2012, Digital Image,, (accessed 14 April 2014) 20. Ragad, Hassan Waffling, 2012, Digital Image,, (accessed 14 April 2014) 21. Admin One Main Street 2012, Digital Image, onemain/, (accessed 14 April 2014) 22. Admin One Main Street 2012, Digital Image, onemain/, (accessed 14 April 2014) 23. arch20 Między Zębami bistro 2012, Digital Image, h, (accessed 14 April 2014)







Img Sampler


2 Width

10 Frames

4 Width

21 Frames

6 Width

40 Frames

13 Width

70 Frames

Img Change

Img Change

Img Change This species tries exploring the possibilities of the image by exploring with a range of images with different contrasts and layouts.


This exploration takes the previous species and explores the effect of varying the profiles / frame widths.

This exploration considers the effect of various number of frames on the outcome of the iteration.




Curve Frame

Path Change

Vertical y-direction

90 Angle

Contour Change

Vertical x-direction

Horizontal Line

Linear On 3D

Lower Frames


Path Change

Vertical Circular

Here we see the impact of playing with the frame direction.

This species explores the effect of changing the frame curves.

* The words “Profile” & “Frame” are used interchangeably in this writing

The effects of varying the profile rotation shows an interesting impact on the overall interpretation of the form.




Form Articulation


Form Exploration


Curvature Frame Line

Increased Profiles / Angle

This species plays with the form and the curvature of the frame line.



Circle + Increased Resolution

This was a trial of patterning to see if it could be used to provide visual images on the edge profile

Analysis Species A was great for quickly producing interesting iterations that produced curves that were eye friendly, however we instantly realised the limitation when we couldnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t customise individual parts with high detail. Thatâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s why for B we started with a customized form and began exploring the effect of profile width. After completion we realised it was important that the width of the profile allowed the profile to exhibit properties that made it part of the set that together projected the technically invisible form. For example what we found for the last iterations was that the profile became its own form, it simply became too big attract visual attraction as a profile, but rather an object. For species C we decided to try a form from species A because it was more smooth and perfect for testing the effect of the number of frames on the visual resolution. The conclusion was that for forms that exhibit more linear pattens less Frames are required to clearly express the form and more frames for curvy forms. Species D was an attempt to breakaway from the linearity of the previous species by playing with the direction of the frames / profiles. What we discovered was that we produced two very familiar iterations, by putting the frame at 90 degrees we got a waffle sectioning model and by putting it vertically we got a contouring model, similar to a site model. The other iterations showed how a change in the direction of the profiles can create a possible surprise for the viewer.

SELECTION CRITERIA Species E was trying to explore the effect of varying the relationship between the profiles in the horizontal axis. This was part of an ongoing overall movement away from linear elements within sectioning. The results were very different to previous species, they created interesting visual appeal, but I personally couldnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t find any logical usage yet. Species F was exploring one last element with sectioning we though we could manipulate, that was rotation. After the completion we realised the potential of using profile rotation to block the sun at different times of the day. G was exploration of Form and Curvature, the idea was to see the implementation of section on a 3d shape and see what the results are. Interestingly it produced the shape perfectly but the questions that emerge are the connections that will hold it in place.

1. Contribute to human sensory as a hint to allure urban flow. -In order for the design to be successful it has to attract people to the site, we will try to achieve this through the use of sensory stimulation. 2. Initiate curiosity in terms of forms and angles that allow people to meet. -The integration of meeting spaces and the direction to meeting spaces is vital to provide a comfortable environment for the public. 3. Ability to integrate sustainable energy generation technologies into the design. 4. Parametrically responsive to environmental conditions and/or variables. -The design must use aspects of parametrics to create a more sustainable design, on top of integrating sustainability energy generation technologies. 5. Constructability -This includes aspects such as, Production Cost, Service Costs, Logistics, Manufacturing, Life Span, ease of construction, assembly and structural integrity.


I consider this iteration to be one of the most successful because it highlights how decisions have to be made about the desired outcome and the constructability. In this particular example the decision to go with 21 frames was weighted by the material and labour cost. Overall it gives us a clue to how we might have to approach some iterations in terms of their resolution and cost. Architecturally in its currently orientation it could be used to create furniture such as seating and tables. In terms of constructability it is pretty straight forward, the profiles are fabricated off-site in a factory and then assembled on site using various connection techniques.


E2 This iteration compared to the others in its species stands out because it highlights a possible effect that can be exploited to achieve great architectural impact. The profiles are non-linear and open the possibility of curving them to guide the public around the site. In order to achieve an architecturally acceptable design this iteration would have to be explored further to get the profiles to create paths for people to walk through. In terms of constructability it is fairly simple and straight forward and can use similar construction details as Iteration C2. There exists a possibility to integrate patterning into this design with the profiles.

F1 The main application for this iteration that we realised after completing this species was the possibility of using the profiles as shading devices that can rotate. The idea goes that when placed upright the profiles act as a sectioning form definition just like the other iterations, however if mechanically rotated 90 degrees either side they can control the amount of sunlight that passes through. In order to achieve this the mechanical system has to explored parametrically. Instead of just using a electric powered system, we can use a manual handle that children/people can rotate to rotate the profiles and thus create a more interactive design.

G1 This iteration highlights the possibility of using sectioning in a purely 3d form that does not have a flat side. Architecturally it opened the possibility of using this material system to create forms that were not restricted to one plane, such as the ground. However this presents another challenge structurally. Getting the panels to hold up from the ground up. In this particular example the effect achieved is making the people that walk through the form feel like they are almost floating in the air because the see-through nature of the profiles.





STRUCTURAL OSCILLATIONS Location: Venice Date: Built 2007 - 2008 Contributors: Gramazio & Kohler, Architecture and Digital Fabrication, ETH Zurich This project was part of the exhibition “Explorations” which was for the 11th Venice Architectural Biennale. It is a 100m long continues ribbon brick wall. The designers believe “the wall defines an involuted central space and an interstitial space beyond” 1. The designers intent was to provide a wall that “emphasized the plastic malleability of the wall”1 by using rotating blocks, this was to provide contrast with the materiality of the bricks.

Personally the design is very successful in making the wall break away from the traditional architectural application and properties of a wall. Figure 24 & 25 highlights the fluidity of the wall as compared to the traditional flat wall. Figure 26 shows a close detail of the how the block are rotated and together form the fluidity of the wall. In terms of constructability Figure 27 shows the method of construction using a robot on site.

1. “Structural Oscillations, Venice, 2007-2008” NA, D FAB ARCH, last modified 27 April 2014, forschung/142.html

FIGURE 24: Oscillation Wall

FIGURE 26: Detail


FIGURE 25: Wall Around Corner

FIGURE 27: Manufacturing Robot






1. The base curve of the wall is established. 2. The base curve is copied in the z-axis 3. The two curves are lofted to create the basic surface of the wall. 4. To achieve the counter-curvature on the top layer the top curve is rotated 180.


