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C L T | material culture

SEATTLE CENTER FOR BUDDHISM

TEMPLE

RESIDENTS

ARCH 502 | SUSAN JONES, FAIA

COMMUNITY

UNIVERSITY OF WASHINGTON COLLEGE OF BUILT ENVIRONMENTS DEPARTMENT OF ARCHITECTURE, SPRING 2013


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VISION

7

2 CROSS LAMINATED TIMBER RESEARCH 21

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PROGRAM RESEARCH

83

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PROJECT SITES

141

5 STUDENT PROJECTS

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CONTRIBUTORS UNIVERSITY OF WASHINGTON COLLEGE OF BUILT ENVIRONMENTS DEPARTMENT OF ARCHITECTURE Seattle, WA DAVE MILLER, FAIA Chair, Department of Architecture ALEX T. ANDERSON, Ph.D Associate Chair, Department of Architecture SUSAN JONES, FAIA Principal, atelierjones Affiliate Associate Professor of Architecture DHARA GORADIA Studio Book Designer SUSTAINABILITY STUDIO: ARCH 502, SPRING 2013 Arendse Agger Olga Amigud Kristopher Chan Allison Eddy Dhara Goradia Michael Gilbride Jordan Inman Matt Kikosicki Veronica Macalinao Kate Reef Erica Witcher Justin Schwartzhoff

seattle center for buddhism | material culture | spring 2013

contributors

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WITH THANKS TO: STUDIO REVIEWERS Dorte Mandrup, Dorte Mandrup Architektur, Copenhagen, Denmark Peter Cohan, University of Washington Alex Anderson, University of Washington Kimo Griggs, University of Washington Ken Oshima, University of Washington Caroline Kingsbury, Dharma Hall, Bellingham, Washington Graham Day, Day Design Studio, Seattle, Washington Dave Miller,Miller/Hull and Chair, Department of Architecture, University of Washington, Jeff Hudak, Studio fifty50, Seattle, Washington PRESENTATIONS Jeff Hudak, Studio fifty50: Refresher Digital Fabrication Tools in the Dep’t. of Architecture, including Tour of UW FAB LAB Joe Mayo, On CLT, Mahlum Architects, author of forthcoming book on CLT/Rutledge Press Barbara Swift, Swift Company, Landscape and Sustainability Joe David, Point 32, Material Assemblies and their Sustainable Content Brice Maryman, SVR, Water, Architecture and the Landscape STUDIO BO OK REVIEW AND COMMENTS Ray Gastil, University of California, Berkley, and Penn State University Ken Oshima, University of Washington

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READING LIST “Symbolic and Literal Aspects of Technology” by Alan Colquhoun, in Architectural Design, November 1962, (London, 1962), pgs. 508-509. “Structure, Construction, Tectonics”, by Sekler, Eduard, in Structure in Art and in Science, ed. Gyorgy Kepes, (New York, 1965). “Konstrucktion”, by Otto Wagner, in Moderne Architektur, (Vienna, 1896), trans. as “Construction” in Modern Architecture”, ed. Mallgrave, Harry, (Getty Center for the History of Art and Architecture, 1988), pgs. 91-99 “Baumaterial”, by Adolf Loos, in Neue Freie Presse, August 28, 1898, trans. as “Building Materials”, in Spoken Into the Void. Collected Essays 1897-1900, Eng. trans (MIT Press, 1982), pgs. 66-70. “Architektur”, by Adolf Loos, trans. as “Architecture”, in The Architecture of Adolf Loos , (Arts Council, Great Britain, 1985), pgs. 104-109. “Art and Technology”, by Peter Behrens, lecture delivered at the 18 Jahresversammlung des Verbandes Deutshcer Elecktrotechniker, Braunschweig, May 26, 1910, trans. in Industriekultur. Peter Behrens and the AEG, 1907-1914, Buddensieg, Tilmann, trans. (MIT Press, 1984), pg. 212-219. “Mass Production Houses”, by Le Corbusier, in Towards a New Architecture, 1927, trans. Frederick Etchells, (Holt Rinehart and Winston, New York), 1960, pgs. 209-247. “Bauen”, by Mies van der Rohe, in G, no. 2, September 1923, pg. 1, trans. as “Building”, in The Artless Word. Mies van der Rohe on the Building Art, by Fritz Neumeyer, trans. (MIT Press, 1991), pgs. 248-249. “Inagural Address as Director of Architecture at Armour Institute of Technology”, by Mies van der Rohe, Nov. 20, 1938, in The Artless Word. Mies van der Rohe on the Building Art, by Fritz Neumeyer, trans. (MIT Press, 1991), pgs. 316317. “The Influence of Construction and Materials on Modern Architecture”, by Alvar Aalto, lecture given at the Nordic Building Conference, Oslo, 1938, trans. in Sketches. Alvar Aalto, ed. Goran Schildt, 1978, (MIT Press, 1979), pgs. 60-63. The Craftsman, Richard Sennett, (Yale University Press, New Haven), 2008, especially, ‘Material Consciousness’, pgs 119-146. Studies in Organic. Kengo Kuma and Associates, by Kengo Kuma, (TOTO Publishing, Tokyo, Japan), 2009, pgs 8-32.

seattle center for buddhism | material culture | spring 2013

studio readings

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conceptual framework Susan Jones, FAIA

The CLT: Material Culture Studio focused on conceptual, environmental and design implications from an emerging new building material, Cross Laminated Timber that arose out of Austria, Switzerland and Germany in the late 1990’s. Little known in North America, far less in the United States, awareness of the CLT panel has steadily been growing especially in the Cascadia Region, which stretches from northern British Columbia, to southern Oregon to eastern Montana. Like the early Modernists grappling with conceptual, formal and typological implications from the emergence of reinforced concrete and long-span steel members, through a rich, spatially varied program of the Seattle Center for Buddhism, the University of Washington upper level Graduate Studio investigated the following issues:

• conceptual implications for design with the emergence of a new, modular CLT panel • sustainable implications of using the wood CLT panel as a base building material, especially within the bioclimatic zone of the timber-rich Cascadia Region of North America.

REGIONS

om the Cariboo Mountains in the north, the Columbia Mountains, ern Washington, northern Idaho, and northwest Montana. more humid to the north. It is marked by relatively dry, warm sume ranges from approximately 0C to 9C; the mean summer temThe mean annual precipitation is around 1000 mm, ranging from ains that capture Pacific moisture. Frost free period ranges from

Anchorage

NO RN

STE

WE

RTH

dicators such as western hemlock, western red cedar, mountain in Ecoregions 6.2.4, 6.2.10, and 6.2.15. Douglas-fir, subalpine fir, Enrosa pine are also typical. arrow valleys and deep canyons. Some high peaks over 3000 m. ks, and some folded sedimentary strata. Inceptisols, Andisols, and c, frigid and cryic. Soil moisture regimes are typically xeric or udic. bou, mountain goat, mule deer, white-tailed deer, bobcat, cougar, ar’s jay, gray jay, common raven, mountain bluebird, spotted frog,

EST

FOR A UNT

EST EW

MO

RIN

ED

MA

wildlife habitat, mining, livestock grazing, some minor cropland in ovincial and national parks. Some tribal land. Larger cities include oeur d’ Alene, Kellogg, Wallace, Orofino, Libby, Kalispell, and Pol-

INS

AST CO

REGIONS

EST FOR

s to Stewart, British Columbia. climate, transitional between maritime and continental influences. approximately -0.5C with a summer mean of 10C and a winter 000 mm in the eastern part of the Boundary Ranges to over 6000

Vancouver

SERTS

N DE

ERICA

Portland

H AM

Seattle

NORT

ee vegetation zones occur: alpine tundra vegetation of variable ch, willow, grass, and lichen at elevations above the treeline; subalspruce at middle elevations; and closed forests of western hemlock ions. its ranging from 2100 m to more than 4500 m asl and are capped e valleys reach nearly 2900 m. Aretes, horns, cirques, and U-shaped to about 150 m asl with several reaching the sea in Alaska. Isolated m asl. A variety of Paleozoic, Mesozoic, and Lower Tertiary sedi-

, wolverine, black-tailed deer in river valleys, bald eagle, ptarmi-

occur throughout the area. Subsistence and recreational hunting river valleys and mountaineering in the higher elevations. National

eco.htm

http://www.sightline.org/research/graphics/cascadia_cs05m/

http://www.sightline.org/research/graphics/cascadia_cs05m/ CASCADIA/SALISH SEA ARCH 502 SUSAN JONES CLT STUDIO - SPRING 2013 http://www.epa.gov/wed/pages/ecoregions/na_eco.htm 0 125 250

¸

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375

Miles 500

vision CASCADIA/SALISH SEA

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conceptual framework • design potential of the CLT panel to introduce warmth, tactility, and natural materiality, particularly as an interior structural/nish material • explore and understand the structural and constructive alternatives for CLT: o as a viable long span alternative to higher carbon footprint steel, o as a viable high-strength composite material to higher carbon footprint concrete, o as a viable alternative to the traditional residential wall-section of 2 x 4 studs with exterior-rated plywood, gypsum-wall-board, mud, tape and paint.

While not a building technology studio, the studio embraced building technology as a design generator. The conceptual framework for this was introduced into the studio by a series of primary-source readings (reading list follows) of the early Modernists, from Otto Wagner to Alvar Aalto to Le Corbusier, framed within an elemental discussion of the tectonic relationship between Kunstform and Kernform as conceptualized by Botticher and interpreted by Kenneth Frampton. Discussion between the literal and symbolic uses of (building) technology deepened the conceptual underpinnings of the studio. Perhaps the below statement by Wagner best described the underpinnings of the studio:

“The architect always has to develop the art-form out of construction.” Obviously the method of construction must fulll its intended purpose. “Konstrucktion”, by Otto Wagner, in Moderne Architektur, (Vienna 1896), trans. as “Construction” in Modern Architecture”, ed. Mallgrave, Harry, (Getty Center for the History of Art and Architecture, 1988), pg. 93.

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sustainability: carbon analysis of building systems Parallel to the readings in the studio, the students researched technical aspects of the CLT panels, and their structural and construction requirements, including envelope and environmental protection from waterproong to a breathable insulation, as well as researched international and local precedents where CLT had been used as a primary building material.

CLT Handbook Research: Building Envelope Issues

CLT Handbook Research: Structural/Spanning Capacity

A further, very rich source of collaboration developed between a course on life cycle analysis and carbon assessment, taught the same quarter by UW Assistant Professor Kate Simoneon, Students were challenged to integrate their parallel coursework into the studio and use their studio projects analysis basis for their carbon comparisons. With such rich information, discussions began early on to question some of the studio’s initial assumptions –

• how carbon neutral was the use of the CLT panel – especially in consideration of its additional needs as a building material? • how carbon neutral was the use of the CLT panel - especially in comparison to low-scale construction systems used in American residential construction, such as the typical 2 x 4 wall section? • what was the most appropriate scale to use the building material in?

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conceptual models Early in the quarter, students developed conceptual models which examined the spatial and abstract qualities of the CLT panel as a building material. The panel’s inherent mass and scale of the CLT panel was reďƒ&#x;ected in these early conceptual models, as well as its industrial-sized modularity, and the ease with which the panel can be CNC-routed as a plane, to be used as an interior source of light refraction within spaces. Using these models to develop conceptual positions about the preliminary site and program led to development of a series of richly textured conceptual physical models, in which to explore more traditional issues of site and program.

model by allison eddy

model by matt kikosicki

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site and program integration Located on two urban sites in the Pioneer Square and International Districts of Seattle, Washington, the 30,000 gsf Seattle Center for Buddhism program comprised of three major elements, each corresponding to a major use of CLT, and included the following:

• Buddhist Temple, comprised of a long-span assembly space • Short-stay housing for Buddhist monks and out-of town Buddhist retreatants • Smaller, intimate mediation spaces for small group and individual contemplation

rendering by olga amigud

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rendering by justin schwartzhoff

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site and program integration The Buddhism was based a multi-cultural blend between North American meditative and contemplative practices and the Southeast Asian Theravadan traditions, which is one of the most ancient forms of Buddhism, arising over 2600 years ago in southern India and ďƒ&#x;ourishing there and in Sri Lanka over the following 1000 years, with prominent ancient and established cities, rivaling those of Athens and Rome at the time. Additionally, Theravadan Buddhism rendering by dhara goradia is particularly ďƒ&#x;uid form of Buddhism, and has spread throughout North America, uniting with many of the personal meditative practices of American popular culture since the 1960’s. Within the program, the Buddhist Temple was seen as the center of the Southeast Asian tradition of almsgiving, chanting and community gathering, while the Meditation Hall was seen as the center of the American tradition of lay meditation, led by visiting monks or enlightened lay people leading the retreatants through an extended retreat stay lasting from several days to several months at one time. Rich precedents, of both historic and contemporary Theravadan Buddhist Temples and Retreats were researched by the studio, and are presented here. These three major elements of the program, from Temple to Meditation Hall to short-stay Housing led to a robust exploration of the design potential of CLT in all of its diverse capacities.

rendering by erica witcher 12

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rendering by matt kikosicki

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site and program integration Overlaying all of these was the deep connection between Buddhism and nature. The use of the exposed CLT panel, with its rich texture, and soft abilities to reďƒ&#x;ect light and warmth became a lens through which to reďƒ&#x;ect the practices of Buddhism into architectural form.

