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Photoshop Tips & Tricks That Will Get You Jumpin’

Written By Photoshop Guru Shane Goldberg CEO & President www.prophotosecrets.com

Full Color Examples Step-By-Step Instructions

Photoshop Made Easy PART 1


Photoshop Made Easy - Part 1 Copyright Š 2006 Shane Goldberg. All Rights Reserved

Trademarks Photoshop is a trademark or registered trademark of Adobe Systems Incorporated. All other trademarks are the property of their respective owners. Credits We would expressly like to thank Photospin and Amanda Goldberg for use of their images as part of the tutorials and for demonstration purposes. Thanks to Craig Zimmerman for his hard work on this publication also. Intellectual Property & Copyright No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, scanning or otherwise, except as permitted under Sections 107 or 108 or the 1976 United States Copyright Act, and or international Copyright Law Including Australia without either the prior written permission of the Publisher and Author. Infringement of Copyright is a Serious Offence and will be prosecuted.

Written by

Shane Goldberg Adobe Certified Expert, Photoshop CS2


Contents Getting Started

Navigating Photoshop.............................................................................................................................................................6 Customizing Your Workspace...............................................................................................................................................9 Setting Your Preferences..................................................................................................................................................... 11 Tool Palette Tips................................................................................................................................................................... 16 Where To Go for Help........................................................................................................................................................ 18 Opening Your Files, Photos and Images........................................................................................................................... 19 Creating New Files............................................................................................................................................................... 20

Power Techniques Made Easy

Adding Drop Shadow to Text............................................................................................................................................ 23 Adding Outlines to Type..................................................................................................................................................... 25 Brush Tool Tips...................................................................................................................................................................... 27 The Magic Wand Tool Unveiled......................................................................................................................................... 28 The Basics of Hue and Saturation..................................................................................................................................... 30 The Basics of Typography.................................................................................................................................................... 34 The Basics of the Layers Palette....................................................................................................................................... 38 The Basics of the Layers Palette Part II........................................................................................................................... 41 Straightening Your Photos................................................................................................................................................... 43 Making Selections................................................................................................................................................................. 46 The Pen Tool In Action........................................................................................................................................................ 49 The Not Dodgey - Dodge Tool......................................................................................................................................... 53 Using the Burn Tool.............................................................................................................................................................. 55 The Zoom Tool..................................................................................................................................................................... 57

Photo Editing Made Simple

Adding Color to Black and White Photos...................................................................................................................... 60 Adding a Softly Focused Background............................................................................................................................... 63 Changing Eye Color............................................................................................................................................................. 68 Changing Hair Color........................................................................................................................................................... 71 Cropping the Smart Way.................................................................................................................................................... 73 Cropping In Reverse............................................................................................................................................................ 76 Sharpening Blurry Photos................................................................................................................................................... 78 Whitening Teeth.................................................................................................................................................................... 81 Wedding Photo Make-Over............................................................................................................................................... 84 Whitening Eyes..................................................................................................................................................................... 90 Adjusting Skin Tone.............................................................................................................................................................. 94 Inserting Images Into Type.................................................................................................................................................. 98

Editing and Touchup Secrets

Removing Background Items from Photos................................................................................................................... 101 Removing People from Photos........................................................................................................................................106 Removing Blemishes and Marks......................................................................................................................................112 Removing Red-Eye..............................................................................................................................................................116 Removing Wrinkles............................................................................................................................................................118 Using Selective Color........................................................................................................................................................122 Selection Secrets................................................................................................................................................................. 128 Extracting Whispy Hair......................................................................................................................................................132

Other Resources & Special Offer

Book Titles and Online Membership Special Test Drive Offer................................................................................. 137 Photoshop Training CD Titles..........................................................................................................................................138


“Hi Shane.. It’s a bright, beautiful Fall day here in Northern California.. I’m a little tired though, after staying up all night reading your GREAT e.book. Thank you for all your insight into the complicated world of Photoshop. You make learning all of the necessary things FUN, and interesting. I appreciate, and respect your knowledge, and alway’s look forward to learning something new through the eyes of Shane Goldberg!” Fondly, Barbara Littlefield Santa Cruz. California USA “Hi Shane, Thanks for the great Photoshop Book. Always available to refer back to, unlike Seminars and expensive courses which are great on the day, but when you come home - forgotten (except how much I paid). The tutorials you provide are easy to follow, simple, yet complete and are always there when I need them. Keep up the good work and keep the cool tutorials coming. Regards, Craig White Professional Photographer Hi Shane! Well, you’ve done it again! Produced another invaluable learning tool. Your videos are the best, but most of all, your ability to explain the concepts in a way that makes me feel as if you’re right there actually caring if I understand. So sad to me that you’re on the other side of the world. I’d so love to watch you in action! Once again, I really appreciate your hard work and making the world of photography even more fun! Best regards, Marti Wagner Ohio, USA “Hi Shane, Your new book is fantastic. Even after attending a Photoshop class at the local university, this book is much more practical, useful and, by far, much easier to understand. Not to mention that your price is less than one fourth the price of the class. Being a bit technologically challenged and using my first DSLR camera, I needed help with Photoshop in a big way. Your book is by far the best I’ve read. Also, the interesting way you have put together the tips and tutorials and pictures make everything fun. The best part is that even at my age of 64 years, I can understand all that you have written.” Many thanks and best wishes, Tom Blizzard, retired math teacher Florida, USA


Getting Started Shane Goldberg’s Photoshop CS1 Made Easy ®

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Part 1: Getting Started

Navigating Photoshop

Photoshop® CS1 Made Easy

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Photoshop is the high-horsepower, industrial strength image editing and creation software used by millions of photographers, designers and home users around the globe. While the creators of Photoshop have done an admirable job of presenting its myriad functions and features in an easy-to-use manner, the sheer number of options available can be a bit daunting to the newcomer. In this lesson, I’ll take you on a whirlwind tour of Photoshop CS1’s workspace, its many palettes and the option bar.

The Workspace When you first start Photoshop, you’ll see a screen like this. The grey area in the center is called the workspace and in it you’ll edit your photos and create your images. Across the top is the menu bar, which gives you access to functions like layer control, image selection, filters and much more. Below that is the Options bar, which displays settings for the currently highlighted tool. A selection of palettes are arranged at the right and the Tools palette rests on the left.

The Window Menu The Window menu will quickly become one of your most frequently used menu items. This menu allows you to control which of Photoshop’s palettes are displayed. Because there are so many, you can close those you aren’t using at the moment – by clicking the red button on the upper right of the palette – to maximize your available workspace. If, for example, you close the Colors palette but later need it, simply click on the Window menu and place a check next to that palette. Notice that all currently displayed palettes are checked, while those that are hidden are not.

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Navigating Photoshop

Photoshop® CS1 Made Easy

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The Tools Palette On a scale from 1 to 10, if the Window menu rates an “8” for must-have-can’tlive-without Photoshop options, the Tools palette is an “11”. If this palette is not displayed in your workspace, just select the Window menu, then place a checkmark next to Tools. The Tools palette is the workhorse of the Photoshop interface – here you’ll find options for selection, text, color, gradients, photo retouching and lots more.

Positioning Palettes You may have noticed that most palettes feature several tabs in a group. If you’d like to separate the Layers tab, for instance, from the rest, click the tab itself and drag it to a new location. If you’ve got your palettes hopelessly scattered around your workspace and would like them back in their default positions, simply click Window>Workspace>Reset Palette Locations and all will be right with the world.

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Part 1: Getting Started

Navigating Photoshop

Photoshop® CS1 Made Easy

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The Options Bar The Options bar rests directly beneath the menu bar. Depending on which tool you’ve currently got selected, the Options bar will display features and settings specific to that tool. And that, in a nutshell, is the Photoshop interface. Load one of the sample images, play with the menus and palettes and you’ll be a pro Photoshop navigator in no time.

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Part 1: Getting Started

Photoshop® CS1 Made Easy

Customizing Your Workspace Why be like everyone else? Photoshop offers a number of ways to alter its default workspace to suit your needs and personality. In this lesson, I’ll show you a few ways to customize and reposition the often bewildering array of palettes to your liking.

The Docking Well Here’s a fairly typical Photoshop workspace. The Tools pallete sits on the left of the workplace, while the Navigator, Color, History and Layers palettes occupy the right. Above the Navigator palette is the docking well. This area holds palettes that you won’t often need but would still like to have close at hand, just in case. Hovering your pointer over a particular tab will bring that palette to the front of the group and clicking will expand the palette for use. Once you’ve made your selections from the expanded palette, click anywhere else on the screen to return it to its previous state.

Palette Groups Photoshop divides all its palettes into five distinct groups. The Actions group can be selected from the Window menu or by pressing Alt(Option)+F9 on the keyboard. Pressing F5 displays the Brushes group, and F6 opens the Color set. To display the Info group, press F8. The all-important Layers group can be accessed with F7. As you work your way through this book, try to use function keys whenever possible. Remembering these keyboard shortcuts will help to make quick work of your day-to-day photo editing and image creation tasks. www.prophotosecrets.com




Part 1: Getting Started

PhotoshopÂŽ CS1 Made Easy

Customizing Your Workspace Custom Workspaces As mentioned in the previous lesson, selecting Window>Workspace>Reset Palette Locations will reset your palettes to their default locations. But what if you’d like the default locations to be a bit different? To customize your workspace to your way of doing things, simply open the palettes you use most often and arrange them to suit your work. Then select Window>Workspace>Save Workspace... and, in the dialog box that appears, name your workspace and click Save. The next time your workspace gets a bit messy, just select Window>Workspace and the name of your saved workspace to set things right again.

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Setting Your Preferences Some of us like sportscars, some prefer compacts and some just scrub the whole thing and go with a bicycle. It’s all about personal preference and, in this lesson, I’ll show you how to make Photoshop perform, behave and look just the way you’d like, whether with the flash of a Ferrari, the efficiency of a Neon or the simplicity of a bike.

General Preferences To begin setting your preferences, select Edit>Preferences>General... or Control(Command)+K. You’ll see a window with a number of different settings that you can customize. One that’s of particular interest is the History States option. This determines the number of undo steps you’ll have available as you work. While the default is 20, I prefer 50. Also of note is the Show Tool Tips checkbox. If you’d like to be reminded what a given tool does when you hover over it with your pointer, leave this checked. To continue to the next step, select Next.

File Handling Preferences In the File Handling section, you can alter the way that files are saved and change compatibility settings, if necessary. Since most of these settings work well as they are, I’ll concentrate on the Recent file list contains: option. This option controls the number of recent documents you’ll see when you select File>Open. If you like to see more, or fewer, than the default 10, type a new value here. To continue setting preferences, click Next.

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Setting Your Preferences Display & Cursors Preferences Display & Cursors, as the name suggests, allows you to customize the way your cursor is displayed as you perform various tasks in Photoshop. Under Painting Cursors, I prefer to set the radio button to Brush Size. This causes the cursor to become a circle the same size as the associated brush when painting or masking. Selecting Precise turns the cursor into a crosshair - for some people, including me, this option is a bit more difficult to control. Standard simply displays a brush icon. The Other Cursors section offers Standard or Precise. Again, I prefer Standard for ease of use.

Transparency & Gamut In the Transparency Settings portion of Transparency & Gamut preferences, you can set the grid in your transparent area display to Small, Medium, Large or None. If you’d like, you can also change the foreground and background colors of your grid squares in this section. Gamut Warnings provide a way for you to see if the colors selected for your image will print correctly or whether there are trouble spots you need to address. In this section, you can change both the color and opacity of Photoshop’s gamut warnings.