5. A thickness is added to this surface to create the solid wall. 6. Using parametric blocks that rotate to the vectors of the surface at each point, the model tries to mimic the wall.

The Outcome

The major differences between the final outcome and the parametric recreation is the detail and accuracy of the blocks. If you look closely there are large gaps between the blocks, this is because it was hard for us to parametrically calculate these vectors.


The similarities were that we got the overall shape of the wall right by rotating the top curve. The form and method of splitting the bricks are right. I would like to develop this further by exploring the outcome of replacing the block with other forms such as cylinders and trying to expand the structural limitation of this model by creating larger horizontal curves.



Location: Jeonnong-dong, Dongdaemun-gu, Seoul, South Korea Date: 2012 Design Team: UTAA, Architectural Students of the University of Seoul (Lee Sang-Myeong, Ha Ki-Seong, Baek Jong-Ho) This project was a remodelling of an existing parking lot at the University of Seoul. The ideas was to “replace an empty area with a newly designed rest ‘hole’ that would serve as a place for people to enjoy themselves in relaxation” 2. As explained on ArchDaily the wooden panels, parametrically known as sectioning were used to hide the building columns and “further improve the atmosphere by implementing a more fluid and spacious design”2. Interestingly they mention the spacing of the panels means it

opens the space up for more light, sound and air. Figure 29 & 31 show the interior which is heavily reminiscent of the architectural intention of making the space more fluid and spacious by manipulating the boundary of the space. It also feels more like a space that can be enjoyed and still feel relaxing. Figure 28 & 30 show the exterior of the building, which tries to slow with the rest of the building externally.

2. “Rest Hole in the University of Seoul / UTAA” NA, ArchDaily, last modified 24 October 2013,

FIGURE 28: Street View

FIGURE 30: Building Connection


FIGURE 29: Interior

FIGURE 31: At Night



3 Process

1. Establish the external boundary of the space. 2. Create the internal space geometry. 3. Subtract the spaces to produce the 3d shape of the final sections. 4. Add sections to this shape and introduce the circle for enterance.


5. The final sections.

The Outcome

The major differences between the final outcome and the parametric recreation are the accuracy of the 3d form and the number of profiles. The number of profiles were reduced in the model to make it more visually readable. The similarities are the overall effect of sectioning. The model exhibits the fluid internal space that the architect wanted to achieve.


For further development the angle of the profiles could be explored, for example they could explore the impact of rotating the profiles by 45 degrees or twisting the profiles to limit the view through the profiles.


READING BETWEEN THE LINES Location: Looz, Limburg, Belgium Date: 2011 Architect: Gijs Van Vaerenbergh Gijs Van Varenberg is a collaboration between Pieterjan Gijs and Arnout Van Vaerenbergh. “Reading between the lines” is a transparent object of art. It is composed of “30 tons of steel and 2000 columns” 3. The church it self does not have specific purpose but to rather visually interest the cyclists riding by. Unlike the previous project this project is purely artistic in my opinion.

As highlighted by ArchDaily the project is intended to provide the classical function of a church, its intended to provide a visual attraction. Figure 32 & 35 show perspectives of building which illustrate it success at standing out from the traditional form of a building and particularly the background buildings. Figure 33 & 34 show detailed elements of the church as how it stands.

3. “Reading Between the Lines / Gijs Van Vaerenbergh” NA, ArchDaily, last modified 27 November 2013, http://www.archdaily. com/298693/reading-between-the-lines-gijs-van-vaerenbergh/

FIGURE 32: Side View

FIGURE 33: Close Detail

FIGURE 34: Enterance

FIGURE 35: Interior




1. Create the form of the church.



2. Generate the horizontal sections. 3. Create a scaled form of the church within the sections. 4. Subtract the scaled form, from the sections. 5. Insert the small columns.

The Outcome


The differences between the final outcome and the parametric recreation is mainly the placement of the columns, as there was no patterns detected in the actual project. Also the profiles are sorter in some areas to reflect the feeling of a window, which were recreated in the parametric model. The overall geometry and scale is correct, however the number of profiles was reduced to make the diagrams easy to read visually. For further development deforming the final structure could produce interesting results. For example the could appear to be melted like cheese on one side by parametric deformation that can be fabricated accurately as well.



HOLOCAUST MEMORIAL Location: Berlin Date: 1999 - 2005 Architect: Peter Eisenman The Holocaust Memorial is a memorial to the Jews lost in WW2. Figure 38 shows how the rectangular boxes vary in height through out the memorial. It was and still is surrounded by controversy. The overall purpose of the memorial is to get people “to have a feeling of being in the present and an experience that they had never had before.”4

From Figure 36 - 39, I can only estimate that it is successful in providing an individual experience for the public at the site, however a project like this can only be explained on site. Interestingly I ect was

don’t think parametrically



4. “ SPIEGEL Interview with Holocaust Monument Architect Peter Eisenman: “How Long Does One Feel Guilty?”” Charles Hawley and Natalie Tenberg, Spiegel Online, last modified 9 May 2005,

FIGURE 36: Blocks

FIGURE 37: The Tree

FIGURE 38: Site View

FIGURE 39: Standing






1. Establish the curve lines. 2. Loft curves to generate 3d surface. 3. Generate Grid. 4. Place rectangles at grid points. 5. Extrude Rectangles to the distance of the projected points on the 3d surface.

The Outcome

The differences between the final outcome and the parametric recreation is the accuracy of the recreation as the exact heights of the rectangles were not know. The attempt was a model that was curvy enough to represent the memorial. Also the number of rectangles and the spacing and size is inaccurate.


The overall feel of the recreated is fairly similar and the relationship in terms of the rectangle height and spacing is close but not exact. For the ing

further development I would shape of the rectangle and try triangles, pentagons and possibly

change explorpanels.




