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ELECTORAL CODE 2010


I. GENERAL PROVISIONS Section 1. Title This document shall be known as the Sanggunian ng mga Mag-aaral ng mga Paaralang Loyola ng Ateneo de Manila Electoral Code. For brevity, it shall be known as the Electoral Code. Section 2. Interpretation and Execution of the Electoral Code The Ateneo Commission on Elections (hereinafter the “Ateneo COMELEC”), shall act as the official interpreter and executor of all the provisions of this Electoral Code. This is in consonance with the pertinent provisions of the 2005 Sanggunian Constitution and its most recent amendments, which charges the Ateneo COMELEC with the administration and facilitation of Sanggunian elections, plebiscites and referenda. Section 3. Scope of the Electoral Code This Electoral Code shall apply to all elections and such other matters specified in Article XIV, Section 3 of the 2005 Sanggunian Constitution and its most recent amendments. An accredited student political party shall be under the jurisdiction of the Ateneo COMELEC at all times. II. STUDENT POLITICAL PARTIES Section 1. Formation of Parties The Ateneo COMELEC recognizes the students’ right to form political parties (hereinafter “parties”). However, accredited parties shall be bound by the provisions of the Electoral Code. Section 2. Number of Parties There shall be no restriction as regards the number of parties which may be formed. A dulyaccredited student political party shall have the right to field candidates. Section 3. Establishment of Parties Any member of the Ateneo student body, as defined in the 2005 Sanggunian Constitution, may initiate the establishment of any party. Section 4. Requirement for Accreditation of Parties a.

Each party must be headed by a Board of Trustees, with at least fifty percent of the Board not running for any position in the current elections. A member of the Board of Trustees chosen by the party must serve as the party’s representative and spokesperson.

b.

All parties must have a membership of at least 1% of the student body. All party members must be officially enrolled as regular students of the Loyola Schools.

c.

Prior to accreditation, the following must be submitted to and approved by the Ateneo COMELEC: i.

A constitution that includes the vision, mission, and goals of the party, qualifications for membership and officership, and the delegation of duties and responsibilities.

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ii. iii. iv. v. vi. vii.

An updated list of all party members and officers, indicating their respective year levels and courses, as well as contact details which include- but shall not limited tomobile phone number, and email address A calendar of the party’s proposed activities and projects for the school year1 A formal letter requesting accreditation A written pledge by the Board of Trustees signifying the said board’s responsibility as regards the verification of its candidates status and eligibility to run Party name and logo Any and all additional documents or requirements the Ateneo COMELEC may require of the party

d.

The Ateneo COMELEC and the Ateneo Student Judicial Court (hereinafter the “SJC”) shall conduct interviews and/or inspections of the party prior to the accreditation, provided the Ateneo COMELEC serves advance notice of such an interview and/ or inspection at least thirty-six (36) hours before the date of the said interview and/or inspection.

e.

The Ateneo COMELEC will accept application for accreditation any time within the school year, with the exception of any and all applications filed 3 days prior to the start of filing of candidacy as well as those filed during the fifteen (15) day-period after the elections.

f.

After a thorough evaluation of the documents submitted and pertinent data gathered during the accreditation process, the Ateneo COMELEC will decide on the accreditation status of the applying political party.

g.

The validity of the accreditation of parties shall be maintained until three (3) days prior to the start of the next filing of candidacy. Accredited parties must submit updated requirements as stipulated in Section 4c of this Code prior to any election period.

h.

Failure of any party to meet the deadline of the submission of the requirements for accreditation shall result in its disqualification to field candidates for the election. This, however, does not disqualify party members to run for office independently or under a coalition.

Section 5. Jurisdiction of Political Parties The jurisdiction of a political party is limited to its members. Section 6. Candidates running under a Political Party a.

An accredited party must submit to the Ateneo COMELEC its final list of candidates at most twenty-four (24) hours after the period for filing of candidacy.

b. Candidates running for office under an accredited party must have been members of the said party for at least one semester prior to the current election period. Once a candidate has decided to run under a party, he/she must stay in the said party for a minimum of one (1) year. Section 7. Sanctioning Political Parties Sanctions given to violating political parties may or may not have any bearing on the eligibility of the candidates of those parties to run. The SJC and the Ateneo COMELEC shall review these

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At least 50% of the original list of activities must take place. If not, they will not be accredited in the next election period.

