East Slope features the cave of Aglauros, where Athenian youths (ephebes) took an oath to protect the sacred institutions of the city, whereas the North Slope offers the spring of Clepsydra, as well as cave sanctuaries dedicated to the cults of Pan, Zeus and Apollo, the cave with the Mycenaean spring and the sanctuary of Aphrodite and Eros.
The Ancient Agora
he ancient Agora (gathering place) was the heart of public life in Athens, a large, open square that acted as forum for social, political, commercial and cultural activity. This is literally the birthplace of Athenian Democracy. According to tradition, the first law court in Europe was at the Areopagus (“rock of Ares”, the god of war), next to the Agora. € Admission Fee: €4 ❱ Concessions: €2 (+30) 210 3210185
n ancient times, the Assembly of the Demos (i.e. Public Assembly of the citizens) was held on the nearby hill of the Pnika, which offers a breathtaking view of the city.
Odeon of Herodes Atticus
of Pericles. The Parthenon is also fascinating from an architectural point of view, combining the austere simplicity of the Doric order and the exquisite sophistication of the Ionic order. It is also renowned for its beautiful frieze, perhaps the most famous in the world, which depicts the religious ceremony known as the Panathinea. Closing time:
19:30. € Admission Fee: €12 ❱ Concessions: €6 (non-E.U. students/ over 65 y. o.) ❱ Free admission: E.U. students (+30) 210 3210219
The Theatre of Dionysus and the Odeon of Herodes Atticus
(Map N6, N7
ext to Pnika is the Filopapou Hill, also known as Hill of the Muses. Filopapou also features a monument of the same name, as well as a modern Observatory. The monument is a funerary column erected in 114-116AD by the Athenians in honour of Caius Julius Antiochus Filopapous, the exiled prince of the ancient kingdom of Commagene.
The Roman Forum and the Library of Hadrian
wo of the largest monuments dating from the Roman era can be found north of the Acropolis and east of the Ancient Agora, in the district of Plaka, in an area of 28,000 sqm. The Roman Forum was the commercial centre of Athens during the Roman times. It was built under the supervision of Roman emperor Augustus (19-11 BC) to house the commercial enterprises of the city. Hadrian's Library, constructed by Hadrian as part of an effort to redesign Athens, in 132 AD, was utilized to accommodate the city’s largest library, state archives and philosophy schools. Another monument in this site is the Water Clock (Horologion) or Tower of the Winds, with sculpted depictions of windrelated deities and an internal water clock, built in the 1st century BC by Macedonian astronomer Andronikos Kyrhestes. Other monuments include the Vespasianae (public latrines), the Agoranomion and the Fethiye Mosque (Tzami).
ne of the world’s oldest theatres, the Theatre of Dionysus, the god of wine and fertility, lies on the South Slope of the rock of the Acropolis. The works of the three great dramatists, Aeschylus, Sophocles and Euripides were performed here. Often confused with the Theatre of Dionysus and also found here is the Odeon of Herodes Atticus, established in 161AD by the Athenian magnate Herodes Atticus in memory of his wife. The amphitheatre was restored in the 1950s, using white marble from the Penteliko Mountain. Since then it has been the main venue of the Athens festival and has featured performances by many famous Greek and international artists and performers. The sanctuary of Dionysus Eleuthereus can also be found here, estabA four day pass at a price of €12 (concessions lished in the 6th century BC €6), can get you into: the Acropolis, the Ancient as a site for the festivities Agora and its museum, Kerameikos and its muknown as Great Dionysia. seum, the Roman Agora, Acropolis' North and Many of the buildings found here were converted into South slopes and the Temple of Olympian Zeus Christian monuments dur(not applicable for the Acropolis Museum). ing the 5th century AD. The
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24 _ CITY GUIDE summer 2014
n Tripodon str., stands a structure with an unusual shape: it is a monument in honour of the founder and benefactor of the nearby Theatre of Dionysus. Also known as the Lantern of Diogenes, it was established in 335BC by Lysicrates and is one of the best preserved monuments of its kind.