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Setting Your Preferences Units & Rulers Preferences Depending on where you are in the world, you’ll want to change the Rulers setting to reflect the units of measure you commonly use. In any case, Type should generally be set to points, since that’s the standard measure used round the world. The default values for Column Size can be changed if you typically use a certain set of measurements. New Document Preset Resolutions should be set to 300 pixels per inch for print and 72 pixels per inch for screen display unless you routinely have other needs. Similarly Point/Pica Size works best using the Postscript option.

Guides, Grid & Slices Guides, Grid & Slices gives you the means to change colors and styles for each of these displays. Once you’ve chosen suitable options, select Next.

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Setting Your Preferences Plug-Ins & Scratch Disks As you’re probably well aware, Photoshop can be a very demanding consumer of your computer’s resources, particularly if you’re working with large images. If your computer has multiple hard drives, Photoshop’s overall performance can be increased by setting one of those disks as a Scratch Disk and another as your primary disk, where Photoshop itself resides.

Memory & Image Cache If you’re working with very large images, or many at once, Memory and Image Cache will allow you to specify settings like the number of Cache Levels to use and how much of your system memory Photoshop’s allowed to access. By default, Maximum Used by Photoshop is set to 50%. I prefer mine at 75%, but you may have to play with this setting to get it just right for your work.

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Setting Your Preferences File Browser File Browser contains settings that affect the way Photoshop displays file previews and thumbnail images. Photoshop’s default values for these settings should work for most users. Whew! That’s it for your introduction to the exciting world of Photoshop preferences. Now that we’ve got that out of the way, stay tuned for more on getting Photoshop to work just the way you want.

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Tool Palette Tips Much of Photoshop’s true power lies in the Tools palette and the Options bar. In this lesson, I’ll show you a few tips for using those palettes and options to get the most of of Photoshop.

Key Tools If your Tools palette is not displayed, select Window>Tools to reveal it. As you’ll notice to the right, Photoshop displays a tip and a keyboard shortcut when you hover above a given tool. This can be quite helpful when learning to use the software, so I advise leaving the tool tips on for the time being. In the case of the Magic Wand tool, you can see that Photoshop has given us a label for that tool and has let us know that we can press W on the keyboard to select it in the future.

Options, Options... It’s very important to get into the habit of looking to the Options bar when you’ve selected a given tool. The Options bar displays the various settings available for that tool in one easy-to-use place and is a great time-saver. In this case, I’ve selected the Rectangular Marquee tool. Notice that the Options bar now displays only those settings that are applicable to the Rectangular Marquee tool. The same is true for any tool selected from the Tools palette.

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Tool Palette Tips Controlling Color On the lower portion of the Tools palette, you’ll notice two boxes filled with color. The upper box indicates foreground color (black, by default), while the lower box displays the background color (white, by default). To alter these colors, simply click in the appropriate box and the Color Picker window will be displayed. You can select your new color visually or by using numeric values to specify an exact hue. To return the colors to their default values, just press D on the keyboard or click the smaller black and white boxes located below and to the left. Press X on the keyboard – or click the nearby double arrow – to swap the displayed colors.

Masks and Screen Modes Below the color controls, you’ll find buttons for options like Standard and Quick Mask mode, as well as various screen display modes and a shortcut to Adobe’s ImageReady® application. That’s our quick overview of Photoshop’s Tools palette and Options bar. Learn to use these effectively and you’re well on your way to Photoshop mastery.

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Where To Go For Help Even the best of us need a little help now and again. Fortunately, Pro Photo Secrets and Photoshop offer just the assistance you need, just when you need it. In this lesson, I’ll show you where to turn when things get confusing.

Help! One of the best resources for help is my own site, Pro Photo Secrets. Just point your browser to www.prophotosecrets. com and you’ll find a wealth of resources covering all aspects of Photoshop. In fact, members can even email me personally with any questions they might have or browse our forum to see if others have had the same difficulty. Once you’ve become a member of Pro Photo Secrets, head over to Adobe’s site at www.adobe.com for additional resources.

Assistance on Demand A great feature of Photoshop is its help system. Just select Help from the menu bar – or press F1 on the keyboard – then click Photoshop Help... for an in-depth treatment of all the program’s features and tools. If you’d like to know how to do a particular task, browse the various how-to headings to see if your question is answered there. From common tasks like fixing and enhancing photos to creating a custom picture frame, you’ll find lots of material right at your fingertips.

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Opening Your Files, Photos and Images Now that we’ve got the preliminary business out of the way, let’s get to the fun part. Before we succumb to our creative urges, we need to open a file with which to work. In this lesson, I’ll show you how.

Open Sesame! To open an existing file in Photoshop, click File>Open... and a selection box like the one on the right will be displayed. To save a few steps, just hit Control(Command)+O and the same selection box will appear. From here, select the folder and file you’d like to open and double-click it to open it in your workspace.

The File Browser Another way to access your existing files for editing in Photoshop is to invoke the File Browser by selecting File>Browse... On the left of the screen, you’ll see a tab named Folders that you can use to navigate to the location where your image is stored. Once you’ve selected an image, double-click it to open it in your workspace. Just follow these simple instructions, and your Photoshop will be open for business.

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Creating New Files Sometimes, we don’t want to edit an existing photo but would rather, instead, create something completely new. Follow me as I show you the first step on the path to creation – opening a new document.

In with the New To create an entirely new image in Photoshop, press Control(Command)+N on the keyboard or select File>New... from the menu bar. In the box that appears in your workspace, type a name for your file in the Name: box.

Set your Preset Photoshop contains a number of common – and a few not so common – document sizes already preset for you. Click the arrow next to the Preset field to see a list ranging from common paper sizes to web output sizes to resolution settings for video use. Once you’ve selected the preset you’d like, Photoshop fills in the Width, Height and Resolution fields and units for you, though you can change them if you wish.

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Creating New Files Color Mode and Background Whether your new image is destined for the screen, a common household printer or a commerical printing press, you can select a color mode to match. While you’ll typically use RGB Color, CMYK Color is available if you want to take your image to a service bureau for printing. In the next field, Background Contents, select White, Background Color or Transparent. Once you’ve selected the appropriate options for your image, click OK and you’re on your way to a masterpiece.

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Power Shane Techniques Made Easy Goldberg’s Photoshop CS1 Made Easy ®

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Photoshop® CS1 Made Easy

Adding Drop Shadows To Text Aside from a few die-hard contrarians, it’s been quite a long time since anyone thought the world was flat. And if our world is three-dimensional, shouldn’t your images be as well? In this lesson, I’ll show you how to make some text pop right off the page, adding both visual interest and depth.

A Shadowy Palette While you can add a drop shadow to your text by selecting Layer>Layer Style>Drop Shadow..., it’s much quicker to click the black button with a stylized f inside, located at the bottom of your Layers palette. If your Layers palette is not visible, just select Window>Layers or press F7 on your keyboard. Make sure the layer to which you’d like to add a shadow is highlighted, click the black button and select Drop Shadow... from the menu that appears next.

Moving in the Shadows Once you’ve selected the Drop Shadow... layer style, you can immediately click anywhere in the current layer to move your shadow into place. Notice that Angle and Distance in your Layer Style dialog box will change interactively as you set the shadow’s position. When the drop shadow is just where you’d like it, you can soften the edges using the Size slider control. I usually like to also drop the Opacity control to 50% for a more realistic appearance. Once everything’s to your liking, just click OK and you’re done!

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Adding Drop Shadows to Text A Jaw-Dropping Drop Shadow If you’d like to change the settings for your drop shadow in the future, just click the layer’s thumbnail, then doubleclick the black button to the left of Drop Shadow in the menu that appears next. You’ll then have access to all the settings. That’s all there is to it! We’ve given our text a flattering shadow quickly and painlessly and added a measure of depth and drama to our image.

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Adding Outlines to Type In Photoshop, a stroke is a good thing – at least as it applies to type. A stroke, in the most basic sense, can be considered an outline and, in this tutorial, I’ll let you in on the secret to outlining your text in a few quick steps.

What’s Your Type? To begin, use the Text tool and the Options bar to select a letter font and size, then enter some text. Notice that Photoshop automatically places what you’ve typed onto its own layer. Next, click the black button at the bottom of your text layer’s palette and select Stroke... As always, if you can’t see your Layers palette, press F7, or select Window>Layers from the menu bar.

Give Your Text a Stroke In the dialog box that appears next, select a size for the stroke using the slider control or by typing a value into the box on the right. Photoshop immediately displays the results of your choices in the image. Though red is the default color for strokes in Photoshop, clicking the colored box will display the Color Picker, from which you can select any hue you like. If you want the stroke to have some measure of transparency, adjust the Opacity control.

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Adding Outlines to Type The Ins and Outs of Strokes Strokes are commonly rendered on the outside edge of their associated object, but they needn’t be. To change the position of the stroke, select Inside – as I’ve done here – Outside or even Center from the Position control. Just remember that each of these options is relative to the outside edge of the affected object.

A Striking Stroke In just a few moments, we’ve given our text a jaunty new look that’s sure to catch the eye.

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Brush Tool Tips When is a brush more than just a tool for swabbing paint onto a flat surface? When it’s a Photoshop brush, of course! Since brushes in Photoshop are often used not only to paint directly on an image, but to control the area and manner in which blurs, erasures and other effects are applied, I’m going to show you how to easily control your brushes with only a few clicks of the mouse.

Brush up on the brush tool Select the Brush tool, if you’ve haven’t already. The Brush tool is located in the left column of the Tools palette and, appropriately, looks like a brush daubing on paint. Use the tool to paint on top of the sample image. As you move the cursor, notice how the position information in the Info palette changes. If your cursor happens to be crosshairshaped, just press the Caps Lock key to convert it to a circle that indicates the width of your current brush.

Manipulating brush properties While you can access property settings for your current brush by clicking the arrow to the left of Mode in the Options bar, it’s quicker to click the right mouse button (PC) or Control+mouse button (Mac). It’s a great way to quickly change your brush size or hardness.

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The Magic Wand Tool Unveiled The Magic Wand in Photoshop is a truly inspired invention that makes selecting difficult objects as easy as pulling a rabbit from a hat. In this lesson, I’ll break the magician’s code and give you a backstage pass so that you can see how the Magic Wand really works.

Find your mojo On the Tools palette, the Magic Wand tool is located in the second column, second from the top. If you’re having any trouble finding it, just look for the tool that looks a bit like a sparkler. To access the Magic Wand rapidly, press W on the keyboard. Notice how the Options bar now displays options related to the Magic Wand. Here you can change tolerance and other options, such as whether you’d like the selection created by the Magic Wand to be anti-aliased and whether you’d like to include all layers in your selection. Since we have only one layer in this image, I’ve left that box unchecked.

Making magic with the Wand If I check Contiguous in the Options bar, then click on the sky in our sample image, the Magic Wand automatically selects all the regions of the sky whose color falls within 30 degrees of difference (our tolerance) from that of the point I clicked. Since I selected Contiguous, Photoshop knows that I want it to select the colors in a smooth gradient, rather than as isolated little spots all over the image that may fall into the tolerance range.

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The Magic Wand Tool Unveiled A magical selection Deselect the previous selection by choosing Select>Deselect from the menu bar or by pressing Control(Command)+D on the keyboard. Also clear the Contiguous check box. Then click in the sky and note how the selection is no longer a continuously varying area of color as it was before. To connect these separate selections, simply press and hold the Shift key while clicking in the area that you’d like to add to the selection.