In the end, the studio questions became a framework for a mid-to-upper level building sustainable design studio. Using the materiality of the CLT as a conceptually rich, research framework, the focus of the studio shifted over the course of the ten weeks towards highly resolved plans

rendering by arendse agger

and sections, as well as conceptually rich renderings and diagrams of thoughtful, mid-scale program rich building projects. Documenting the diverse metrics of the project, from use of sustainably harvested timber, to the amount of CO2 emitted for certain building systems versus others, to the amount of water to be harvested from roofs and stored in underground cisterns, to understanding the life-cycle implications of certain material choices versus others was a hallmark of a thoughtful approach to a sustainable design studio.

Understanding the project within the urban context and cultural history of the site and program was essential pedagogy. However, the basic studio questions surfaced again and again throughout the rich dialogue that the students engaged with throughout the quarter, and within their projects. In the end, beyond pedagogy, the studio’s most valuable contribution was a deeper applied understanding of basic research questions about the relevance of CLT in our contemporary North American building culture, its value to practitioners, planners and contractors. Some of these conclusions follow, along with the accompanying dialogue that developed during the course of the highly rendering by olga amigud

seattle center for buddhism | material culture | spring 2013

engaged and rich studio culture.

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conclusions 1) CARBON BETTER, BUT NOT CARBON GREAT: CARBON FOOTPRINT COMPARISONS Given the three major ways that material could be used structurally: 1) as a viable long span alternative to higher carbon footprint steel, 2) as a viable high-strength composite material to higher carbon footprint concrete, and 3) as an interior finish material, as a viable alternative to the traditional residential wall-section of 2 x 4 studs with exterior-rated plywood, gypsum-wall-board, mud, tape and paint there were also three different levels of initial life-cycle carbon analyses that the studio performed. The carbon footprints of these three structural alternatives were researched and compared with their CLT alternatives, Conclusions were not always as favorable as originally thought, in part because of the CLT requirements for exterior insulation, waterproofing and cladding, along with associated support materials for the exterior insulation. Additionally, CLT’s need to ‘breathe’ - so as to not trap moisture within the wall section, and potentially breed mold - dictated a naturally permeable vapor barrier, that required a thicker wall section in order to achieve the same amount of R-value as a traditional fiberglass batt insulation wall. The studio performed preliminary Carbon Analysis between these typical wall CARBON ANALYSIS:

CARBON ANALYSIS:

EVALUATION BUILDING ENVELOPES: sections the Athena Calculator, from CLT, 2 x 4 wood, 2 x 4 steel stud, and concrete.OFOnce again, CLT performed surEVALUATION OFusing BUILDING ENVELOPES: CLT WITH EXTERIOR WOOD CLADDING + interior GWB CLT WITH EXTERIOR WOOD CLADDING prisingly well in comparison to concrete systems, or steel stud, along a variety of environmental metrics. However, in comCARBON ANALYSIS:

EVALUATION OF BUILDING ENVELOPES: 2X4 WOOD STUD CONSTRUCTION WITH EXTERIOR WOOD CLADDING

Ca

Calculator: Athena

CO2 f neutra when

CO2 from biomass is considered environmentally impactneutral by the U.S. EPA, and as such is not considered when determining the Global Warming Potential impact FOSSIL FUEL CONSUMPTION (MJ)

CLT/ wood cladding/ R19 insulation/ polyethylene membrane

GWP (TONNES OF CO2, EQ.)

12,395 0

ACIDIFICATION POTENTIAL (MOLES PF H+)

FOSSIL HEALTH FUEL HUMAN CONSUMPTION CRITERIA (MJ) (kg of 10 micron PM)

GWP (TONNES OF EUTROPHICATIO CO2, EQ.) N POTENTIAL (g OF Nitrogen eq.)

7

199

Cedar siding/R5 insulation/wood structural panel sheathing/2X4 wood stud @16”o.c./R12 insulation/GWB+la tex paint

210

12456

1

ACIDIFICATION OZONE POTENTIAL DEPLETION (MOLES PF H+)

HUMAN HEALTHFUEL EUTROPHICATION OZONE DEPLETION SMOG POTE FOSSIL GWP (TONNES ACIDIFICATION SMOG CRITERIA POTENTIAL POTENTIAL (kg of NOx POTENTIAL CONSUMPTION OF CO2, EQ.) POTENTIAL (kg of 10 micron (g OF Nitrogen (mg of CFH-11 (MOLES PF H+) (MJ) (kg of NOx eq.) PM) eq.) eq.)

215

9

POTENTIAL (mg of CFH-11 eq.)

1

CLT/ wood cladding/ R19 insulation/ polyethylene membrane

218

2916,659 1

1

269

26

CARBON ANDARCH CLT 502 SUSAN JON ARCH 502 SUSAN JONES CLT STUDIO – SPRING 2013

calculations by Olga Amigud, Athena Calculator

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conclusions paring the CLT wall section within typical American residential construction, it yielded surprisingly little difference between the carbon footprints of the CLT wall section and that of the traditional American 2 x 4 wood wall section. There was a very slight, (approximately 1 Tonne of CO2 EQ) favorable difference when comparing a typical CLT wall section to its 2 x 4 wood stud wall construction, that was almost entirely attributable to the need for GWB/mud/tape required by the 2 x 4 wood stud wall. The studio surmised that the differences between the traditional American residential construction techniques and the traditional central European residential construction techniques, of using concrete or masonry/mineral wood/interior GWB allowed CLT to perform much more favorably from a carbon footprint perspective than when compared to typical American construction technologies. The resource efficiency of the 2 x 4 stud wall construction became even more apparent, when GWB was added to the interior of the CLT wall section, and the wall section performed much worse than the typical 2 x 4 stud wall construction.

2) SCALE MATTERS: PROJECT SCALE Scale played a very central role in defining CLT’s effectiveness. The three major areas of the architectural program of: 1) Buddhist Temple, 2) housing for Buddhist monks and retreat attendees, as well as 3) smaller mediation spaces was developed to embody the three major uses of CLT:

• open long-span assembly spaces, using CLT as tensile structure and interior finish • mid-rise repetitive, multifamily units, using CLT as compressive structure • more intimate, residential scaled interior spaces with exposed CLT as the interior finish

Throughout the studio, students found that using CLT in mid-to-higher-rise construction, especially for the mid-rise housing units, where repetition and modularity could easily be incorporated into design, was especially productive. While the studio did not have the resources or time to research the cost and carbon life-cycle issues in full detail, each student did perform quick initial carbon footprint calculations and determine the amount of wood used in each project. These intuitive conclusions seemed to follow other local research by Joe Mayo, Mahlum Architects, Walsh Construction and others that seek to demonstrate the carbon and cost-effectiveness of using CLT as a substitute for cast-in-place concrete, mid-rise residential construction. They also seemed to corroborate the strategic direction of the major North American manufacturer of CLT panels, Structurlam, based out of Penticton, British Columbia, Canada, who is primarily focused on marketing the panels as a substitute for concrete, in multi-family or hospitality for mid-rise construction. While they recently expanded into the custom residential market, it appears to be of secondary concern to them, according to their founder, Bill Downing, in part based on the current low demand for custom CLT homes in North America.

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conclusions 3) SCALE MATTERS: THE NORTH AMERICAN CLT vs. the EUROPEAN CLT By reflecting multiple scales in the required program, the CLT: MATERIAL CULTURE studio was able to visually demonstrate and highlight a major difference between the production CLT panels in North America versus the European CLT panels. The standard 3x panel produced in North America, is manufactured by Sturcturlam and is 8’x 40’ x 4”, produced out of 3 layers

Our Ap

of adhered pine or spruce 2” x 6” timber planks. The standard 3x panel in Austria, produced by KLH, is also comprised of

smaller individual 3 layers of adhered wood, but uses spruce or larch timber planks. Smaller finished panels are produced,

with readily available, standard panel sizes of 2.4 inches (60mm) x 4’ (1.25 m) x 20’ (6 m). Additionally, the use of spruce or Structurlam’s Cross

larch changes the exterior appearance of the panel, creating a far less, knotty exterior visual appearance, than theaddition North to the Stru

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American pine used in the Structurlam panels. Finally, architectural finish grade on at least one side of the European panel large volumes o

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a perfect fit. t Our Design Tea roof, walls, and 2011, for instance, used the Austrian KLW panels, because American manufacturing plants, Smartwoods and SmartLam were t Our Installation in their nascent stages of development and investment and remain so at the date of this publication. An additional North t We manufactur American plant, CST Innovations, located in New Westminster folded in October 2012, six months before the studio started, from formaldeh TECHNICAL INFORMATION: t The Structurlam further limiting continental availability and alternative panel sizes of the material. make the use of the Austrian CLT panel ineffective. An early adoption of the CLT in the United States, in Kalispell, Montana in

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seattle center for buddhism | material culture | spring 2013

Visual tvision Intended use: A stru t

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Internal Fibre Layers


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conclusions By coordinating research on the current state of CLT manufacturing plants with the professional firm, atelierjones, and then embracing the hypercurrent regional availabilities of the North American CLT panel, the studio found it more challenging to formally explore some of the more adventurous formal precedents unearthed during the preliminary precedent research stages. Structural spans, while robust, also led to larger, more bulkier spans, less delicate, and more redundant, even in very large, long-span assembly spaces. However, these limitations also spurred students on to employ CNC systems of modular cutting and reuse of waste from the panels. This systemization and modularity of the panels was demonstrated in the creation of large exploded axonometrics showing the structural logic and use of the CLT panels in each of the students’ projects.

4) BUILDINGS USE TREMENDOUS AMOUNTS OF

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old Douglas Fir or Pine tree, allowed the students to calculate how many trees were required to build their projects, and further, how many acres of land for how many years were required to be devoted

diagram by justin schwartzhoff

to grow the timber necessary for their projects. A good-natured competition developed within the studio to determine who could use the least number of acres to ‘grow their project’. The conclusions were startling to many of the students – realizing that 3-6 acres of forest devoted to growing tress for some 55 years was required to build their projects – was humbling and disturbing to many. A dialogue began to be developed in the studio about the perceived ‘inefficiency’ of CLT’s. However, the more thoughtful among the studio also understood the implicit and stated environmental comparisons between CLT and other building materials, such as concrete or steel, and hence the relationships between resource use, building scale/occupancies and allowable construction types. For instance, while CLT was perceived to be more inefficient for use in smaller scale residential construction, in comparison to American 2 x 4 wood frame construction, it might be more efficient when it was substituting for concrete and steel as heavy timber, where the codes required a less combustible construction type relative to the building’s use and occupancy. On the otherhand, when understood within a system of construction,

seattle center for buddhism | material culture | spring 2013

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conclusions using exposed CLT without GWB, even within a small scale residential building, allowed the CLT system to be slightly more advantageous, assuming the native forest from which the CLT timber stemmed from was being replanted, so as to be carbon neutral. It was also noted that even in smaller scale residential construction, there were often requirements for steel or concrete, especially in spanning larger spaces, or using cantilevered construction, and substituting the CLT member for steel or concrete would greatly improve the environmental characteristics of the overall building. In the end, regardless of specic conclusions drawn, a deeper awareness of the environmental demands that the building industry creates on our natural world began to be more deeply appreciated by all within the studio. 10’

10’

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3 ply

141’

7 ply

1.25 Trees

101 PANELS

AT 70 TREES PER ACRE

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303 TREES

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4.3 ACRES

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40’

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diagrams by erica witcher

5) THE ATECTONIC CLT Much discussion was had in the studio about the tectonics of the North American CLT slab, especially as a large, heavy rather blunt object, 8’ x 40’ x 4”, which required cranes and industrial-level manufacturing equipment to make, move and manipulate the CLT slab. Additionally, the new CLT Handbook for America, released a month before the start of the studio, coproduced by the American Plywood Association (APA) recommends the use of screws and steel plates in order to fasten the panels together, rather than the more delicate nger jointing of the European panels traditionally used in the Austrian and Swiss precedents. The use of screw, often as long as 36 inches, and steel plates are assumed to be used in CLT construction as concrete substitute, where the connections between CLT panels would be hidden under exterior insulation and interior walls would be furred out for electrical and plumbing installations. The students explored more delicate ways to fasten the 18

seattle center for buddhism | material culture | spring 2013

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conclusions panels together, employing CNC routing to create nger jointing between the panels, but assumptions needed to be made about the appropriateness of that technique, given the current industry standards. In general there was a level of frustration that the North American connection plates were bulky and visually distracting, designed to be hidden rather than either exposed or diffused into the stereotomic bulk of the panels themselves. Comparisons were made to a ‘house of cards’, where the blunt simplicity of stacking, overlapping, fastening, etc., made for far fewer opportunities to expose, or reveal the joints between the panels, or to ‘express the tectonics of the panels’. In the end, the panels were linked more conceptually to a stereotomic masonry material, such as brick or concrete, rather than a light, tectonic material such as a traditional wood or steel member. This surprising conclusion led to some frustration in the studio by those who had desired a more elegant sense of joinery and tectonic expression.