1. “Structural Oscillations, Venice, 2007-2008” NA, D FAB ARCH, last modified 27 April 2014, http://www.dfab. 2. “Rest Hole in the University of Seoul / UTAA” NA, ArchDaily, last modified 24 october 2013, 3. “Reading Between the Lines / Gijs Van Vaerenbergh” NA, ArchDaily, last modified 27 november 2013, http:// 4. “ SPIEGEL Interview with Holocaust Monument Architect Peter Eisenman: “How Long Does One Feel Guilty?”” Charles Hawley and Natalie Tenberg, Spiegel Online, last modified 9 May 2005,


24. Gramazio & Kohler, ETH Zurich Oscillation Wall, 2008, Digital Image, D FAB ARCH. hhttp://www.dfab.arch., (accessed 27 April 2014) 25. Gramazio & Kohler, ETH Zurich Wall Around Corner, 2008, Digital Image, D FAB ARCH. hhttp://www.dfab., (accessed 27 April 2014) 26. Gramazio & Kohler, ETH Zurich Detail, 2008, Digital Image, D FAB ARCH. h web/e/forschung/142.html, (accessed 27 April 2014) 27. Gramazio & Kohler, ETH Zurich Manufacturing Robot, 2008, Digital Image, D FAB ARCH. hhttp://www.dfab., (accessed 27 April 2014) 28. Kim Yong-soon Street View, 2013, Digital Image, ArchDaily., (accessed 27 April 2014) 29. UTAA Interior, 2013, Digital Image, ArchDaily., (accessed 27 April 2014) 30. Jin Hyo-suk Building Connection, 2013, Digital Image, ArchDaily., (accessed 27 April 2014) 31. UTAA At Night, 2013, Digital Image, ArchDaily., (accessed 27 April 2014) 32. Filip Dujardin Side View, 2012, Digital Image, ArchDaily., (accessed 27 April 2014) 33. Filip Dujardin Close Detail, 2012, Digital Image, ArchDaily., (accessed 27 April 2014) 34. Filip Dujardin Enterance, 2012, Digital Image, ArchDaily., (accessed 27 April 2014) 35. Filip Dujardin Interior, 2012, Digital Image, ArchDaily., (accessed 27 April 2014) 36. Metoc Blocks, 2006, Digital Image, Wikipedia., (accessed 27 April 2014) 37. Jorge1767 The Tree, 2006, Digital Image, Wikipedia. tree.jpg, (accessed 27 April 2014) 38. de:Benutzer:Schreibkraft Site View, 2005, Digital Image, Wikipedia. File:HolocaustMahnmalLuft.jpg, (accessed 27 April 2014) 39. Chaosdna Standing, 2007, Digital Image, Wikipedia., (accessed 27 April 2014)





This species is developed from Peter Eisenmans Holocaust Memorial. It plays with sifting and shapes.



This development is the mixture of species A and the integration of magnetic fields.


This exploration is derived from Species A and the Phyllotaxies Curves.


This Species is derived from Gijs Van Vaerenbergh’s “Reading between the lines Project”.


This species explores the outcome of Species D Further.

* The words “Profile” & “Frame” are used interchangably in this writting


This the

species is inspired from project “Rest Hole”.



This species was started with an idea about Algi and an Stimulating Experience



Exploring the wall for the last iteration of Species H, looking into extrusion using img sampler.


Explores the ing pipes

effect with

of usextrusion.



Species H was started from the last iteration in G where we were trying to explore the form of the wall on one side. Most of the species H-K are not easily constructable, however they were used as a tool to explore the wall aspect of the last iteration for species G.

Changing orientation of pipes from previous species change layout.

Derived the idea of wind chimes and used form from previous species img sampler.



The idea behind this iteration was the exploration of magnetic fields and how they can used to guide people. This fulfilled one of the selection criteria perfectly â&#x20AC;&#x153;Intiate curiosity in terms of forms and angles that allow people to meetâ&#x20AC;?. Using various positive and negative charges at different points the panels generated have the effect of guiding the person walking through this field of panels to the points. At this point in the exploration there is no way to influence the direction of flow. This could potentially be used to guide public to central points that can be social hubs to increase interaction between the public.

72 B4


This is another iteration that tries to influence the flow and interaction of people between each other. This exploration tries to get the people walking through to come close to each other by reducing the walkway width and thus almost forcing them to squeeze. Allowing close intimacy without the initiation from one side. Another aspect of this iteration is not just the manipulation in the horizontal axis, but it also tries to play around with the vertical axis. The hope for this was to make people feel like they are in a different place such as a cliff or in between to rock cliffs.


The attempt here to gain a greater understanding of how to create and manipulate structural elements with in the parametric environment. The reason for highlighting this iteration was the parametric structural components that are holding the structure in place. Many aspects were taken into consideration. The angles are welded in the factory with precut holes and the panels are cut in the factory with the holes for the bolt as well. These pieces are brought to the site and assembled with the need of one lift. The main advantage notice of parametric design was the ability to automatically generate the details and specifications for each component.





This species was derived from the Project â&#x20AC;&#x153;Rest Holeâ&#x20AC;?. The idea evolved around using sectioning to create furniture and a relaxing environment for the public. What we ended up achieving was an open public space that mimicked the characteristics of a hill. Here people can sit and lie down comfortably. The form of this place was sculpted to embed use characteristics, such as a large wall for a projector screen that can host movie nights and a presentation / speech area.




G4 was probably the most evolved and implementable iteration out of the set. The main reason being it is a system rather than just an iteration. Just like other systems it can adapt and change to various usages. It consists of two vertical blocks that can almost be considered walls. One side is comprised of algi panels that has some panels missing to allow a visual connection to the other side and also allow wind to flow through. Integrated into this is the WIFI System, it is basically lights that activate as soon as a device with a WiFi signal comes close and deactivate once it goes out of range. This can be used to inform other people of the presence of someone else and pos-

sible provoke some social interest. The wall on the other side consists of a waffle sectioning system that can be deformed into 3d space. The blocks in between the profiles allow for wind and visual connection while hosting a plant that can be used to provide power for charging phones. The two walls can join to create one system and split to be used as individual systems.


G4 75






This was the first prototype that we produced. It was laser cut using 1.8mm box board and super glued to the base. It took a long time to produce this model because we had to manually make2d and individually get the profile outline. It was to see the effect of the thickness and number of profiles. Using various photography techniques we were able to understand the effects we could create using various lights. These effects could be used to produce a variation that is responsive to the lighting changes at the site.



This prototype is off the magnetic circulation. The walls are made of balsa and the base is foamcore. The balsa provides sufficient width to glue to the base. In real life the thickness could be smaller as the base can reinforced into the ground.


The pieces were not fabricated via laser as each piece was the same length and the base was printed and marked onto the foam core.




This was an interesting experiment. The form was created in a way that it was floating in the air without support. So when we fabricated we realised the unexpected potential. Placing it in different orientations we could get different structures that could represent different things. We stuffed up one part, we didnt laser the spacing of the pieces into the connection bar and that is why we had to use additional balsa of equal length to get the correct spacing.







After fabricating the first part of this prototype we decided to advance to phase 2. This model was a recreation of a digital model. Due to our inability to get 3d printing in time we had to manually cut the corner angles. The steel pieces are painted with silver to represent their built material. After some testing the model turned out to be rather strong.


