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C L T

I N V E S T I G A T I O N S

I. ORIGINS

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1. Trees and beach cabins 2. Origins of Wood: Restoring our Forests 3. Species of wood 4. Use of wood products as a path to carbon sequestration II. MATERIAL INVESTIGATIONS

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1. Wooden structures in the city : looking to the future 2. CLT: what is it and how is it made? 3. CLT and traditional building materials: comparisons of carbon footprint in the context of environmental impact 4. Regional supply and manufacture of CLT III. EXPRESSIONS IN WOOD 1. CLTHouse 2. CLTChurch

SUSAN JONES, FAIA, LEED BD+C Editing and layout: Olga Amigud Marisol Foreman

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CLT INVESTIGATIONS

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Assembly of Cross Laminated Timber panels during the construction of CLTHoue in Seattle, WA. 2015 Courtesy atelierjones

CLT INVESTIGATIONS

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CHAPTER ONE

THE ORIGIN STORY

1. TREES AND BEACH CABINS: ORIGINS This book is about a “green� building material of the future -- created using latest technologies, and supported by scientific research -- but it is also a story of its transformation into a medium for architectural expression, and such transcendence from prose to poetry could not have happened without a personal connection. This journey began about four decades ago, when the grandfather of the girl -- who was to become an architect -- took her to the plot of forestland he purchased on an island in Puget Sound. There were small, recently planted trees everywhere: Douglas fir, spruce, and pine. Grandfather explained that the trees would be ready to harvest when she grows up; he saw that is was the forest of the future and was proud of what he had planted for his children and grandchildren. 45 years later, when the family revisited the plot, they had found that without monitoring and management, their forestland had become overtaken by small and densely growing hemlock trees that pushed out fir, spruce, and pine planted by the grandfather. They had learned that the forest planted by human hand is not a natural forest and has to be managed continuously to yield harvestable commercial lumber. Experts where called upon, and a forest management plan was generated to help the family keep the sight of the future envisioned by the grandfather. But in the process, the family, and particularly the architect who had seen the trees on family forestland in their infancy, had learned much more than how to take care of the forest plot. Delving into the science of the trees and commercial forestry, the architect learned about forest management

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techniques and new materials that have been in existence in Europe for nearly a quarter of a century -- and have positioned themselves at the forefront of the movement for sustainable future. The basis for the creation of these techniques and materials was the knowledge that trees, as they grow, consume and store a great amount of carbon -- an important ability in the age of global climate change triggered by excessive release of carbon (in the form of CO2) into the atmosphere as a result of human activity. The small-diameter trees, similar to the unwanted hemlock that the family found on their property, are encouraged to grow under carefully monitored conditions in Europe in order to quickly produce more wood while storing vast amounts of carbon. Small diameter of the timber is not a problem when it is used to produce the new material called Cross Laminated Timber -- a type of structural panel that is very strong, and, at the same time, quite beautiful when left exposed on the interior of the buildings. For an architect, a combination of beauty, strength, innovation, and environmental responsibility in a single material was incredibly inspiring. Thus the journey of discovery began -- from the childhood awe in the midst of the forest and the memories of beautiful wooden cabin on the beach filled with light and aroma of heated wood -- to the explorations of new materials, search for information, and design in the new architectural language for the new century. This book invites the reader along on this journey: to learn about the great northwest forest growing region and its trees, the making of the building material of the future, about the scholarship and research that has been surrounding it, and, finally, about the buildings that have been created from it.


Photo: courtesy of atelierjones

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2. ORIGINS OF WOOD: RESTORING OUR FORESTS Cascadia is a pacific bioregion that unifies parts of Washington, Oregon, Alaska, Idaho, California, Wyoming, Montana, Yukon Territory, and British Colombia. It is not only defined by its natural characteristics, but also cultural, economic, and ecological. Cascadia Institute, an organization that promotes Cascadia as a unifying entity for diverse states, identifies it as “one of the five great regions of western North America in terms of the Pacific side of the Continental Divide...It’s the Pacific slope north of the Great Valley of California, northwest of the high red rocks of the Colorado Plateau, the land north of the heart-shaped Great Basin sandwiched in between the other two, having no outlet to the sea, as well as the land far to the north of the low deserts of Sonora, and related regions to the south into Mexico”.1 Water is one of the most important defining factors in this region. Cascadia was named after the Cascade Mountain Range of Western Oregon and Washington. However, Cascadia Institute suggests that “the Cascade Range was itself named after the falling waters in the Columbia Gorge by the ‘Great Cascades’ of the Columbia River. In terms of naming, the cascades - and the water - came before the mountains.” 1 Wood, and its growth and processing, are heavily dependent on water and its natural cycles. Wood has been harvested and relied upon as the greatest economic resource in this region for over 150 years, and continues to be a vital constituent in the region’s economy, averaging 50 million cubic meters for the past decade. 2 However, in order to assure that wood remains at the heart of Cascadia’s culture and economy, the concerns have been raised about the methods of forest management and timber harvesting. There is a public interest in assuring that forests remain in Cascadia’s future - and an interest and commitment to responsible stewardship and sustainable practices. 3 Sustainable forestry is defined as “the capacity of forests, from stands to ecoregions, to maintain their health, productivity, diversity, and overall integrity in the long run, in the context of human activity and use.” 4 Sustainability looks to the future, assuring the supply for the new lumber-based materials, such as Cross Laminated Timber, one of the subjects of this book that will be investigated in great detail in the later chapters. This chapter will delve into the subject of forests and wood-production in order to generate a better understanding of the life cycle of the wood building products. It will begin with the introduction of some of the most important commercial species of wood in the Pacific Northwest and then follow a forest management plan as an example of the efforts and time required to produce wood and restore the health of our forests for the future.

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1. David McCloskey, Cascadia: “Land of Falling Waters”, Cascadia Institute, www.cascadiainstitute.org

3. Ellen M. Donoghue et al, Sustainable Production of Wood and Non-wood Products, USDA Forest Service, Feb. 2004

2. R. Haynes, Analysis of Timber Situation in the United States, USDA Forest Service Report, 2003, p. 254

4. J. A. Helms, The Dictionary of Forestry, Bethesda, MO: Society of American Forests, 1998, p. 210


CASCADIA is defined as the watersheds of rivers that flow into the Pacific Ocean through North American temperate forest zone. Cascadia, or the Pacific Northwest, extends from northern California to southern Alaska - along a coastline once cloaked in nearly continuous rainforest and inland as far as Continental Divide. Cascadia is the most important wood producing region in the United States. THE GREAT CONTINENTAL DIVIDE

GREAT BASIN BIOREGIONAL BORDER

Map: Cascadia Institute www.cascadiainstitute.org

CASCADIA AND ITS RESOURCES

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RYTHE OFFORESTS CASCADIA AND TIMBER INDUSTRY OF CASCADI of spars (for ships) The exporting of spars (for ships) to foreign markets 1780’S - 1800’S The exporting to foreign marketson occurs on a occurs a sporadic basis

gn markets

sporadic basis

1827

The firstThe sawmill is built in the is built in the Pacific Northwest first sawmill Pacific Northwest

1833

The firstThe shipment Oregon first of shipment of Oregon timber is sent to China Timber is sent to China

rthwest

nt to China 1849

c development 1840’s-1850’s

California Gold Rush spurs Gold Rush spurs economic development The California economic development and logging in Cascadia and increases increases logging in Cascadia

Small logging in BC, Smallcompanies logging companies in British Columbia began to Canada,cut harvest and mill treesclose to the water and sawmills were down trees close toestablished the shore, enabling along the coast to cut the timber for export. export.The Hudson Bay Company Hudson’s Bay Company built the first sawmill in BC at builds the first sawmill in Victoria in 1847 Victoria, BC, in 1847

mbia began to awmills were mber for export. t sawmill in BC at

Fallers in the woods near Saginaw, WA Saginaw Timber Company

Fallers in the woods, Saginaw T imber Company, near Saginaw, WA. n.d 2

TIMBER INDUSTRY IN CASCADIA ARCH 502 SUSAN JONES CLT STUDIO - SPRING 2013 Photo: property of MSCUA, University of Washington Libraries, Photo Call 516

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EARLY HISTORY OF THE FORESTS AND TIMBER INDUSTRY IN CASCADIA

Chart: Timber Industries in Cascadia, ARCH 502 Susan Jones CLT Studio, Spring 2013

Fallers i WA. n.d


LOG PRODUCTION: British Colombia (million board feet)

100,000

Interior Coast

80,000

Total

60,000

40,000

20,000

0 1960

1965

1970

1975

1980

1985

1990

1995

2000

2005

LOG PRODUCTION: Washington (million board feet)

LOG PRODUCTION: Oregon (million board feet)

United States Forest Service Production, Prices, Employment and Trade in Northwest FOrest Industries. Timber Production, All Years. http://www.fs.fed.us/pnw/ppet/

TIMBER PRODUCTION IN CASCADIA

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3. SPECIES OF WOOD SITKA SPRUCE

This is the most important spruce in Washington, contributing a considerable volume of wood to the economy. HEIGHT: 90 to 140 feet, three to five feet in diameter. The tree forms a broad pyramidal head. On best sites, the tree grows to a much larger size, the base of the tree much enlarged. GROWING CONDITIONS: Grows best on moist, sandy, or even swampy soils and thrives in areas of heavy rainfall at elevation from 300 to 1200 feet. It will grow in considerable shade. ENVIRONMENT: located along the Puget Sound coast and the fog belt of Canada.

DOUGLAS FIR

Also known as red fir, yellow fir, and Oregon Pine, it is the most important tree in the United States. Douglas fir is used for cross ties, piling, plywood, fuel, and Christmas trees. It is also one of the fastest growing tree species in the U.S. The coast subspecies rich the height of 300 feet at six feet in diameter; the mountain (or inland) subspecies grow to 130 feet at three feet in diameter. HEIGHT: over 200 feet, up to 15 feet in diameter. GROWING CONDITIONS: Grows on a variety of sites, best on moist, rich soils. Growth is inhibited by too much shade. ENVIRONMENT: grows in all forested sections of Cascadia.