CONCLUSION In conclusion, the students’ robust research and dialogue about the CLT building material and the studio’s intensity about the Seattle Center for Buddhism program became a catalyst for twelve inspired projects. All twelve projects are represented here, and all of them attained a strong level of resolution. While some were more conceptually rich, others, more programmatically developed, still others more responsive to the nuances of their site and context, they all responded strongly to the exploration of the questions that the studio raised from the very rst day. As a bridge to the students’ nal year of design, as they emerge into pre-thesis and thesis next year, the studio became a catalyst for understanding the relationship between research, intellectual query and independent thought as well as a platform for mastering their own design talents.

seattle center for buddhism | material culture | spring 2013

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concept review with peter cohan and dorte mandrup at atelierjones 20 seattle center for buddhism | material culture | spring 2013


CROSS LAMINATED TIMBER CASCADIA/SALISH SEA

22

FORESTS

26

HISTORY

31

SPECIES OF TREES

41

MOUNTAIN PINE BEETLE EPIDEMIC

45

ECONOMIC/TECHNICAL ISSUES

51

PUBLIC POLICY

56

SUSTAINABILITY AND CARBON ANALYSIS

66

PRECEDENTS

68

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Cascadia/Salish Sea

WHERE

Latitude: 38 - 63N Longitude: 110 - 148W Area: 600,000 sq.miles / 1,550,000 km2 +/Major Population Centers: Portland, Seattle, Vancouver

Paulouse

temperate rainforest

temperate rainforest

mountains 22

http://www.sightline.org/research/graphics/cascadia_cs05m/

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Cascadia/Salish Sea

SALISH SEA

The SALISH SEA extends from the north end of the Strait of Georgia and Desolation Sound to thesouth end of the Puget Sound and west to the mouth of the Strait of Juan de Fuca including the inland marine waters of southern British Columbia, Canada and northern Washington, USA. These separately named bodies of water form a single estuarine ecosystem. Formally adopted by British Columbia and Washington State in 2009, ‘The Salish Sea’ as a name for these waters has been embraced by citizens on both sides of the border for years including the Coast Salish Gathering (the alliance of Coast Salish Tribal and First Nation leaders). The Salish Sea is connected to the Pacic Ocean primarily via the Strait of Juan de Fuca (with relatively slight tidal inuence from the north around Vancouver Island and through Johnstone Strait) and is contained by Vancouver Island and the Olympic Peninsula. In addition to the Gulf and San Juan Islands the watershed contains the lower Fraser River Delta and the Puget Lowlands as well as the Hood Canal, the Tacoma Narrows and Deception Pass.

http://staff.wwu.edu/stefan/salishsea.htm

http://staff.wwu.edu/stefan/salishsea.htm

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Cascadia/Salish Sea

MAJOR POPULATION CENTERS

Portland

Seattle

Area: 145.4 sq miles (376.6 km²)

Area: 142.5 sq miles (369.2 km²)

Founded: February 8, 1851

Founded: 1851

Population: 593,820 (2011)

Population: 620,778 (2011)

Unemployment rate: 7.2% (Dec 2012)

Unemployment rate: 5.6% (Dec 2012)

Data from Google http://www.sightline.org/research/graphics/sprawl_port_cs05m/

Data from Google http://www.sightline.org/research/graphics/sprawl_sea_02m/

Vancouver Area: 44.39 sq miles (115 km²) Founded: 1886 Population: 603,502 (2011) Unemployment rate: 7.2% (Dec 2012) Data from Google http://www.sightline.org/research/graphics/sprawl_van_cs04m/

24

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Cascadia/Salish Sea

ECOREGIONS ONE OF THE NORTHWESTERN FORESTED MOUNTAINS ECOREGIONS - COLUMBIA MOUNTAINS/NORTHERN ROCKIES Location: Covers the “Interior Wet Belt” of British Co-

Anchorage

lumbia, from the Cariboo Mountains in the north, the NO

Columbia Mountains,Selkirk Mountains, and the North-

RTH

ern Rocky Mountains of eastern Washington, northern

WE RN

S TE

Idaho, and northwest Montana.

EST ED MO UNT AIN S Vancouver

SERTS

N DE

ERICA

Portland

H AM

Seattle

NORT

rangE from about 30 days to 160 days.

FOR

tains that capture Pacic moisture. Frost free period

EST

in low, drier valleys to over 2000 mm on high moun-

FOR

precipitation is around 1000 mm, ranging from 400 mm

AST

the mean winter temperature is -40C. The mean annual

CO

00C to 90C; the mean summer temperature is 150C; and

EST

mean annual temperature ranges from approximately

EW

tively dry, warm summers and cold, snowy winters. The

RIN

mate, more humid to the north. It is marked by rela-

MA

Climate: The ecoregion has a severe mid-latitude cli-

ONE OF THE NORTHWESTERN FORESTED MOUNTAINS ECOREGIONS - PACIFIC COASTAL MOUNTAINS Location: Extends from near Seward, Alaska south-eastwards to Stewart, British Columbia. Climate: The ecoregion has a severe mid-latitude subarctic climate, transitional between maritime and continental inuences. The mean annual temperature for this high elevation area is approximately -0.50C with a summer mean of 100C and a winter mean of -11.5oC. Mean annual precipitation ranges from 1000 mm in the eastern part of the Boundary Ranges to over 6000 mm on some of the northern high peaks.

http://www.epa.gov/wed/pages/ecoregions/na_eco.htm

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forests

WASHINGTON STATE

OWNERSHIP: Over 2.7 million acres of Washington’s forestland are owned by 213,000 family forest owners. CERTIFIED TREE FARMS: There are 718 tree farms in the state ATFS program, accounting for 302,595 acres. JOBS: The forest industry accounts for 15% of WA manufacturing jobs, making it the largest manufacturing sector in the state (only 4 other states can claim this). This sector accounts for 1.5% of total state employment, or 62,755 people. Also, the forestry sector generates about 3.2% of gross business income within the private sector. WOOD: Forestry in the state generates upwards of $16 billion annually in gross business income. WILDLIFE: State forests provide important habitat for diverse communities of plants, ďƒžsh and wildlife, all of which depend on a full range of forest conditions from recent clearings to old-growth. Particular species of interest include the northern spotted owl, several species of salmon, and the marbled Murrelet.

26

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forests

CASCADIA REGION L

Forests:

Cascadia Region

LOG PROD D UCTION: British Columbia (million board feet)

http://usfs.maps.arcgis.com/home/webmap/viewer http://usf / s.maps.arc ar gis.com/ho home/webmap/ a viewer

LOG PRODUCTION: Washington (million board feet)

LOG PRODUCTION: Oregon g (million ( board feet))

http://usfs.maps.arcgis.com/home/webmap/viewer

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forests

WASHINGTON PRIVATE AND PUBLIC

http://www.nwenvironmentalforum.org/documents/SciencePapers/tp1.pdf

http://www.nwenvironmentalforum.org/ documents/SciencePapers/tp1.pdf

http://www.dnr.wa.gov/Publications/obe_wa_timber_harvest_2011.pdf 28

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forests

WEYERHAUSER - Began around 1900 -started with 900,000 acres of timberland in Washington State -only 3 employees -grew to one of the largest timber growing and production companies in the Western Hemisphere -7 million acres of timberland in US, over 35 million acres in Canada -20 million acres sustainabilty certiďƒžed -largest private sector owner of softwood timberland in the world -about 20,000 employees in 13 dierent countries

British Columbia

Washington

Oregon

http://www.weyerhaeuser.com/

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forests

WEYERHAUSER

http://www.weyerhaeuser.com/ 30 seattle center for buddhism | material culture | spring 2013

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history

THE FORESTS AND TIMBER INDUSTRY OF CASCADIA

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history

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history

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CLT Research 37


history

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38 seattle center for buddhism | material culture | spring 2013

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history

THE FORESTS AND TIMBER INDUSTRY OF CASCADIA 1650

1850

1926

1992

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CLT Research 39


history

THE FORESTS AND TIMBER INDUSTRY OF CASCADIA SOURCES: 1: http://www.opb.org/programs/oregonstory/logging/timeline.html 2: UW Libraries Digital Collections <http://content.lib.washington.edu>. 3: The Washington State Agricultural Bibliography <http://www.lib.washington.edu/preservation/archive/projects/washag/forest>. 4: http://www-personal.umich.edu/~mblowers/def.html 5: Royal British Columbia Museum <http://www.royalbcmuseum.bc.ca/exhibits/journeys/english/forest_1_5a.php>. 6: http://www.fs.fed.us/pnw/ppet/ 7: http://agritech.tnau.ac.in/environment/envi_index%20-%20biodiversity-threats%20to%20biodiversity.html 8: Foresthistory.org <http://www.foresthistory.org/ASPNET/Publications/multiple_use/chap2.htm>. 9: http://members.shaw.ca/wolfpatch/Forestry/History/ 10: David Rumsey Map Collection <http://www.davidrumsey.com>.

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LUMBER INDUSTRY IN CASCADIA BC SOFTWOOD COMMODITY PRODUCT SALES IN U.S.A. (Softwood lumber, plywood, OSB, MDF and Particleboard)

-B.C.’s largest market for wood products. -Mature single-family housing sector dominated by woodframe construction. -Large non-residential construction sector with minimal use of wood. -Signicant multi-story, multifamily housing construction, with limited use of wood.

B.C. POSITION Market leader with 46.7% share of total softwood commodity product imports in 2011 2011: 12.4 million m3 of commodity wood products valued at $1.9 billion. 2012 (through September): 10.4 million m3 valued at $1.8 billion. U.S. consumption of softwood lumber was 77.7 million m³ in 2011, up by 4.8 per cent from 2010. U.S. mills proted from the increased demand, as their softwood lumber production grew by 8.5 per cent to 60.1 million m³. B.C.’s share of imports in the U.S. remained at or declined slightly in all products except OSB. In the U.S., FII investments are focused on non-residential construction which presents substantial growth opportunities, particularly as green building concepts take hold in that segment. Delivered by the Wood Products Council with funding from FII, Natural Resources Canada, the Binational Softwood Lumber Council and the Softwood Lumber Board, the U.S. non-residential program is focused on increasing the total volume of wood used in multistorey commercial and industrial buildings, and increasingly, in multi-storey/multi-unit residential developments. In 2012/13, FII is supporting the expansion of the program into Texas, Portland and Seattle as momentum for wood use in the non-residential sector grows. FII is also funding development and promotion of the “tall wood calculator,” a tool that allows engineers to quickly design tall wood wall assemblies and in particular Cross-Laminated Timber (CLT) assemblies. Encouraging adoption and commercialisation of CLT through tools, education and one-on-one support is a priority as the international prole of this product continues to grow. Increasing adoption of engineered wood solutions for panelized roof systems is also a major program goal in 2012/13, through activities such as case studies and guides for panelized roof structures that may also incorporate CLT.