REFLECTION Prototypes A and B were our first run at the laser cutter, they gave us an idea on how accurate they can be how important it is for the specification to be exact. For Prototype B we experienced slight turbulence when trying to glue the profiles to the support beam. We didn’t put any marking on the beam to locate the exact position of the profiles and we couldn’t get them to be equally spaced. So we had to manually cut 5mm balsa pieces to separate the profiles. Prototype A was fairly simple and didn’t cause any trouble. Prototype C was an attempt to explore a simpler method of construction. Paper folding. Although this helped realize the design it was not sufficient to represent the actual construction method and material. Prototype E was the most detailed and realistic one we have developed so far. It was parametrically developed after prototype C because we were running prototyping and development simultaneously. This prototype takes into consideration the pre-fabrication, delivery and assembly of the prototype. The problem we faced with it was that some angles were too small and we couldn’t fit the screws in, so we had to add extra nut on the top side of the bolt. Parametrically the response was to limit the lowest angle usage. We started thinking about where we would need to use steel because of greater loading






LAGI project site

Ferry route

Factories, industrial facilities

River bank promenade

Path & Circulation

Public Area - Kastellet Park

Carpark Jetty location

Nearby Green space Residential area

The Site In considering the design proposal it was essential we look at the site, we noticed the good views from the site were towards the South-West facing the other side of the river and the boat buildings on the south side. Access to the site is via two entries on the north-east and southeast corners of the site. Sun Study The sun study was particularly interesting as it showed the limited timing of the sun. Due to the higher latitude of Copenhagen the sun is very limited. This would influence the design heavily as we require sunlight for our energy generation technology. Wind Rose I believe the wind will only influence our design if we decide to take the design very high or decide to use it for energy generation.


DESIGN PROPOSAL Design Statement

Through attraction of sensory experience, social contact is increased due to control in circulation. Achieve greater sustainability through integration of energy generation ideas. Renewable Energy Strategy



The selected source of energy for our project is Algae Biofuel. Figure 40 shows the cycle of Algae and the benefits. It can be collected or harvested, in our case it is going to be harvested (grown). From this oil is extracted and refined to be used in existing technology and the biomass left over from the process can be burned in factories for energy generation. Figure 41 shows the viability of Algae BioFuel Generation. In terms of implimentaiton Algae can be grown at the site in panels, the design incorporates this and allows maximum sunlight exposure to achieve the best results. Figure 42 shows how this system can be implemented. FIGURE 42: BIOREACTOR SYSTEM


This is Moss that can generate electricity from the simple photosynthises reaction in plants. In its current state it is not very viable to produce energy on a large scale, however it can power small devices. This technology could possibly be implimented in the design as a prospect for the future.


Sensory Attraction - LED Visual Light + WiFi

The WiFi is a network of LED lights that each have a signal receiver that check the signal strength of any wifi devices nearby. As soon as a signal is detected that light flicks on softly, as the signal get stronger (the person is walking closer) the lights gets brighter and it fades and the signal gets weaker. These examples show various implimentaions of this device, it can be integrated into the Algae panel system or have a standalone system. The idea of this Sensory Attraction is to make the design feel alive and responsive to the dynamic changes on site. This makes the people feel like there is more to this place then they can see because this is unexpected, it creates a stronger connection to the site for the public.

The wifi also allows the people to be aware of the other people around the site and create curiosity. Enhancing the overall experience at the site.


Sensory Attraction - Visual Puncturation

This technique was used to create a visual connection between the wall. We hope achieve greater curiosity from the public when they walk and are waitng to see what happens when they walk by the next hole. On top of this the wind can pass through these holes and the people on either side can feel this. This is something you dont get with a traditional flat wall.

Sensory Attraction - Wind Chimes

Sensory Attraction - Visual Puncturation


The wind chimes are simple chimes that produce sound when moved by the wind. It will add to the overall sensory experience. They will be implimented on selected areas where there view could possibly be concealed and when somewhere hears the sound they will have to look for the source.

Spatial Language- Space to Force Interaction The distance of the walk ways can be manipulated to force the people to react to differences, for example smaller gaps will force people to come close together to squese through and possibly increase their speed. Large/wide openings will allows people to travel in a more claim nature. Using this tool the journey of the public can be controled and manipulated to povide a customised experience.

Spatial Language- Travelling through Rhymatic Journey This tool allows the feeling of the person to be manipulated. Using a visual approach the journey could be made relaxing or exciting. The only problem with this tool is that it can be interperted negativly by some people and positivly by other and its very easy to get the implimentation confused.

Spatial Language- Sharing Landscapy Seating This tool provides great functional features such as a surface that can be used to sit on lie down. But the concept goes deeper, because by creating a hill like 3d surface, when the person uses it reminds him of a hill or curvy ground. This creates a greater connection with nature and makes the person more relaxed.

Spatial Language- Space for Meeting / Activity The space for meeting component acts to draw people to one center and get them to interact with each other possibly through interaction with the site. Example of this would be an open cinima where different people can come and watch a movie and make friends.



This walking panels generate about 7W for each foot step, we plan on implimenting it on all the most walkable areas of the site that are not covered by vegetation.





Emergence is the theory that tries to explore the idea that there are simple rules behind the complex nature of many elements in nature. Some examples include the direction and alignment of a school of fish and the colision avoidance in a flock of birds. Craig Reynolds created a computer model that simulated the behaviour of a flock of birds. His conclusion was that there are “three simple steering behaviors which describe how an individual boid maneuvers based on the positions and velocities its nearby flockmates”1. These behaviours are Alignment (Figure 44), Cohesion (Figure 45) and Seperation (46). At any given time each element in the system will deicide which direction they want to move based on these conditions and in relations to their surrounding biods. There are other models for simulating emergent behaviour but agent based flocking is the most re-


lavent to achieve

the desired effect in this project.