10 DOMINANT WOOD SPECIES

Research and data: “Timber Industry in Cascadia” ARCH 502 Susan Jones CLT Studio, Spring 2013


WESTERN WHITE PINE

The wood is fine grained, soft, easily worked, and is used for interior finish and woodworking. HEIGHT: 120 to 160 feet, two to four feet in diameter at maturity (maximum diameter is eight feet). The tree forms an open pyramidal head. GROWING CONDITIONS: western white pine grows best on rich, moist, welldrained soils and is found at elevations from see level to 7,000 feet. It tolerates some shading. ENVIRONMENT: the tree is found in both Cascadia and the Olympic Mountains. It also grows in northeastern Washington and in several scattered locations in western Washington.

PONDEROSA PINE

Also known as western yellow pine, yellow pine, bull pine, and blackjack pine. The wood is quite solid, used for millwork, interior finish work, and lumber. It is the most important pine in the United States. HEIGHT: 150 to 180 feet, three to four feet in diameter. The tree forms a round-topped head, and, on good sites - a pointed head. Harvest maturity at 60 - 90 years. GROWING CONDITIONS: ponderosa pine grows best on moist, well-drained soils. It is extremely drought resistant and will persist in otherwise non-forest areas. It needs full sun conditions to survive. ENVIRONMENT: the tree is located in the mountainous regions east of the Cascadia Divide, especially in central and northeastern Washington, where it grows in open stands. It is also found west of the Cascades in a few scattered locations. Photos: Chris Schnepf, University of Idaho Forestry Images Research: “Timber Industry in Cascadia� ARCH 502 Susan Jones CLT Studio, Spring 2013

DOMINANT WOOD SPECIES

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4. USE OF WOOD PRODUCTS AS A PATH TO CARBON SEQUESTRATION The use of lumber-based building materials contains vast environmental benefits. One of such benefits is carbon sequestration - capture of carbon, usually in the form of CO2, from the atmosphere, and its long-term storage, in order to mitigate global warming. Forests store vast amounts of carbon - and buildings constructed of wood continue to store it, while trees replanted in place of those that have been harvested capture more CO2 from the atmosphere. However, the process of harvesting, processing, and replanting has to be conducted responsibly in order for the process to be effective. The following section follows the path of replanting and growth, and offers a glimpse into a forest management plan - a plan that has been implemented on the family plot where our story began.

SMALL DIAMETER LOGS

DEFINITIONS FORESTS: Are tree covered areas not predominantly used for purposes other than forestry. They also include those planted or seeded with human intervention, where the main land use is for production, protection, conservation of biological diversity (ex situ), socioeconomic, or combinations of these. NATURAL FORESTS: Forests regenerated intervention.

naturally

without

human

PLANTED FORESTS: can resemble natural ecological processes to a greater or lesser extent. Planted Forests are often intensively managed for production purposes, but can also be established for protection, conservation or socio-

economic purposes in which case the management may be less intensive. Forest planted for lumber production is not a natural forest - like planted farm crops, trees intended for harvest require management, such as thinning, monitoring for disease, invasive species protection, etc. Therefore, the quality of timber, as well as the species of trees, in an UNMANAGED FOREST may become unpredictable. FOREST STAND A stand is a contiguous area that contains a number of trees that are relatively homogeneous or have a common set of characteristics. Normally a stand will be studied or managed as a single unit.

The Carbon Footprint Handbook, ed. by Subramanian Senthilkannan Muthu, CRC Press: Boca Raton, 2016

12 FORESTS

Michael Snyder, â&#x20AC;&#x153;Forest Stand Structure,â&#x20AC;? Northern Woodlands Magazine, Spring 2010, <northernwoorlands.org>


In western Washington, unmanaged forest, even one that has been planted with desired native species of trees, may become overtaken by hemlock. Small, quick-growing hemlock saplings prove more robust than many other trees, and are able to thrive in crowded conditions. This quality of hemlock is seen as a scourge by north American foresters, but in Europe, the ability of some species to grow fast has been noted and put to use. If managed properly, growing small-diameter trees is a way to keep forests and trees healthy, while maintaining steady supply of wood. At the same time, this type of forest management enables very high rates of carbon sequestration - in trees as well as in the yielded lumber.

A STAND OF SMALL, CLOSELY SPACED HEMLOCK TREES

Photo this page: Chris Schnepf, University of Idaho Forestry Images Photo opposite page: Small Diameter Logs - photo courtesy atelierjones

FORESTS

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FOREST MANAGEMENT PLAN - CASE STUDY As an example, the following is a plan compiled for the family forest land mentioned in the first chapter. As noted earlier, the plot was unmanaged for 45 years, and required much work. The parcel is located on Mount Constitution on Orcas Island, in the Puget Sound. The parcel contains 141.4 acres of forest land, currently in the Designated Forest Land (DFL) program, and the Forest Management Plan generated for it was intended to guide the landowners in the short- and long-term management of their forest. The Plan was also intended to help the landowners to become more informed stewards of the forest resources on their property. BACKGROUND AND LAND USE HISTORY

The largest of the San Juan Islands, Orcas Island is approximately 57.3 square miles in size, and is known for its rocky shorelines and relatively steep terrain. Forested lands on the islands were largely cleared of timber at the turn of the twentieth century as part of the country-wide logging boom to supply fuel for limestone kilns. While the early land use of this particular parcel of land is unknown, it is likely that it was logged at the same time as the rest of the island. Based on the composition and age of the trees, as well as a few remnant stumps, one can conclude that the parcel was logged again in the mid 1900s. The previous plan dated 1993 identifies some portions of the land that were clear-cut in the 1940s.

a sparse understory of salal and moss. The overstory trees are largely dominated by western hemlock, but also contain a few Douglas firs, a small component of red alder in wet spots and an occasional Sitka spruce. There is also a unique patch of naturally regenerated Western white pine. The age of hemlock trees in this stand varies from 60 to 100, with the size varying from 8 - 16 inches in diameter for younger trees and up to 26 inches for the older individuals. STAND OF WESTERN WHITE PINE

While having a large number of trees poorly suited to the site (hemlock and lodgepole pine), this stand contains the only known naturally reproducing stand of Western white pine in San Juan County. Western white pine is usually not very abundant in the low-lying areas west of the Cascades. Elsewhere, this species have suffered high mortality due to an introduced rust disease. Some individual trees in the region have shown a natural resistance to this malady, and the small population on Mount Constitution is an example of such resistance. White pine is a vigorous growing tree with excellent wood properties and is considered a highly desirable specie in this particular stand.

STAND DESCRIPTION

Four distinct stands have been identified on the property, some of them unique in the San Juan Islands. The following is a description of the two of the identified stands. STAND OF WESTERN HEMLOCK

This stand of trees is an example of the invasion of small, closely spaced hemlock trees mentioned earlier. It is characterized by poorly developed structure with minimal underbrush - upper canopy of the overstory trees and a lower canopy of dead or dying saplings with

14 SAMPLE FOREST MANAGEMENT PLAN

WESTERN WHITE PINE

Forest Management Plan, Michael Case, Ph. C., Carson Beebe Sprenge, M.S. Rain Shadow Consulting, LLC, September 2013


FOREST LAND ON MOUNT CONSTITUTION, ORCAS ISLAND

MANAGEMENT RECOMMENDATIONS

In general, the forest land on the property is overstocked and showing signs of slowed growth. In addition, there is a constraint of site characteristics: thin and rocky soils, cool and moist weather, and strong prevailing winds - all of which leads to slow tree growth. Although the site has fair forest productivity potential, its current overstocked condition requires a variety of thinning and harvesting actions in the near future. Moreover, the overabundance of hemlock in some areas should be addressed through thinning and replanting of Douglas fir and white pine. For the stand containing Western white pine, it is necessary to promote a gradual shift n species

composition through the establishment of a new Douglas fir and Western white pine cohorts. The implementation should begin directly following the thinning and harvesting, and continuing overtime - as hemlock-dominated stands a gradually thinned and gaps are created. However, because of the unique challenges of this exposed and high-elevation site, it is strongly recommended that any thinning or harvesting should be done in semi-experimental fashion: on a small scale (two to ten acres) and with periodic monitoring (every three to five years). The effectiveness of various prescriptions should be evaluated in order to better understand how to best manage the entire stand.

SAMPLE FOREST MANAGEMENT PLAN

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FOREST THAT HAS BEEN THINNED AND REPLANTED. Note that the stumps have been left to naturally decompose on the forest floor.

THINNING

Thinning is one of the most important and underutilized forest management treatment available. If done properly, thinning can increase the health and value of the forest and reduce potential fire risk. This treatment is usually applied to -young stands -naturally regenerated stands -overstocked multi-aged stands Appropriately timed thinning may increase tree growth and potentially enhance overall stand health and vigor. Furthermore, in the absence of frequent low severity fires, thinning can be applied as the next most appropriate pseudo-surrogate to burning, and, thus, a way to achieve tree spacing and species compositions that approximate historical conditions. Other benefits of thinning include improved timber quality, decreased defects and disease, growth release of younger cohorts, establishment of seedbeds, and increase in understory diversity and biomass.

16 SAMPLE FOREST MANAGEMENT PLAN

These guidelines are usually followed to identify stands that need to be prioritized for thinning: - density in excess of 350 trees per acre - height to diameter ratio over 100 to 1 (â&#x20AC;&#x153;spindlyâ&#x20AC;? trees) - content of live crown is less than 30% Thinning of a stand may have to occur at a high rate, reducing the number of trees by 20 to 30 percent as was recommended for a section of the parcel that contained a dense population of lodgepole pine, reducing the number of trees to 200-250 per acre. However, given the current regional timber market, it is uncertain whether such wood would generate revenue. In order to achieve maximum efficiency of thinning operation, it is important to time the thinning with local and regional markets. The prices of softwoods have been slowly increasing since the Fall of 2011, and the current five-year projection suggests a continued increase in mill prices at three to four percent per year.

Forest Management Plan, Michael Case, Ph. C., Carson Beebe Sprenge, M.S. Rain Shadow Consulting, LLC, September 2013


FOREST THAT HAS BEEN THINNED. Note how close together the thinned small-diameter hemlock trees were growing together.