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violations on a case-to-case basis. Corresponding sanctions, other than those provided in Article VI Section 4, may be given by the SJC as it deems fit. III. COALITIONS Section 1. Formation of Coalitions The Ateneo COMELEC shall allow candidates to run under coalitions.2 Section 2. Number of Coalitions and Coalition Members There shall be no restrictions as regards the number of coalitions that may field candidates in any and all Sanggunian elections. Section 3. Internal Organization of Coalitions The internal organization of coalitions shall be left to the discretion of the members of the said coalitions. Section 4. Requirements for the Formation of Coalitions Candidates forming a coalition must inform the Ateneo COMELEC of their intention to do so a day after the date of release of the official list of candidates. To do this, a letter expressing their intention and containing their signatures must be submitted, together with an accomplished Ateneo COMELEC Form 2 (Application for Coalition Formation). Candidates for the positions of President, Vice-President, Secretary-General and Finance Officer of the Central Board are prohibited from joining coalitions. Once submitted, a proposal for the formation of a coalition is final and may not be withdrawn. Signatories to it who have not as yet met all the requirements for candidacy at the time of its submission are prohibited from joining the said coalition. Section 5. Coalition Campaigning a. Members of the same coalition can share campaign materials as well as the corresponding costs. b. Coalitions can call for mass actions. These mass actions shall be subject to the same regulations as those of individual candidates, as defined by this Electoral Code. c. Coalitions are prohibited from referring to themselves by their logo or mascot. Coalitions can use a slogan, provided that the slogan is not associated to a political party slogan. Coalitions who wish to name themselves can do so by using any name unaffiliated with a political party name, and by adopting a color. Coalitions can then refer to themselves by the name they adopt. d. Coalition members are prohibited from wearing coalition paraphernalia. Coalition paraphernalia is hereby defined as any material promoting a coalition that is not specified in the General Campaign Guidelines. Coalition paraphernalia include, but are not limited to, ID lanyards, shirts, and pins. 2

Coalitions, as used in this document, shall be construed as temporary alliances for campaign purposes among candidates.

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Section 6. On Sanctioning Coalitions The failure to meet the requirements for candidacy of one or more signatories to a coalition proposal does not prevent the establishment of the coalition it proposes and the participation of the other signatories in the said coalition. Sanctions on a coalition member for other violations of the Electoral Code may or may not be meted out to the other members of his / her coalition. The Ateneo COMELEC Commissioners shall review these violations on a case-to-case basis. Corresponding sanctions would be given as provided in Article VI Section 4 of this code. IV. ELECTION PERIOD The election period shall start on the first day of the filing of candidacy and shall end fifteen days after the last polling day OR twenty-four hours before the induction of the elected Sanggunian officers, whichever is earlier. V. CANDIDACY Section 1. Eligibility for Candidacy All candidates must be members of the Ateneo student body as defined in the 2005 Sanggunian Constitution. They must meet the requirements set by the 2005 Sanggunian Constitution and its most recent amendments. In addition, they must meet any additional requirements to be set by the Ateneo COMELEC in a resolution. A candidate must not be subject to academic probation and/or must not be serving a disciplinary sanction at the time of his / her filing of candidacy. A candidate charged of disciplinary misconduct during the election period shall be allowed to run for office. However, in the case of winning in the election, he / she would not be allowed to take his / her oath of office until such time as the said disciplinary case is resolved in his / her favor. For the duration of the campaign period, a candidate should not hold any major position in any of the officially recognized extracurricular organizations of the Loyola Schools (including-but not limited to-COA and COA-accredited organizations, ARSA, DSWS, and DSLD). If the candidate in question does hold a position, it is imperative that the said candidate must take a leave of absence. Section 2. Positions for Candidacy during General Elections3 a. The positions of President, Vice President, Secretary-General, and Finance Officer of the Central Board shall be open to all qualified students. b. The positions of Chairperson and Secretary-Treasurer of the School Boards shall be open to all qualified students belonging to their respective schools.

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As per Article VI, Section 6 of the 2005 Sanggunian Constitution, “[no] student shall be qualified to become an officer of the Sanggunian unless he/she is a Filipino Citizen and is taking at least the minimum university load requirement for regular students upon the filing of his/her candidacy and during his/her term of office�. Therefore, a qualified student in this case is a Filipino undergraduate student of the Loyola Schools taking the minimum university load requirement.