Abracadabra Now that we’ve got the entire sky selected – a very tricky thing to do without the Magic Wand – it’s a simple matter to make our sky pink. Just click on the half-white, half-black circle at the bottom of the Layers palette, then select Hue/ Saturation... to display the menu at the right. Here, I’ve adjusted the Hue slider to +97 and given our sky a rosy new look. The Magic Wand is a very powerful tool and I encourage you to play with the different settings, such as setting Tolerance to a lower or higher value, to get the most out of this magical tool.

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The Basics of Hue and Saturation Have you ever taken a photo in poor lighting conditions only to later find that, while the image and composition is great, the color itself is lacking? With Photoshop, making hue and saturation adjustments takes just a few clicks of the mouse. Read on and I’ll show you how.

Accessing Hue/Saturation To begin, select Image>Adjustments> Hue/Saturation... from the menu bar or press Control(Command)+U on the keyboard.

Uncolor your world The menu that appears next contains hue, saturation and lightness adjustments. Notice the Edit drop-down menu at the top. By default, Master is selected. This means that any changes you make will affect the entire color range of your image. In this case, I’ve set Saturation to -100, desaturating all colors and effectively making the image black and white.

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The Basics of Hue and Saturation Red-cheeked apple Hue refers to the basic color of a particular area of your image. When we speak of red, we’re talking about hue. Let’s say you’d like to adjust only the red portions of your image. To do that, you’d simply select Reds from the Edit dropdown menu and move the Hue slider as I have here.

An apple of a different color As you change your hue settings, look at the two colored bars at the bottom of the Hue/Saturation dialog box. The top bar represents all the colors in the original, unchanged image, while the lower bar represents the changes you’ve made. Here, notice that some of the reds in the top bar – the original image – have been replaced by yellows in the lower bar, giving our apple an overall yellow cast.

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The Basics of Hue and Saturation Get intense Saturation is a measure of how intense the hue of an object is. In this case, I’ve increased the intensity of the apple’s red colors, giving it a more vibrant appearance. If I wanted to make the color less intense, I’d just move the slider to the left. Keep an eye on the two color bars as you make these adjustments.

Controlling lights and darks Lightness, as the name implies, controls how bright or dark a particular part of your image is. With Edit still set to Reds, I’ve moved the slider all the way to the left, darkening all the red areas in this image. On the two color bars at the bottom of the dialog box, you can see that shades of black have replaced red in the image. If we set Edit back to Master, the same adjustment would affect the entire image, not just a specific color range.

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The Basics of Hue and Saturation A Preview of things to come Throughout this demonstration, the Preview box has been checked. Without that, we couldn’t see the effects of our adjustments in real-time as we make them. For especially large images, you might want to uncheck this box to improve performance, but leave it checked in most cases. Colorize is useful when you have a black and white image to which you’d like to add color. There you have it – a quick and easy way to make all your images look as if they came out beautifully colored and lit the first time.

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The Basics of Typography Many trees have been felled and books written about the subject of type. In this lesson, I’ll cover the high points of typography as they apply in Photoshop, saving you time and saving a few trees in the process.

Enter type In order to talk about typography in Photoshop, you’ll probably have guessed that we’ll need some type. Enter some text into a new image, then use the handles found around the type’s selection box to move and enlarge it for demonstration purposes. To do this, select the Move tool – you’ll find it at the top right of the Tools palette. Press Control(Command)+T to select the text. If you’d like to resize the text proportionally, hold the Shift key while you drag one of the corner handles. Once you’ve got the size you want, double-click to save your changes and drag the text object to the center of the workspace.

Characterizing your type To access the Character palette, select Window>Character. The Character palette has a wonderful assortment of type tools – many previously unavailable in Photoshop. Simply select the font and style you’d like from the top of the Character tab, then choose a size, either by selecting it from the drop-down menu, typing it manually or by clicking and dragging on the double Ts to the left. Leading, or line spacing, is controlled from the box directly to the right of the type size control. Again, you can specify the leading directly or by click/dragging the icon to the left of the control. www.prophotosecrets.com

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The Basics of Typography Kerning Now, select the Text tool (the large T on the right side of the Tools palette) and click anywhere within your type. Directly below the type size control, you’ll find a kerning control. Kerning is simply the amount of space between any two letters in your type. On the drop-down menu, Metrics specifies kerning as a set proportion of the font size. Selecting Optical changes the kerning so that it’s more optically appealing. The i and the n, for example, could stand to be more tightly grouped, so we can position the cursor between them, select Optical and get a more pleasing relation between the two. For finer control, select one of the values listed below.

Tracking Select the Move tool once again, then click on the tracking control, located directly to the right of the kerning control. Tracking is similar to kerning in that it defines letter spacing, but tracking controls the space between all letters in a group.

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The Basics of Typography Skinny type Below the kerning control, you’ll find a control that allows you to make your type long and thin or short and squat. Adjust this control by using preset values, entering the value directly or clicking and dragging the icon next to the control. The control directly to the right makes the same adjustments, but horizontally instead of vertically.

Superscript and subscript A super- and subscript control lies just to the left of the color control. Adjustments to this control raise or lower your type in relation to the baseline. The baseline is simply an imaginary line on which your type rests. The color control is much the same as you’ll find on any palette – selecting it will bring up the Color Picker dialog, with which you can select different colors for your type.

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The Basics of Typography The Paragraph palette Click the Paragraph tab. The displayed palette will allow you to set properties like spacing between paragraphs, indents, alignment and justification. Photoshop gives you precise control over how your text appears – play with it and I’m sure you’ll create some text that’s just your type.

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The Basics of the Layers Palette Layers are one of Photoshop’s most powerful – and utilized – features. Nearly every project you undertake will involve layers, whether you use them to stack objects or to control the appearance of certain parts of your image without affecting the rest. Think of them as clear sheets of plastic on which you can manipulate individual parts of your image and which you can stack to present a complete image. In this lesson, I’ll show you how to tap into the creative power of Photoshop’s layers.

A Stack of layers If your Layers palette is not visible, select Window>Layers or press F7 on your keyboard. As you can see, I’ve got a red background layer and three transparent layers, each labeled so that you can more easily understand the concept. Because my upper layers are transparent, you can see the layers below. Moving layers in the stack is simply a matter of clicking and dragging them up or down the list. If a layer displays a padlock to the right, it’s held in place until you release it by clicking the padlock icon at the top of the Layers palette.

Transparent vs opaque layers Here, you can see that I’ve renamed my background layer by clicking on the label and typing Red Layer. I’ve made sure it’s not locked into position and then moved it above Bottom Layer 3. Because Red Layer is not transparent, it has obscured Bottom Layer 3. Bottom Layer 3 is still present, but doesn’t show through the layer above it. If I were to move Red Layer to the top of the stack, all we’d see is a red image with no text showing.

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The Basics of the Layers Palette An eye for design Notice the eye icons to the left of each layer. Clicking them toggles the visibility of the associated layer. In this example, I’ve dragged the opaque Red Layer to the top of the stack. Ordinarily, this would obscure all layers below. But since I’ve clicked on the eye icon, Red Layer is no longer visible and the other three layers appear. Red Layer is still present, but its visibility is toggled off for the time being.

Moving Layers I’ve moved Red Layer back to the bottom of the stack, highlighted Top Layer 1 and selected the Move tool. Now, using the mouse or the arrows on the keyboard, I can move Top Layer 1 anywhere within the image without affecting anything above or below it. Notice that, since Top Layer 1 is above all other layers, it obscures parts of Middle Layer 2.

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The Basics of the Layers Palette The Opacity control Photoshop allows us to control the degree of opacity of any layer in our image. In this example, I’ve selected Red Layer – our background layer – and used the Opacity slider to make the layer transparent. That’s a basic overview of layers and their manipulation. Because they’re so important to working in Photoshop, I encourage you to practice using layers until they’re second nature.

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The Basics of the Layers Palette, Part 2 Layers are one of Photoshop’s most powerful – and utilized – features. Nearly every project you undertake will involve layers, whether you use them to stack objects or to control the appearance of certain parts of your image without affecting the rest. Think of them as clear sheets of plastic on which you can manipulate individual parts of your image and which you can stack to present a complete image. In this lesson, I’ll continue what we started in Part 1 and show you how to create, duplicate, delete and rename your layers using any of the multiple methods provided by Photoshop.

One new layer, four new ways As before, if your Layers palette is not visible, select Window>Layers or press F7 on your keyboard. To create a new layer, just click on the curled paper icon next to the trash can icon, click the arrow just under the palette’s Close button and select New Layer... or press Shift+Control(Command)+N on the keyboard. Or, if you prefer, select Layer>New>Layer... from the menu bar.

3 ways to duplicate layers Often, it’s necessary to duplicate an existing layer in Photoshop. One of the easiest ways is to simply drag a layer onto the curled paper icon at the bottom of the Layers palette, but you can also click the arrow under the palette’s Close button, then select Duplicate Layer... or select Layer>Duplicate Layer... from the menu bar.

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The Basics of the Layers Palette, Part 2 2 ways to get rid of layers If you create a layer and later find that you don’t want it anymore, just drag the layer to the trash can icon on the bottom of the Layers palette and it’s gone. Alternately, select the layer you’d like to remove, then click the trash can icon to delete it.

Name your layers It’s helpful, especially when working with many layers, to give each layer a descriptive name. To rename an existing layer, double-click the label and enter a new name for it. When you create a new label, by whatever means, you’ll be given the opportunity to name it at that time. Photoshop gives you many ways to skin a cat, as it were. Here we’ve covered various ways to create, duplicate, delete and rename your layers – try them all and soon you’ll settle on the way you like best.

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Straightening Your Photographs You’ve waited until just the right moment: the sun has slid down under the horizon and backlit everything in gold and orange hues. It’s all perfect. You ready your camera, click the shutter – and your mate bumps your arm. Now you’ve got a perfectly lit, sublimely composed image that tilts to the right! Have no fear, because in this lesson I’ll show you how to straighten up that photograph so quickly and simply that you won’t believe it.

A perfect shot...almost As you can see, we’ve got a great shot of a grassy field, but the horizon line slopes down to the right. To begin fixing this, first select your Eyedropper tool. If you hold down the mouse button, you’ll notice a flyout menu with three different tools. For this job, we’ll need the Measure tool.

-3.7 Degrees of Separation Once you’ve got the Measure tool active, click and drag along the horizon line, as I’ve done here. Release the mouse button and notice that Photoshop has helpfully calculated the deviation from horizontal in the Options bar. In our case, the value is -3.7 degrees.

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Straightening Your Photographs Rotate the canvas Now select Image>Rotate Canvas>Arbitrary... and, in the dialog box that appears, you’ll notice that Photoshop has already inserted our measurement for us and has even noted that our rotation should be counterclockwise. Select OK.

Using the Crop tool At first blush, the result of our canvas rotation doesn’t look very pretty. All we have to do, though, is to select the Crop tool – located third from the top on the left side of the Tools palette – and crop our image within its borders as I’ve done here. Once you’ve got the area you’d like to crop selected, press Enter.

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Straightening Your Photographs A new horizon Here’s the result – a level horizon, just like you meant it to be. No muss, no fuss and no need to harass your clumsy mate.

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Making Selections Life is all about choices, and the selections you make now can change your future completely. Selections in Photoshop are all about changing just those parts of images that we wish to change. Since selecting bits of images is something you’ll do frequently as you work, I’m going to devote some space to helping you grasp the basics of selections in Photoshop.