TREE GREENHOUSE Individual protection for new, growing, Pine and Fir trees

TREE GREENHOUSE Pine tree, approximately 2â&#x20AC;&#x2122; tall, growing inside light tube

CASCADE FALLS ORCAS ISLAND, MORAN STATE PARK

Photos: courtesy of atelierjones

SAMPLE FOREST MANAGEMENT PLAN

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FINGER-JOINTED 2 x 6 CLT PANEL Structurlam SPF Panel

18 Photos: courtesy of atelierjones


FINGER-JOINTED 2x8 CLT PANEL DR Johnson Douglas Fir

Photos: courtesy of atelierjones

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CHAPTER TWO

MATERIAL INVESTIGATIONS

1. WOODEN STRUCTURES IN THE CITY: LOOKING TO THE FUTURE This story began in the forestland on Orcas Island, to which the architect in this story attributes her inspiration to create wooden buildings for the twenty first century. As the newly acquired knowledge was taking her closer to the front edge of the innovation for sustainability, it became necessary to involve academic research. Thus the journey continued at the University of Washington, in the architecture studios of the College of Build Environment, where the architect and the group of the students she was teaching undertook an extensive research to better understand the new material in question: Cross Laminated Timber, or CLT. CLT originated in Austria, Switzerland, and Germany in the late 1990s. While CLT is still fairly unknown in North America, and particularly in the United States, the awareness of this new material has been steadily gaining ground, especially in Cascadia Region with its vast and economically important forest resources. In the Spring of 2013, the research by the graduate students at University of Washington began. A design studio entitled The CLT: Material Culture Studio (Architecture 502) focused on conceptual, environmental, and design implications of this emerging new building material. The motivation for the students’ work was based on this premise: early modernists grappled with conceptual, formal, and typological implications of the emergence of reinforced concrete and long-span steel members. Emergence of the new materials in the twenty first century, one of them CLT, may cause architects to reexamine these implications in the contemporary world.

20 MATERIAL INVESTIGATIONS

In order for the students to have a platform upon which to envision architectural application of CLT, the final product of the studio was to be the Seattle Center for Buddhism, with a rich, spatially varied program. The students investigated the following issues: • conceptual implications for design with the emergence of the a new modular CLT panel • sustainable implications of using wood - CLT panel - as a base building material, especially within the bioclimatic zone of timber-rich Cascadia Region of North America • technical requirements and characteristics, environmental performance, and carbon impact of CLT • design potential of CLT panel to introduce warmth, tactility, and natural materiality, particularly as an interior structural/finish material • explore and understand the structural and constructive alternatives that CLT embodies (i. e. as an alternative to steel, concrete, or traditional residential wood-framed construction, all of which constitute a higher carbon footprint) The research that was conducted in the studio was based on the preceding work of Architecture 501 (taught by Professors Rick Mohler and Elizabeth Golden), which also researched the use of timber and CLT for team competition entries during the Winter of 2013. This chapter presents a portion of the academic research that took place, and the design work later undertaken by the architectural firm atelierjones has paralleled this foundation of pedagogical research.


Photo: CLT STudio at University of Washington, Spring 2013 Courtesy atelierjones

MATERIAL INVESTIGATIONS

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2. CLT: WHAT IS IT AND HOW IS IT MADE?

ASSUMPTIONS A standard three-layered CLT panel is 8’ X 40’. It consists of three (or more) layers of 2”X 6”X 8’ lumber, arranged in an alternating perpendicular pattern: vertically, horizontally, and again vertically.

METHODOLOGY The amount of lumber in each vertical layer is equal to 40’ divided by the width of the lumber (in this case, 5.5”). The lumber contained in horizontal layers is measured by dividing the 8’ (width of CLT panel) by the width of lumber (again,5.5”) and then repeating this five times to equal the length of the panel. The calculations are as follows: Vertical:CARBON AND CLT: (40’ x 12” / 1’) / 5.5” = 88 boards (2”X 6” each) Horizontal: (8’ x 12”/1’) / 5.5” x 5 = 88 boards (2” X 6” each)

WOOD CONTENT IN CLT ASSUMPTIONS

constructed from 3 layers of 2”x6”x8’ lumber. Layers are arranged vertica

The total amount lumber used in a single CLT horizontally, thenof vertically. of lumber in each vertical layer is panel isMETHODOLOGY: 88+88+88 = The 264amount boards. Forincluded CLT panels to 40’ divided by the width the lumber (in this case 5.5”). The lumber co with additional layers, one ofshould add 176 board in horizontal layers is measured by dividing the 8’ height by the width of th per every additional two layers. (again 5.5”) and then repeating this four more times to equal the length of The math is as follows:

Vertical: (40’ *12”/1’) / 5.5” = 88 2”x6” boards

RESOURCE USE Since each tree (8’ yields a unique of boards lumber, Horizontal: *12”/1’) / 5.5” * 5amount = 88 2”x6” it is very difficult to determine and standardize the lumber usedfor in aproduction. single CLT panelAis rough 88 + 88 + 88 or 264 numberTotal of amount treesofrequired For CLT with additional layers, add 176 boards for every additional two la estimate, however, can be gained by using the board foot method as follows: RESOURCE USE: Determining the amount of trees used in the creation of C

impossible to standardize as each tree’s lumber yield is unique. However, a

be gained from usingboard the board footnumber method. Board foot is ca nominalestimate can nominal by theXfollowing calculation: width (in) thickness (in) X length X of (ft)/12 boards (nominal width (in) * nominal thickness (in) * board length (ft)/12 * number

A single panel requires 2,212 feet According of For CLT a single CLT panel, 2112 board feetboard are required. to the for determining lumber.“International According1/4-Inch to the Rule” international 1/4standard in ruletree forvolume, this pan consumestandard around 4 trees three 16’panel spans of wood at 24” (a total determining treecontaining volume, this would board feet). Actual numbers are likely to be higher due to natural variatio consume approximately 4 trees containing three 16’ comparison, a standard 2,400 sqft single family home consumes around 30 spans of wood at 24”its (a total of 2360 board feet). board feet during construction. Actual requirement is likely to be higher due to naturalRESOURCES: variations. For comparison, a standard 2,400 http://ohioline.osu.edu/for-fact/0035.html - Tree Board Feet Estimate sf single family home consumes 30,000 board feet http://extension.missouri.edu/scripts/explore/G05506.asp - Board foot Ca for its construction. http://www.idahoforests.org/woodhous.htm - Wood Home Information

CARBON ARCH 502 SUSAN JONES CLT STUDIO - SPR

22 FOREST TO PREFABRICATED CLT

Research and data: “Carbon and CLT” ARCH 502 Susan Jones CLT Studio, Spring 2013


of the mature pine trees harvested in British Columbia were affected by the beetle infestation.

PROJECTION OF REDUCED BC TIMBER HARVEST DUE TO MPB MORTALITY

CRISISEpidemic impacts British Colombia provides 30 percent of the timber used by the American AGING WOOD building industry. While logging and the number of sawmillingAs grew during the North American housing dead forest becomes drier and more brittle, and starts to rot at the base of boom of 2000 - 2006, those industries later declined as the tree the lumber demand and prices in the U.S. decreased in LOGISTICS coststhe rise,decade. since more timber must be left in the woods and harvestable the secondLogging half of stands get farther away from the mills.

BLUE STAIN FUNGUS

While there much more wood fortheharvest Blue is stained wood from the fungus available doesnt weaken wood, but is only and processing to thequalities, pine beetle epidemic and, disturbingdue the aesthetic as it follows the grain randomly. consequently, vast amounts of dead trees that must be removed, production remains low because of low Shelf lifeSince 8-12 years demand in the U.S. the start of the pine beetle epidemic in 1999, about 45 percent the mature pine The length of time dead pine stands can be of converted into lumber depends on the bio trees physical harvested in British Colombia affected. properties of the trees, stand site, have and millbeen technology. Current information indicates wood from beetle-affected trees will retain its commercial value for eight to Nevertheless, currently, British Colombia is producing twelve years after the tree has died. only 54 percent of its former yield in 2006.

THE MOUNTAIN PINE BEETLE EPIDEMIC ARCH 502 SUSAN JONES CLT STUDIO - SPRING 2013

BEETLE-AFFECTED LUMBER STAINED WITH FUNGUS

EPIDEMIC IMPACTS 1. AGING WOOD After a forest stand is killed by pine beetle, with time, the dead wood fiber becomes drier and more brittle; eventually, the rot sets in at the base of the tree. This causes difficulties in the sawmilling process. 2. LOGISTICS As more timber becomes unharvestable and must be left in the woods, logging costs rise. Harvestable stands become more difficult to reach, as they become further away from the mills. 3. BLUE STAIN FUNGUS

Beetle-affected woods are susceptible to a fungus that stains the wood grain blue. The wood is not weakened, but its aesthetic qualities are changed. The blue stain follows the grain in random patterns.

SHELF LIFE OF 8 - 12 YEARS There is a limited period of time, during which dead pine forest stands can still be used for lumber. This period depends on the biophysical properties of trees, forest stand site, and mill technology. It is generally accepted, that the wood of beetle-affected trees will retain its commercial value for eight to twelve years after the tree has died. Photo: Sustainable Lumber Company http://www.sustainablelumberco.com/wp-content/uploads/2012 Research: â&#x20AC;&#x153;The Mountain Pine Beetle Epidemicâ&#x20AC;? ARCH 502 Susan Jones CLT Studio, Spring 2013

PINE BEETLE INFESTATION TIMBER INDUSTRY IN BRITISH COLOMBIA

23


3. CLT AND TRADITIONAL BUILDING MATERIALS: COMPARISONS OF CARBON FOOTPRINT IN THE CONTEXT OF ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT As part of the CLT research conducted by the University of Washington students, technical aspects of the CLT panels and their structural and construction requirements were investigated. These included envelope (i. e. waterproofing and breathable insulation) and international and local precedents where CLT had been used as a primary building material. A very deep collaboration developed between the studio and a university of Washington assistant professor Kate Simonen, who, at the time, taught a course on life cycle analysis and material carbon assessment. Professor Simonen encouraged students to integrate their parallel coursework into the studio, and to use their studio projects as the basis for carbon analyses and carbon comparisons. Such strong theoretical base led to questioning of some of the studio’s initial assumptions: • how carbon neutral is the CLT panel - especially once its additional needs as building material are considered • how carbon neutral is the use and application of CLT panel - especially in comparison to low-scale construction systems use in American residential construction (typical 2 x 4 wood frame wall section) • what is the most appropriate scale for the use of CLT as building material?