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c. The positions of executive officers and Central Board representatives shall be open to all qualified students of their respective schools and year levels. d. Block representative positions shall be open to all qualified incoming sophomores in their respective blocks. Course representative positions shall be open to all qualified incoming juniors and seniors for their respective years and degree programs. e. In case of candidates for the positions mentioned above other than the positions of President, Vice President, Secretary-General, and Finance Officer of the Central Board who are shifting to a degree program outside their current school, approval of candidacy shall be granted upon presentation to the Ateneo COMELEC a letter from the dean of the school or chairperson of the department to which he/she is shifting to, provided that all the other requirements stipulated in this Code are fulfilled and/or accomplished before the deadline. The letter should certify that the candidate would be shifting into that school at the start of the semester following the General Elections. Section 3. Positions for Candidacy during Freshmen Elections a. The positions of executive officers and Central Board representatives shall be open to all qualified freshmen in their respective schools. b. Block representative positions shall be open to all qualified freshmen in their respective blocks. Section 4. Filing of Candidacy a. A period of at least three (3) school days for filing of candidacy shall be provided. The Ateneo COMELEC can call for an extension if deemed necessary. b. The Ateneo COMELEC shall release the official list of candidates one (1) working day after the General Assembly of candidates. Section 5. Requirements for Candidacy a. A Certificate of Candidacy. b. A signed pledge to the student body, signifying the intention to uphold the rules of this Electoral Code. Any violation of this pledge would be regarded as an act running against the interest of the Ateneo student body and of free, honest and orderly elections, and shall be sanctioned as such. c. For positions other than block and course representatives, a platform and a curriculum vitae are required. The formats of the said requirements shall be issued by the Ateneo COMELEC a week before the deadline for meeting all the requirements for candidacy, except for the attendance at the General Assembly for candidates d. A copy of the letter of resignation or leave of absence from any major position(s) in any of the officially recognized co-curricular organizations of the Loyola Schools e. Attendance in any Sanggunian Orientation at a date to be set by the Ateneo COMELEC. Proxies will not be allowed

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f. Attendance in the General Assembly (GA) for candidates at a date to be set by the Ateneo COMELEC There will only be one Candidates’ GA and this should be attended by the candidate or it will be considered a withdrawal from the position applied for. Proxies, likewise, will not be allowed. VI. CAMPAIGN REGULATIONS Section 1. Campaign Period a. The Campaign Period shall start on a date to be set by the Ateneo COMELEC Commissioners, and shall end on the day before the first Election Day. b. The candidates shall be held responsible for removing all their campaign paraphernalia posted within the campus by 12 noon of the day after the last Election Day. Corresponding sanctions shall be given by the Ateneo COMELEC Commissioners to violating candidates, coalitions, and/or parties. Section 2. Regulations on Campaigning and Campaign Materials Regulations concerning the allowed type and quantity of materials, as well as any additional regulations concerning campaigning shall be issued by the Ateneo COMELEC through a resolution at least three (3) school days before the start of the campaign period. In the event that the Ateneo COMELEC does not issue a resolution, the status quo shall be maintained. Any violation of these regulations shall be considered a violation of the Electoral Code. Section 3. Candidates’ Responsibility towards their Supporters The candidate must ensure that their supporters are well-aware and well-informed of the campaign rules. Any violation with regard to the Electoral Code showing the direct involvement of a candidate may lead to an Ateneo COMELEC investigation and a possible sanctioning of the candidate, student political party, or coalition. Section 4. Sanctions a.

Applicants who fail to meet the deadline of submission or fulfillment of all the requirements shall be disqualified.

b. Election Offenses Election offenses include, but are not limited to, the following:        4

Vote buying and vote selling Conspiracy to bribe voters Unlawful electioneering4 Issuing and/or posting unapproved election paraphernalia Issuing and/or circulating false and/or malicious statement against any member of the LS Community Falsification of information in any election-related document and/or paraphernalia Disrespect towards any member of the Loyola schools

Unlawful electioneering is hereby defined as campaigning during the two-day polling period

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     c.

Undue influence Threats, intimidation, use of fraudulent device, or any other forms of coercion Coercion of election officials Violation of the provisions stated in this Code Any major offense indicated in the student handbook of the Loyola Schools

This Code gives power to the Ateneo COMELEC Commissioners to determine whether the offense committed by the candidate(s) and/or his/her party or coalition shall be considered a minor or a major offense. This shall be made in consultation with the SJC.

d. The sanction for the first minor offense would be a 25% decrease in the cost ceiling. e.