The Marquee tool Here, I’ve got a nice shot of some vegetables that I’d like to enhance. To begin, I’ll click the Rectangular Marquee tool in the Tools palette or press M on the keyboard. By holding down the mouse button, you’ll see a flyout menu containing four selection shapes. For now, I’ll choose the Elliptical Marquee tool.

Select, cut and paste I’ve used the Elliptical Marquee tool to select part of the existing image and have pasted it into a new image. Though I’ve chosen an elliptical shape, I could have held the Shift key while making my selection, which would have given me a perfect circle. If I had used the Rectangular Marquee tool, I could have held the Shift key down while dragging my selection to create a square.

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Making Selections Broccoli that pops I’ve selected some broccoli from our image, cut it (Edit>Cut or Control(Command)+X) and pasted it (Edit>Paste or Control(Command)+V) to a new layer. To emphasize the broccoli a little more, I’ve also added a drop shadow and an outline, using the Layers palette. Notice that, along the left side of the image, I’ve selected a column using the Single Column Marquee tool from the flyout menu. I could also have chosen the Single Row Marquee tool. These aren’t used much, but are available to create effects such as simulated video scan lines in an image.

Adding or subtracting selections In the image to the right, I first decided to select the hamster using the Rectangular Marquee tool, but later wanted to add the little girl’s face to the selection. To do that, I simply held down the Shift key while dragging my new selection, which Photoshop then helpfully added to my original selection. To subtract from a selection, hold down the Alt(Option) key while dragging over the portion of the selection that you’d like to remove.

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Making Selections Further refining selections To further refine my selection, I’ve clicked the Lasso tool – located just below the Rectangular Marquee tool – and then held down the Alt(Option) key while marking the areas of my original selection to remove.

A complex selection made easy Here you can see that I’ve selected an irregular area of my image with just a few seconds work. Practice making complex and simple selections on your own. The time you spend perfecting these skills will pay off many times down the road.

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The Pen Tool in Action Have you ever snapped a photo and later wanted to remove the background? Say you had a boyfriend – let’s call him Jim – who’s no longer your boyfriend. That photo of you and him from a few Christmases ago is great, except for the Jim part. You’ve decided you’d like to cut your face from the photo and paste in into a new background. In this lesson, I’ll show you how to get rid of all the Jims in your life by using Photoshop’s amazing Pen tool.

A Pen tool and much more To get started, select the Pen tool from the Tools palette. Note that a flyout menu with four other tools – which we’ll cover a little later – appears when you hold your mouse button down over the Pen tool.

Select, cut and paste For this demonstration, we’ll be using an image of a glass of orange juice. I’d like to cut the glass and the orange away from the background and, since the edges of the two are well-defined, making this selection is a perfect job for the Pen tool. For objects, such as hair or fur, with very ragged edges, another tool would be better suited to making selections. We’ll cover that in another lesson. For now, let’s see how the Pen tool works when used to select objects within an image.

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The Pen Tool in Action Get a handle on the Pen tool I’ve used the Zoom tool (the magnifying glass icon on the lower right of the Tools palette) to magnify the top of our glass. After selecting the Pen tool once again, I placed two points on the edge of the glass. While some users prefer to place lots of points along an edge, I think it works best when you use only as many as necessary. The straight line attached to the second point is a handle. The handle is just a means of shaping the line between the two preceeding points. By tipping one end and/or altering the length of this handle, I can make the selection line conform to the edge of the glass.

Removing handles I’ve placed a third point on the edge of the glass. In order to make a smooth transition from the edge of the glass to the side, I removed the handle from the third point by pressing and holding the Alt(Option) key while clicking on the third point. The reason for this is that the handle determines where a path is ultimately going to go and, in this case, would not have allowed the sharp bend we need. In essence, removing the handle gives us a fresh start to continue our path down the side of the glass. Just remember to remove the handle when you need to make a sharp turn around your selection.

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The Pen Tool in Action Adjust the fill Here, you can see that I’ve completed our path by making my way around the glass and finally connecting my first and last points. If the inside of your selection appears black, as mine does, adjust the Fill slider on the Layers palette to 0% and you’ll be able to see your image again.

Adding up the points It’s not often that we get our selection just right the first time round. Sometimes we can improve our selection by adding points to it. To do this, click and hold your mouse pointer over the Pen tool, then select the Add Anchor Point tool. From there, it’s an easy matter to add an adjustment point simply by clicking the path where you’d like the extra point – and two new handles – to appear.

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The Pen Tool in Action Make the ants march Once you’ve got your selection path just the way you want it, you’ll need to make it a live path. To do that, select the Paths tab in the Layers palette then click on the third button from the left to load the path as a selection. Once you do, you’ll immediately see the “marching ants” that indicate a live path.

Inverse selections Now that I’ve got the orange and the glass selected, it’s easy to select just the opposite – in other words, the background. Just click Select>Inverse or press Shift+Control(Command)+I and you’ll select everything but the orange and the glass. Then, making sure the image isn’t on the background layer, press the Delete key and your background image is gone. I’ve filled the background with white and added a drop shadow, but you can make your background anything you like – with no Jims to offend the eye.

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The Not-Dodgey Dodge Tool Back in the old days, photographers actually shaded a light with their hand when developing film to dodge or burn parts of an image. Somewhat counterintuitively, dodging means lightening a shadowed area, while burning means darkening an area. Fortunately, Photoshop has made this easy for us, and in this lesson I’ll show you how to lighten up the dark areas of your photos.

Setting Dodge tool options The Dodge tool is located on the right side of the Tools palette and looks a bit like a black lollipop. Once you’ve selected it, notice the settings in the Options bar. I like to have a large brush – 250px in this case – and soft brush edges when dodging. In the Range control, I’ve selected Midtones, though you can also select Shadows and Highlights. Finally, Exposure is set to 50% by default, but I find that rather harsh and like to drop it to 20%. To preserve the background layer, duplicate it by pressing Control(Command)+J.

Dodge away Here, I’ve magnified the image, using the Zoom tool, and have begun to sweep the brush over the dark area of the shoe while clicking and holding the mouse button. It’s important to be gentle when doing this so that you don’t overexpose the area and end up with a fake-looking image.

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The Not-Dodgey Dodge Tool Dodgey? Hardly. Here’s our dodged image. To be sure, it’s a subtle difference, but many of the best Photoshop effects are. Give this one a try, practice it and your photos will look better than ever.

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Using the Burn Tool Back in the old days, photographers actually shaded a light with their hand when developing film to dodge or burn parts of an image. Somewhat counterintuitively, dodging means lightening a shadowed area, while burning means darkening an area. Fortunately, Photoshop has made this easy for us, and in this lesson I’ll show you how to darken those overexposed areas in your photos.

Get ready to burn The Burn tool is located in the flyout menu that appears when you click and hold your mouse cursor over the Dodge tool. To preserve the background layer, duplicate it by pressing Control(Command)+J on the keyboard.

Burn, baby, burn! While this photograph features a pretty dramatic sky already, I’d like to give it a brooding, ominous look. Notice the Option bar – I’ve selected a brush size of 500. Depending on the resolution of your image, you may want to choose a smaller or larger brush. I’ll be working in the midtones, and I’ve dropped the exposure to 30%. All that’s left to do is stroke the brush over the areas of the image that need to be darkened.

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Using the Burn Tool Stormy weather I’ve darkened the clouds, but to further increase the contrast between them and the land below, I’ve passed the Dodge tool over the trees and foreground area. There you have it – a brewing storm, courtesy of Photoshop’s Burn tool.

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The Zoom Tool The Zoom tool is a Photoshop feature that you’ll use again and again in your imaging work. Whether you need to zoom in to remove a pimple on an adolescent face or zoom out to add some majesty to a mountain range, Photoshop offers numerous ways to access and control this essential tool.

Grab your spyglass To use the Zoom tool, click on the magnifying glass icon located on the right side of the Tools palette. In the Options bar, you’ll see a magnifying glass with a “+” sign to zoom into an image and one with a “-” sign to zoom out. Once you’ve selected one, click over an area of the image that you’d like to zoom into or out of and Photoshop will center the zoom on the point you clicked. By default, Photoshop zooms into an image – to zoom out, you can simply hold down Alt(Option) while you click on your image with the magnifying tool. Note, when you do this, how the “+” sign becomes a “-” sign.

Using the Navigator Palette Photoshop includes a handy Navigator palette to help you magnify parts of your image. If the palette is not visible, select Window>Navigator from the menu bar. The Navigator palette features a slider control that lets you specify the amount of zoom in a few different ways. Clicking the icon to the right of the slider zooms in, while the icon to the left zooms out again. You can, of course, grab the slider itself, or you can input a zoom percentage in the box to the left. Here, I’ve zoomed in a bit. Notice the red box over our image in the Navigator palette. This shows us just what part of the zoomed image is displayed in the workspace. www.prophotosecrets.com

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The Zoom Tool Zoom up and pan Once we’ve got the image zoomed to the correct degree, it’s really easy to pan around. Just click and hold down the mouse button while the cursor’s inside the red box in the Navigator palette and drag it to another location within the image.

Zooming with the keyboard One final tip – to quickly zoom the entire image, just press and hold the Control(Command) key and the “+” key to zoom in or the “- “ key to zoom out. Practice using Photoshop’s various zooming methods and you’ll soon be racing around your images like a pro.

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Photo Editing Made Simple Shane Goldberg’s Photoshop CS1 Made Easy ®

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Adding Color to Black and White Photos One of the great things about Photoshop is the way it allows us to alter our images with artistic effects that are difficult – sometimes impossible – to achieve without it. Take, for instance, adding colored areas to black and white photographs. While black and white photos can be quite dramatic in themselves, adding a spot of color here and there can really give the image an entrancing quality. Magazines do it all the time, and in this lesson, I’ll show you how to do it too.

Quick Mask mode Before I begin to add color to our image, I’ll need to make sure I’m in the right mode by selecting Image>Mode>RGB color. Even though our image is black and white, I’ll need to be in RGB (Red, Green and Blue) mode to add color. Next, put Photoshop into Quick Mask mode by clicking the right-hand icon just under the color selector in the Tools palette or by pressing Q on the keyboard.

Masking the image Since we’ll be adding color to this young man’s tie, I’ve zoomed into the image and selected the Brush tool. I’ve selected a brush and hardness that will allow me to cover the area quickly without spilling over the edges of the tie. If you should paint something that you’d rather not, just select the Eraser tool and rub it out. You’ll notice that we’re painting a red color over the tie. If you don’t like red, don’t worry – that’s just the color of our mask.

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Adding Color to Black and White Photos Return to standard mode We’ve got the tie completely masked, so it’s time to return to standard mode to complete our editing. To do that, click on the button directly to the left of the Quick Mask button or press Q again on the keyboard to toggle back to standard editing mode.

Selecting the tie Once you return to standard editing mode, you’ll see the familiar marching ants that indicate that you’ve made a selection, but this time you’ve done it with a mask. It’s a little counterintuitive, but for this work, you’ll need to click Select>Inverse or press Shift+Control(Command)+I on the keyboard. This is because the mask has actually covered the tie. To work on the tie alone, we need to make the mask cover everything except the tie. So we make an inverse selection.

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Adding Color to Black and White Photos Create an adjustment layer Next, we’ll need to use our Layers palette. If you don’t see it, select Window>Layers or press F7 on the keyboard. To create an adjustment layer, click the black and white icon on the bottom of the Layers palette, then select Hue/ Saturation...