SCALE MATTERS: PROJECT SCALE

Scale plays a central role in defining the effectiveness of CLT. The current body of research, one example of which is the work by Joe Mayo of Mahlum Architects, indicates that application of CLT in mid-to-higher-rise construction, especially for the mid-rise housing units, where repetition and modularity could easily be incorporated into design, is especially productive. It is notable that currently other organizations and building companies, such as Walsh Construction, seek to demonstrate the carbon and cost-effectiveness of using CLT as a substitute for cast-in-place concrete in mid-rise residential construction. The current research corroborates the strategic direction undertaken by major North American manufacturers of CLT panels. There are two CLT manufacturers in Canada: one of them, Structurlam is located in Penticton, British Colombia, the other, Nordiclam, in northern Quebec. The standard three-ply panels manufactured by these facilities are 8’ x 40’ x 4”, produced using layers of 2” x 6” planks of adhered pine, spruce, or fir. The companies are primarily focused on marketing the panels as a substitute for concrete in multi-family and hospitality mid-rise construction.

* CO2 from biomass is considered environmentally impact-neutral by the U.S. EPA. and as such is not considered when determining Global Warming Potential impact.

24 CARBON FOOTPRINT COMPARISONS

Research: “Carbon and CLT” ARCH 502 Susan Jones CLT Studio, Spring 2013


CARBON ANALYSIS:

EVALUATION OF BUILDING ENVELOPES: CLT WITH EXTERIOR WOOD CLADDING CARBON ANALYSIS:

Given that CLT has a much lighter carbon footprint than more prevalent building systems, such as concrete and steel construction, the dominant Calculator: Athena market for CLT is mid-rise 6-12 stories buildings where Type V construction typeenvironmentally can no longer be used. While American building codes lag behind their CO2 from biomass is considered impactEuropean and Australian counterparts for wood buildings at 4-8 stories, it neutral by the U.S. EPA, and as such is not considered might be more efficient to substitute concrete and steel for CLT, used as when determining the Global Warming impact a less combustible construction type heavy timber,Potential in Type IV construction, relative to the building’s use and occupancy.

EVALUATION OF BUILDING ENVELOPES: CLT WITH EXTERIOR WOOD CLADDING

ACIDIFICATION POTENTIAL (MOLES PF H+)

HUMAN HEALTH CRITERIA (kg of 10 micron PM)

EUTROPHICATIO OZONE SMOG N POTENTIAL POTENTIAL For DEPLETION smaller scale residential building, in comparison to American 2 x 4/6 (g OF Nitrogen POTENTIAL (kg of NOx eq.) wood frame construction, using exposed CLT without GWB is a more eq.) (mg of CFH-11 advantageous carbon sequestration method, assuming the native forest, eq.)

210

7

199

FOSSIL FUEL CONSUMPTION (MJ)

CLT/ wood cladding/ R19 insulation/ polyethylene CLT/ wood membrane cladding/ R19 insulation/ polyethylene membrane

FOSSIL FUEL CONSUMPTION (MJ)

from which the CLT timber was harvested, is being replanted. Early calculations show the CLT system to be carbon neutral, even potentially Calculator: Athena carbon positive. Additionally, in smaller scale residential construction, CO2 from biomass is considered environmentally impactwere there are requirements for steel or concrete to span larger spaces neutral by the U.S. EPA, and as such is not considered Calculator: Athena or todetermining use in cantilevered substituting when the Globalconstruction, Warming Potential impact CLT members for steel CO2 from biomass considered environmentally impact- characteristics of the or concrete can isgreatly improve the environmental CARBON AND CLT ACIDIFICATION HEALTH SMOG neutralHUMAN by the U.S. EUTROPHICATIO EPA, andARCH asOZONE such is not JONES considered 502 SUSAN POTENTIAL building CRITERIA N POTENTIAL DEPLETION POTENTIALCLT STUDIO – SPRING 2013 overall. the when determining Global Warming Potential impact

GWP (TONNES OF CO2, EQ.)

(MOLES PF H+)

GWP (TONNES OF CO2, EQ.)

12,395 0

12,395 0

1

*

ACIDIFICATION POTENTIAL (MOLES PF H+)

210

210

(kg of 10 micron PM) HUMAN HEALTH CRITERIA (kg of 10 micron PM)

7

7

29

(g OF Nitrogen eq.) EUTROPHICATIO N POTENTIAL (g OF Nitrogen eq.)

POTENTIAL (mg of CFH-11 OZONE eq.) DEPLETION POTENTIAL (mg of CFH-11 eq.)

(kg of NOx eq.)

1

29

199

1

29

199

SMOG POTENTIAL (kg of NOx eq.)

CARBON AND CLT ARCH 502 SUSAN JONES CLT STUDIO – SPRING 2013 CARBON AND CLT ARCH 502 SUSAN JONES CLT STUDIO – SPRING 2013

Impact Calculator: ATHENA Research: “Carbon and CLT” ARCH 502 Susan Jones CLT Studio, Spring 2013

CARBON FOOTPRINT COMPARISONS

25


CARBON ANALYSIS:

EVALUATION OF BUILDING ENVELOPES: CONCRETE WITH EXTERIOR WOOD CLADDING

Calculator: Athena FOSSIL FUEL CONSUMPTION (MJ)

Concrete/cedar bevel cladding/R5 XPS continuous insulation/GWB/l atex paint CARBON ANALYSIS:

GWP (TONNES OF CO2, EQ.)

39,128 3.2

ACIDIFICATION POTENTIAL (MOLES PF H+)

HUMAN HEALTH CRITERIA (kg of 10 micron PM)

EUTROPHICATIO N POTENTIAL (g OF Nitrogen eq.)

OZONE DEPLETION POTENTIAL (mg of CFH-11 eq.)

SMOG POTENTIAL (kg of NOx eq.)

875

13.6

1280

20.8

208

EVALUATION OF BUILDING ENVELOPES: 2X4 WOOD STUD CONSTRUCTION WITH EXTERIOR WOOD CLADDING

CARBON AND CLT ARCH 502 SUSAN JONES CLT STUDIO – SPRING 2013

Calculator: Athena

Cedar siding/R5 insulation/wood structural panel sheathing/2X4 wood stud @16”o.c./R12 insulation/GWB+la tex paint

FOSSIL FUEL CONSUMPTION (MJ)

GWP (TONNES OF CO2, EQ.)

ACIDIFICATION POTENTIAL (MOLES PF H+)

HUMAN HEALTH CRITERIA (kg of 10 micron PM)

EUTROPHICATION POTENTIAL (g OF Nitrogen eq.)

OZONE DEPLETION POTENTIAL (mg of CFH-11 eq.)

SMOG POTENTIAL (kg of NOx eq.)

12456

1

215

9

218

1

26

CARBON AND CLT ARCH 502 SUSAN JONES CLT STUDIO – SPRING 2013

26 CARBON FOOTPRINT COMPARISONS


CARBON BETTER BUT NOT CARBON GREAT: CARBON FOOTPRINT COMPARISONS

In addition to analyzing structural and design potential of CLT, the studio performed comparative life-cycle carbon analysis. It is understood that CLT can be used in the following ways, replacing traditional materials and methods: 1) as a viable long span alternative to higher carbon footprint steel, 2) as a viable high-strength composite material to higher carbon footprint concrete 3) as an interior finish material, as a viable alternative to the traditional residential 2 x 4 wood frame wall section The carbon footprints of the three traditional construction methods were researched and compared with their CLT alternatives. Conclusions were not always as favorable as originally thought, in part because of the CLT requirements for exterior insulation, waterproofing and cladding, along with associated support materials for the exterior insulation. Additionally, CLT’s need to ‘breathe’ - so as to not trap moisture within the wall section, and potentially breed mold - dictated a naturally permeable vapor barrier, which required a thicker wall section in order to achieve the same amount of R-value as a traditional fiberglass batt insulation wall. The studio performed preliminary comparative Carbon Analysis of the three typical wall sections using Athena Calculator. CLT, 2 x 4 wood frame wall, 2 x 4 steel stud, and concrete were analyzed. CLT performed very well in comparison to concrete or steel-stud systems, along a variety of environmental metrics. However, a comparison of CLT wall section with a typical American wood framed residential construction yielded surprisingly little difference in the carbon footprints. There was a very slight favorable difference (approximately 1 tonne of CO2 EQ), when comparing a typical CLT wall section to its 2 x 4 wood stud wall construction alternative, a difference that was almost entirely attributable to the need for GWB/mud/tape, required by the 2 x 4 wood stud wall. The studio surmised that the differences between the traditional American and traditional central European residential construction techniques (which consist of using concrete or masonry/mineral wood/interior GWB) allowed CLT to perform much more favorably than when compared to typical American light wood framing technologies. The resource efficiency of the 2 x 4 stud wall construction became even more apparent when GWB was added to the interior of the CLT wall section, and the wall section performed much worse than a typical 2 x 4 stud wall construction.

CARBON FOOTPRINT COMPARISONS

27


It is assumed that a typical three-ply CLT panel requires 1.25 medium-sized trees to make. Based on this assumption, it is possible to calculate the number of trees required for any CLT building, especially, that each panel has to be pre-cut at a manufacturing facility according to the architectâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s specifications and drawings. This is an example of the CLT panel layout for CLTHouse designed by atelierjones (this project will be discussed in greater detail in the following chapter).

28 TIMBER DIAGRAM


Low density planting contains 302 White Pine and/ or Douglas Fir Trees per acre

17 TREES = 0.06 ACRE = 2,613 SF

Replanting White Pine and Douglas Fir trees on Mount Constitution, Orcas Island, on the family plot of forestland. July 2014

Optimizing carefully, atelierjones estimated that approximately 17 trees were used in the production of 16 panels of CLT. According to the forestry service recommendations, a low-density planting contains about 302 trees per acre; therefore, 17 trees would require approximately 0.06 acre to grow. The CLT panels were obtained from a Canadian fabrication plant, Structurlam, which is FSC plant-certified, so it may be assumed, that the harvested trees have been replanted. The CLT panels themselves are not individually FSC-certified.