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CLT Research 41


LUMBER INDUSTRY IN CASCADIA 90 Federal 80

Private

Share of timber harvest (percent)

State, tribal, other 70 60 50 40 30 20 10

19 66 19 68 19 70 19 72 19 74 19 76 19 78 19 80 19 82 19 84 19 86 19 88 19 90 19 92 19 94 19 96 19 98 20 00 20 02 20 04 20 06 20 08 20 10

19

19

62 64

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10

Timber harvest bi ion board feet cribner

9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

18 4 18 9 5 18 4 5 18 9 6 18 4 69 18 74 18 7 18 9 8 18 4 8 18 9 9 18 4 9 19 9 0 19 4 09 19 14 19 19 19 24 19 2 19 9 3 19 4 3 19 9 4 19 4 4 19 9 5 19 4 5 19 9 6 19 4 69 19 74 19 7 19 9 8 19 4 8 19 9 9 19 4 9 20 9 0 20 4 09

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42

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CLT Research


LUMBER INDUSTRY IN CASCADIA 100 90

6.9

8.9

15.3

12.7 80

O nership share percent

70

5.3

23.6

0.4

14.6 60 50

4.1

Nonindustrial private and tribal 0.1

Industry

74.1

State

9.3

Other public Bureau of Land Management Federal

40 30

58.2 47.6

20 7.9 10 0

3.3

1.2 1.2

6.7 Timberland area

Standing volume

Harvest volume

)LJXUH²&KDUDFWHULVWLFVRI2UHJRQœVQRQUHVHUYHGWLPEHUODQGE\RZQHUVKLSFODVV

10,000 Other public

Timber harvest mi ion board feet, cribner

9,000

Nonindustrial private and tribal

8,000

Industrial

7,000

Federal

State

6,000 5,000 4,000 3,000 2,000 1,000

19 62 19 64 19 66 19 68 19 70 19 72 19 74 19 76 19 78 19 80 19 82 19 84 19 86 19 88 19 90 19 92 19 94 19 96 19 98 20 00 20 02 20 04 20 06 20 08 20 10

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LUMBER INDUSTRY IN CASCADIA U.S. Timber Production, Trade, Consumption, and Price Statistics 1965 to 2005

UNITED STATES CENSUS BUREAU Millions of board feet, lumber tally Year 2010 2009 2008 2007 2006 2005 2004 2003 2002 2001 2000 1999 1998

Total lumber production 29,057 Total softwoods 26,922 2010 33,859 2009 44,359 2008 48,732 2007 50,928 2006 49,456 Total hardwoods 47, 181 2010 47,499 2009 46,588 2008 49,445 2007 50,556 2006 47,263

23,718 21,912 27,363 33,751 37,718 5,339 5,010 6,496 10,608 11,014

Figure 28. U.S. per capita consumption of wood products, 1965–2004.

Figure 6. Lumber production and consumption by wood type, 1965–2005.

Figure 7. P

Figure 7. Price indexes for softwood lumber, 1965–2005.

UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Production—An estimated 52.3 billion bf (52.3 × 109 bf ) of lumber (softwoods plus hardwoods was produced in the United States in 2005 (Table 28). Since 1965, lumber production has generally trended upwards, except for periods of economic slowdown such as the mid-1970s and early 1980s. Many western mills dependent on federal timber were forced to dramatically reduce production or close entirely. This resulted in an overall decline in lumber production, shifts in production to other regions, and increased levels of foreign imports.

http://www.treesearch.fs.fed.us/pubs/28972

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SPECIES OF TREES WESTERN WHITE PINE The wood is ne grained, soft easily worked and used for interior nish and woodworking. HEIGHT: 120 to 160 feet tall, 2 to 4 feet in diameter at maturity (maximum 8 feet), forming a rather open pyramidal head. GROWING CONDITIONS: Western wine pine grows best on rich, moist, welldrained soils, and is found at elevations from sea level to 7,000 feet. It tolerates some shading. ENVIRONMENT: Located in both the Cascade and Olympic Mountains. It also grows in northeastern Washington and in some scattered locations in Western Washington.

PONDEROSA PINE Also known as western yellow pine, yellow pine, bull pine, and blackjack pine. The



wood is quite sold, used for millwork, interior nish work and lumber. It is the most important pine in the United States. HEIGHT: 150 to 180 feet tall and 3 to 4 feet in diameter forming a round topped head, or sometimes pointed head, on better sites. GROWING CONDITIONS: Ponderosa Pine grows best on moist well-drained soils, but is extremely drought resistant, and will persist in otherwise nonforest areas. It needs full sunlight to survive. ENVIRONMENT: Located in the mountainous regions east of the Cascade Divide, especially in central and northeastern Washington, where it grows in open stands, and west of the Cascades in a few scattered locations.

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SPECIES OF TREES SITKA SPRUCE The most important spruce in Washington, contributing a considerable volume of wood to the economy. HEIGHT: 90 to 140 feet tall, 3 to 5 feet diameter, forming a rather broad pyramidal head. On best sites it may be much larger, often the base of the tree is much enlarged. GROWING CONDITIONS: Sitka Spruce grows best on moist, sandy, or even swampy

e e s y s s g n

soils and thrives in areas of heavy rainfall at elevations up to 300 feets mostly under 1200. It will grow in considerable shade. ENVIRONMENT: Located along the Puget Sound and the fogbelt of the Coast.

DOUGLAS FIR

,

Also known as red ď&#x192;&#x17E;r, yellow ď&#x192;&#x17E;r, and Oregon Pine, Douglas Fir is the most important ed tree in the United States and is used for cross ties, piling, plywood, fuel, and Christmas

,

trees. It is also one of the fastest growing tree species in the US. The coast form grows 0

e

up to 300 feet tall and 6 feet in diameter and the mountain (or inland form) grows up s. to 130 feet tall and 3 feet in diameter. HEIGHT: 150 to 180 feet tall and 3 to 4 feet in diameter forming a round topped head, or

s t d 3 feet in diameter.

sometimes pointed head, on better sites. GROWING CONDITIONS: Ponderosa Pine grows best on moist well-drained soils, but is extremely drought resistant, and will persist in otherwise nonforest areas. It needs full sunlight to survive. ENVIRONMENT: Located in the mountainous regions east of the Cascade Divide, especially in central and northeastern Washington, where it grows in open stands, and west of the Cascades in a few scattered locations.

TIMBER INDUSTRY

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CLT Research


SPECIES OF TREES WESTERN HEMLOCK In coastal forests, it is often found mixed with Douglas Firs, but can withstand more shading. The wood is used for lumber production and pulpwood mostly. It is the state tree of Washington. HEIGHT: 125 to 175 feet tall, 2 to 4 feet in diameter (smaller in Eastern Washington) GROWING CONDITIONS: Western Hemlock grows best on moist, humus soils with an abundance of atmostpheric moisture. It grows well in shade. ENVIRONMENT: Located west of the Cascades and in northeastern Washington and Oregon.

PACIFIC SILVER FIR This r is one of the largest park of the forest of Cascadia. It is found mixed with Douglas Fir, Western Hemlock, WesterN White Pine, and others. It is also called silver and white r, and Larch. It is used for lumber and pulpwood. HEIGHT: 150 to 170 feet tall, 2 to 4 feet in diameter. GROWING CONDITIONS: Pacic Silver Fir grows abundantly on rich, moist soils, usually 1,000 to 5,000 feet in elevation. ENVIRONMENT: it is found on both sides of the Cascade and Olympic Mountains in Cascadia

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SPECIES OF TREES SUBALPINE FIR A very picturesque tree, the wood of the Subalpine Fir is similar to the other true ď&#x192;&#x17E;res and is used primarily for lumber and pulpwood. HEIGHT: It is a medium to large tree, 70 to 100 feet tall, 1 1/2 to 2 feet in diameter.



GROWING CONDITIONS: It grows best on moist, porous soils, from 2,000 to 8,000 feet. It is not killed by shading. ENVIRONMENT: Subalpine Fir grows best on the Olympic, Cascade, and Blue Mountains, and the mountains of the northeastern part of the state.

GRAND FIR Also known as white ď&#x192;&#x17E;r or lowland white ď&#x192;&#x17E;r. It is the most common of ď&#x192;&#x17E;rs in forests of Cascadia. It is mostly mixed with Douglas Fir, Western Larch, and Ponderosa Pine. The wood is used for lumber and pulpwood. HEIGHT: 140 to 170 feet tall, 2 to 4 feet in diameter. GROWING CONDITIONS: Grand Fir grows most commonly on deep, moist soil from sea level up to 5,000 feet in Washington. It is a shade tolerant species. ENVIRONMENT: It is found commonly in Washington and Idaho, and in parts in Canada.

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SPECIES OF TREES WESTERN RED CEDAR This is one of the most important species in the states, and reaches its greatest size near the coast. It is used to make wooden shingles and shakes, fence posts, boats, interior nishing, and lumber. Wood of this tree resists decay very well. HEIGHT: 150 to 200 feet tall, 3 to 5 feet in diameter, somewhat smaller in the Cascades. GROWING CONDITIONS: Western Red Cedar grows mostly on low, moist, or wet bottomlands, and occasionally on dry slopes, at elevations from sea level to 4,000 feet. ENVIRONMENT: Located all over Cascadia except central and southeastern parks. It can grow in heavily shaded areas

DOUGLAS FIR Also known as red r, yellow r, and Oregon Pine, Douglas Fir is the most important tree in the United States and is used for cross ties, piling, plywood, fuel, and Christmas ,

trees. It is also one of the fastest growing tree species in the US. The coast form grows up to 300 feet tall and 6 feet in diameter and the mountain (or inland form) grows up to 130 feet tall and 3 feet in diameter.

.

HEIGHT: 140 to 170 feet tall, 2 to 4 feet in diameter.

t

3 feet in diameter.

GROWING CONDITIONS: Grand Fir grows most commonly on deep, moist soil from sea level up to 5,000 feet in Washington. It is a shade tolerant species. ENVIRONMENT: It is found commonly in Washington and Idaho, and in parts in Canada.

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SPECIES OF TREES RED ALDER Considered the most important hardwood in the state. Used for furniture, pulpwood, and fuel wood primarily. It is very aggressive in seeding within forests. HEIGHT: 80 to 130 feet tall, but often much smaller 30 to 50 feet, 10 to 36 inches in diameter. GROWING CONDITIONS: Red Alder grows best on moist, rich bottomlands and lower slopes or damp benches. It is one of the ď&#x192;&#x17E;rst trees to appear after a ď&#x192;&#x17E;re or logging operation. It is shade tolerant. ENVIRONMENT: Located from the coast to the Cascade Mountains.

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THE MPB EPIDEMIC IN CASCADIA Unusual hot, dry summers and mild winters during the last few years, combined with an increase in droughts weakening the trees, has led to an unprecedented mountain pine beetle epidemic aďŹ&#x20AC;ecting forests of Cascadia primarily in British Columbia. AREA: B.C., Eastern Washington, Colorado, Southeastern Wyoming, South Datkota, Arizona. AFFECTED PINE SPECIES: Ponderosa, Whitebark, Lodgepole, Scotch and Limber AFFECTED TREES: 51 % of the merchantable lodgepole pine in B.C. had been killed by 2010. 1,9 % of the forrest land in Washington was reported aďŹ&#x20AC;ected in 2009. TIME SPAN: The beetle epidemic peaked between 2001-05.

Area affected in B.C. 1999 and 2009

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THE MPB EPIDEMIC IN CASCADIA THE MOUNTAIN PINE BEETLE The Mountain Pine Beetle normally play an important role in the life of a forest, attacking old or weakened trees and speeding development of a younger forest. Mountain pine beetles affect pine trees by laying eggs under the bark. The beetles introduce blue stain fungus into the sapwood that prevents the tree from repelling and killing the attacking beetles with tree pitch ow. The fungus blocks water and nutrient transport within the tree which is normally killed within few weeks from the attack. However the effect of climate changes leading to unusual hot, dry summers and mild winters during the last few years, combined with an increase in droughts weekening the trees, has led to an unprecedented epidemic.

FOREST IMPACT IN CASCADIA BRITISH COLUMBIA: The mountain pine beetle (MPB) epidemic has now infected or killed over 43.2 million acres of B.C. lodgepole pine fores. The Canadian government estimates that 51% of the merchantable lodgepole pine volume in the province had been killed by 2010, and the most recent estimates are that 58% will be killed by 2016 as the epidemic tapers off. WASHINGTON: Washington has nearly 22 million acres of forestland. Of these nearly 420,000 acres (1,9 %) was observed with some beetle kill from an aerial view in 2009.

CONSEQUENCES The dead trees not only represent a potential lost recource, the epidemic has a huge impact on the timber industry, complicating both logistics and production, but also on the environment, as the trees are simply left standing, they will eventually either decay or burn in forest res, and in either case release the carbon dioxide they stored while growing.

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THE MPB EPIDEMIC IN CASCADIA Northwest Territories Yukon Territory

Saskatchew

Atlin

Fort Nelson

Dease Lake

Legend MPB Polygons SEVERITY

Fort St. John Taylor

Alberta

Hudson's Hope

Stewart

Trace (<1%)

Pouce Coupe Chetwynd

Light (1-10%)

Mackenzie

New Aiyansh

Hazelton New Hazelton

Tumbler Ridge

Moderate (11-30%)

Granisle

British Columbia

Severe (31-50%)

Smithers Telkwa

Terrace Fort St. James

Very Severe (>50%)

Houston Port Edward Masset

Burns Lake Kitimat

Fraser Lake

Vanderhoof Prince George

McBride

Wells Quesnel

Valemount

Horsefly

Bella Coola Hagensborg Williams Lake Alexis Creek ( !

( !

( !

( !

( !

( !

Clearwater

( ! ( !

( ! ( !

( !

100 Mile House

( !

( !