Adjust hue and saturation In the Hue/Saturation dialog box, check the Colorize box and make sure the Preview box is also checked so that you can see the effect of your adjustments. From here, it’s only a matter of using the slider controls to get just the shade you’d like for the young man’s tie. And that’s how you can create a spectacular effect that photographers of old would have trampled their mothers to learn.

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Adding a Softly Focused Background Photographers are always seeking ways to emphasize their subjects. One of the best, and easiest in Photoshop, is to blur the background, leaving the subject in focus. In this lesson, I’ll show you two different ways to add soft focus to your backgrounds.

Create a new editing layer As is often the case, the first thing we’ll need to do is to duplicate our background layer. In this example, I’ve just grabbed hold of the background layer and dragged it to the new layer icon (to the left of the trash can icon). If your Layers palette is not visible, select Window>Layers or press F7 on the keyboard.

Grab a Brush and Get to Work Next, we’ll need to click the icon just under the two large boxes of color on the right side of the Tools palette to begin editing in Quick Mask mode. Once you’ve done that, click the Brush icon and select a largish brush to paint the mask on the image. Here, I’ve selected a soft round brush of 65 pixels.

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Adding a Softly Focused Background Paint a mask on the image Now, we’ll need to paint our red mask on all the areas of the image that we’d like to be blurred. Once that’s done, select the icon just to the left of the Quick Mask icon to switch back to standard editing mode. As in the previous lesson, you’ll notice that the subjects of our photograph are now selected. But to select the background areas for editing, you’ll need to click Select>Inverse or press Control(Command)+I on the keyboard.

Using Lens Blur Now for the fun part. Select Filter>Blur>Lens Blur... and notice how the background has changed. In this example, I’ve chosen a Radius of 45. To toggle back and forth between the blurred and unblurred images, check or uncheck the Preview box. Once you’re satisfied with the image, click OK, then click Select>Deselect or press Control(Command)+D on the keyboard. If, after you’ve deselected your mask, you decide that the blurring effect is too pronounced, simply use the Opacity slider at the top of the Layers palette to lessen the effect.

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Adding a Softly Focused Background A 2nd way to blur backgrounds Here’s another way to achieve the same effect. As before, drag your background layer to the New Layer icon to duplicate it, then select Filter>Blur>Lens Blur...

Lens Blur again We’ll use Lens Blur, as before, but this time choose a value of 34 for Radius. Select OK.

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Adding a Softly Focused Background Drop the opacity Now, to mitigate the blurring, I’ve dropped the Opacity control to 34%, selected the Eraser tool and a soft round brush of 35 pixels.

Brush away the excess blur Now it’s just a matter of running the brush over the parts of the image that you’d like to clear up.

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Adding a Softly Focused Background A subject in sharp focus Here’s our finished image. To make the blurring effect a bit more pronounced, I’ve increased the opacity to 70%. Putting your backgrounds into soft focus is a wonderful way to bring out the subject in your photographs, and Photoshop allows you to create this useful effect in only seconds.

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Changing Eye Color Photoshop allows us to take what is and make it what we would wish it to be. Say we’ve got a photograph of someone with lovely brown eyes, but we’d like to make the eyes match some other part of the image for effect. Changing eye color is a simple bit of business in Photoshop and, in this lesson, I’ll show you how.

Enter Quick Mask mode To begin, put Photoshop in Quick Mask mode by clicking the button on the right side of the Tools palette under the colored boxes. Then, select a soft brush appropriate to the size of your image. I’ve selected a brush of 95 pixels in diameter and 0% hardness. If, while masking, you stray from your intended area, just erase the error with your Eraser tool.

Mask the iris Now, mask the iris, or the colored part of the eye. Pay no attention to the demonic red color – that’s just the color of the mask. Once you’re finished, return to standard editing mode by clicking the button to the left of the Quick Mask button. Then, as we’ve done before, choose Select>Inverse or click Shift+Control(Command)+I to select the inverse and mask off the areas around the iris.

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Changing Eye Color Create an Adjustment Layer Next, create an adjustment layer by clicking the black and white button on the bottom of the Layers palette. If you can’t see your Layers palette, select Window>Layers or press F7 on the keyboard. In the menu that appears, select Hue/ Saturation... to begin coloring the iris.

Choose a hue Now, check the Colorize and Preview boxes, then proceed to choose Hue, Saturation and Lightness values for your new eye color. Once you’ve settled on a new eye color, it’s helpful to reduce the intensity of the change by using the Opacity slider control at the top of the Layers palette.

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Changing Eye Color Blue-eyed baby And that’s that! With a few deft clicks of the mouse, we’ve made brown eyes turn blue and, unlike some colored contact lenses, the effect looks as if Mother Nature herself had a hand in it.

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Changing Hair Color Blondes wish to be brunettes and the silver-haired wish for the black of their youth. While Nature is not very obliging in this matter, we can take matters into our own hands with Photoshop. This time around, I’ll show you how to go from blonde to purple without expensive dyes or a visit to the wig shop.

Get your Quick Mask on First, as we so often do in photo editing in Photoshop, we’ll need to enter Quick Mask mode by clicking the icon under the colored boxes and to the right in the Tools palette. Then, click the Brush icon on the Tools palette and choose a suitablysized soft brush. In this case, I’ve chosen a 21 pixel soft round brush. Notice that I’ve moved my Tools palette out of the way by clicking and dragging the topmost edge. Once you’ve got your brush selected, sweep the mouse over the areas that you’d like to mask.

Make an adjustment layer With the hair masked off, click Select>Inverse or press Shift+Control(Command)+I on the keyboard and zoom out, if necessary. Return to standard editing mode by clicking the button to the left of the Quick Mask icon, then click the black and white icon on the bottom of the Layers palette and select Hue/Saturation... to create a new adjustment layer.

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Changing Hair Color A color Nature never intended By adjusting the Hue slider, I’ve given this young woman a Punk makeover without even breaking a sweat. I encourage you to get very familiar with Photoshop’s Quick Mask feature. You can have a lot of fun and wreak a lot of havoc with it, not to mention give your photos the spark they need to get noticed.

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Cropping the Smart Way Many times, we’ll take a nice photograph but, because we’re too far away and don’t have a powerful enough zoom lens, our subject is far too small. Other times, we’d like to focus on a particular area of a photograph and crop away the rest. Photoshop makes this a snap and, in this lesson, I’ll show you how to crop like a pro.

Unlock the background layer Here we’ve got a typical photograph with a very small subject and gobs of background competing for the eye’s attention. Before we take this to the lab for processing, it’d be best if we cut away some of the sky so that our skydiving subject becomes more prominent. First, though, we’ll need to double-click the background layer in the Layers palette and then click OK so that our background layer is no longer locked, allowing us to crop it.

Select the Crop tool Next, select the Crop tool from the Tools palette. To access this more quickly, just press C on the keyboard. Now, by clicking and dragging a selection box, focus in on the part of the image in which you’re interested. Once you release the mouse button, the part of the image to be cropped away will dim. If the crop is not quite right, just select the Move tool and drag the selection where you’d like it. When the cropping selection is correct, simply double-click the image – or select Image>Crop – to remove the dimmed area.

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Cropping the Smart Way Enlarge the canvas Since the size of this image, after cropping, is only 3 by 5 inches, I’m going to select Image>Canvas Size... and enlarge it to 10 by 15 inches. Notice that, even though the cropped image is hidden by the Canvas Size dialog box, you can still see the image in the Navigator palette.

Enlarge the cropped image Now that the canvas is larger, all that remains is to enlarge the image itself. To do that, press Control(Command)+T on the keyboard. This will display handles around the edge of your image with which you can resize it. Because I want the proportions of this image to remain constant as I enlarge it, I’ll press and hold Shift while dragging one of the corner handles.

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Cropping the Smart Way Ready for the photo lab Here, I’ve pressed the Tab key to hide all palettes so that we can see the finished image. All I need to do now is make sure the image has a density of about 300 dpi, save it to a suitable file type – most photo lab can work with jpegs – and take it in to be printed. I think this is an especially handsome photograph, but I may be biased because it’s me. Whether it indicates an adventurous spirit or an utter lack of regard for bodily integrity, I’ll leave to the reader to decide.

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Cropping In Reverse Normally, we’d use the Crop tool to remove parts of our image, but we can also use it to add borders. In this lesson, I’ll use it to turn an already beautiful photograph into a poster.

Swapping colors To begin, I’ve zoomed out so that I can see the entire image and clicked the double arrow above and to the right of the colored boxes in the Tools palette to make my foreground color black instead of the default white. If yours are not black and white, just click the tiny colored boxes below and to the left of the larger ones to reset them to defaults, then swap them using the double arrow.

Crop in reverse Next, select the Crop tool from the Tools palette. To access this more quickly, just press C on the keyboard. Instead of reducing the area of the image, I’ve clicked and dragged a selection box around the outside of the photograph. Once I hit Enter on the keyboard – or double-click within the image – the additional space is automatically filled with with white, which we specified as our foreground color earlier.

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Cropping In Reverse An image fit for a frame All that’s left to do is to add some text, which I’ve done using the Text tool on the Tools palette. Then, to see my work without the clutter of palettes, I simply toggled the palettes off using the Tab key. Try this one on your next photo and you’ll be surprised by the professional quality and sophistication you can achieve so easily and quickly.

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Sharpening Blurry Photos Blurry photos are the bane of beginning – and sometimes advanced –photographers everywhere. Once upon a time, we had to live with the occasional out-of-focus shot, but no more. Photoshop allows us to sharpen up those photos in a hurry.

Duplicate the background layer Before I begin to shapen this quite blurry photograph, I’ll click and drag the layer onto the New Layer icon to duplicate it. If your Layers palette is hidden, reveal it by selecting Window>Layers or pressing F7 on the keyboard.

Sharpening with High Pass The first method of shapening photos that I’ll show you involves Photoshop’s High Pass filter. To display its dialog, select Filter>Other>High Pass... In the dialog that appears, you can select various radii, but we’ll stick with the default value of 15. The object, of course, is to have a radius of just enough to enhance the edges of your images without going overboard. Practicing with this tool will help you to quickly get a feel for how much is too much and how much is just right. Select OK, then change the layer’s blending mode – found at the top left of the Layers palette – from Normal to Hard Light. www.prophotosecrets.com

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Sharpening Blurry Photos A Sharp Image Here, you can see that our photograph is much improved and it took only seconds to do. But there’s another way – the oddly named Unsharp Mask.

The Unsharp Mask in action Before using this technique, drag the duplicated layer from the previous example to the trash can on the bottom of the Layers palette to delete it. With our image returned to its blurred state, I’ll select Filter>Sharpen>Unsharp Mask...

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Sharpening Blurry Photos An Unsharp image In the dialog box that’s displayed, there are sliders to select the Amount, Radius and Threshold for our Unsharp Mask. Because I’ve got the Preview box checked, I can adjust these parameters and see the effect as I go. To see the image as it was before adjustments, just click the Preview button again. In this case, I’ve got Amount set to 163%, Radius at 30.4 pixels and Threshold – which I normally don’t adjust – set to 8 levels. If you find that your image appears a little unnatural after sharpening, try adjusting the Opacity control to allow a little more of the background layer to show through the adjustment layer.

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Whitening Teeth When we see the faces of models and movie stars on the covers of glossy magazines, the first thing many of us notice is their sparkling smiles. How did they get such white and even teeth? The secret is, of course, Photoshop. In this lesson, I won’t show you how to do major dental reconstruction – though it can be done – but I’ll let you in on the secret of whitening teeth.