The sanction for the second minor offense would be another 25% decrease in the original cost ceiling.

f.

The sanctions for the third minor offense would be a prohibition from campaigning. All campaign materials posted within the campus shall be removed within twelve (12) hours after the issuance of the sanction. Furthermore, the candidate shall issue a public announcement of the violation and a written public apology. Failure to comply with this would result in his/her disqualification.

g.

The sanctions for the first major offense would be a 50% decrease in the cost ceiling, a public announcement of the violation and a written public apology.

h. The sanction for the second major offense for individual candidates would be their disqualification. All campaign materials posted within the campus shall be removed within twelve (12) hours after the issuance of the sanction The sanction for the second major offense for political parties and/or coalitions would be the revocation of the party’s or coalition’s accreditation and the possible disqualification of the candidates involved upon consultation with the SJC. i.

The determination of whether a violation of the Electoral Code was committed from the release of the official and final results of the elections to the end of the election period would be under the jurisdiction of the SJC. However, the responsibility for investigating such violations would belong to the Ateneo COMELEC.

Section 5. Complaints, Inquiries, Appeals, Protests a. All complaints, inquiries, appeals, or protests before the release of the official and final results must be directed to the Ateneo COMELEC in an official letter submitted in triplicate form. All unwritten complaints, inquiries, appeals, or protests shall not be taken into consideration. b. All necessary evidence for complaints shall be provided by the candidate, coalition or party filing the complaint, inquiry, appeal or protest. c. Decision and action shall be taken by the Ateneo COMELEC only with the properly filed complaints, inquiries, appeals or protests within seventy-two (72) hours.

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Section 6. Appeals to the Student Judicial Court a. The SJC holds appellate jurisdiction over matters involving the constitutionality, legality or jurisdiction of acts, policies, resolutions and decisions of the Ateneo COMELEC. b. The SJC holds jurisdiction over cases filed against Ateneo COMELEC and/or its commissioners. c. All protests filed after the release of the official and final results shall be directed to the SJC. VII. QUALIFICATION OF VOTERS All voters must be members of the Ateneo student body as defined in the 2005 Sanggunian Constitution. VIII. CASTING OF VOTES Section 1. Time a. The casting of votes shall begin and end at a time determined by the Ateneo COMELEC through a resolution passed three (3) days before the start of the elections. Voters can vote only during this period. However, the Ateneo COMELEC has the option to extend the period for voting if the need arises. b. The Ateneo COMELEC can only extend voting hours for a maximum of four (4) hours past the time stated in the resolution. Section 2. Preliminaries to Voting a. The Ateneo COMELEC shall assemble at least fifteen minutes prior to the appointed time of vote casting at the location of the ballot boxes. b. The Ateneo COMELEC Commissioners shall present the election materials to those present to ensure the sanctity of the ballots. c. After being exposed to the scrutiny of the public, the empty ballot boxes must be locked. These may not be opened during the casting of votes at any time. Section 3. Voting Centers The Ateneo COMELEC Commissioners shall designate the location of voting centers as they deem fit. Eligible voters may cast his / her vote at any voting center, provided that he / she does not vote more than once in the same election. There should be no roving ballot boxes. Ballot boxes should be situated based on designations made during the beginning of the elections and no last minute transfers to the dormitories are allowed. However, the Ateneo COMELEC has the discretion to choose the location of these ballot boxes; and should be within the boundaries of the timeframe given.