( !

( !

( !

( !

( !

( !

( !

( !

( !

( (! ! ( ! ( ! ! ( ( !

Golden

(! ! (

( !

! ( ( !

( ! ( ! ( ! ! ( ( ! ( !

( !

( !

( !

!! ( (

(! ! (

Revelstoke Clinton Chase Cache Creek Lillooet

Salmon Arm Kamloops

Ashcroft

Port Hardy

Pemberton

Lytton

Campbell River

New Denver

Lake Country

Merritt

Whistler

Gold River

Elkford Meadow Creek

Nakusp Vernon Lumby Coldstream

Sayward

Zeballos Tahsis

Enderby Spallumcheen Armstrong

Logan Lake Port McNeill Port Alice

Radium Hot Springs Invermere

Sicamous

Silverton

Peachland

Penticton

Lions Bay

Sechelt

Belcarra

Port Alberni

Surrey White Rock

Nanaimo Ladysmith

Ucluelet

Lake Cowichan

Salmo

Hope Anmore Coquitlam

Kent Harrison Hot Springs Mission Chilliwack

KeremeosOliver Osoyoos

Fernie

Castlegar

Princeton

Parksville

Cranbrook

Nelson

Summerland Squamish

Sparwood Kimberley

Balfour

Powell River

Courtenay Cumberland

Kaslo

Slocan

Kelowna

Greenwood

Creston

RosslandTrailFruitvale Warfield

Midway

Abbotsford

Duncan Sidney

Montana

Saanich Sooke

Washington

Idaho

BRITISH COLUMBIA. Aerial overview 2006.

EASTERN WASHINGTON. Aerial overview 2009.

SEVERITY OF MPB IMPACT.

FOREST DISTURBANCY BY MPB MARKED RED.

THE MOUNTAIN PINE BEETLE. NORMAL HABITAT.

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THE MPB EPIDEMIC IN CASCADIA CRISIS British Columbia feeds the american building industry with 30 percent of the timber used. While logging and sawmilling grew during the North American housing boom of 2000–2006, they later declined as U.S. lumber demand and prices crashed in the latter half of the decade. With much more wood available from the beetle- killed forest, production is way down due to low demand in the US. British Columbia is now producing only 54% of its total production in 2006. Since the start of the outbreak in 1999, about 45 per cent of the mature pine trees harvested in British Columbia were affected by the beetle infestation.

EMIDEMIC IMPACTS FOREST LOSS AGING WOOD As the number of years progress after a forest is killed, the wood bre of the dead forest gets drier and more brittle, and then starts to rot at the base of the tree. This expands difficulties in the sawmilling process. LOGISTICS Logging costs rise, since more timber must be left in the woods and harvestable stands get farther away from the mills; BLUE STAIN FUNGUS Blue stained wood from the fungus doesnt weaken the wood, but is only disturbing the aesthetic qualities, as it follows the grain randomly.

SHELF LIFE 8‐12 YEARS Length of time dead pine stands can be converted into lumber depends on the biophysical properties of the trees, stand site and mill technology. Current information indicates wood from beetle-affected trees will retain its commercial value for eight to twelve years after the tree has died.

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CLT Research


SOURCES http://www.for.gov.bc.ca/hfp/mountain_pine_beetle/2006_IBM.pdf http://www.dnr.wa.gov/Publications/rp_fh_2009_forest_health_highlights.pdf (Washington) http://www.biodivcanada.ca/default.asp?lang=En&n=5DBC0BDD-1&offset=2&toc=show http://www.fs.usda.gov/detail/r6/forest-grasslandhealth/insects-diseases/?cid=stelprdb5351093 http://www.fs.fed.us/r6/nr/d/as/mpb-r6.shtml https://www.campbellgroup.com/_assets/downloads/public/currenttimberlandissues/Canada_Mountain_Pine_Beetle_Outbreak_Update.pdf http://www.for.gov.bc.ca/pab/media/bell/PP_MPB%20update%20presentation_March3_FINAL.pdf http://www.naturallywood.com/sites/default/les/Mountain-Pine-Beetle.pdf http://www.economist.com/blogs/babbage/2012/08/building-materials

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economic/technical details

NORTH AMERICAN CLT SUPPLIERS PENTICTON, BC

Structurlam Manufacturing Finishing Installation glulam beams steel edged

PENTICTON, BC WHITEFISH, MT

SEATTLE, WA

WHITEFISH, MT

Smartlam

At the time of the studio, the Smartlam manufacturing facility in Montana was still in development, and was not actively producing CLT panels. Specications based on Structurlam CLT panels in production in 2012-13.

Maximum Panel Size Maximum Planed Panel Size Maximum Thickness Production Widths Panel Edges: Moisture Content Glue Specifications Wood Species Squareness Straightness

10’ X 40’ 8’ x 40’ 12.17” 8’ & 10’ ¼” chamfer on long edges 12% (+/-2%) at time of production Purbond polyurethane adhesive SPF No.1/No. 2, other species available upon request Panel face diagonals shall not differ by more than 1/8” Deviation of edges from a straight line between adjacent panel corners shall not exceed 1/16”

Dimensional Tolerances Thickness: +/- 1/16” or 2% of the CrossLam thickness which ever is greater Width: +/- 1/16” per foot of CrossLam width Length: +/- 1/8” up to 20 ft and +/- 1/8” for each additional 20 ft in length

Name

Layers

SLT3 SLT5 SLT7 SLT9

3 layers 5 layers 7 layers 9 layers

Depth (in) 3.90 6.65 9.41 12.17

Inner Lams (in) inner lams 1.38 inner lams 1.38 inner lams 1.38 inner lams 1.38

Outer Lams (in) outer lams 1.26 outer lams 1.26 outer lams 1.26 outer lams 1.26

56 seattle center for buddhism | material culture | spring 2013

Weight (lbs) per sq. ft 10.5 17.0 25.0 32.0 CLT Research


economic/technical details

QUALITY CLASSIFICATION A CH LARCH

FI FIR

QUALITY CLASSIFICATION VISUAL VS NON VISUAL both faces exposed

intended to be concealed

<5% blue staining unlimited blue staining <2’ checks <3’ checks pressure on edge faces no pressure on edge faces

INDUSTRIAL QUALITY

INDUSTRIAL VISIBLE QUALITY

HIGH VISIBLE QUALITY

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economic/technical details

EUROPEAN CLT SUPPLIERS

CONTACT CONTACT Bob obLoew Loe Metsa Wood US Mets ood US Building Products Inc. %XLOGLQJ3URGXFWV,QF 800 Military Street, Suite 200 Port Huron, MI 48060 0LOLWDU\6WUHHW6XLWH 800-622-5850 (toll-free) 3RUW+XURQ0, 810-824-4890 (phone)

European CLT Metsawood Panel distribution company

 WROOIUHHSKRQH

 SKRQH

Dimensions /HQJWKVXSWRP XSWRPRQUHTXHVW

:LGWKVXSWRP 7KLFNQHVVHVIURPWRPP XSWRPPRQUHTXHVW

'HVLJQV\PPHWULFDO RUOD\HUV

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CLT Research


economic/technical details

STRUCTURAL/SPANNING CAPACITY

ROLLING SHEAR DEFORMATION 1. VERTICAL JOINTS BETWEEN PERPENDICULAR WALLS 2. HORIZONTAL HALF-LAPPED JOINTS BETWEEN FLOOR PANELS 3. CONNECTIONS BETWEEN FLOOR PANELS TO THE WALLS BELOW 4. VERICAL HALF-LAPPED JOINTS BETWEEN WALL PANELS

TYPICAL STORY OF A CLT STRUCTURE

TYPICAL CLT WALL CONFIGURATIONS

CLT TESTING IN MIKI, JAPAN

ANALYSIS: Research and analysis on CLT construction is limited and most data is from physical experimentation, yet they lack versatility becuase of changes in layup, material, and manufacturing methods. Anyalytical approaches are now more commonly used but there is stil lack of hard data on CLT construction. The strucutral strength of CLT panels relies on the load duration factor, the wet service factor, and the temperature factor. STRUCTURE: The strucutral strength of CLT panels relies on the load duration factor, the wet service factor, and the temperature factor. Rolling shear strength and stiffness in CLT has been identied as a key issue that can control the desing and performance of CLT oor and wall systems. LATERAL: Seismic design analysis is underway in the United States so seismic applications are expected to be made through alternative method provisions. Resistance to lateral loads from wind and earthquakes in CLT strucutres is made through wall and oor panels designed as shear walls and diaphragms. The shear strength of CLT construction varies by factors sush as fastener size, spacing, and location as well as the strength of the CLT panel itself. Info from CLT Handbook 2013, chapters 3, 4, and 6

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economic/technical details

BUILDING ENVELOPE ISSUES

:,1'2:'(7$,/,1*

&/$'',1*6833257675$7(*,(6

&/7:$//$66(0%/<$1'&21&5(7()227,1* $66(0%/<675$7(*<

Info from CLT Handbook 2013, chapter 10

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CLT Research


economic/technical details

BUILDING ENVELOPE ISSUES

Building enclosure design has important implications for the energy performance and durability of the structure as well as indoor air quatily. The key performance requirements or the enclosure are prevention of water intrusion and control heat, air, and moisture ď&#x192;&#x;ow. While CLT panels provides some degree of thermal insulation, themal mass, and airtightness, they have a high capacity to store moisture and a low vapor permeability. Thus, if exposed to exessive wetting, the panels may absorb a large amount of moisture, and the subsequent drying may be slower than it is for light weight wood construction. EXTERIOR WATER MANAGEMENT: Exterior water management starts at the time of manufacture, requiring water repellents at the end grain of CLT panels. In buildings, water management strategies are very similar to other types of woodframe construction, with the building enclosure being designed to prevent water intrusion into moisture-sensitive matierials through deď&#x192;&#x;ection, drainage, drying, and the use of durable materials. Info from CLT Handbook 2013, chapter 9

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economic/technical details

ACOUSTICAL ISSUES

&216758&7,2162/87,216)25&/7:$//6)/2256$1'&(,/,1*$66(0%,(6

CLT panels provide excellent acoustic insulation. A great deal of the task of acheiving adequate and acceptable airborn and imapct sound insulation is simply giving adequate attention to details in the design and construction. Such details consist in proper use of sealants or caulking to seal sound leaks, avoiding rigid contact between building elements where the transfer of vibrational energy between spaces is possible, and using appropriate materials. ACOUSTIC PROPERTIES OF BARE CLT : The mass and dampening properites of CLTs are what gives them such good sound insulation, with the mass of a CLT member directly correlated to itâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s sound insulating performance.

Info from CLT Handbook 2013, chapter 9

62

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economic/technical details

FIRE PROTECTION ISSUES CLTs can inherently have excellent re-resistance due to the thick cross-sections, which when exposed to re, char at a slow and predictable rate. In addition, CLT construction typC T CHA

ically has fewer concealed spaces within wall

IN

and oor assemblies, which also can reduce the risk of re spread. CONNECTIONS: Performance of timber connections exposed to re can be quite complex due to the inuence of numerous parameters such as the type of fasteners, the geometry of the connection, different failure modes as well as different thermal conductivity properties of steel, wood, and char layer components. Con-

C T CONNECTIONS

nections that are most vulnerable to the damaging impact of re are connections used to resist gravity (as seen in gure 13). INTERIOR FINISH: The spread of ames over solid materials is a fundamental behavior in inuencing the re dynamics and growth within

FI E

ESISTANCE OF C T

TH O

H AN

PA TIA PENET ATION IN C T ASSEMB IES

a compartment. Therefore there are many provisions that limit the use of combustable interior nishes. (see Flame Spread Index, Chapter 6 of the CLT Handbook). Other means of re protection include re-retardant treatments, membrane products, plastic insulation, and automatic re spinklers. THROUGH PENETRATIONS: Penetrations in re rated assemblies are required to be sealed to maintain the assembly’s rating. Types of sealing used in CLT construction include re stops through re separations and re-resistant joint systems.

Info from CLT Handbook 2013, chapter 8

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CLT Research 63


economic/technical details

TYPICAL DETAILS

platform framing

parapet detail

angle bracket

wall cavity detail

ceiling furring

photos by matt kikosicki

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CLT Research


economic/technical details

FIRE PROTECTION ISSUES

PLAN DETAILS

FLOOR plan details ROOF DETA

SECTION DETAILS

section details

ď&#x192;&#x;oor/roof details

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CLT Research 65


urban issues

PUBLIC POLICY AND CODE

MASSIVE WOOD IMPLEMENTATION In late October, the International Code Council (ICC) concluded its hearings in Portland, Oregon, taking nal action on two 2015 ICC standards -- the International Building Code (IBC) and the International Existing Building Code. One of the more signicant changes proposed by AWC and approved this year was formal recognition of crosslaminated timber (CLT) as Type IV construction. This classication will allow 50 percent taller and larger CLT buildings than previously permitted as Type V (wood frame) construction.