The Plug-In Locust is able to simulate Flocking behaviour using a number of variables, around this page are some of the early explorations. This plugin produces a line of the flight path of each agent. We plan on implimenting this within the project by using the external shape of the flight path as the boundary lines of certain spaces within the design and find a relationship to connect the whole design. We hope that by manipulating the variables in Locust we can produce the simulation of a flock which are more oriented towards explorations, we can then generate a shape in locust that will exhibit this characteristcs on the people that are in the design. 1. “Boids tember

Craig Reynolds, 2001,

red£d, last modified 6 Sep


Starting Points Behaviours Active Seek Steer Force: 100 Wander Steer Force: 50 Erratic Scale: 0.5


Starting Points Behaviours Active Seek Steer Force: 20 Wander Steer Force: 20 Erratic Scale: 0.25

Starting Points Behaviours Active Seek Steer Force: 20 Wander Steer Force: 100 Erratic Scale: 0.5

Starting Points Behaviours Active Seek Steer Force: 20 Wander Steer Force: 20 Erratic Scale: 0.25

Starting Points Behaviours Active Seek Steer Force: 20 Wander Steer Force: 100 Erratic Scale: 0.75



1. “Boids ” Craig Reynolds, red£d, last modified 6 September 2001,


40. NA Algae BioFuel Cycle, NA, Digital Image, imgarcade., (accessed 30 April 2014). 41. NA BioFuel Chart, NA, Digital Image, imgarcade., (accessed 30 April 2014) 42. LD How Algae Biodiesel Works: A Bioreactor System, 2008, Digital Image, How Stuff Works. http://science., (accessed 30 April 2014) 43. James Pallister Moss, 2014, Digital Image, Dezeen., (accessed 30 April 2014) 44. Craig Reynolds Alignment, 2001, Digital Image, red3d., (accessed 30 April 2014) 45. Craig Reynolds Cohesion, 2001, Digital Image, red3d., (accessed 30 April 2014) 46. Craig Reynolds Seperation, 2001, Digital Image, red3d., (accessed 30 April 2014)





REFLECTION In ther interm review the major feedback was that we do not have a clear design direction. We are exploring too many aspects / ideas at the same tie and are unable to refine one particular one. After consultaion with the tutor the final outcome was selected and all the groups energy will be redirected to this particular wall system. For Part B the learning objectives were achieved successfully. The theoratical research tasks allowed our group achieve a lot more because we started iterations on each of the four case studies rather than just doing one case study. This opened the iterations up to change and new possibilities. Interstingly one of the projects for Case Study 2.0 was not even created parametrically. My skills in parametric modelling have developed vastly over the last 4 weeks.




WEEK 4 The algorithmic task for this week was to create a scray looking cactus. So i got something close, but maybe not as scary.




Some playing around with magnetic fields and point charges.



Exploring various shape generation techniques.












The feed back we received from the intern presentation highlighted some key gaps in our design. One key issue was the inability to reliase the design in a physical form, on top of this we had too many streams of ideas. Our ideas were broken off into individual streams and were not integrated

within each other, this was the main reason there are was no clear guide on our final design. It was realised after we had done the presentation and stepped back from the project that we understood the confused of the tutors (and the guest crits).

Draft Proposal After receiving feedback the initial push was for a more consolidated design. Initially the explorations in Locust were not considered in this phase of the design process as we could not find a suitable method of implementing the output from locust. In developing the initial draft proposal the integration of site, energy generation and experience of the people on site were taken into consideration. Firstly two types of walls were developed to respond to the individual experience and the need for energy generation. Rotating Panel Figure 48 shows the concept of the rotating panel wall, at the core of this wall is the panels that can rotate individually. The idea behind this concept was the dynamic ability to visually block of certain areas of the site or create patterns on the wall using user input from people walking by. The limitations of this wall when trying to implement it in the design is that it can not be manipulated in the z-axis in order to sustain structural integrity.


Algae Wall Figure 49 shows the first concept of integrating the energy generation technique of Algae with the waffle grid structure to produce a wall that on one side houses the Algae and has hollow blocks on the other side. Figure 49 shows this wall in a very basic configuration, however this particular system can be manipulated in all axis. Spacial Organization Figure 47 shows the layout of the design on site. There were multiple aspects considered when creating the layout. Firstly the transition from the Entrances to the good views was the main reason the walls were placed in a curvy order, the aim was to guide the people through the site while creating an adventurous experience to give them the feeling they were discovering new things. Secondly the algae walls were stragically placed to maximize exposure to sunlight, this allowed them to function as a guidance wall and as an energy generation wall. Thirdly some walls were placed to produce enclosed spaces that can function as private space. This was part of making this large open space feel more personal.


Entry 1

Rotation Panel Wall (Figure 48) Algae Wall (Figure 49)

Entry 2



Good Views


Draft Tectonic Elements Before presenting the draft proposal for review , we decided to experiment in resolving the tectonic system for the rotating panel wall. It was essential that before any further development in the design concept , the tectonic element must be resolved. This prototype explored the implementation of a

rotation system based on a central shaft for each column. Each panel is placed around a column that is attached with horizontal and vertical bearings. A rotation shaft is run vertically with which each panel is connected via a belt system, in this prototype a rubber band is used.

FIGURE 50: PROTOTYPE MODEL FOR ROTATING PANEL WALL Breaking it Down The core of this system is the columns that function as structural elements and also allow for the panels to rotate. The connection details in Figure 51 show how the circular connections are welded to the column and then the horizontal section in overlaid and sits on this connection. Then the rotating panel is inserted and this step is repeated vertically.

ed, which means that they sections cannot be removed in case of repair. In terms of articulation this system is very traditional and I believe does not represent a truly parametric system that uses parametric structure or connection details.

Limitations In terms of constructability the system is very limiting in that the horizontal sections are placed on one at a time and the support for these are wield-




While in discussion of our work, we were made aware of our change in direction. We had moved away from the complexity of locust because we couldnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t implement it, to a form that was not very parametric. Reflecting now, I understand the reason behind this was to simplify our techniques and systems that we had created, we moved to a 2 wall system and spatial organisation that was manually drawn.

The Next Step After consultation with the tutors we were encouraged to pursue the output from locust as a form generation method. At the time it was unclear to us exactly how we could do this, but we began to explore the possibilities of using the raw data from locust.

IDEAS FOR DEVELOPMENT Locust What is Locust Locust is an agent based swarm system simulator based on the steering behaviours by Craig Reynolds. By using steering behaviours, it can simulate emergent swarm behaviour. Why we decided to use Locust Locust showed interesting outcomes (Part B) that could be used to produce forms that exhibit resemblance to emergence. Another major factor was the ability to influence the behaviour of the swarm by manipulating the Seek, Start and Avoid points and reflect what we were trying to achieve, which was trying to create an experience for the people on site.


Second Run Through our initial explorations (Part B) we were faced with some difficulties in trying to implement the outcome. Our goal now was to approach the task differently, we started exploring how we could use the output with the integration of other elements to create a form rather than creating a form directly from the Locust output. Other Emergent Designs Figure 52 & 53 show designs by Roland Snooks and Kokkugia that were developed using emergent theories. As visually appealing as they are, one interesting things to note is that they are not built and with exploration of other emergent designs we see the difficulty in fabrication/construction of the often complex forms.