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Section 4. Persons Allowed to Stay at the Voting Centers a. A maximum of one (1) representative per candidate shall be allowed in each voting center restricted to the vicinity of the ballot boxes as a watcher. The representative must wear an Ateneo COMELEC-approved ID at all times during the elections. b. Candidates are prohibited from becoming his / her own watcher. c. Candidates must not stay within the immediate vicinity of the voting center except when casting his / her vote. This will be enforced by the assigned Ateneo COMELEC representative assigned at that particular voting center. d. Only persons wearing authorized identification tags of the Ateneo COMELEC may stay at the voting areas. Authorized persons include the Ateneo COMELEC Core, poll officers and authorized candidate poll watchers. Section 5. Voting Procedures a. Voters shall present their student ID to the poll officer for identification. Students without a validated school ID shall not be allowed to vote if they do not have a temporary school ID issued by the Office of the Associate Dean for Student Affairs. b. The poll officer shall present the student an official Ateneo COMELEC ballot after recording the day, time and location of the voting center at the back of the ballot. c. The voter shall fill up the ballot and then place it in the ballot box. He / she shall not show the ballot to any other person for any reason. d. The voter should countersign any mistakes or erasures. e. The Ateneo COMELEC Commissioners shall craft additional procedures as deemed fit. Section 6. Bloc Voting Bloc voting, which is hereby defined as voting for all the members of a particular coalition or party by writing only that coalition’s or party’s name, is prohibited. Voters must check (or write) the names of all the candidates that they are voting for in the appropriate spaces provided in the ballot. Section 7. Calling off Elections, Plebiscites and / or Referenda The Ateneo COMELEC Commissioners meeting en banc can stop, call off or postpone elections, special elections, plebiscites, and/or referenda in a voting center and call a new one in the event that the sanctity of the ballot has been threatened or violated. However, such decision should be made in concurrence with the SJC. Section 8. Cheating and Dishonesty at the Polls Cheating or dishonesty at the polls shall be reported to the Office of the Associate Dean for Student Affairs of the Loyola Schools.

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IX. COUNTING OF VOTES Section 1. Sealing of the Ballot Boxes As soon as the voting period ends and before the ballot boxes are moved, the slots of the ballot boxes must be sealed. The Ateneo COMELEC Commissioners present shall affix their signatures on the seal of the said ballot boxes. Section 2. Absence of Candidates and / or Authorized Representatives The ballot boxes shall be sealed even in the absence of any candidate and / or authorized representative. Section 3. Pre-Count Vigil Counting shall begin within four (4) hours after the sealing of the ballot boxes. Prior to this, the ballot boxes will be brought to the Ateneo COMELEC headquarters. Section 4. Opening of Ballot Boxes for Counting The ballot boxes may only be opened by the Ateneo COMELEC Commissioners. Candidates and / or their representatives may be present outside the room to witness the said event. Section 5. Sanctity of the Ballot The ballots may only be held by the Ateneo COMELEC. Violation of this provision will render the said ballot void. Section 6. Persons Present during Counting of Votes During the counting of votes, the only persons allowed in the immediate vicinity where the votes are counted are the Ateneo COMELEC members and Office of Student Activities professionals. Section 7. Supervision and Control during Counting of Votes The Ateneo COMELEC Commissioners are to supervise the counting of votes to ensure the holding of free, honest and orderly elections. Section 8. Definition of Stray Votes and Void, Spoiled, or Incomplete Ballots a. Stray votes are hereby defined as votes for candidates or positions that the voter is ineligible to vote for. This shall not invalidate the entire ballot. b. Ballots are considered void when evidence exists that two or more ballots originated from a same voter / flying voter. This automatically renders all ballots in question void. c. The validity of incomplete ballots shall be subject to the discretion of the quorum of the Ateneo COMELEC Commissioners. d. For cases that were not described above, or wherein the clauses are not sufficient, this code provides full jurisdiction to the Ateneo COMELEC Commissioners with regard to invalidating

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questionable ballots and / or including them towards the number of votes required to reach quota. Section 9. Date of Release of Results The date of release of the official results shall not exceed two days after the last day of the elections. Section 10. Protests After the release of the official results, one school day, excluding Saturday, shall be allotted for the filing of any formal protests regarding the results. In the event that no complaints are made, the results shall be declared official and final by the Ateneo COMELEC. Section 11. Recount a. It is the Ateneo COMELEC Commissioners’ prerogative to call for a recount when deemed necessary. b. Any member of the Ateneo student body with due cause, may appeal to the Ateneo COMELEC to grant a recount. X. RUN-OFF AND SPECIAL ELECTIONS Section 1. Run-Off Elections a. In cases wherein candidates for the same position garner the same highest number of votes, an automatic recount shall be called. If there is no change in the results, a run-off election between these candidates will be called. b. In cases of run-off elections, the candidates involved shall undergo a reelection process. c. In case the re-election results in another tie, the Ateneo COMELEC may take one or more of the following actions: i. Make the requirements of the candidates available for re-evaluation. ii. Organize another Miting de Avance for the said candidates. iii. Other actions deemed necessary by the Ateneo COMELEC. Section 2. Special Elections a. Vacancies that occur in the Central Board and School Boards before the election of freshman officers, with the exception of the positions of Sanggunian President and School Board Chairpersons, shall be filled via a special election to be held simultaneously with the Freshman Year Officers Election. b. If the vacancy occurs before the induction of the new Sanggunian, the position shall remain vacant until the special elections.