So in addition, the owners of the house also replanted an additional 17 trees. As the CLTHouse acts as a carbon sink, equivalent to another 17 trees, the site of the house, itself only 2,500 SF, becomes a virtual carbon sink equivalent to 0.2 acre - about a quarter of an acre of trees.

CARBON SEQUESTRATION

29


CLT HOUSE FOOTPRINT

REPLANTED TREES: 20 TOTAL

BUILDING SITE TOTAL AREA OF REPLANTING: 0.06 ACRE

The building site is 2500 sf = 0.06 acre. According to forestry services recommendations, this area can support between 15 and 40 trees.* If the current building site was returned to nature and replanted, it could support the number of trees used for the construction of the house. *

The high number of 1000 trees per acre represents the conditions before the final thinning.

In Europe, the use of smaller timber members, from smaller trees, arose as an ecological response within a context of well-managed forests, relying on a virtuous cycle of planting and replanting trees. Carbon sequestration is preserved in the pieces of wood of the panels themselves, and as well, in the replanted trees. If the cycle of tree growth is reduced from 40 years to 25-30 years, the smaller tree timber can be used for more productive structural strength through lamination to create strong panels, while freeing up space for more trees to be planted. Most importantly, the use of CLT could encourage better management of existing forests and restoration of the forest. Forests that are thinned regularly of smaller trees, allow stronger stock to grow larger and longer, creating an ecologically rich forest floor. In turn, the smaller, thinned trees, can be used to make CLT panels through finger-jointing these smalldiameter tree lumber pieces together to make strong, long-lasting use of the carbon-sequestering wood.

Tristan Huff, et all, â&#x20AC;&#x153;Establishing and Managing Forest Trees n Western Oregon,â&#x20AC;? OregonForests.org

30 CARBON SEQUESTRATION


AVERAGE FUEL CONSUMPTION AND CO2 EMISSION

+

=

498 gal. per year

9,960 lb CO2

CO2 SEQUESTRATION Fast growing conifers (White Pine and Douglas Fir)

51 TREES

25 YEARS 1

1 tree 22 lb of CO2 annually

5

10 15 20 25

= 28,050 lb CO2 sequestered

1,122 lb of CO2 annually

THE EQUIVALENT OF CARBON DIOXIDE SEQUESTRATION BY THE REPLANTED TREES: - 3 PASSENGER CARS TAKEN OFF THE ROAD FOR ONE YEAR - OR ONE PASSENGER CAR TAKEN OFF THE ROAD FOR 3 YEARS

Environmental Protection Administration, “Average Annual Emissions and Fuel Consumption for Gasoline Fueled Passenger Cars and Trucks,” EPA.gov U.S. Department of Energy and Energy Information Administration, “Method for Calculating Carbon Sequestration by Trees in Urban and Suburban Setting”

CARBON SEQUESTRATION

31


4. REGIONAL SUPPLY AND MANUFACTURE OF CLT

Designing and building with wood is so ubiquitous in the US that to challenge existing notions of wood design and construction is to challenge the very bedrock of the American residential construction industry. Coupled with the promise of being able to replace concrete with the structurally robust but light CLT panel, (with a 3:1 ratio of better carbon sequestration performance) for low- to midrise multifamily structures, CLT poses significant challenges to the perennially risk-adverse construction industry. This is resistance can be felt in the US national heated code debates regarding the height allowance restrictions for the new wooden buildings. Resistance to adopting code regulations allowing 8-10 story wooden multi-family buildings in the US is being led by a sophisticated lobbying effort of concrete and fire regulators, who claim safety issues; whereas other developed countries, including Switzerland, Austria, Germany, and Great Britain, have long-since overcome these regulatory hurdles. Even in the design-rich Pacific Northwest, closely held traditions of designing with wood - Northwest Modernist interpretations of the Native American longhouse - have long held sway over the school of thought in the Pacific Northwest. The ubiquitous patterns of column and beam assemblies, with long, low overhanging roofs are both beautiful and seductively formal. They have been exemplified by such works as Paul Kirkâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Japanese House at Bloedel or James Cutlerâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s guest house, and have been recognized and reinterpreted for decades in this design rich environment. Historically relying on the robust structural power of the native Douglas Fir tree, the long spans carved from old-growth timber were eventually replaced by either the constructed Glu-Lam, reclaimed old-growth timbers, or later steel and/or concrete beams. After decades of evolution, it can be argued that the PNW longhouse-as-model is finally reaching a critical formulaic redundancy. The CLTHouse advances the local Pacific Northwest relationship with wood, but demands simultaneous performative drivers, expanding our notion of the materiality to insure the longevity of the supply chain. These issues became paramount to the architect early in the process.

CLT PRODUCTION


CLT PRODUCTION


34 CLT PRODUCTION


The Cross Laminated Timber for the CLT House was supplied by a Canadian manufacturer, Structurlam. atelierjones visited their Penticton, B.C. manufacturing facility several times. Structurlam produces the standard 3-ply CLT panel, generally produced in North America; each panel is 8’ x 40’ x 4” and consists of three layers of adhered pine, spruce, or fir in 2” x 6” planks. Research conducted by the University of Washington’s graduate-level architecture studio, taught by Susan Jones in the spring of 2013, explored the difference between the production of CLT panels in North America and the European CLT panels. The standard 3-ply panel in Austria, produced by manufacturer KLH, is comprised of three smaller, individual layers of adhered wood, but, unlike the north American manufacturers, uses spruce or larch timber planks. Smaller finished panels are produced, readily available in the standard size of 2.4”(60mm) x 4’(1.25m) x 20’(6m). The use of spruce or larch changes the appearance of the panel, creating a significantly less knotty exterior, and, therefore, a different visual experience compared to the Structurlam panels that use North American pine. Edge gluing also generally occurs on at least one side of the European panels. Given the shipping costs, both monetary and in the form of carbon dioxide emissions, the need for a local American market and manufacturing of CLT panels has been increasing. Over the past year, atelierjones has been collaborating with a number of local industries and educational institutions, including University of Washington and Washington State University, as well as non-profit agencies such as Forterra, who are focused on building the domestic American supply chain for fabrication. As of late 2015, the first domestic CLT panels were available in a Northwest location - at the DR Johnson plant in southern Oregon, the panels certified by the APA, use Douglas Fir 2” x 8” lumber, creating a uniform and rosier wood tone than the pine

Structurlam panels. Another American plant, Smartlam, located in Montana, is currently undergoing rigorous APA certification tests. In Washington State, discussions are underway to consider CLT panel fabrication in three locations, near Colville, WA at Vaagen Lumber and elsewhere near Oso, WA, and on the Olympic Peninsula, near Forks, WA. In addition to the advantages of thinning forests, to prevent forest fires and overgrowth, Structurlam utilizes beetle and fungus- affected lumber in the inner layers of their CLT Panels, resulting in a beautiful blue hue in the end grain of the panels, less overall waste and creates potential for healthier forests. Very few structures from CLT have been built to date in the United States. A two story CLTHouse, designed and constructed in Seattle, has been completed in June 2015. The following sections will discuss the house, its design, and structure in more detail. Also presented in this publication is another work by atelierjones - a dramatic, non-structural use of the CLT in Bellevue First Congregational church, built by Goudy Construction and scheduled for completion in March 2016. Other CLT projects in the United States include a four story Army Privatized Housing complex, which was completed in late 2015 at the Redstone Arsenal in Alabama, delivered by the global developer Lendlease. The 58,850 square foot, four-story hotel is comprised of 92 guest rooms. In Minneapolis, a six story office/ mixed use complex is currently scheduled to complete construction in 2017, using Nail-Laminated Timber. A 14,000 SF science wing of a charter high school, Common Ground in New Haven Connecticut is under construction and scheduled for opening in 2016. Projects under construction in the Northwest, also include a Western Oregon University project by Mahlum Architects, and two other uses of CLT as exposed ceiling/floor diaphragms in campus buildings at Washington State University. Additional buildings in Portland, Oregon by Lever Architecture are in design phases.

CLT PRODUCTION

35


CHAPTER THREE

EXPRESSIONS IN WOOD

1.

CLTHouse 2011-2015 Seattle, WA USA The materiality of the CLTHouse and the interior experiences recall the ubiquitous small northwest beach cabins, as well as the specifics of the site itself â&#x20AC;&#x201C; once a beach itself, under several feet of water in 1916, before the Lake Washington water levels were lowered by 9 feet with the building of the Ship Canal out to Elliott Bay. The CLT House is built using PassivHaus strategies, and the CLT is revealed to the interior domestic spaces. Left almost raw, with a light whitewash, the CLT is experienced as a beach cabin - a raw, visceral natural experience of nature. The white pine knots are exposed, interior trim is kept to a minimum, utilities are hidden in a central service core. Experimenting with this new tectonic, the CLT panels are routed using standard CNC technology, and vaulted to create visceral experiences of light and space. Construction completed by Cascade Built in June 2015; the house is designed by atelierjones with structural engineering by Harriott/ Valentine, and was certified to BUILT GREEN 5-Star standards in October 2015. One may say that the story that began over four decades ago in a Puget Sound island forest has found its conclusion here, on the shores of Lake Washington - but it is certainly not the end. research, innovation, and pioneering design has culminated in the completion of the CLTHouse, that the small house has already had an enormous impact.