“With context, you have two options—the building can ‘fit in’ or it can ‘stand out”

-Robert Venturi



LAGI project site

Ferry route

Factories, industrial facilities

River bank promenade

Path & Circulation

Public Area - Kastellet Park

Carpark Jetty location


Nearby Green space Residential area

For the development of our technique with locust we decided to use the contextual setting of the site to initiate our response to the LAGI Brief. The three basic elements from the site that are taken into consideration are the Entry, Good Views and Reserve space for Energy Generation Requirements. The area for the views are planned to be kept as open space, this is to allow people to openly experience the views without any obstruction from the structure on site. The reserve space is planned to be kept open however it is meant to house any additional equipment for the energy generation from Algae Panels, it is placed on the north side



due to the lack of good views, it faces an industrial site. The entries are highlighted here because they are vital in creating the experience we want for the people that enter the site. Their experience starts from the point they enter it, therefore we must implement our strategy from that point. The space left in between all zones is the area available for development of our proposal and this is were we will start with Locust.

Site Setout in Locust The first step was using the zones from the site context and implementing it in locust. The Avoid sphere is a sphere of influence to keep the locust out. The Seek points are used to attract the locust. The Starting Points are placed at the entrance to simulate people when they enter the site, but also placed through out the site to simulate the circulation within the site.

Raw output from Locust The data produced by locust is Points and Lines. The points record every 7th position of each locust for about 10 seconds. When all the points are analysed together they show the overall circulation of all the locust agents. Interestingly some distinct patterns appears, around certain areas there is higher density of points, which means the locust tend to hang around these areas. Form Generation We decided to use Voronoi to create the form from the Locust data. Using the points, Voronoi 3D created a rectangle surrounding the points and created one shape for each points.

Voronoi Output The forms from voronoi created a distinct pattern between the shapes. The geometry is more complex where the points are closer together, which are the areas where the locust tend to hang around more.


Adjusting the Form The Voronoi output is trimmed to adhere to the Good Viewing Zone. Also the high density shapes are removed to create meeting spaces.

The Shift away from the raw Voronoi Form The final form that we arrived at (below) was very intriguing, however we were limited in the ways we could take this forward. The complexity of the form made it very expensive to fabricate on its scale. It also made it difficult to integrate energy generation techniques into it.

The Introduction of Point Charges At this point we started exploring the possibility of using magnetic charges to interact with the voronoi form. We set +1 charges for the entrances and -1 for the view, because opposites attract this would create a guiding field. In addition +0.1 charges were used in the Good view zones to keep the field away from these areas. This is essentially following the logic behind the site setout for Locust from the site context, but in this case using magnetic charges.




Projection The decision was made to use the magnetic field lines and project them onto to the voronoi form. What this would do is that the wall heights would represent the voronoi and the direction of the walls would represent the magnetic field flow.


The Walls The outcome from this union of Voronoi and Magnetic Charges are these walls. They represent the Spatial organisation of the site. The next step will be to sort out the tectonic elements for these walls. An element that can be repeated for all walls on site.





Prototype 1 The time had come now to resolve the tectonic system for the walls. Prototype 1 consisted of two elements, (1) a Hexagon and (2) a connection piece that creates a joint where connected. For this prototype these elements are identical, which means that not much fabrication documentation is required, as essentially all the details will be the same. When these pieces are joined together to form a wall as shown in Figure 54 they create a load bearing structure.

Prototype 2 This prototype was an addition to prototype 1. The main exploration here was the addition of a smaller hexagon to the system and understand the implications. Between the two shapes there are 3 different types of connection pieces. (2) which is used to connect two big hexagons, (3) which is used to connect a big and a small hexagon and (5) which is used to connect two small hexagons as shown in Figure 61. When fabricating you will notice how one side of the connection pieces (2,3,5) is smaller than the other. This was done to test how much stress different sizes could handle and the failure points. Figure 60 shows the wall leaning on the thicker side and the curve is fairly stable, however Figure 59 show the wall leaning on the other side and there is failure (lower-left corner). The edge off the piece at the bottom has failed under the stress and this has made the whole wall unstable.








Implications We understood that in order to have a stable structure the size of the connection pieces would be determined by the length of the connection/joint. For example in Prototype 2 the connections between the large hexagons were long and therefore did not require wide connection pieces. Another factor that would impact this relationship is the number of shapes if we use too many pieces it will be not as efficient primarily due to two rea-

sons. Firstly more shapes means more fabrication, labour and cost. Secondly more shapes means the connection joints are smaller, this would require bigger connection pieces to withstand the additional force, increasing the usage of material. So we decided that in developing this tectonic system further we would try to reduce the number of shapes and try to get bigger pieces to produce a more efficient structure.

Integrating into Wall The next step was to integrate this into the walls that we created in the proposal development phase. We saw an opportunity to extend the system further, we could use multiple shapes for the connection plates. This allowed us to influence the final appearance of the wall and what the people would interpret it as. The idea was to use organic shapes for the connection plates to reflect a more harmonious structure.

Organic Shapes



This shape was inspired by a clover.

This shape was inspired by an ice particle


This shape was inspired by the ancient symbol for a wolf.


Organic Shape

Connection Piece

FIGURE 64: INITIAL STRUCTURE AFTER INTEGRATION The organic shapes are placed on the wall using a Hexaogonal Grid, each piece is orientated with the wall to represent the curve of the wall. Then connections are placed in between them, the spacing of the grid is selected to allow light to pass through and increase structural efficiency of the system. These particular organic shapes were also picked because they were structurally symmetrical, in that the load could be placed at any point around the shape and would be distributed equally.

Integration of Algae We realised the potential to replace the organic shapes with Algae panels. This venture presented multiple problems. Firstly the connection pieces and the organic shapes were meant to be fabricated from metal, this was the assumption when stress testing the original prototypes. Secondly Algae panels require pipes connected to each piece to circulate the water.

The Solution 1


5 2

Structural Core

3 Connection Piece




FIGURE 66: LARGE SCALE SYSTEM OF ALGAE CIRCULATION In order to integrate Algae into the organic shapes multiple changes were required. Firstly the shapes were split into two systems, a structural and an Algae circulation system. The Structural system consists of the core and the connection pieces. All the connection pieces are connected to the core and this acts as the main support relieving the surround area of any structural stress. This left over area is part of the Algae Circulation System. 1. This is the inlet of the pre-mixed solution. 2. This area of the panel allows the Algae exposure to sunlight and also is part of the circulation. 3. A Z shaped splitter divides the top and bottom pipes.

4. The bottom pipe is outlet to the next panel and the top pipe is the inlet from the next panel. 5. Another Z splitter is used to separate the inlet and outlet. 6. This is the outlet of the solution.

Breach of Structural Integrity When creating the Algae panel detail we missed out key structural changes. The length of the connection piece had now been decreased and our explorations with Prototype 2 had shown this length was vital in determining the connection piece size. This meant we would have to increase the connection piece size,

however we implemented an additional structural system so we could keep the connection piece size smaller. A new purely structural system was implemented that ran through the central points on the hexagrid. This allowed the overall structure to be more stable and reduced the connection piece size.