Start by masking As we do in many retouching situations, we’ll be using the Quick Mask mode in this lesson. Here, I’ve zoomed up on our subject’s teeth by selecting the Zoom tool from the Tools palette. Next, I’ll start Quick Mask mode by clicking the button under and to the right of the colored boxes in the Tools palette. Next, I’ll select the Brush tool on the Tools palette and choose a soft brush of 13 pixels for our work here.

Brush your teeth I’ve brushed our model’s teeth with the Brush tool. Though it looks as if she’s eaten a box of pink candy and neglected to brush, the red color is simply our mask. Now, get back to standard editing mode by clicking the button next to the Quick Mask icon. Next, invert the selection by clicking Select>Inverse or pressing Shift+Control(Command)+I on the keyboard. Because I sometimes find the “marching ants” that indicate selected areas to be distracting, I’ll select View>Extras to remove the checkmark and the ants. Our selection is still there, but it’s now invisible. www.prophotosecrets.com

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Whitening Teeth Decrease saturation The next step is to desaturate the color of our model’s teeth. I could select Image> Adjustments>Desaturate, but that would totally desaturate the teeth, and that’s not what we want here. So, I’ll select Image>Adjustments>Hue/Saturation... – or press Control(Command)+U on the keyboard – and adjust the Saturation value to -60.

Create an adjustment layer Now, I’ll click the black and white icon on the bottom of the Layers palette and select Levels... to create a new adjustment layer.

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Whitening Teeth Bump up the highlights In the levels dialog, I’ll simply click and drag the rightmost arrow – the highlights in our selection – to the left until I’m satisfied with the whiteness of the woman’s teeth. Be careful not to go overboard with this, or you’ll end up with teeth that look to have been whitened in a nuclear accident.

Whiter teeth in 30 seconds And there you go – a nice bright smile that didn’t require expensive laser tooth whitening appointments or a new brand of toothpaste.

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Wedding Photo Makeover Wedding photos, for many of us, are flash-frozen reminders of some of the happiest moments in our lives. With the help of Photoshop, what’s good can always be made better, and in this lesson, I’ll show you a few ways to enhance and customize those photos to make them more special than ever.

Isolating photographic elements In this example, we’ve got a typical wedding shot. Nicely composed and lit, this photo’s a keeper. Let’s see, however, what we can do to give the shot even more punch and a bit of extra poignancy. First off, let’s select the Zoom tool from the Tools palette and zoom up on the flower bouquet.

Mask off the flowers Next, as we’ve done before, we’ll tell Photoshop to get into Quick Mask mode by clicking the icon beneath and to the right of the large colored boxes in the Tools palette. Select a suitably-sized soft round brush by clicking the Brush icon on the Tools palette. By painting over the flowers, we’ll tell Photoshop to select them for masking. Once the flowers are masked, return to standard editing mode by clicking the icon to the left of the Quick Mask icon.

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Wedding Photo Makeover Drop the Saturation Next, create an adjustment layer by clicking the black and white icon at the bottom of the Layers palette and selecting Hue/Saturation... In this example, I’ve dropped the saturation level to -100 so that everything in our photo, except the flowers, will be black and white.

Add a border After zooming back out of the image, click on the New Layer icon – located next to the trash can icon – to create a layer for a border around the image. Now, select the Brush icon from the Tools palette and choose the Scattered Maple Leaves brush that’s included with Photoshop. For the color, click the foreground color box and, from the Color Picker dialog, choose R245, G205 and B20 for an autumnal hue.

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Wedding Photo Makeover Leaves and grass I’ve swept the Scattered Maple Leaves brush around the edges of our image, and the effect is so nice that I’d like to add some grass. To do that. all I’ve got to do is select the Grass brush included with Photoshop by clicking on the Options bar. From the Color Picker dialog, I’ve selected value of R39, G149 and B15. Now all that’s left is to paint some grass in the same way we painted the leaves.

Dry brush For the finishing touch, I’ve selected Dry Brush from the Options bar, increased the brush size to about 140 pixels and changed the color to white. By scrubbing this brush across the corners and edges of our image, we’ll get a hazy effect.

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Wedding Photo Makeover Romance enhanced I’ve dropped the opacity of the adjustment layer back to around 20% and zoomed up on the image. As you can see, we’e given our wedding shot a wistfully romantic feel that will surely make it a favorite as the years pass.

Using blur to enhance photos For this image, I’d like to blur the distracing background so that we can better focus on our happy couple. First, duplicate the background layer by clicking and dragging it onto the New Layer icon at the bottom of the Layers palette. Then, set Photoshop to Quick Mask mode by clicking the Quick Mask icon. Next, click the Brush tool from the Tools palette and select a soft round brush of 200 pixels for masking. A big brush makes quick work of masking. Don’t worry if you paint beyond the edges of your subject – that’s easily corrected with the Eraser tool.

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Wedding Photo Makeover Return to standard editing mode Now that I’ve masked our couple, it’s time to return to standard editing mode by clicking the icon next to the Quick Mask icon. Then, to select everything but our subjects, I’ll need to click Select>Inverse on the menu bar.

Apply lens blur Now, select Filter>Blur>Lens Blur... from the menu bar and change Radius to 40.

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Wedding Photo Makeover Reduce saturation Blurring has done a good job of diminishing the importance of the background in our image, but I’d like to take it a step further by desaturating the color as well. To do this, click the black and white icon at the bottom of the Layers palette, then select Hue/ Saturation... from the flyout menu. In the Hue/Saturation dialog box, reduce Saturation to -100.

The new couple comes forward Here’s our completed image. Blurring and desaturating the background has given a stronger focus to our couple. If this level of blurring and desaturation seems a bit much, it’s simple to adjust it – just reduce the opacity of the layer or click on the adjustment layer and alter it until it looks perfect.

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Whitening Eyes Due to lighting conditions and individuals with particularly deep eye sockets, the eyes in our photographs are often a bit darker that we’d like, though the rest of the image is bright as we want it. In a manner similar to the way we whitened teeth in a previous lesson, this time around I’ll show you how to do the same for the eyes.

Mask your eyes Before we get to the business of whitening and brightening this fellow’s eyes, we’ll need to get into masking mode by clicking the Quick Mask icon below the large colored boxes in the Tools palette. Click on the Brush icon, choose a soft round brush of 60 pixels and begin to paint a mask over both eye sockets. To maintain a clear view of what we’re doing, I’ll reduce the opacity of the mask to around 80%.

Rose-colored glasses Though it looks like our friend’s had a very rough night or taken a fancy to redlensed goggles, the colored area represents our mask. Once we return to standard editing mode by clicking the icon next to the Quick Mask icon, we’ll see the familiar marching ants that indicate that Photoshop has made a selection for us based on the shape of our mask.

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Whitening Eyes Feather the selection We’re going to do something a bit different to our selection this time by softening the edges of the selection. To do that, click Select>Feather... and input a Feather Radius of 3. Then, as we’ve done many times, click Select>Inverse to mask off everything in the image except the eye area. If you’d like, you can then select View>Extras to uncheck that option and get rid of the marching ants.

Create a levels adjustment layer Now, click the black and white icon on the bottom of the Layers palette and select Levels... to create an adjustment layer. In the dialog box that’s displayed, simply click and drag the middle arrow that lies beneath the black mountainous shape that defines our image’s levels and drag it to the left. The middle arrow controls the midtones in our image and, in this case, I’ve lowered it to 1.24. Remember, the best image edits are subtle, so don’t go overboard with this adjustment.

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Whitening Eyes Whitening the eyeball Next, zoom into the eyeball itself, enter masking mode and choose a smallish brush to mask off the white part of the eyes. Once that’s done, return to standard editing mode and Select>Inverse as we did earlier. Again, if you’d like to eliminate the dashed selection lines, click View>Extras or press Control(Command)+H on the keyboard.

Alter the midtones Select Image>Adjustments>Hue/ Saturation... and bump Saturation down to about -50. Next, adjust the levels using Image>Adjustments>Levels... Here, I’ve gone a bit far and given this fellow a bizarre appearance, so I’ll bring the midtones back up to 1.16 for a more natural look.

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Whitening Eyes See the whites of their eyes And there you have it – we’ve given our subject whiter, brighter eyeballs and banished the excess shadow from his eye sockets.

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Adjusting Skin Tone As your coworkers and friends become aware of the wonderful work you’re doing in Photoshop, you’ll be often called upon to adjust skin tones. While both film and digital cameras have come a long way towards capturing accurate skin tones, the vagaries of lighting can often impart a coloring very much unlike a person’s actual skin tone. In this lesson, I’ll show you – step-by-step –a couple of ways that Photoshop can be used to correct this common problem.

Selecting color ranges Take a look at this photo and you’ll quickly notice that, although the woman’s coloring is quite good, the man’s skin tone runs too far toward the red. Selecting areas like this can be a bit tricky, so rather than use the masking methods we’ve used until now, click Select>Color Range.. to get started on this image.

Using the Color Range eyedropper In the dialog box that appears, select the eyedropper icon. This will sample colors for inclusion into the selection as you run the tool over the man’s face. While holding the Shift key, pass the eyedropper over the man’s face until you’ve made a mask of the entire area. Here, I’ve selected a Fuzziness value of 24 to smooth out our selection.

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Adjusting Skin Tone Refining the selection Since Photoshop has selected both faces, based on the color ranges we’ve specified, we’ll need to refine the selection with the Lasso tool. The Lasso tool is located on the left side of the Tools palette, second from the top. Simply hold down the Alt(Option) key while dragging around the selected areas that you’d like to exclude.

Get the red out Click the black and white button on the bottom of the Layers palette, select Hue/Saturation... and lower Saturation to about -28. Next, adjust the Hue slider to +4 to bring out more of the yellows in the selection. Notice how the man’s coloring is now much more natural and true-to-life.

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Adjusting Skin Tone Another way to alter skin tone In our second example, the baby pictured here is a bit pale, so we’ll give him a tan. We’ll begin in the same way as before by clicking Select>Color Range...

Select a range of colors Using the eyedropper as before, click and drag over the baby’s skin until the Color Range dialog box shows a well-defined selection. Fuzziness, in this case, is set to 36.

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Adjusting Skin Tone Adjusting color balance Instead of adjusting hue and saturation, for this image we’ll change the overall color balance of our selection. Click the black and white button at the bottom of the Tools palette and select Color Balance... In the dialog box that follows, move the sliders until the baby has a tanned appearance. Here, I’ve set them to +32, 0 and -14.

Sunkissed baby In just a few steps, we’ve given our baby a healthy glow, without affecting any other part of the image. Practice these techniques until they’re second nature, because you’ll undoubtably be using them often in your Photoshop work.

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Inserting Images Into Type Have you ever seen a magazine that’s got a headline made of photgraphic type? It can be quite a stunning effect, and it’s very easy to achieve in Photoshop. Follow along and let me show you how.

Copy the background image In this example, we’re going to insert these flowers into some type. First, we’ll need to select the entire image by pressing Control(Command)+A on the keyboard or clicking Select>All on the menu bar. To copy the image, press Control(Command)+C or select Edit>Copy from the menu bar.

Enter some type Our next step is to create a new image and enter some text into it. For demonstration purposes, I’ve made this text very large. Before we change the text, we’ll need to select it by holding Control(Command) while clicking on our layer is the Layers palette. If your Layers palette is not visible, select Window>Layers or press F7 on the keyboard.

