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This medallion struck in Constantinople shows the Labarum or standard of Constantine piercing the Serpent, the symbol of the devil and of paganism. In the first centuries our Lord’s name was represented by a crossing of X and P (chi and rho) the first two letters of His name in Greek (XPIΣΤΟΣ: Christos). From Constantine’s time onwards the Chi-Rho was carried on top of the Emperor’s battle standard which was known as the Labarum. The inscription reads SPES PVBLICA (‘the public hope.’) and CONS(tantinopoli): ‘at Constantinople.’ The Emperor Constantine (306 - 337) rebuilt the ancient city of Byzantium, renamed it ‘Roma Nova,’ and on 11 May 330 formally proclaimed it as the new capital of the Roman Empire. Rebuilt as a Christian city and soon known as Constantinople, ‘Constantine’s city’ was so well located and fortified that it withstood all sieges for over a thousand years. Finally in 1453 it fell to the Moslem Turks using cannons made in Europe. Today it is known as Istanbul.

How the Apostles Wrote the New Testament  
How the Apostles Wrote the New Testament  

This survey of how the New Testament came to be written is also a chronicle of the first 40 years of the history of the Christian Church. It...