CONSTRUCTION PROCESS Fabricataion Process / Technology A 3.02 A A







A 3.0

A 1.0

1. The connection pieces are cut out of steel and the organic shapes are cut using steel and perspex. All using Water Jet Cutter.

A 1.01





2. Each piece is labeled. “A” - Wall identifier “1/2/3” - piece type identifier “.01/.02” - piece number identifier


The fabricated pieces can be transported via Trucks as there is sufficient space to enter the site and the traffic route is suitable.


Another option is to use Water Boats, as the site is on the bay it might be cheaper and easier to transport via boat.

On-Site Assembly 1. The base pieces are set into the strip footing for each wall

2. The Connection Pieces are slotted in and bolted using the detailing technique (next page).

3. The support grid connection pieces are attached.

4. The second layer of shapes are attached.

5. This process is repeated vertically until the wall is complete.


Detail Assembly

All the connections are lined up with the pre-cut holes

L-Angle is placed on


The pieces are bolted together

The underside















ASSEMBLY Fabricated Parts The fabricated parts are picked up from fablab and left in its place until needed, otherwise we might loose it. Each piece is unique.

Solving the Puzzle Identification of the location of each piece is done via software. Due to the complex nature of the model each piece is unique. Rhino contain the identification and position of each piece, this information is used to build the model.

Building the Model Due to its scale the model was built using super glue and the effect of this is visible on the boxboard.

Finish To finish off the quality of the model, it was spray painted in a ventilated area.






The project is based on the logic of magnetic charges and emergent design. The aim is create an experience for the people on the site, this is achieved using guiding walls that provide a transitional route for the people as soon as they enter. The layout is meant to be unpredictable and thus increase the curiosity. The development of the spatial organisation is directly influenced by the site and its context. The areas of great views are left open to preserve the purity of the experience. The design was intended to not stand out from the site, but rather flow with it. This was achieved using

Technology The main energy generation technology we are using in this project is Algae. Algae uses sunlight to produce slught. From this Algae oil is extracted and can be refined to be used in cars/planes or be burned to produce electricity. This is a new form of energy generation as it has not been fully developed yet. However it is one of the first organic forms of energy generation.

Estimated Annual kWh from Algae 12,500 kWh/year from 2,000 square feet of bioreactors. 1200 x average 1.1m diameter bioreactor = 1140 m2 1140 m2 = 12,200 sqr ft 12,200 sqr ft / 2,000 = 6.135 6.135 * 12,500 kWh/year = 76,687 kWh/year Average house usage is about 9,000kWh/year

Estimated Annual kWh from Foot Panels 7 W per step. ~100 people per day, with average of 40 min on site. ~10 steps per minute = 400 steps per person. 400 * 100 = 40,000 steps in a day. 40,000* 7 w = 280,000 w per day 280,000 * 365 = 102,000 kWh/year


Primarly Materials The main materials are 50mm steel for the connections and support cores, each pieces has different measurements. The algae containers use perspex to hold the algae. The circulation pipes for the algae are 30mm copper pipes. The detail joint angles are 100mm x 100mm L-angles with 40mm pre-cut holes for bolts.

On-Site Equitment Apart from the materials the energy generation system requires additional equitment. Central Feeding Vessel There is only one Central Feeding Vessel. This is essential a mixer and extractor. All the required mix materials such as nutrients are mixed here and pumped forward. This vessel is also the extraction point for the Algae sludge. Wall Pump Due to the large distances of walls from the central vessel each requires an individual pump that is used to pump the solution through each wall.

Off-Site Requirements This system requires a processing facility close by to refine the Algae Sludge.

Eviromental Impact Statement The aim of this installation is to produce renewable energy from the site. The only impact on the environment around site will be the installation and the wastage left behind, however the contractor will be in charge of cleaning this. The site is expected to emit light at night, but within the low-range as not to create light-pollution. The amount we be in response to the number of people on site. There is not expected to be any additional sound generated from the site. Overall the site is expected to contribute more environmentally to the society as compared to its current usage.







One major point highlighted was how the use of magnetic fields to create the walls was not very parametric and could have been done by hand.

There were missed opportunities in terms of the wall system and the spacing for Algae panels.

The walls by themselves are very boring and having people just walking around is not as interactive.


This really called into account the use of point charges to generate the walls, for further development the focus was shifted to spaces rather than flow. The next phase will focus on developing the spaces rather than establishing an overall flow on the site, which at its scale might not have come off as effective as initially through. The initial idea was to create an organic wall system, however this ideas has been developed again from scratch to reflect a different shape of an organic structure. A shape that appears monolithic. An organic structure is created that is the walls and roof in one, in addition certain areas are enclosed off to create private spaces with seating.

LEARNING OBJECTIVES Objective 1 “Interrogat[ing] a brief” by considering the process of brief formation in the age of optioneering enabled by digital technologies. What I learned to do for the brief in relation to the design development was the ability to quickly shift to a totally different design or start the design by breaking down the brief.

For example from the draft proposal I able to quickly shift direction to a different design direction based on the same brief, this was possible due to the use of parametrics.

Objective 2 Developing “an ability to generate a variety of design possibilities for a given situation” by introducing visual programming, algorithmic design and parametric modelling with their intrinsic capacities for extensive design-space exploration. This was most evident in Part B. In Part C the use if visual programming was helpful in experimenting with variations in detailing and smaller com-


ponents. It was helpful in exploring how various detailing strategies could be implemented and understand the effect.

Objective 3 Developing “skills in various three- dimensional media” and specifically in computational geometry, parametric modelling, analytic diagramming and digital fabrication. The Algorithmic sketches were the most important for me to develop computational geometry because I had almost complete freedom in what I wanted to do and the outcomes are my best purely Artistic Outcomes. I truly had developed parametric modelling skills when I was able to reverse-engineer projects in Part B. This is how I know I can look at something and analyse how it was parametrically constructed

or look at something and think how I Could have done it better parametrically. Digital Fabrication skills were greatly developed when we were fabricating the model. Understanding of level of tolerance was vital in fitting some pieces. Also fabrication of complex geometry and particularly when our main model had unique pieces, no piece was the same. We had to implement an appropriate method of labelling.

Objective 4 Developing “an understanding of relationships between architecture and air” through interrogation of design proposal as physical models in atmosphere. This was explored through the fabrication of models. The three different models at different scales gave a perfect understanding of the parametric model. The 1:500 gave an overview of the site and the fabrication was done particularly to emphases the relation between the different elements.

The 1:50 provided a clear picture of the various systems in place and how they interacted and a more visible form. The 1:5 detail showed the true power fabrication through the use of pre-cut holes and having pieces are perfectly aligned.