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Inserting Images Into Type Using the Paste Into command As you might have guessed, we’re now going to paste our image into the selected text. But we’re not simply going to the use the Paste command, as that will not give us the effect we want. To achieve the results we’re looking for, we’ll need to select Edit>Paste Into or press Shift+Control(Command)+V on the keyboard. Once you’ve pasted the image into your type, use the Move tool to position the image for maximum effect.

Dazzling text This is our completed image. To give it just a bit more polish, I’ve added a drop shadow to the text layer. The next time you see this on a magazine cover, you’ll know how easy it really is, thanks to Photoshop!

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Editing & Touchup Secrets Shane Goldberg’s Photoshop CS1 Made Easy ®

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Removing Background Items From Photos In previous lessons, you’ve learned how to cut a photo’s subject away from it’s background and paste onto a background layer that’s more to your liking. But let’s say you’ve got a photo that’s mostly what you’d like it to be, except that you’ve got some items in the background that you’d really rather remove. For that purpose, you’ll need the Healing Brush and the Clone Stamp tool.

Duplicate the Background This photo features a young musician surrounded by implements of his trade. While most of these items help us tell this photographic story, we might not want the two framed pictures on the wall. And with the help of Photoshop, that’s no problem at all. Before we start working, though, it’s a good idea to duplicate this background layer to preserve its integrity. The simplest way to do that is to grab the background layer with the mouse and drag into onto the New Layer button at the bottom of the Layers palette.

Two New Tools Let’s get started. First we’ll need to zoom up on the items we’d like to remove using the Zoom tool. Now it’s time to introduce a pair of tools that will make quick work out of this sort of photo editing. The first is the Healing Brush tool. It looks like a bandage and is located under the Crop tool in the Tools palette. The other tool we’ll be using in this lesson is the Clone Stamp and that’s just under the Healing Brush.

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Removing Background Items From Photos Select an Area to Copy Before we get into the Healing Brush and Clone Stamp tools, we’ll select an area to clone. The orange wall below the picture looks like a good bet, so we’ll drag our Rectangular Marquee tool over it to select it. Once that’s done, we can press Control(Command)+C or select Edit>Copy from the menu bar to copy our selection. Then we’ll paste that copy onto a new layer by pressing Control(Command)+V or selecting Edit>Paste. Now we’ll just hold down the Shift key – to constrain our copy’s movements – and use the Move tool to drag our orange box over as much of the picture above it as we can.

Merging Layers That’s looking better already, except for some hard edges that we’ll take care of in a moment. First, though, we’ll merge this layer with the layer underneath by selecting Layer>Merge Down or by pressing Control(Command)+E on the keyboard. Make sure when you do this that the layer you’ve pasted into is selected. Now that the layers are merged, we’ll repeat our copy and paste operations with a bit of the orange area we just merged to cover the picture on the wall completely. Then, as before, we’ll merge that layer with the previous.

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Removing Background Items From Photos Sampling with the Healing Brush Here we’ve zoomed up on our repair. Notice the hard edges where we’ve pasted over the picture. To remove those, we can select the Healing Brush tool. Before we can use it, though, we’ll need to sample an area to the right of our pasted rectangles. Holding down the Alt(Option) key while clicking in that area will give us a sample that we can then paint onto our hard-edged seam.

Healing the Edges Once we’ve got our sample, we’ll just paint down the edge of our seam. Note that the sampled area moves with us as we go. For this reason, it’s a good idea to work in small areas, resampling as necessary. If you get a result that isn’t quite right, use the History palette or Edit>Undo to return to the previous state.

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Removing Background Items From Photos Using the Clone Stamp For the bottom edge of our repair, I’ll show you how to use the Clone Stamp to achieve the same result. After selecting it from the Tools palette, drop the opacity for a more realistic effect, hold down Alt(Option) while clicking in a area beside the repair, then release the Alt(Option) button and paint away.

Finishing Touches To remove the second picture from the wall, just repeat the same steps, being careful to avoid the shadow of the microphone. To fix that up, we’ll again use the Healing Brush, except that, this time, we’ll sample a lighter part of the shadow to repair the area where the corner of the picture frame was.

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Removing Background Items From Photos A Seamless Edit We zoom out on our musician and, voila, the pictures on the wall have vanished, and no one’s the wiser. The Healing Brush and Clone Stamp may take a bit of practice before you’re proficient in their use, but the time you spend will be well repaid when you need to remove parts of photographs in the future.

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Removing People From Photos Sometimes it’s hard to get only the people you want in a shot. Sure, you could politely ask uninvited extras to move out of the frame, but you might miss a great moment and, if you catch that extra on a bad day, end up with a blackened eye for your trouble. But with Photoshop, you need not worry about it. Go ahead and take your shot – I’ll show you how to fix it up later at home.

Duplicate the Background Here’s a familiar situation – you’ve got a great photo of your friends, plus someone you’ve never met. While I’m sure the man in the corner is a great guy who donates to orphanages and all that, this guy doesn’t belong it our shot. To begin removing him, we’ll first duplicate the background layer by clicking and dragging the layer onto the New Layer icon at the bottom of the Layers palette. While were at it, let’s rename the duplicated layer to Working Layer. While we won’t have many layers here, it’d a good idea to get into the habit of naming them because, sooner or later, you’ll be working with many in one image.

The Hard Way The first impulse for many of us, when faced with a situation like this, is to grab the Clone Stamp and stroke the man out of the photo. The problem with this is that it’s very difficult to get things lined up just right. So drop that Clone Stamp – I’ve got a better way for you.

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Removing People from Photos An Attractive New Lasso For this job, we’ll need to use a new tool called the Magnetic Lasso. You can find it by clicking and holding on the Lasso icon in the Tools palette.

Magnetic Selections Now we’ll zoom up on the man’s face and run the Magnetic Lasso along the edge of the yellow shirt and continue around the the part we’d like to remove until we reach our starting point. The Magnetic Lasso helps us by being automatically attracted to nearby color ranges as we make our selection. If you notice that the tool has missed an area or two, just hold down Shift while dragging the regular Lasso tool in those areas to add them to the selection.

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Removing People from Photos Using Paths Once the selection is correct, click the Paths tab at the top of the Layers palette. To begin working with the selection as a path, we’ll need to click on the icon just to the left of the New Layer icon and save our selection as a path. Following that, I rather creatively named the new path, “man.”

Copy and Paste Much as we did in the previous lesson, we’ll use the Rectangular Marquee tool to select a chunk of the lattice above the man’s head, then copy it using Control(Command)+C or Edit>Copy. Paste it onto a new layer by pressing Control(Command)+C or Edit>Paste.

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Removing People from Photos Using Paths Once the selection is correct, click the Paths tab at the top of the Layers palette. To begin working with the selection as a path, we’ll need to click on the icon just to the left of the New Layer icon and save our selection as a path. Following that, I rather creatively named the new path, “man.”

Copy and Paste Into Much as we did in the previous lesson, we’ll use the Rectangular Marquee tool to select a chunk of the lattice above the man’s head, then copy it using Control(Command)+C or Edit>Copy. Pasting it normally wouldn’t look right, however, so we’ll first click the Paths tab on the Layers palette, then click the layer containing our path. Next, click the third icon from the left at the bottom of the palette to make the path an active selection. Click the Layers tab again and select Edit>Paste Into or press Shift+Control(Command)+V on the keyboard.

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Removing People from Photos Move the Patch Into Place Now we’ll take the Move tool and slide our patch around until it matches up perfectly.

Erase Around the Edges We’re almost finished, but to make this alteration seamless, I’ll select the Eraser tool from the Tools palette and just run it quickly across the edges of our patch using a soft brush with Opacity set to 60%.

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Removing People from Photos Man? What Man? That’s it! Our extra has vanished so completely that you’d never even know he was there in the first place. I encourage you to run through this one until you really get the hang of it. Once your friends and coworkers find out you can do this, you’ll be zapping people from images all the time.

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Removing Blemishes and Marks Fashion magazines use this one all the time and, once you learn how, you will too. This time around, I’ll give you the secret to removing those zits, blackheads, scrapes, scratches and bruises from your images. You won’t believe how easy it is with the help of Photoshop.

Baby with a Boo-Boo Here we’ve got a cute little baby with big eyes – and a big scratch down the side of her face. To make Mommy happy, we’ll get that patched up with the Patch tool. As always, duplicate the background layer first by dragging it onto the New Layer icon at the bottom of the Tools palette. Because it’s a good idea to name layers, I’ve called this one, “Working Layer.”

Introducing the Patch Tool I’ve zoomed up on the area we’d like to alter and clicked on the Healing Brush tool. By holding the mouse down, we’ll see three options for this tool. For this job, we’ll choose the Patch tool.

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Removing Blemishes and Marks Select the Area to Patch To use the Patch tool, we’ll need to click and hold the mouse button while we drag around the area we’d like to repair. Once the area is selected, click inside it.

Move the Patch Now just move the selection to an area of clear skin and release the mouse button. Don’t worry about the apparent difference in value between the two areas – Photoshop will take care of that for us.

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Removing Blemishes and Marks Touch Up with the Healing Brush As you can see, Photoshop has done an admirable job of adjusting our patch to match the surround areas of skin. But there’s a few other marks that we should take care of while we’re at it, and the Healing Brush will mend them nicely. Remember, first sample an area by holding Alt(Option) and clicking, then paint over the blemish, using a soft brush of an appropriate size.

One-Click Retouch I’ve selected a brush only a bit larger than the area we’ll need to fix. That way, it’ll take only one click. Just sample a clear area by pressing and holding Alt(Option) while clicking the mouse, then click once on the repair area. If you’d prefer, you can also use the Clone Stamp tool for this. It’s located right under the Healing Brush. As with the Healing brush, sample an area by holding down Alt(Option) while clicking and then fix the area. Many times, it’s a good idea to drop the opacity when using this tool. It may take a few clicks to get your repair looking just right, but the advantage is that it’ll look very natural.

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Removing Blemishes and Marks Baby Minus Blemishes Now we’ve got a beautiful baby and Mommy’s happy. All it took was a little work with Photoshop’s amazing Patch, Healing Brush and Clone Stamp tools.

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Removing Red-Eye Red-eye is a very common photographic problem. While modern cameras have built-in measures to reduce its occurence, it still creeps in from time to time. Since it wouldn’t do to have our subjects smiling at us with those demonic eyes, I’ll show you how to tame them in a few seconds with Photoshop.

Change the Masking Color As you’ll surely guess, we’ll be using a mask to deal with these red eyes. This time, though, we’ll need to double click on the Quickmask icon to bring up its dialog box. Because the masking color is red by default, and our eyes are also red, we’ll need to change the masking color to something that we can easily see while working. For this example, I’ve chosen green with an Opacity value of 60%.

Paint, Select, Invert After painting a mask over the red parts of this girl’s eyes, click the icon next to the Quick Mask icon to return to standard editing mode. Then click Select>Inverse to continue.

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Removing Red-Eye Desaturate and Adjust Levels Next, we’ll select Image>Adj ustments>Desaturate, or press Shift+Control(Command)+U on the keyboard. Finally, click the black and white icon on the bottom of the Layers palette and select Levels.. to create a levels adjustment layer. In the dialog box that’s displayed, move both the Input Levels slider controls toward the middle of the range until you’re satisfied with the result. In this case, I’ve set them to 65, 1.35 and 255. To tweak your edits later, just click the adjustment layer and make changes. When you’re happy, you can flatten the layers by selecting Layers>Flatten Image.