PROJECT TEAM: Susan Jones Brian Gerich Joe Swain Maria Ibarlucia Mesa Sherriff Marisol Foreman Megumi Migita

36 CLTHOUSE 2011 - 1015 Seattle, WA


photo by Lara Swimmer Photography

37


Situated on a small, leftover 2,500 sf triangular site across an alley and rear of the bank parking lot, the house negotiates between an established neighborhood and the commercial strip off the broad, slicing Madison Avenue, which connects the two major water bodies of Seattle: Elliott Bay and Lake Washington. The direct, almost blunt diagonality of Madison reflects itself onto the site, just as the alley off of Madison directly reflects the geometry of this historic avenue through the city. Madison Avenue was once a driveway for John McGilvra, U.S. Attorney General appointed by Lincoln in 1861, to his house on the then beach at 38th Ave. East, near the site of Broadmoor today. It was only after the Montlake Cut was completed in 1916, that Lake Washington was lowered by 9 feet creating lower Madison Park lots, which were carved into small beach house sites for the city dwellers living up the hill. A streetcar trolley then connected downtown to Madison Park, and the ferry terminal that took passengers to Kirkland terminated the end of Madison. Thus, the present-day site of the CLTHouse is located in the area that historically was a respite from the city, a beach community. The house is just blocks from the beach and still sits on the clay banks of the once underwater beach. Today, with a walkscore of 94, the village feel still remains, with transit, grocery and hardware stores across the alley, with parks and the beach nearby. The site itself is a respite from the city.

38 CLTHOUSE 2011 - 1015


on

dis

Ma

St.

e. NE.

CLTHOUSE 2011 - 1015 39


40 CLT HOUSE NEIGHBORHOOD


Before (1916)

Shoreline

43rd Ave E

42nd Ave E

41st Ave E

McGilvra Blvd E

40th Ave E

9’

After (Present day)

GAINING LAND ON LAKE WASHINGTON

GAINING LAND ON LAKE WASHINGTON

41


INTERPRETING THE MODERNIST URBAN BEACH CABIN Considering the issues, the small 1930â&#x20AC;&#x2122;s beach cabins of Josef Frank in Falsterbo, Sweden came to mind. Their precarious small spaces, reaching up and out to bedrooms and decks with surprise views, little wooden perches of space to provide moments of privacy in loving, bountiful family environments, and their simple wood materials provided ample spatial typologies for the architect, well-versed in these early works of Frank. But the later, highly experimental homes of Frank, created decades later for wealthier clients, also impressed upon the memories of the curious architect, recalling the vertical, refined spaces that curved animalistically out to embrace garden rooms, bringing in the outdoors during the rarified Scandinavian summer months.

42 CLTHOUSE MODEL


Refining the spatial interiority of the house, Adolf Loos’s Villa Mueller contributed, with the small room of the Frau Mueller, looking benevolently down from hovering perch between floors, down to a generous piano nobile, with its high, 1.25 storied section. The tight urban interiority of these early modernist homes, with surprising connective spatial sequences culminating in choreographed green or distant sea views helped interpret the tight urban 2,500 SF site three miles from the family’s downtown condominium. While well-situated for southern heating gain, the southern side of the home was tightly pressed against a highly used, highly utilitarian alley, packed with parked cars, trash and recycling dumpsters, commercial loading vehicles, and an abandoned lot, with rats and litter. Creating a parallel south wall against the direct views, a small. 8’ x 8’ exterior courtyard was carved out of the pure triangular footprint to help create diagonal east-west views through the house from kitchen to dining to courtyard to living to outdoor garden to the western street beyond. Recalling Mies’ Lange & Esters House, critic Ken Oshima astutely notes the nuanced sideway diagonal views through the house, that, coupled with interior glazing reflections, exterior moving vehicle lights as well as carefully placed exterior lights that ground the boundaries of exterior space enhance the spatial sophistication and extension of what are very small, tight urban living spaces.

Block Map

1820 41st Ave. NE.

Siza’s small urban houses were also examined closely, particularly, his 1973-76 Casa Carlos Beires. His notion of a “broken rectangle” resonated deeply with the struggles to reconcile the triangular site. The hollowed out plan of the Portuguese home with views and windows situated to create an interiority experience of space was key in the understanding of the CLTHouse’s difficult context. Site Diagram

BLOCK MAP SITE DIAGRAM

43


The tight urban interiority of the early modernist homes, with surprising connective spatial sequences culminating in choreographed green with distant sea views helped interpret the tight urban 2,500 SF site.

44 CLTHOUSE CONCEPT MODEL


CLTHOUSE DESIGN ITERATIONS

45


Standing seam metal roofing

Dark shou sugi ban pine cladding

CNC routed pine wood screens

Building circulation core

White CLT interior

Double height kitchen area surrounded by circulation core

41st

Ave.

NE

Courtyard

Alley

NE.

The CLTHouse was designed to meet passive house standards for envelope construction, with triple glazed windows, R-35 walls, R-49 roofs and reduced thermal bridging where possible. Qualifying for the Built Green 5-star, REMRATE energy modeling showed that the house is targeted to perform 38% better than already aggressive Washington State energy codes require. Using a Whole House Ventilation system, called a Heating Recovery Ventilation system, the house is sited to take advantage of passive heating and daylighting in the winter to minimize winter heating loads. No air conditioning is installed, and the house was sited and

46 BUILDING DIAGRAM

pre-wired to adopt solar in the future. The CLTHouse was designed to optimize the use of wood relative to the standard CLT panel at Structurlam, or 8’ x 40’. The ability to use CLT panels as the primary and/or secondary building structure, as well as the interior finish reduces the number of materials and trades used on the finishing of a building, as well as the time needed to erect and finish the building. The structural grid was optimized at 8’ x 12’, as a 5-ply panel can span up to 12’ unsupported. Where necessary, high gloss steel was introduced as a contrasting structural element.


16 panels at 8’ X 40’ each, approx.

CLT PANE 16 PANE 8’ x 40’ ea approx.

The sixty-seven highly customized, prefabricated panels arrived on site in early December, and after only twelve crane-days, were erected in place, creating the inner shell of the completed house, both structure and interior skin, by Christmas Eve. Enabling the digital platform to compress both fabrication and assembly times meant that design and fabrication process was lengthened and enriched, necessitating a greater risk position from the architect/owner.

Per the original program mandate from the family, the architect/owner assumed the risk and ownership of the CLT panels from the start, and delivered an almost perfect set of panels to the site after three months of shop drawing coordination between architect and fabricator, Structurlam. While television cameras circled the quick erection process with a 40’ crane dominating the back alley behind the leafy green neighborhood, the precision-cut factory process was where the real innovation was at work.

CLT PANEL DIAGRAM

47


48 CLT PANELS AND CONNECTIONS


North American CLT slab is a large, hefty, difficult to maneuver object, which requires cranes to move and heavy industrial equipment to make. It also calls for special considerations when series of slabs need to be securely connected. The CLT Handbook for America, co-produced by the American Plywood Association (APA), recommends the use of screws and steel plates in order to fasten the panels together, instead of the more delicate finger jointing traditionally used Austria and Switzerland with the Europeanproduced panels. Screws, often as long as 36 inches, and steel plates are the dominant connections in CLT construction. In most cases, the connections between CLT panels are hidden under exterior insulation, and interior walls are furred out for electrical and plumbing installations. Considerations about whether to reveal or hide the connections between CLT panels were paramount in the design of the CLTHouse, as were the considerations of whether to fur out walls or chases for electrical and plumbing installations.

FASTENER DIAGRAM FOR EACH CLT PANEL

49


50 CNC ROUTED HOLES ELEVATIONS


CNC ROUTED HOLES THROUGH CLT PANEL CNC ROUTED HOLES THROUGH CLT PANEL CNC ROUTED LINES 1/4 DEEP

CNC ROUTED HOLES THROUGH CLT PANEL CNC ROUTED HOLES THROUGH CLT PANEL CNC ROUTED LINES 1/4 DEEP WC ROUTED ELECTRICAL OUTLET

W3 EAST ELEVATION: looking in from outside

CUSTOM PREFABRICATION By necessity, then, privileging spatial experiences as the dominant driver for the tight, awkward urban lot, the materiality of the house needed to be both highly performative and highly flexible. The custom pre-fabricated possibilities of the cross-laminated timber system provided a rich digital platform for experimentation. While the house is nominally laid out on a rigorous grid of 8’ x 12’, based on the CLT panels’ widths and span ratios, the flexibility in the modularity of the panel itself – enabled by a corresponding robust computerized numerical control (CNC) system housed in the factory producing the CLT

CNC ROUTED HOLES THROUGH CLT PANEL CNC ROUTED HOLES THROUGH CLT PANEL CNC ROUTED LINES 1/4 DEEP

CNC ROUTED HOLES THROUGH CLT PANEL CNC ROUTED HOLES THROUGH CLT PANEL END OF WALL BEHIND CNC ROUTED LINES 1/4 DEEP

W4 SOUTH ELEVATION: looking in from outside

panels made for extreme flexibility to explore spatial configurations, both in plan and section. Early communications between designer and fabricator confirmed the ability to shape space through the precision mitering of vertical panels to create vertical, angular volumes of space and light. Wooden screen panels to shroud the utilitarian alley noise and lights as well as strong southern light patterns were CNC routed to create mnemonic patterns evoking the rescaled patterns of the pine wood itself, from simple CAD drawings.

CNC ROUTED HOLES PANEL INSTALLATION

51


CLTHouse construction photos Courtesy atelierjones 52 CLTHOUSE 2011 - 1015


CLTHouse construction photos Courtesy atelierjones CLTHOUSE 2011 - 1015 53


CLTHouse construction photos Courtesy atelierjones 54 CLTHOUSE 2011 - 1015


CLTHouse construction photos Courtesy atelierjones CLTHOUSE 2011 - 1015 55


CLTHouse construction photos Courtesy atelierjones 56 CLTHOUSE 2011 - 1015


CLTHouse construction photos Courtesy atelierjones CLTHOUSE 2011 - 1015 57


CLTHouse construction photos Courtesy atelierjones 58 CLTHOUSE 2011 - 1015


CLTHouse construction photos Courtesy atelierjones CLTHOUSE 2011 - 1015 59


CLTHouse construction photos Courtesy atelierjones 60 CLTHOUSE 2011 - 1015


CLTHouse construction photos Courtesy atelierjones CLTHOUSE 2011 - 1015 61


CLTHouse construction photos Courtesy atelierjones 62 CLTHOUSE 2011 - 1015


CLTHouse construction photos Courtesy atelierjones CLTHOUSE 2011 - 1015 63


CLTHouse construction photos Courtesy atelierjones 64 CLTHOUSE 2011 - 1015


CLTHouse construction photos Courtesy atelierjones CLTHOUSE 2011 - 1015 65


CONSTRUCTED MATERIALITY Borrowing Blaine Brownell’s notion of hypernatural, the CLTHouse engages levels of experiential meaning. The extreme interiority of the spatial sequences is deeply enhanced by the three-dimensional experiences of wood volumes. As CLT can be both ceiling and floor, wall and roof, the house is experienced volumetrically. While surrounded by this natural material, one that is deeply familiar in a sentimental and romantic way, including the warm sweet smell of white pine wood, upon closer reflection additional levels of meaning are perceived. First, a familiar one – the ubiquitous 2 x 6 that comprises the submatrix of the CLT panels is evident everywhere – it is the base material of the house. But as familiar as the 2 x 6 is to Americans, seeing it as a finished material, turned horizontal to the viewer, instead of its more functional view turned perpendicular to its spatial axis, thus insuring maximum structural efficiency, is an uncanny experience.