Source: Wood: concrete of the 21st century, Joe Mayo and Hans-Erik Blomgren

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urban issues

MAXIMUM HEIGHT ALLOWED

STRADTHAUS BUILDING, LONDON

SCHANKULA’S H8, GERMANY

PROTOTYPE MASSIVE WOOD BUILDINGS Europeon countries have embraced CLT construction witn much more leniency than the U.S. and Canada. Buildings are already reaching 8-9 stories like the Waugh Thistleton’s Stadthaus building in London or the Schankula’s H8 in Bad Aibling, Germany. Michael Green Architects have designed prototype for 12, 20 and 30-story massivewood buildings in Vancouver, BC hoping to spark interest in CLT building in North America and eventually increase height limitations. Building codes in British Columbia limit CLT construction to 6 stories. U.S. code is also 6 stories as changed in most recent meetings.

Source: Wood: concrete of the 21st century, Joe Mayo and Hans-Erik Blomgren

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sustainability and carbon analysis

WOOD CONTENT IN CLT ASSUMPTIONS: A CLT panel is dened to be 8’ in height, 40’ in length, and constructed from 3 layers of 2”x6”X8’ Douglas r lumber. Layers are arranged vertically, horizontally, then vertically. METHODOLOGY: The amount of lumber included in each vertical layer is equal to 40’ divided by the width of the lumber (in this case 5.5”). The lumber contained in horizontal layers is measured by dividing the 8’ height by the width of the lumber (again 5.5”) and then repeating this four more times to equal the length of the board.

The math is as follows: Vertical: (40’ *12”/1’) / 5.5” = 88 2”x6” boards Horizontal: (8’ *12”/1’) / 5.5” * 5 = 88 2”x6” boards Total amount of lumber used in a single CLT panel is 88 + 88 + 88 or 264 boards. For CLT with additional layers, add 176 boards for every additional two layers used. RESOURCE USE: Assuming the panel is made from Douglas r harvested at age 55, with a dbh of around 31 inches, around 141 feet tall. Per the international 1/4” rule, a tree this size is assumed to contain 2095 board feet of lumber. Calculations for board feet in CLT are as follows: (nominal width (in) * nominal thickness (in) * board length (ft)/12 * number of boards For a single CLT panel, 2112 board feet are required. Therefore, production of a single CLT panel roughlY consumes one tree. For comparison, a standard 2,400 sqft single family home consumes around 30,000 board feet during its construction.

Sources: http://www.fs.fed.us/pnw/pubs/pnw_gtr633.pdf - harvest age http://www.fs.fed.us/pnw/pubs/journals/pnw_2009_hummel001.pdf - dbh, height http://www.rdconcepts.biz/StandingTree.aspx - tree board feet calculator http://extension.missouri.edu/scripts/explore/G05506.asp - board feet calculator http://www.idahoforests.org/woodhous.htm - wood home information

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sustainability and carbon analysis

CLT VS. CONCRETE

Waste disposal

Functional unit of CLT

Transport to building site

CLT production

Process energy

Raw material transport

Lumber production

Adhesive

Timber extraction

System boundary

CLTs CRADLE TO GRAVE

Solid waste disposal

Functional unit of concrete

Transport to building site

Raw material transport and processing

Concrete production

Process energy

Cement manufacturing

Coarse and fine aggregate production

CONCRETE CRADLE TO GRAVE

SCM

Water

System boundary

Diagrams from CLT Handbook 2013, chapter 11

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sustainability and carbon analysis

CLT VS. CONCRETE Impact Category

Unit

;ϭƐƋŌͿ CLT 1m 2 of Floor -222.55* (-69.5)

Concrete ;ϭƐƋŌͿ 1m 2 of Floor 90.12 (28.16)

Global warming

kg CO2 eq.

Acidification

H+ moles eq.

8.77

(2.74)

23.00 (7.18)

Respiratory effects

kg PM2.5 eq.

0.010

(0.003)

0.058 (0.19)

Eutrophication

kg N eq.

0.014

(0.004)

0.115 (0.035)

Ozone depletion

kg CFC-11 eq.

Smog

kg NOx eq.

Non-renewable fossil fuel

MJ eq.

7.15E-09 (2.23E-09)

2 8 0

2.65E-07 (.82E-07) 7

0.21

(0.065)

0.23

(0.07)

274.30

(85.7)

633.54

(197.9)

6 2

per 8’x40’ slab CLT CONCRETE GLOBAL WARMING ACIDIFICATION RESPIRATORY EFFECTS EUTROPHICATION OZONE DEPLETION SMOG NON-RENEWABLE FOSSIL FUEL

-22,240 877 0.96 1.28 713E-08 67.2 27,424

9,011 2,298 60.8 11.2 262.4E-08 22.4 63,328

Info from CLT Handbook 2013, chapter 11 Calculations by Dhara Goradia

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CLT Research


sustainability and carbon analysis

CLT VS. CONCRETE 3000%

Material study - 950 cubic meters of concrete and 120 metric tons of steel Reinforced concrete

2500%

CLT (glulam)

vs. app. 910 cubic meters of CLT.

2000%

1500%

1000%

500%

e us

og W at

er

Sm

ar m in Ac g id ifi ca Re tio sp n ira to ry ef Eu fe ct tr s op hi ca O tio zo n ne de pl et io n

G

lo

ba lw

ur ce Re

so

En e

rg y

us

us

e

e

0%

2000%

Two mid-rise buildings combined in

1800%

Reinforced concrete

area-weighted average. CLT set as

CLT (glulam)

1600%

baseline at 100%, combined with glu-

1400%

lam system.

1200% 1000% 800% 600% 400% 200%

e er

us

og W at

Sm

in g Ac id i Re fic at sp io ira n to ry ef fe Eu ct s tr op hi ca O tio zo n ne de pl et io n

ar m

ba lw

G

lo

ur ce so

Re

En e

rg y

us

us

e

e

0%

Diagrams from CLT Handbook 2013, chapter 11

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CLT Research 71


sustainability and carbon analysis

CLT VS. TIMBER FRAMING Typical light wood stud framing

3.2 metric tons of GHG emissions avoided carbon storage

wood

concrete

CLT construction

0.71 metric tons of GHG emissions avoided carbon storage

wood

concrete

A vested interest in keeping carbon service in storage as long as possible, then capturing the energy at the end of its life. CLT could be more sustainable from cradle to grave, whilewood study could be sustainable from cradle to gate. Analysis by Dhara Goradia

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sustainability and carbon analysis

EXTRACTION AND MANUFACTURING SYSTEM BOUNDCARBON ANALYSIS:

EXTRACTION AND MANUFACTURING SYSTEM BOUNDARY

UNIT OF CLT

EMISSIONS TO AIR/WATER

PETROL/ ENERGY

EXTRACTION AND MANUFACTURING – SYSTEM BOUNDARY

UNIT OF CEDAR SIDING

PETROL/ ENERGY

PETROL/ ENERGY

EMISSIONS TO AIR/WATER

Cedar siding production: A more Complete System Boundary

EMISSIONS TO AIR/WATER

SYSTEM BOUNDARY CARBON AND C ARCH 502 SUSAN JONES CLT STUDIO – SPRING 20

Graphics by Olga Amigud

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sustainability and carbon analysis

EMISSIONS AND CARBON EQUIVALENCY

The idea of Carbon Footprint helps understand the severity of impact of different materials and processes, yet the detailed picture of dangers to the environment is far more complex. Most Impact calculators produce the following information for consideration

EMISSIONS TO AIR/WATER

The idea of Carbon Footprint helps understand the severity of impact of diff materials and processes, yet the detailed picture of dangers to the environ is far more complex. Most Impact calculators produce the following inform for consideration

GLOBAL WARMING POTENTIAL

compares the amount of heat trapped by various gasses (emissions) to the amount of heat trapped by a similar mass of CO2

ACIDIFICATION POTENTIAL

Acid gasses are absorbed by the atmosphere and eventually released in the form of â&#x20AC;&#x153;acid rainâ&#x20AC;?

HUMAN HEALTH CRITERIA

Airborne pollutants that cause asthma, bronchitis, and other respiratory diseases

EUTROPHICATION POTENTIAL

Nitrogen and Phosphorus may cause over-feeding of algae and bacteria in fresh and salt water habitats, causing growth of algae, cyanobacteria, and death of native flora and fauna

OZONE DEPLETION POTENTIAL

The severity of degradation of ozone layer that can be caused by a given chemical

SMOG POTENTIAL

Air pollution derived from vehicular exhaust and manufacturing processes (VOC, NOx)

Measured in comparable CO2 EQUIVALENTS, metric tonnes, or kg

Graphic by Olga Amigud

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sustainability and carbon analysis

EVALUATION OF BUILDING ENVELOPES: CLT WITH EXTERIOR WOOD CLADDING

FOSSIL FUEL CONSUMPTION (MJ)

CLT/ wood cladding/ R19 insulation/ polyethylene membrane

GWP (TONNES OF CO2, EQ.)

12,395 0

ACIDIFICATION POTENTIAL (MOLES PF H+)

HUMAN HEALTH CRITERIA (kg of 10 micron PM)

EUTROPHICATIO N POTENTIAL (g OF Nitrogen eq.)

OZONE DEPLETION POTENTIAL (mg of CFH-11 eq.)

SMOG POTENTIAL (kg of NOx eq.)

210

7

199

1

29

CO2 from biomass is considered environmentally impactneutral by the U.S. EPA, and as such is not considered when determining the Global Warming Potential impact.

Calculations by Olga Amigud using Athena

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sustainability and carbon analysis

EVALUATION OF BUILDING ENVELOPES: CLT WITH EXTERIOR WOOD CLADDING + INTERIOR GWB

FOSSIL FUEL CONSUMPTION (MJ)

CLT/ wood cladding/ R19 insulation/ polyethylene membrane

GWP (TONNES OF CO2, EQ.)

16,659 1

ACIDIFICATION POTENTIAL (MOLES PF H+)

HUMAN HEALTH CRITERIA (kg of 10 micron PM)

EUTROPHICATIO N POTENTIAL (g OF Nitrogen eq.)

OZONE DEPLETION POTENTIAL (mg of CFH-11 eq.)

SMOG POTENTIAL (kg of NOx eq.)

269

10

274

1

39

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sustainability and carbon analysis

EVALUATION OF BUILDING ENVELOPES: CONCRETE WITH EXTERIOR WOOD CLADDING

FOSSIL FUEL CONSUMPTION (MJ)

Concrete/cedar bevel cladding/R5 XPS continuous insulation/GWB/l atex paint

GWP (TONNES OF CO2, EQ.)

39,128 3.2

ACIDIFICATION POTENTIAL (MOLES PF H+)

HUMAN HEALTH CRITERIA (kg of 10 micron PM)

EUTROPHICATIO N POTENTIAL (g OF Nitrogen eq.)

OZONE DEPLETION POTENTIAL (mg of CFH-11 eq.)

SMOG POTENTIAL (kg of NOx eq.)

875

13.6

1280

20.8

208

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sustainability and carbon analysis

EVALUATION OF BUILDING ENVELOPES: CONCRETE

Concrete/contin uous insulation/polyet hylene membrane/GWB =latex paint

FOSSIL FUEL CONSUMPTION (MJ)

GWP (TONNES OF CO2, EQ.)

ACIDIFICATION POTENTIAL (MOLES PF H+)

HUMAN HEALTH CRITERIA (kg of 10 micron PM)

EUTROPHICATIO N POTENTIAL (g OF Nitrogen eq.)

OZONE DEPLETION POTENTIAL (mg of CFH-11 eq.)

SMOG POTENTIAL (kg of NOx eq.)

23977

2

569

10

561

27

135

78 seattle center for buddhism | material culture | spring 2013

CLT Research


sustainability and carbon analysis

EVALUATION OF BUILDING ENVELOPES: 2X4 WOOD STUD CONSTRUCTION WITH EXTERIOR WOOD CLAD-

Cedar siding/R5 insulation/wood structural panel sheathing/2X4 wood stud @16”o.c./R12 insulation/GWB+la tex paint

FOSSIL FUEL CONSUMPTION (MJ)

GWP (TONNES OF CO2, EQ.)

ACIDIFICATION POTENTIAL (MOLES PF H+)

HUMAN HEALTH CRITERIA (kg of 10 micron PM)

EUTROPHICATION POTENTIAL (g OF Nitrogen eq.)

OZONE DEPLETION POTENTIAL (mg of CFH-11 eq.)

SMOG POTENTIAL (kg of NOx eq.)