The Fire is Quenched The fiery eyes of the original have been muted and restored to their natural beauty in seconds. I’ll bet that many of your photos could benefit from this technique, so get cracking!

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Removing Wrinkles While Time moves in one direction only, Photoshop allows us to turn back the clock on our wrinkles, laugh-lines worry badges and the like. Using the Healing Brush, Clone Stamp and Patch tool, we’ll learn how to rid our faces of the effects of age.

Create a New Editing Layer Here we’ve got a picture of my very own Granny, and while I wouldn’t wish her to look any different than she does, I’ll use her photograph to illustrate how to make anyone look younger. To start, we’ll duplicate the background layer by dragging it onto the New Layer icon.

Grab the Clone Stamp After zooming into the photo using the Zoom tool from the Tools palette, we’ll begin to erase those wrinkles with the help of the Clone Stamp tool. The Clone Stamp tool is located just under the Healing Brush tool on the left side of the Tools palette. For this job, I’ve selected a soft round brush of 54 pixels and set Opacity to 30%. Keeping our opacity setting down will make our edits more realistic by allowing them to blend with the background layer.

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Removing Wrinkles Sample, Click and Drag The Clone Stamp tool needs a sample to work with, so we’ll hold the Alt(Option) key down and click in an unwrinkled part of the skin. Once that’s done, just click and drag the tool in small motions over the wrinkles. Because we’ve dropped the opacity, our corrections will look smooth and natural.

On to the Healing Brush The Healing Brush works in much the same manner as the Clone Stamp tool, but doesn’t require opacity adjustments. To use it, sample an unblemished area by holding down the Alt(Option) key while clicking in it, then release the mouse button. Next, click and drag using the same small movements we employed with the Clone Stamp.

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Removing Wrinkles A Patch Tool for Larger Areas The Patch tool lets us make corrections to larger areas very quickly. It’s found by clicking and holding the mouse button down on the Healing Brush tool in the Tools palette. Once you’ve got hold of it, click and drag it around the area that needs changing and release the mouse button. Then, click inside the selection and drag it to an unwrinkled area.

Subtle Effects Need Low Opacity To soften the deep crease next to the mouth, we can select the Clone Stamp tool with a large brush size and a 20% opacity. We don’t want to remove this completely, as it would look unnatural, so we’ll keep the opacity low and gently sweep the tool along the crease.

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Removing Wrinkles 10 Years Younger in Ten Minutes I’ve continued around the face, using the Healing Brush, Clone Stamp and Patch tool. As you can see, it’s taken years off my Granny’s face in a natural way.

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Using Selective Color Photoshop offers a wealth of color controls that can be a little intimidating to the newcomer. In this lesson, we’ll focus on using selective color to enhance our images. First, we’ll go over how to use the controls, then we’ll put that knowlegdge to work as we give some chrome a little extra oomph.

Display Layer and Info Palettes To really get a grip on the way that selective color in Photoshop works, we’ll need to have both our Layers and our Info palette displayed. Select Window>Layers or press F7 on the keyboard, then select Window>Info or press F8 on the keyboard.

Introducing the Info Palette Since this is the first time we’ve really used the Info palette, let’s spend a little time getting familiar with it. To the left, you’ll see the letters R, G and B – these refer to the screen colors Red, Green and Blue and can contain any number from 0 to 255. Between these three, we can specify any of over 16 million screen colors (255x255x255). On the right, the letters C, M, Y and K correspond to Cyan, Magenta, Yellow and, oddly enough, Black. These are print colors.

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Using Selective Color The Selective Color Dialog Box To begin using selective color, click the black and white icon on the bottom of the Layers palette and click Selective Color... to display the Selective Color Options dialog box. You’ll notice that this box contains the print colors Cyan, Magenta, Yellow and Black. Opposite Cyan, I’d like you to imagine Red, opposite Magenta think of Green and across from Yellow picture Blue. For demonstration purposes, I’ve superimposed these colors on the dialog box.

Choose a Color Range Selective color is just that – selective. Before altering color balance, we’ll need to specify a color range that we’d like to affect with our adjustments. In this case, I’ll start with Reds. With this setting, any alterations we make will affect areas like the tomatoes and red pepper in our image.

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Using Selective Color Using the Selective Color Sliders It seems sort of paradoxical at first, but moving the Cyan/Red slider towards Cyan actually subtracts Cyan and allows more red to show in our image. So, a value of -100 for cyan is really +100 for red.

Adding Cyan is Subtracting Red On the other hand, sliding the control to the right adds cyan and removes red tones. A value of +100 for cyan is the same as -100 for red.

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Using Selective Color Check the Info Palette If we select the Eyedropper tool – located just above the Magnifying tool on the Tools palette – and then hover over the red pepper, we can see on the Info palette that we’ve indeed increased cyans and reduced reds in our image. Specifically, cyan has gone from 25% to 33%, while red has dropped to 122 from 164.

Subtracting Magenta Here, I’ve moved the slider for magenta to the left, lessening it in the red areas of our image. And that’s really the same as adding green to the red parts of this picture. If we move the slider for yellow to the right, we’ll enhance the blues.

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Using Selective Color Adjusting the Yellows Now I’ve selected the yellows from the drop down menu at the top of the Selective Color Options dialog box. When I slide the magenta control to the left, notice that greens predominate in the yellow areas of our image. If we wanted to affect an even smaller subset of areas in our image, we could create an adjustment layer and mask off areas that we want to leave alone.

Enhancing Chrome Here’s another image that I’ll use to demonstrate selective color. The chrome in this image is pretty, but we can enhance it further. To do that, first click on the black and white icon at the bottom of the Layers palette and choose Selective Color... from the flyout menu. This time, we’ll adjust the white areas of the image, so I’ll select Whites from the drop down menu in the Selective Color Options dialog box. All we need to do now is to drag all the color sliders, including black, to -100 and click OK.

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Using Selective Color Shinier Chrome In our adjusted image, notice how we’ve subtly shined up our chrome with a few clicks of the mouse. Selective color can be intimidating, but it needn’t be. Just practice these techniques and you’ll soon be comfortable with this powerful Photoshop tool.

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Selection Secrets Selecting parts of an image is something you’ll do frequently in your Photoshop work. Since it’s such an important technique to master, I’ll give you some pointers on it in this lesson.

The Rectangular Marquee Tool First, we’ll need to get ahold of the Rectangular Marquee tool and we’ll do that by the clicking the topmost icon on the left column of the Tools palette. If you hold down the mouse button while clicking this tool, you’ll notice a few other tools but, for now, we’ll stick with the Rectangular Marquee.

Using Free Transform I’ve dragged the Rectangular Marquee tool around the surfer but, on closer inspection, would like to alter that selection a bit. Instead of clicking Edit>Free Transform, which would simply move our selected area around the canvas, we’ll need to choose Select>Transform Selection. That will allow us to adjust the selection box itself, without altering the image at this point.

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Selection Secrets Rotating Selections If we hover over the corner of our selection with the cursor, we’ll get a curved double arrow. If we then click and drag, we’ll be able to rotate our selection as I’m doing here. When the selection is rotated to the correct degree, just double-click to apply the changes. Next press Control(Command)+J to put our selection on a layer of its own.

Add a Drop Shadow I think our selection would look great with a drop shadow. With the layer selected in the Layers palette, click the black circle with the stylized F on it and select Drop Shadow... from the flyout menu. In the Drop Shadow dialog, set Distance to 13 pixels, Spread to 0% and Size to 64 pixels and click OK.

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Selection Secrets Adjust the Background Layer That’s looking very nice, but we can make this image even better by selecting our background layer, clicking the black and white button at the bottom of the Layers palette and selecting Hue/Saturation... to create an adjustment layer. Then, drop Saturation to -100, increase Lightness to +21 and click OK.

Enlarge the Surfer To make our image even more dramatic, click on the selection layer we made earlier, then select the Move tool from the Tools palette. Press Control(Command)+T and drag the corner handles that appear to enlarge our selection box. Try to keep the upper edge of the wave in line so that everything looks right.

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Selection Secrets Add a Radial Blur To add one last effect to our photo, select the background layer, then click Layer>Blur>Radial Blur... Normally, the Blur Method with be set to Spin but, for this example, select Zoom instead. To center the effect, click and drag the Blur Center until it rests approximately on the surfer. Now, adjust Amount to 30 and click OK.

Wild Waves Here’s our completed image with a couple of artistic additions made possible by Photoshop’s selection tools.

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Extracting Whispy Hair, Part 1 Masking around something as irregular as whispy hair in a photograph has been a tall hurdle until now. Using the power of Photoshop, though, we can pull off even difficult edits like this with ease. In this lesson, I’ll show you a simple way to select hair that generates results superior to more complicated methods, all without using expensive plug-ins.

The Extract Tool Here’s the photo we’ll be using in this example. As you can see, the model has very fine hair and the situation is complicated further by the textured background behind her. To begin separating this lady from the background, we’ll select Filter>Extract... or press Alt(Option)+Control(Command)+X on the keyboard.

Using the Edge Highlighter The Extract tool gives us a set of options to choose from. To start off, select the Edge Highlighter located at the top left of the dialog box by clicking on it or pressing B on the keyboard. Select a large brush – mine’s 155 pixels in diameter – then click and drag around the edge of the hair. Don’t worry about spilling over into the background; we just want to run the tool around the outside edge of the hair. If you stray too far into the hair itself, just press and hold Alt(Option) while dragging over the mistake to erase it.

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Extracting Whispy Hair, Part 1 Fill the Area to Keep Next, we’ll click the Paintbucket tool under the Edge Highlighter and then click on our model to define the area that we want to keep. If your screen doesn’t look like this, make sure that Show Highlight and Show Fill in the Preview box at the right side of the screen are checked.

Preview the Extraction It’s a good idea, at this point, to click Preview at the top left of the dialog to see what our extraction will look like. Since this selection could use a little work, I’ve clicked the Cleanup tool, located just under the Eraser tool. Run that around the edges of the image to remove any extraneous material. Once the selection is cleaned up, click OK.

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Extracting Whispy Hair Using the History Brush Having finished our extraction and zooming into the image, we might notice a few areas that need touching up. For that, we’ll use the History Brush, which is located under the Paintbrush icon in the Tools palette. Select a soft brush, set Mode to Normal and slide Opacity back to 80%.

Paint the Hair Back In The really neat thing about the History Brush is that it allows us to undo operations in selected areas of our image. Here, I’m painting around the edges of the hair, replacing what the Extract tool removed.

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Extracting Whispy Hair Erase Where Necessary A quick swipe of the Eraser tool, using a slightly harder brush, is all that’s needed to remove bits of the background that are still visible. If you find that you need to reduce your brush size, pressing the left bracket key is a quick way to do it.

Touch Up the Skin Here, I’m using the History Brush to paint some missing skin back into our image. As you go around the image, erasing and using the History Brush, drop the opacity setting as needed. In some cases, it may be necessary to go as low as 5 to 10%.

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Extracting Whispy Hair Position the Background Layer Having gone all around the woman’s image, touching up where necessary, I’ve opened the background image and dragged it over to our primary image using the Move tool. If the background layer cover’s the model’s face, just drag it to the bottom of the stack in the Layers palette. Now all that’s left is to press Control(Command)+T to display some handles around the background image. Grab a corner and resize it so that it fills the canvas. If there are still bits of the previous backgound present, just select Layer 1 and then erase with a very low opacity setting.

Extraction Complete While it took some time and touchup, our completed image is worth the effort. Spend some time mastering this technique and you’ll soon find all sorts of situations in which to use it.

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