CLTHouse construction photos Courtesy atelierjones 66 CLTHOUSE 2011 - 1015


The constructive matrix is not concealed, but revealed, even finished and treated as complete. Yet the functional element remains. The dual presence of the functional workhorse element, and its whitewashed, sanded, finished beauty is slightly disorienting, providing both a handmade and yet highly crafted sensation to the viewer. But the uncanny continues, for upon closer inspection, the homey and familiar 2 x 6 is revealed not to be solid stacks of 2 x 6â&#x20AC;&#x2122;s but connected finger-jointed 2 x 6â&#x20AC;&#x2122;s that are joined almost randomly together, to create large surfaces of wall, ceilings and floors. Like paper, they are pressed together with no visible connections, simply wrapping volumes. Their structural presence is connoted through their obvious weight and a vertical reliance on gravity, but as their thickness is concealed, and their structural connections are concealed except in rare places in the house, their primary purpose as structure is largely invisible. The subtle wash of white-diluted paint and a matte UV clearcoat, further provide layers of reflections that both subdue and intensify the natural properties of the wood. One experiences the CLTHouse and its CLT panels both as an intense immersion into a natural environment, coupled with the subtle clues of its intensely fabricated and constructed nature. Both the natural and the constructed are perceived - both exaggerated - to create experiences of Brownellâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s hypernatural. As our reliance on the purely natural diminishes through increasing environmental challenges, the use of CLT helps insure the longevity of our relationship to wood by creating a constructed materiality, while not altering its essential emotive qualities as a natural material.

CLTHouse construction photos Courtesy atelierjones CLTHOUSE 2011 - 1015 67


CLTHouse construction photos Courtesy atelierjones 68 CLTHOUSE 2011 - 1015


CLTHouse construction photos Courtesy atelierjones CLTHOUSE 2011 - 1015 69


A

1.1

1.1

1.2

1.2

2

2

3

3

A

B

B

B

sement Basement

basement plan

ground floor plan

20 41st 1820 Ave. 41st NE. Ave. NE.

BasementBasement

B

Ground Floor Ground Floor

First Floor First Floor

CLTHouse plans Courtesy atelierjones 70 CLTHOUSE 2011 - 1015


or

2nd Floor

41st Ave. 1820 NE.41st Ave. NE.

second floor plan

Second Floor Second Floor

roof plan

Roof Plan

Roof Plan

Roof Plan

Roof Plan

CLTHouse plans Courtesy atelierjones CLTHOUSE 2011 - 1015 71


Section 1.1

section A

Section A

Sections 1/8” : 1’

section B

ve. NE.

Section B

CLTHouse sections Courtesy atelierjones 72 CLTHOUSE 2011 - 1015


section A

on on 1.1 1.1

on on B B

section B

CLTHouse sections Courtesy atelierjones CLTHOUSE 2011 - 1015 73


elevation East east Elevation East Elevation

west elevation West Elevation West Elevation

CLTHouse elevations Courtesy atelierjones 74 CLTHOUSE 2011 - 1015


West Elevation West Elevation

South Elevation North Elevation North Elevation South Elevation

South Elevation South Elevation

north elevation

south elevation

CLTHouse elevations Courtesy atelierjones CLTHOUSE 2011 - 1015 75


Ave. NE.

76 CLTHOUSE 2011 - 1015

CLThouse renderings


CLThouse renderings

CLTHOUSE 2011 - 1015 77


CLTHouse exterior photo Photography: Lara Swimmer Photography

78 CLTHOUSE 2011 - 1015


CLTHouse exterior photo

CLTHOUSE 2011 - 1015 79


CLTHouse interior photo Photography: Lara Swimmer Photography

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CLTHouse interior photo

CLTHOUSE 2011 - 1015 81


The materiality of the house and the interior experience recall ubiquitous small Pacific Northwest beach cabins. By relying on wood as the predominant interior experience of the home, feelings of respite, relaxation, and a closeness to nature are evoked: from the smell of pine boards, to the feel of them underfoot, to the soft reflections of light on the vertical panels. The light Western White Pine is further whitewashed to prevent UV degradation, and an airy open feel with light in three directions - east, west, and south - persists in the house at all times of year. While phenomenologically rich, the materiality of the house is not primarily a sentimental experience. Performatively, the CLT is a constructed material, industrially fabricated with digital computer tools, expected to perform at ecologically high standards. From its high carbon sequestration capacity, to its place in the complex ecosystems of forest, the timber industry and renewable carbon calculations, use of the constructed timber product is an unsentimental, entirely new and innovative way to use wood. The CLTHouse represents the new Northwest: natural and innovative; green and beautiful.

CLTHouse interior photo Photography: Lara Swimmer Photography

82 CLTHOUSE 2011 - 1015


CLTHouse interior photo

CLTHOUSE 2011 - 1015 83


CLTHouse interior photo Photography: Lara Swimmer Photography

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CLTHouse interior photo

CLTHOUSE 2011 - 1015 85


CLTHouse interior NEW ESSENTIALISM As defined by Gail Peter Borden, new essentialism pairs emotive materiality with high performance expectations, from performative to embedded smart materiality. An essential experience of the material’s natural qualities must remain intact, even if the material is layered or embedded with data derivatives or reconstructed around external parameters. In this regard, the CLTHouse excels, on multiple sensory levels. With its triple-glazed windows and doors, and 13-inch thick, almost passive house standard walls the CLTHouse is strangely quiet inside, once all windows are closed. The solid wood walls create quiet, but acoustically very live aural experiences, strangely unfamiliar in a residential environment. Because of the high mass of the walls, from the 4 inches of wood, to the additional 6.5 inches

of spun rock – mineral wool – outside of the wood, the walls hold the sound, especially the bass tones, making it a classically live space, with longer reverberation times. While subtle, these additional resonate verbal and musical sound patterns engender an almost spiritual and emotive release. Coupled with the surround of the sweet smell of the pine, the hypernatural surfaces of the CLT and their smooth, ultra soft touch, four out of five senses are instinctually engaged in unusually natural ways within a highly constructed built environment. This is the essential beauty and intrigue of the house, created without resorting to sentimental or romantic treatments of wood. On the contrary, the house’s deeply enhanced natural and experiential qualities are enhanced and deepened by its constructed industrial and highly performative systems.

Photography: Lara Swimmer Photography

86 CLTHOUSE 2011 - 1015


CLTHouse interior

CLTHOUSE 2011 - 1015 87


CLTHouse interior photo Photography: Lara Swimmer Photography

88 CLTHOUSE 2011 - 1015


CLTHouse interior photo

CLTHOUSE 2011 - 1015 89


CLTHouse interior photo

Photography: Lara Swimmer Photography

90 CLTHOUSE 2011 - 1015


CLTHouse exterior photo

CLTHOUSE 2011 - 1015 91


CLTHouse exterior photo Photography: Lara Swimmer Photography

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CLTHouse exterior photo

CLTHOUSE 2011 - 1015 93


2.

CLT CHURCH 2013-2016 Bellevue, WA USA Bellevue First Congregational Church is an adaptive reuse of an existing 1970s office building. The 49,000 sf two story steel frame building will be cut open on its NW corner to insert a 6,000 sf 47â&#x20AC;&#x2122; high sanctuary. The sanctuary will be steel framed, but its north wall will consist of 40â&#x20AC;&#x2122; high CLT folded plates. Washing indirect light downwards from northern skylights and full height side windows, the undulating CLT becomes the backdrop for subtle daylight experiences so common to our Northwest light under our grey skies. Currently under construction by Goudy Construction, the church is designed by atelierjones with structural engineering by DCI Engineers. It is scheduled for completion in March 2016.

PROJECT TEAM: Susan Jones Joe Swain Michelle Kang Brooks Brainerd Marisol Foreman Mesa Sherriff Dhara Goradia Brett Holverstoff Megumi Migita

94 BELLEVUE FIRST CONGREGATIONAL CHURCH ADAPTIVE REUSE 2013-2016 Bellevue, WA


US 405

0.5 miles

752 108th Ave NE

11061 N.E. 2nd St.

N

BELLEVUE FIRST CONGREGATIONAL CHURCH ADAPTIVE REUSE 2013-2016 Bellevue, WA

95


Existing conditions, photo

96 BELLEVUE FIRST CONGREGATIONAL CHURCH ADAPTIVE REUSE 2013-2016 Bellevue, WA


Rendering of the transformed building

BELLEVUE FIRST CONGREGATIONAL CHURCH ADAPTIVE REUSE 2013-2016 Bellevue, WA

97


NE 2nd St.

