collapsed in the former communist block, one third of employed women were ousted from the labour market, and women’s participation in decision-making processes declined and ranked among the lowest in Europe. Thus, the institutionalization of Gender Studies became (or should have become) a question of strategic importance, especially as it closely connects to people’s active participation in democratic and political processes. “New Europe” to use the terminology which has been employed to indicate the end of the Cold War rhetoric, is the part of Europe where the Romani population shows up in the public discourse as a “problem” in high numbers. Gender Studies scholars have been the ﬁrst to respond to this challenge by applying intersectionality as a method of analysis. The position of Gender Studies in the higher education system is very different in the various European countries. In the Bologna Process educational institutions and curricula are changing simultaneously, and this process encourages Gender Studies scholars to reexamine the place of Gender Studies in academia. In countries that belonged to the Soviet Block but now are members of the EU, the introduction of the Bologna process ended a relatively peaceful period of institutionalization and started the ﬁght for students. The representatives of the profession do as much as they can to institutionalize “academic feminism,” and to insure its place in transforming public thinking into a democratic direction. They have been trying to inﬂuence the mainstream through translations, book reviews, conferences and the publication of proceedings as well as monographs. The aim is to create a “native” academic language, the ﬁrst phase of which concerns itself with the most obvious problem of translating the term “gender” itself. As for peregrination, or the migration of students, “New Europe” has been a place of dispatch rather than a host country. Students – who use the Bologna Process and apply for increasingly more attractive scholarships – are heading to places where they receive a high standard, interesting and relevant education which has serious political and strategic consequences. (Borbála, Peto˝, Sanden van der, Waaldijk 2005) The few Gender Studies centers are a part of the international exchange processes: they send their students abroad and also host Gender Studies students from abroad. In this context Gender Studies is a pioneering ﬁeld in the ﬁeld of student mobility and internationalization. The availability of original textbooks in national languages is low, because of a tiny market. Instead textbooks produced somewhere else are translated or used. Therefore, the language proﬁciency of Gender Stud39
Published on Jan 18, 2011
Published on Jan 18, 2011
Tuning Educational Structures in Europe The name Tuning was chosen for the project to refl ect the idea that universities do not look for u...