12456

1

215

9

218

1

26

seattle center for buddhism | material culture | spring 2013

CLT Research 79


sustainability and carbon analysis

EVALUATION OF BUILDING ENVELOPES: 2X4 STEEL STUD CONSTRUCTION WITH EXTERIOR WOOD CLADDING

Cedar siding/R20 continuous insulation, cavity insulation + polyethylene membrane/2X4 steel stud @16”o.c./GWB+lat ex paint

FOSSIL FUEL CONSUMPTION (MJ)

GWP (TONNES OF CO2, EQ.)

ACIDIFICATION POTENTIAL (MOLES PF H+)

HUMAN HEALTH CRITERIA (kg of 10 micron PM)

EUTROPHICATION POTENTIAL (g OF Nitrogen eq.)

OZONE DEPLETION POTENTIAL (mg of CFH-11 eq.)

SMOG POTENTIAL (kg of NOx eq.)

18678

1

286

8

553

6

36

80 seattle center for buddhism | material culture | spring 2013

CLT Research


sustainability and carbon analysis

EVALUATION OF BUILDING ENVELOPES: COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS FOSSIL FUEL CONSUMPTION (MJ)

GWP (TONNES OF CO2, EQ.)

ACIDIFICATION POTENTIAL (MOLES PF H+)

HUMAN HEALTH CRITERIA (kg of 10 micron PM)

EUTROPHICATION POTENTIAL (g OF Nitrogen eq.)

OZONE DEPLETION POTENTIAL (mg of CFH-11 eq.)

SMOG POTENTIAL (kg of NOx eq.)

CLT/ wood cladding/ insulation/

12,395

0

210

7

199

1

29

CLT/ wood cladding/ insulation/GWB

16,659

1

269

10

274

1

39

Concrete/wood cladding/ insulation/GWB

39,128

3.2

875

13.6

1280

20.8

208

Concrete/ insulation/ GWB

23977

2

569

10

561

27

135

2X4 wood stud@16”o.c./ wood cladding/ insulation/GWB

12456

1

215

9

218

1

26

2X4 steel stud@16”o.c./ wood cladding/ insulation/GWB

18678

1

286

8

553

6

36

Calculator: Athena

40 35 30

CO2, tones

25

fossil fuels, GJ

20

human health, kg/PM 10

15 10 5 0

human health, kg/PM 10

fossil fuels, GJ CO2, tones

seattle center for buddhism | material culture | spring 2013

CLT Research 81


international district site model by various studio members massing model by matt kikosicki 82

seattle center for buddhism | material culture | spring 2013

CLT Research


PROGRAM RESEARCH BUDDHISM

84

ARCH 502 STUDIO PROGRAM

100

PRECDENTS

102

seattle center for buddhism | material culture | spring 2013

Program Research 83


buddhism

OVERVIEW ORIGINS Buddhism is a religion indigenous to the Indian subcontinent. -around 350-400 million practicing buddhists - encompasses a variety of traditions, beliefs and practices largely based on teachings attributed to Siddhartha Gautama - lived from around 566 to 480 B.C - The son of an Indian warrior-king, Gautama led an extravagant life through early adulthood, reveling in the privileges of his social caste.

         

            

- But he bored of the indulgences of royal life, wandered into the world in search of understanding, encountered an old man, an ill man, a corpse and an ascetic, convinced that suďŹ&#x20AC;ering lay at the end of all existence. - renounced his princely title and became a monk, depriving himself of worldly possessions in the hope of comprehending the truth of the world around him. - At the age of 35, he sat in meditation under a sacred ď&#x192;&#x17E;g tree, known as the Bodhi tree, and vowed not to rise before achieving enlightenment - After many days, he ď&#x192;&#x17E;nally destroyed the fetters of his mind, thereby liberating himself from the cycle of suďŹ&#x20AC;ering and rebirth - arose as a fully enlightened being - Buddha: â&#x20AC;&#x153;Enlightened One.â&#x20AC;? - he is recognized by Buddhists as an awakened or enlightened teacher who shared his insights to help people end their suďŹ&#x20AC;ering through: - elimination of ignorance - by way of understanding and the seeing of dependent origination - the elimination of craving

84 seattle center for buddhism | material culture | spring 2013

Program Research


buddhism

OVERVIEW

THREE MAJOR BRANCHES OF BUDDHISM 1) Theravada: “The School of the Elders” - biggest following in Sri Lanka, Cambodia, Thailand, Laos 2) Mahayana: “The Great Vehicle” - biggest following in China, Korea, Japan, Vietnam, Singapore, Taiwan 3) Vajrayana - Northwest Asia: Mongolia, Tibet, Nepal

seattle center for buddhism | material culture | spring 2013

Program Research 85


buddhism

CONCEPT: FOUR NOBLE TRUTHS - The Four Noble Truths comprise the essence of Buddha’s teachings - a contingency plan for dealing with the suffering humanity faces - suffering exists; it has a cause; it has an end; and it has a cause to bring about its end. - The notion of suffering is not intended to convey a negative world view - it is a pragmatic perspective that deals with the world as it is, and attempts to rectify it. - The concept of pleasure is not denied - pursuit of pleasure can only continue what is ultimately an unquenchable thirst. - In the end, only aging, sickness, and death are certain and unavoidable. - the truth of suffering - the truth of the cause of suffering - desire and ignorance lie at the root of suffering. - Without the capacity for mental concentration and insight, Buddhism explains, one’s mind is left undeveloped, unable to grasp the true nature of things - the truth of the end of suffering -reaching Nirvana: a transcendent state free from suffering and our worldly cycle of birth and rebirth, spiritual enlightenment has been reached - the truth of the path that leads to the end of suffering -noble eight-fold path

86 seattle center for buddhism | material culture | spring 2013

Program Research


buddhism

CONCEPT: NOBLE EIGHTFOLD PATH

- Right Understanding - Right Thought - Right Speech - Right Action - Right Livelihood - Right Effort - Right Mindfulness - Right Concentration - three themes into which the Path is divided - good moral conduct (Understanding, Thought, Speech) - meditation and mental development (Action, Livelihood, Effort) - wisdom or insight (Mindfulness and Concentration)

seattle center for buddhism | material culture | spring 2013

Program Research 87


buddhism

CONCEPT: KARMA - the good or bad actions a person takes during her lifetime - Good actions (generosity, righteousness, and meditation) bring about happiness in the long run - Bad actions (lying, stealing or killing) bring about unhappiness in the long run - The weight that actions carry is determined by ve conditions - frequent, repetitive action - determined, intentional action - action performed without regret - action against extraordinary persons - action toward those who have helped one in the past - Karma plays out in the Buddhism cycle of rebirth - There are 6 separate planes into which any living being can be reborn - 3 fortunate realms: of demigods, of gods, and of men - While the demigods and gods enjoy gratication unknown to men, they also suffer unceasing jealousy and envy - realm of man is considered the highest realm of rebirth - aspect lacking in the other ve planes, an opportunity to achieve enlightenment, or Nirvana - to be born human is to Buddhists a precious chance at spiritual bliss, a rarity that one should not forsake. - 3 unfortunate realms: of animals, of ghosts, and of hell - suffer untold suffering, the suffering of the realm of man is far less

88 seattle center for buddhism | material culture | spring 2013

Program Research


buddhism

CONCEPT: THE FIVE PRECEPTS

- the main moral code within Buddhism - not to take the life of anything living, - not to take anything not freely given - abstain from sexual misconduct and sensual overindulgence - to refrain from untrue speech - to avoid intoxication, that is, losing mindfulness

Sources: www.buddhanet.net/e-learning/5minbud.htm www.pbs.org/edens/thailand/buddhism.htm www.religionfacts.com/buddhism

seattle center for buddhism | material culture | spring 2013

Program Research 89


buddhism

PERIODS OF BUDDHISM %'$($*("

$'%'$# *!)*'!#!*#

%!$($%-

($)'$!$!(%)(

 $!*("#-# 

"=AB:GB63<27/<(C01=<B7<3<B

%AG16=:=571/:?C3AB7=<A 7<27D72C/:1=<B@=:=4=E<;7<2

23/:;/<7A@6/B=<3E6=6/A /1673D32<=</BB/16;3<B A=;3=<3E7B6<=;=@31@/D7<5A /<2<=;=@3@307@B6A

()"!!#*" '($"-# 

=<?C3AB=4/AB3@A7/ $<B=:=571/:?C3AB7=<ABC@<7<5 7<4:C3<13=4<=<<27/<B6=C56B B=</BC@3=4B@C3@3/:7BG)63B@C3 </BC@3=4B67<5A7AA33</A 2317A7D34=@/BB/7<7<5A/:D/B7=<

 )#)'# CHâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;AN 

AB/0:7A6;3<B=CBA723=4<27/ @3/B7D313<BC@73A=4C2267AB B6=C56B

=A;71?C3AB7=<A/28CAB;3<B /<26/@;=<GE7B6B631=A;=A /@31:C3AB=3<:756B3<;3<B

 *("(()$ '#,)(!

=<B7<C32A>@3/2B6@=C56=CB B63E=@:2

AB/0:7A6326/@;/A/<2 >67:=A=>671/:>@7<17>:3A/@3 CA32

23/:;/<7A=267A/BBD/=<3 E6=E7A63AB=A/D3/::43::=E 6C;/<037<5AE6=6=>3AB= 031=;3/<=;<7A173<BC226/ 23/:;/<7A(7226/B63=<37< AC165@3/B6/@;=<GE7B6B63 1=A;=AB6/B637A/0:3B= ;/<7>C:/B31=A;714=@13AE7B67< /<2E7B6=CB67;A3:4

/16>3@7=27A16/@/1B3@7H320G1@3/B7=<=4<3E1/<=<71/::7B3@/BC@3"/<G=4 B63 B3FBA 1:/7; B= 03 B63 E=@2 =4 C226/  :: A16==:A =4 B6=C56B 1=3F7AB32 <=B AC>3@A327<5 3/16 =B63@  =<H3 <=B3 27;7<7A67<5 A>7@7BC/:7BG 7< B63 2=1B@7<3E67166/A033<>@=5@3AA7<5=D3@B6313<BC@73A

90 seattle center for buddhism | material culture | spring 2013

Program Research


buddhism

SPREAD AND EARLY DEVELOPMENT OF BUDDHISM *("()$'-#%')

(%'#'!-+!$%"#)$*(" $#.#$)())$#!-)'$#(,'('%#)(#'$#(,' '+'##$) !!$'(%("'*("  BUDDHAâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;S PUBLIC ACTIVITY TOOK PLACE IN CITIES, WHICH ACCOUNTS FOR THE #)!!)*!#')$#!&*!)-$()#(  *(,"(!(*#$)#*)$')-!+))!! %'$%$()$#("*())()#!*#($,#  



'!()%'%)($*("  "'â&#x20AC;&#x201C;/<3D7:4=@13B6/BB3;>BACA/E/G4@=;=C@B@C37;;=@B/:A3:D3A4@=; @3;3;03@7<5B6/B     ,3/@3B732B=Maraâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s@3/:; B6@=C56 1@/D7<5A /<2 /BB/16;3<B B= 7<27D72C/: >3@A=</:7BG â&#x20AC;&#x201C; =C@ D7A70:3 3;0=27;3<B  ) 7A /<  E6716 1=C:2 03 =D3@1=;3 0G B6=A3 E6= 3<B3@32 B63 â&#x20AC;&#x153;doorsB=B63deathless,â&#x20AC;?â&#x20AC;&#x153;the5/B3A=4undyingâ&#x20AC;? 

A63227<5 /BB/16;3<BA

;=D7<503G=<2 deathâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s realm

seattle center for buddhism | material culture | spring 2013

@3:7344@=;B633<2:3AA A3@73A=4@3>3/B3223/B6A

Program Research 91


buddhism

COMMONALITY BETWEEN ALL DIVERSE BRANCHES OF BUDDHISM  "$#()$'#.)$# Itâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s continuity is the basis supporting everything else. 

)')$#!()$"))$#( )63G3F3@B/C<74=@;34431B=</<G=<3/<23D3@G=<3E6=AC0831BA67;A3:4B= B637@7<4:C3<13   $##)("" â&#x20AC;&#x153;      ,â&#x20AC;? the dying out of separate individuality, fostering AC16D7@BC3A/A A3@3<7BG 23B/16;3<B 1=<A723@/B7=</<2B3<23@<3AA4=@=B63@AB63=C@B33<B6/:/7!/;/ refers to this as â&#x20AC;&#x153;affectionâ&#x20AC;?) 

 *("()*#)-$#$'#(" /16<3E23D3:=>;3<B=11C@A7<1=<B7<C7BG4@=;B63>@3D7=CA=<3C2267A; has an â&#x20AC;&#x153;astonishing

   E67:34=::=E7<5/AC0B:3 /2/>B/B7=<=4>@33F7AB7<5B3/167<5A)63@3/@3<=7<27D72C/:AE6=AB@7D34=@ =@757</:7BG7<AB3/2B63@3/@35@=C>A=4B3/163@A/<2:7<3A=4;/AB3@A maintaining the continuity of teachings for centuriesâ&#x20AC;?