New belltower and welcome signage

New Sanctuary

Existing office building to be re-purposed for use by church congregation

0

15’ 5’

N

site plan

98 BELLEVUE FIRST CONGREGATIONAL CHURCH ADAPTIVE REUSE 2013-2016 Bellevue, WA


Bellevue Congregational Church concept models

BELLEVUE FIRST CONGREGATIONAL CHURCH ADAPTIVE REUSE 2013-2016 Bellevue, WA

99


concept model

100 BELLEVUE FIRST CONGREGATIONAL CHURCH ADAPTIVE REUSE 2013-2016 Bellevue, WA


as CLT

CLT panel diagram

BELLEVUE FIRST CONGREGATIONAL CHURCH ADAPTIVE REUSE 101 2013-2016 Bellevue, WA


north elevation

102 BELLEVUE FIRST CONGREGATIONAL CHURCH ADAPTIVE REUSE 2013-2016 Bellevue, WA


sanctuary sketch

BELLEVUE FIRST CONGREGATIONAL CHURCH ADAPTIVE REUSE 103 2013-2016 Bellevue, WA


sanctuary section

104 BELLEVUE FIRST CONGREGATIONAL CHURCH ADAPTIVE REUSE 2013-2016 Bellevue, WA


sanctuary and bell tower model

BELLEVUE FIRST CONGREGATIONAL CHURCH ADAPTIVE REUSE 105 2013-2016 Bellevue, WA


sanctuary section

106 BELLEVUE FIRST CONGREGATIONAL CHURCH ADAPTIVE REUSE 2013-2016 Bellevue, WA


CLT panel wall model

BELLEVUE FIRST CONGREGATIONAL CHURCH ADAPTIVE REUSE 107 2013-2016 Bellevue, WA


unfolded CLT panel diagram

108 BELLEVUE FIRST CONGREGATIONAL CHURCH ADAPTIVE REUSE 2013-2016 Bellevue, WA


CLT panel wall

BELLEVUE FIRST CONGREGATIONAL CHURCH ADAPTIVE REUSE 109 2013-2016 Bellevue, WA


Tower’s shape is the same as C

BELL TOWER

cross

void

position

CLT bell tower study

110 BELLEVUE FIRST CONGREGATIONAL CHURCH ADAPTIVE REUSE 2013-2016 Bellevue, WA


bell tower study models

BELLEVUE FIRST CONGREGATIONAL CHURCH ADAPTIVE REUSE 111 2013-2016 Bellevue, WA


112 SANCTUARY RENDERNG


sanctuary renderings

SANCTUARY RENDERING 113


CLTChurch construction photographs. Courtesy atelierjones 114 CONSTRUCTION PHOTOS


CLTChurch construction photographs. Courtesy atelierjones CONSTRUCTION PHOTOS 115


CLTChurch construction photographs. Courtesy atelierjones 116 CONSTRUCTION PHOTOS


CLTChurch construction photographs. Courtesy atelierjones CONSTRUCTION PHOTOS 117


atelierjones collaborators 2013-2015: Brooks Brainerd Harvard Graduate School of Design, M.Arch 1991, Vassar College, 1984 Marisol Foreman University of Washington M.Arch 2015, University of Colorado, 2010 Susan Jones Harvard Graduate School of Design, M.Arch 1988, Stanford University, B.A. 1983 Michelle Kang University of Washington M.Arch, 2013, Barnard College, 2006 Mesa Sherriff University of British Columbia M.Arch 2014, California Poly Tech, B.S. Planning 2011 Joe Swain University of Washington M.Arch 2012, Brown University, 2006 collaborators/interns 2003-2013: Todd Afflerbaugh University of Washington M.Arch 2004, University of Michigan 2001 PJ Bauser University of Cincinnati BS Arch, M.Arch, 2005 Rachel King Birch University of Washington M.Arch, 2012 Greg Bishop University of Washington 1993, University of Colorado 1981 Graham Day Sci-Arc M.Arch Marlo Brown Columbia University M.Arch, Smith College Ginger Daniel University of Washington L.Arch, 2013 Brian Gerich University of Virginia M.Arch and L.Arch, 2004, Cornell University 1996 Drew Giblin University of Washington M.Arch, 1994, Virginia Tech 1981 Dhara Goradia University of Washington M.Arch 2015, University of Virginia Sakshi Gupta University of Washington M.Arch, 2014 Brett Holverstott University of Oregon M.Arch, 2010, Reed College B.S., 2007 Daniel Hoyt University of Kansas B.Arch, 2009 Maria Ibarlucia Universidad de Buenos Aires (UBA), Argentina, 2006 Haejung Kim University of Washington M.Arch, 2009 Joyce Lee University of Washington M.Arch 2004 Megumi Migita Meiji University 2016 Kate Murphy University of Washington M.Arch 2013, University of Pennsylvania, 2007 Boyce Postma University of Oregon M.Arch, 2013 Mary Rowe University of Washington M.Arch, 2004 Emily Russell University of Oregon M.Arch 2013, U. of California, Berkeley, 2011 Kristin Saunders University of Kansas B.Arch, 2007 Justin Schwartzhoff University of Washington M.Arch 2015 Roma Shah University of Washington M.Arch, M.LArch, 2012, U. of Florida, Gainsville, 2007 Sebastian Quinn University of Washington M.Arch 2006, Hampshire College Weilan Zhang University of Washington M.Arch 2013 University of Washington Students, UW Arch 502 Design Studio, Spring 2013: Arendse Agger Olga Amigud Kristopher Chan Allison Eddy Michael Gilbride Dhara Goradia Jordan Inman Matt Kikosicki Veronica Macalinao Kate Reef Justin Schwartzhoff Erica Witcher

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C LT H O U S E T E A M ARCHITECT atelierjones LLC Susan Jones, FAIA Brian Gerich Joe Swain Maria Ibarlucia Mesa Sherriff Marisol Foreman Megumi Migita STRUCTURAL ENGINEER Harriott, Valentine Engineers Jim Harriott, P.E. Elizabeth Lozner SURVEYOR Jouni Paavola

GEOTECHNICAL ENGINEER Pan Geo Siew Tan

BUILT GREEN CERTIFIER Evergreen Certified Tadashi Shiga Sean Conta

120

CONTRACTOR Cascade Built LLC Sloan Ritchie Terry Ducatt, Superintendent Mark Hughes, Project Manager Al Fernandez Kirk Hochstatter Nicole Pi CLT FABRICATION/CNC Structurlam Ron McDougal Thor de Vos WINDOWS AND DOORS Euroclime LLC Kim Nguyen SUBCONTRACTORS Charles Stratton, Cabinets Solar Innovations, Sky Hatch Rubelcon, Siding Small Planet Supply, Albert Rooks Truescapes, Landscaping Leader/Fairweather, Site Furnishings West Coast Wire and OSP Sling, Yacht Harness

PASSIVE HOUSE CONSULTANT Brett Holverstott

PERMIT REVIEW DPD Seattle Roussi Roussev, P.E. Jess Harris, Priority Green Maureen Traxler, Code Alternative

CLT CONSULTANTS WoodWorks Ethan Martin ARUP Hans-Erik Blomgren, P.E.

FINANCING Washington Federal Annie Curran Corinna Obar Chris Hooper


121


C LT C H U R C H T E A M ARCHITECT atelierjones LLC Susan Jones Joe Swain Michelle Kang Brooks Brainerd Marisol Foreman Mesa Sherriff Dhara Goradia Brett Holverstott Megumi Migita

Harvard Graduate School of Design, M.Arch 1988, Stanford University 1983 University of Washington M.Arch 2012, Brown University, 2006 University of Washington M.Arch, 2013, Barnard College, 2006 Harvard Graduate School of Design, Vassar College University of Washington M.Arch 2015, University of Colorado, 2010 University of British Columbia M.Arch 2014, California Poly Tech, B.S.Planning 2011 University of Washington M.Arch 2015, University of Virginia University of Oregon, Reed College Meiji University 2016

DESIGN AND ENGINEERING CONSULTANTS Structural Engineer: DCI Engineers Greg Gilda, Matthew Arnheim

CLT FABRICATION/CNC Structurlam Kris Spickler

Civil Engineer: DCI Engineers Darren Simpson, Matthew Frisby

GENERAL CONTRACTOR Goudy Construction Blaise Goudy, Owner Carl Deach, Superintendent Gary Moss, Project Manager

Acoustic Design: ARUP Engineers Dennis Blount Lighting Design: Blanca Lighting Bev Shimmen Lucretia Blanca LANDSCAPE ARCHITECT Lauch Bethune

122

DAYLIGHTING Integrated Design Lab Christopher Meek Justin Schwarzhoff ORGAN CONSULTANT Burton Tidwell


123


atelierjones atelierjones was founded in 2003. The twelve year old firmâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s work entwines design, research, and community engagement to create projects of urban reclamation: of sites, buildings, materials, waste, and ways of living. Founded by Susan Jones, FAIA, LEED BD+C the collaborative five person office seeks out sites and materials with inherent, but under utilized value - to harvest their embodied energy, their catalytic power for owners and communities, their beauty. atelierjones creates delight and wonder in leftover, dirty, forgotten places and spaces, and materials. Their built work includes private homes to biodiesel fueling stations to prayer chapels. Recently atelierjones completed and was premiated for Pike Station, a highly sustainable live/work residential loft urban infill project targeting net-zero water use, and an acclaimed renovation of an early modernist 1962 Episcopal Church. While the majority of their work is in the Pacific Northwest, atelierjones is currently working on projects in Sri Lanka and California. Their recent research effort involved bringing two CLT projects to fruition, a modest house and a church in the Pacific Northwest. With 26 years of experience, Susanâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s work has been recognized by numerous national, regional and local design awards, and an AIA National Honor Award. Her work has been published nationally and internationally. Licensed in over 15 states, she has been a visiting design professor and critic at numerous universities, and is Affiliate Associate Professor of Architecture at the University of Washington. In 1999, she was made the first woman partner of the large firm, nbbj. She resigned her position to found atelierjones in 2003. She became a Fellow of the AIA in 2010, and was awarded a UW Runstad Research Fellowship in 2013. Susan earned her B.A from Stanford in Philosophy, her M.Arch from the Harvard GSD in 1988 and was made a Fulbright Scholar from 1994-5. She has been working for architects since she was sixteen. A fourth-generation Pacific Northwesterner, Susan is originally from Bellingham, Washington. Susan has traveled extensively, and lived in San Francisco, Boston, Vienna, Berlin, Catania, Sicily, and Colombo, Sri Lanka. Currently she lives in downtown Seattle with her husband, Marco, with their two teenage children, Rogan and Domenica.

For further information, please see: www.atelierjones.com www.facebook.com/pages/atelierjones/160049530682845 instagram: atelierjones

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ISBN 978-0-692-52156-4

90000>

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9 780692 521564

CLT Investigations  

Emergence of new building technologies and their ability to shape new experiences of space, light and materiality was a hallmark of early mo...

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