Objective 5 Developing “the ability to make a case for proposals” by developing critical thinking and encouraging construction of rigorous and persuasive arguments informed by the contemporary architectural discourse. This was explored In C.1, This was explained using the diagrams. The reader is guided through the journey of development and exactly why certain

decisions are taken and the impact this has on the overall design.

Objective 6 Develop capabilities for conceptual, technical and design analyses of contemporary architectural projects. This was done in the reverse-engineering Part B and in Part A. For Part B it was essential to understand the technical and design analysis of the building as this was essential in recreating the de-

sign parametrically. The conceptual understanding was gained in Part A while researching the precedent projects.


Objective 7 & 8 When starting grasshopper I started recalling my experience writing windows C# applications. This was my first time doing visual programming. It was good experience as it was faster to produce simple logic. However it is not as efficient as writing code. For example simple operators such as “IF ! ” take a lot more time to create.

My approach was always as if i was creating an application so I would subconsciously follow the rules. Before I would get someone to use my code, I would organise it so all the sliders were placed together and clearly labeled creating the “GUI”. Then I would make sure no one messed around with the actual computing areas “the code” so they didn’t stuff it up. Like a compiler.


DESIGN FUTURING- WHAT IS THE INNOVATIVE IDEA OF YOUR PROJECT? The innovative idea was the use of magnetic fields erate the initial form and the magnetic field was to generate the design in culmination with Locust. used to create a network of walls that together creLocust is an agent based swarm simulator based ate a flow through the site that guides the people on emergent behaviours. Locust was used to gen- through. DESIGN COMPUTATION- HOW DOES COMPUTING DEFINE YOUR PROJECT? Computing is used for the form generation, detail- bake outcomes and manually edit certain aspects ing and fabrication. Interestingly the most notable to create a better design and then reference this implementation when trying to use parametric geometry back into the software. modelling visual coding was the constant need to COMPOSITION/GENERATION- WHAT DID YOU FIND THROUGH YOUR COMPUTER EXPERIMENT? It’s important to incorporate manual design logic can include site variable into a parametric script and process within parametric design. Most impor- and have them influence the form generation, but tantly when designing the overall form on the site, computers just cannot comprehend the complex when the site context is vital this process should relationships that are should be taken into account. be done manually. The core of the form should be Or maybe not yet. manual. The reason is that I find even though you PARAMETRIC - WHAT IN YOUR PROJECT WAS ONLY ACHIEVABLE THROUGH PARAMETRIC MODELLING? Firstly and foremost the Fabrication. The process the design directly is only possible via parametric of fabrication through parametric modelling tools modelling, to do this by hand would be almost imis just incredibly efficient and fast. The accuracy possible at this level of accuracy. Structural ornaproduced is vital in allowing freedom to create any mentation is possible as well because parametrics form that is generated. Many aspects of the design allows the manipulation of form in a very dynamic such as sun study and using this data to influence way.


MATERIALITY/PATTERNING- HOW DO YOU INTEGRATE ENERGY, MATERIALS AND GEOMETRY INTO A PERFORMING PATTERN? By splitting the system up into two individual sys- were running through the steel connection pieces tems that are integrated into a hybrid structure, creating a hybrid system. These were developed where both systems share elements. For example first and their parametric scripts were developed we had the structural system which was comprised first and then applied to the form that we wanted of steel as it had the required strength and the Per- to create. This allowed freedom in geometry as spex algae panels which were attached to this steel. the code has been setup to deal to variation in xyz On top on of this the pipes for the algae panels forms. FABRICATION - HOW DO YOU USE COMPUTATION TO AUTOMATE SPECIFICATION, SCHEDULING, MANUFACTURING AND ASSEMBLY OF YOUR MODEL? In our model each piece was unique in that the di- type and “.01” was used to identify the piece. So mensions were different to all other pieces. There AA.1.01 was the first piece in the first type of piece in model was comprised of about 70 walls and each the first wall. Each wall follows this range “XX.1.01”, wall had about 3 different types of geometry for “XX.2.01” & “XX.3.01”. All fabrication pieces were the structure. Using this we created a system that labelled and a 3d model of the structure was supallowed appropriate labelling. “XX” was used to plied with labels as well because the geometry was identify the wall, “1” was used to identify the piece very difficult to interpret via 2d print. ANALYSIS/SYNTHESIS - HOW DO YOU USE COMPUTING TO ANALYSE PERFORMANCE AND SYNTHESISE DESIGN DECISIONS? There are various tools to perform performance to create an equal heat distribution on a 3d surface. analysis. Sun study can to conduct to better un- Wind analysis can be used to refine an aerodynamderstand the impact, however the most important ic problems. This capability to perform simulations implementations are when the raw from the radi- very quickly allows for major impact on the design ance analysis is used to parametrically influence decisions at every stage. the design. For example using different sized holes DATA MANAGEMENT - WHAT ARE THE PARTICULAR ADVANTAGES OF YOUR DIGITAL DATA WORKFLOW? Allows for instantaneous changes to detailed ele- manually, for any slight changes in the surface all ments of the form, which allows greater explora- the block will have to be shifted manually. On top tion. For example if a script is used to create 3d of this data that be integrated from multiple sourcblocks from a surface, when that surface is changed es and geometries to allow the formation of comthese blocks auto generate by themselves to con- plex parametric relationships. form to the new surface. If these block were placed DATA VISUALISATION - HOW DO YOU USE COMPUTATION TO EXTRACT NUMERICAL AND VISUAL EVIDENCE THAT IS NOT OBTAINABLE WITH PAPER-BASED WORKFLOWS? Due to the workflow of parametric coding, it cre- once the final form is created the available data is ates a data stream from one component to the what’s in the final form, the process of creating the other. When a lot of these components are used form is lost (unless saved at each step). Extracting to create a complex geometry the data from any data from different points in the stream allows for point in the stream can extracted and used to ei- easy visualisation of the development and allows ther influence the geometry or produce visual evi- for the creation of a strong case for the design dedence. This is unlike traditional approaches where cisions.



This organic skin has holes in it that are filled with solar panels were they have acess to sunlight. Instead of using walls, the structure evolves from the roof and drops down to form the walls. It still stays true to the original form of the heights but in a more fluid form.





Certain areas are enclosed of using the skin like structure to create private spaces that only have one entrance. There is now more open space to make the space feel more relaxing and not as cramped.



ONE SECTION Original Form

Solar Panels inserted where highest radiant heat. Harvesting most sunlight and keeping inside shaded.

Using arch like structure the weight of the pre-cast concrete panels are transferred down throught the interlocking system.

Layer 3 Layer 2

Layer 1


Pre-fabricated pieces are fabricated off-site and installed layer by layer using an interlocking system that keeps them in place.



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