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c. In case a special election has been conducted and a position remains vacant, it shall be left vacant and may not be re-opened for special elections again until the next regular elections. XI. VALIDITY OF ELECTION Section 1. Validity The elections shall be declared valid only if at least 50% + 1 (rounded up to the nearest whole number) of the constituency has cast their votes. Section 2. Votes of Seniors and Super-seniors a. In validating general elections, the constituency refers to the incoming sophomores, juniors, seniors and super-seniors (for courses officially with 5th year) only. The votes of the graduating seniors, while not included in the computation of the quota, shall be included in the tallying of votes. b. In validating special elections, plebiscites and / or referenda, the constituency refers to the incoming sophomores, juniors, seniors and super-seniors only. The votes of the outgoing seniors and super-seniors, while not included in the computation of the quota, shall be included in the tallying of votes. XII. FAILURE OF ELECTION AND VACANCY Section 1. Failure of Elections The following instances may result in the failure of elections to be declared by the Ateneo COMELEC: a. Failure to reach quota b. Eligibility attained through fraudulent meansc. Declaration made by the SJC d. Other situations which the Ateneo COMELEC deems fit Section 2. Vacancies The following instances may result to vacancies of positions: a. Declaration of failure of elections b. No applicants for the position c. Impeachment d. Resignation

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XIII. PROCLAMATION OF NEWLY ELECTED OFFICERS Section 1. Requirements for Winning a. To win a position, the total number of non-abstention votes must be more than the number of abstentions5, and a candidate must garner more votes than his / her opponents. b. If a candidate has no opponent, he / she must get a simple majority of the votes cast, such that his / her votes must be greater than the number of abstentions. Section 2. Post-winning Upon winning, newly elected officers are required to sign a binding commitment for the officer to join, at the most, a 3-hour seminar to be conducted by the SJC and Ateneo COMELEC to coordinate their efforts with the Sanggunian in its year-long endeavors. Non-attendance may be sanctioned by the SJC. XIV. AMENDMENTS Section 1. Review of Electoral Code A review of this Code shall be conducted by the Ateneo COMELEC prior to the next elections, for possible clarifications and / or amendments appropriate for the next elections. Section 2. Amendment Restriction No other amendments to this Code shall be made after the approval of the SJC until the next review of this Code prior to the next election. Section 3. Electronic Voting a. In the event that the Ateneo COMELEC shifts into an electronic voting system, articles 8 and 9 shall not apply. b. The Ateneo COMELEC shall issue the appropriate resolution in such case. Section 4. Students’ Initiative a. In the event of a students’ initiative movement requiring a referendum, the Ateneo COMELEC shall consult with the SJC on the specific guidelines, depending on the circumstances. b. The Ateneo COMELEC shall issue the appropriate resolution to guide a referendum.

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Abstention votes are considered as individuals, and as such, if it garners more votes than any of the other candidates, abstain wins, thus considering both candidates non-winners.

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XV. EFFECTIVITY OF THE CODE Section 1. Effectivity of the Code The Code shall take effect upon the ratification of the Ateneo COMELEC Board of Commissioners and the approval of the same by the Student Judicial Court. Section 2. Expiration This Code shall expire once a new electoral code has been passed by the Commissioners of the Ateneo Commission of Elections, and after approval of the same by the Magistrates of the Student Judicial Court. The foregoing proposed Electoral Code of the Ateneo Commission on Elections was approved on the eleventh day of January, Two thousand and ten, and accordingly signed by the Commissioners of the Ateneo Commission on Elections, whose signatures are hereunder affixed.

Adopted,

(Sgd.) Ian Christian Ver P. Cadeli単a Commissioner

(Sgd.) Jon Andre V. Vergara Commissioner

(Sgd.) Divina Gracia V. Maderal Commissioner

(Sgd.) Abygail June R. Villafuerte Commissioner

(Sgd.) Jessica Gail S. Lazaro Chief Commissioner

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Electoral Code 2010  

Ratified COMELEC Electoral Code for 2010

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