92

seattle center for buddhism | material culture | spring 2013

Program Research


buddhism

DOCTRINES OF EARLY BUDDHISM

IDEA OF â&#x20AC;&#x153;SELFâ&#x20AC;? â&#x20AC;&#x153;Selfâ&#x20AC;? does not correspond to a real fact, it is fictitious. Thus, as =>>=A32B=6@7AB7/<7BGE6716A33AB631/CA3=4/::3D7:7<A7< C226/A33A7B7<75<=@/<13â&#x20AC;&#x201C;/<7<B3::31BC/: ;7A/>>@363<A7=<  $*'%'+')+,(  (3397<5>3@;/<3<137<7;>3@;/<3<B

 (3397<53/A37<E6/B7A7<A3>/@/0:3E7B6AC443@7<5  (3397<5A3:46==27<E6/B7Anot linked to any â&#x20AC;&#x153;selfâ&#x20AC;?

 (3397<523:756B7<@3>C:A7D3  ("('3<2:3AA@307@B6(#$)),$!'!)- )63@37Aâ&#x20AC;&#x201C;E63@3/::6/A13/A32B@/<A13<23<B AB/B3B7A274471C:BB=2347<3  A4:/;34:C<5=<0G4=@13=4E7<2 =;3AB=/<3<2@3/163AE6/B<=<3 /<AC;B63A7:3<BA/53@3:3/A32 @=;</;3â&#x20AC;&#x201C;/<24=@;5=3AB=B635=/: '3/163AB63AB/B3B6/B<=<31/<AC; ,63</::1=<27B7=<A/@3@3;=D32â&#x20AC;&#x201C; ::E/GA=4B3::7<5/@3@3;=D32:793E7A3

;7<24C:<3AA !"#$,#

#()

31AB/B71B@/<13

E7A2=; "))$#

/<C<AC0AB/<B7/: 3;>B7<3AA

/<=0831B:3AA 7<E/@2<3AA #'+#

seattle center for buddhism | material culture | spring 2013

Program Research 93


buddhism

DOCTRINES OF EARLY BUDDHISM )',!(*'"#("   * C::G3<:756B3<3263<3E3D3@GB67<5<332324=@B63/BB/7<;3<B=4B6347</: >7313AC@3/<27<4/::70:35C7237<A>7@7BC/:;/BB3@A16/<<3:4=@6/@;/ B63@3/:7BG7BA3:4 

'" $<3 =4 B63 ;=AB 1=;>:3F 723/A 7< C2267A; B 7A /< 7;>3@A=</: A>7@7BC/: 4=@137<3D3@GB67<5G3B7B7A<=B=4B67AE=@:2  6/@;/ 7A B63 C:B7;/B3 @3/:7BG  )63 @3/:7BG =4 B67A 6/@;/ 7A 1=<B@/AB32 E7B6 B63 7::CA=@G B67<5A =4 B63 1=;;=<A3<A3 E=@:2  (7;C:B/<3=CA:G 6/@;/7AB6327@31B7<5:/EE=@:2:GB67<5A/<23D3<BA  6/@;/7AB63=1B@7<3B63(1@7>BC@3B63)@CB6â&#x20AC;&#x201C;B63C:B7;/B3@3/:7BG=4 B63B3/167<5A=4C226/  < 0=B6 =4 B63 /0=D3 ;3/<7<5A 6/@;/ ;/G 03 @34:31B32 7< =C@ :7D3A /<2/1B7=<Aâ&#x20AC;&#x201C;B6CA7B/:A=;3/<Aâ&#x20AC;&#x153;righteousnessâ&#x20AC;?/<2â&#x20AC;&#x153;virtueâ&#x20AC;?  =<A723@ /B=;A â&#x20AC;&#x201C; B63G /@3 7<D7A70:3 B= CA G3B B63G 1/< 03 ABC2732 B6@=C56;/B63;/B71/:4=@;C:/A/<2/::=ECAB=5@/A>B63>6GA71/::/EA B6/B 5=D3@< B63 C<7D3@A3  ,3 1/< 232C13 /B=;A 4@=; >6GA71/: 036/D7=@ =4 ;/B3@7/:A /<2 163;71/:A 036/D7=@ E3 1/< >3@137D3 E7B6 =C@A3<A3A  < B63 E=@:2 E63@3 =C@ D73E 7A 27AB=@B32 0G 75<=@/<13 /<2 1@/D7<5 6/@;/A /@3 A7;7:/@ B= /B=;A  C2267AB B3/167<5A =4 B63 A31=<2>3@7=21:/AA74732B63;/11=@27<5B=A3<A=@G473:2A7;>C:A3A3B1  )6CA  

     

      B6/B 1/<0316/@/1B3@7H32E7B6B6363:>=4â&#x20AC;&#x153;Dharmaclassificationsâ&#x20AC;?E7B6=CB 3D3@0@7<57<57<B63E=@2â&#x20AC;&#x153;Iâ&#x20AC;?   (" =;;C<7BG;=<9A/<2<C<A:/G>3=>:3E6=AC>>=@BB63;6/D3B/93< @34C537<B63)6@333E3:A/<2>@=;7A3B==0A3@D3B637D3%@313>BA

94 seattle center for buddhism | material culture | spring 2013

Program Research


buddhism

THERAVEDA AND MAHAYANA COMPARISON

seattle center for buddhism | material culture | spring 2013

Program Research 95


buddhism

ADDITIONAL SCHOOLS OF BUDDHISM

96 seattle center for buddhism | material culture | spring 2013

Program Research


buddhism

ADDITIONAL SCHOOLS OF BUDDHISM MADHYAMICA Est. by Nagarjuna in Second Century A.D. Teaches that phenomenal objects that one experiences are not real. The teachings are based on the Middle Way – a path between ascetism and hedonism, between an absolute reality and nonreality.

BUDDHISM OF CHINA - Tian-tai - Hua – yan - Jingtu - Chan

YOGACARA Est. by Asanga in the fourth century. This school goes even further than Madhyamica, asserting that even the individual mind and mental constructs of the phenomenal world are not real.

BUDDHISM OF JAPAN - Tendai - Shingon - Jodo - Shinran - Zen - Nicheren

seattle center for buddhism | material culture | spring 2013

Program Research 97


buddhism

ADDITIONAL SCHOOLS OF BUDDHISM

ZEN BUDDHISM Most popular in the west. Follows the meditative practices of india. Bodhidharma rst brought this form of Buddhism to China in the fth century A. D. He preached that studying scriptures, building monasteries and doing good deeds for the fellow human beings are worthless acts. Meditation that allows one to comprehend the true nature of the self is the only valuable practice. Bodhidharma retired to Shao-Lin and meditated there for 9 years, facing the wall. He achieved the utmost selfknowledge and inward vision – his enlightenment and the true purpose of meditation. A monk named Dosho (628 - 670) brought Zen Buddhism to Japan. In Zen meditation, there are problems designed to destroy the ordinary logic of thinking – they are called koans. (“If all things were reduced to the One, to what is the One reduced?) Zen seeks to proceed beyond the paths of ordinary logic.

98 seattle center for buddhism | material culture | spring 2013

Program Research


buddhism

ADDITIONAL SCHOOLS OF BUDDHISM

TIBET Buddhism settles here in the eighth century. Tibetan Buddhism constitutes a particular branch, inuenced by the ideas of Hinduism in Hatha Yoga, Tantric teachings, and Mahayana Buddhism with its deities. Tibetan Buddhism teaches three views: - Monastic vows of Vinaya - Progressive path of the Bodhisattva - Esoteric precepts of the Tantras The Kalachakra Doctrine teaches that the Universe moves in a cycle and there is a “correspondence between the Flow of the vital currents in a body and the ow of the Universe . Lamas are reborn shortly after death, Dalai Lama is a reincarnation of Buddha. “With folded hands I beseech the Buddhas of all directions to shine the lamp of Dharma for all bewildered in the gloom of darkness. With folded hands, I beseech all the Buddhas who wish to pass away to please remain for countless eons and not leave the world in darkness.”

seattle center for buddhism | material culture | spring 2013

Program Research 99


arch 502 studio program

SEATTLE CENTER FOR BUDDHISM

TEMPLE/SANGHA HALL TEMPLE - Seating for 100 people, approximately 3,000 SF SANGHA DINING - Seating for 100 people,approximately 1000 SF, with kitchen to serve

MEDITATION HALL 5O People sitting/kneeling, approximately 3000 sf

100 seattle center for buddhism | material culture | spring 2013

Program Research


arch 502 studio program

SEATTLE CENTER FOR BUDDHISM

TEA HOUSE/BOOKSHOP Seating for 20 people, approximately 500 SF with public library component

RETREAT/MONK HOUSING Approximately 30 units 200 sf each for both monks and visiting scholars, each to include bathroom, bed and closet

ADDITIONAL PROGRAM Admininstration, services, parking, restrooms, approximately 5,000-7,000 sf

seattle center for buddhism | material culture | spring 2013

+/- 30,000 SF TOTAL

Program Research 101


precedents

WON DHARMA CENTER LOCATION: Claverack , New York ARCHITECT: Hanrahan Architects

%8,/7  %8,/',1*$5($ VTIW

/$1'$5($DFUHVLWH

DESIGN: 7KH:RQ'KDUPD&HQWHU86$LVDVTXDUHIRRWUHFUHDWLRQDODQGVSLULWXDO UHWUHDWLQ&ODYHUDFN1HZ<RUNIRUWKH:RQ%XGGKLVWVD.RUHDQRUJDQL]DWLRQWKDW HPSKDVL]HVEDODQFHLQRQH·VGDLO\OLIHDQGUHODWLRQVKLSWRQDWXUH7KHFHQWHULV ORFDWHGZLWKLQDDFUHSURSHUW\RQDJHQWO\VORSLQJKLOOZLWKYLHZVZHVWWRWKH +XGVRQ5LYHUYDOOH\DQGWKH&DWVNLOO0RXQWDLQV 7KHEXLOGLQJVIRUWKH&HQWHULQFOXGLQJSHUPDQHQWDQGJXHVWUHVLGHQFHVDQ DGPLQLVWUDWLRQEXLOGLQJDQGDPHGLWDWLRQKDOODUHVLWHGDVIDUDVSRVVLEOHIURPWKH KLJKZD\DQGDUHRULHQWHGWRZDUGWKHZHVWDQGVRXWKWRPD[LPL]HYLHZVDQGOLJKW 7KHV\PERORIWKLVRUJDQL]DWLRQLVDQRSHQFLUFOHVXJJHVWLQJERWKDYRLGZLWKRXW DEVHQFHDQGLQÃ&#x20AC;QLWHUHWXUQ7KHEXLOGLQJVDUHRUJDQL]HGDURXQGWKHVHGXDOFRQFHSWV RIYRLGDQGVSLUDO 6RXUFH4XRDWHGIURPKWWSZZZKDQUDKDQPH\HUVFRPZRQPDVWHUSODQKWPO

102 seattle center for buddhism | material culture | spring 2013

Program Research


precedents

WON DHARMA CENTER

7KHVTXDUHIRRW0HGLWDWLRQ+DOOLVFRQFHLYHGDVDVLPSOHUHFWDQJXODUYRLG DQGDOLJKWZHLJKWIUDPHWRWKHQDWXUDOVXUURXQGLQJV,WVZRRGHQVWUXFWXUHLVH[SRVHG RQWKUHHVLGHVWRIRUPHQWUDQFHDQGYLHZLQJSRUFKHVZKLOHWKHLQWHULRURIIHUVYLHZV RIWKHPRXQWDLQVIURPWKHPHGLWDWLRQVSDFHLWVHOI7KHRQO\LQWHULRULQWHUYHQWLRQLQ WKLVH[WUHPHO\SXUHVWUXFWXUHLVDFXELFYROXPHKRXVLQJSXEOLFIDFLOLWLHVFORVHWVDQG PHFKDQLFDOVSDFHV

seattle center for buddhism | material culture | spring 2013

Program Research 103


precedents

WON DHARMA CENTER 7KHIRXURWKHUEXLOGLQJVLQFOXGHWKHDGPLQLVWUDWLYHDQGGLQLQJVSDFHVDQGDOORIWKH UHVLGHQWLDOVSDFHVIRUERWKJXHVWVDQGSHUPDQHQWUHVLGHQWV7KHLUGHVLJQVGUDZXSRQ WKHEXLOGLQJVRIWKHJUDVVURRIHG.RUHDQYLOODJHORRVHO\FOXVWHUHGDQGRUJDQL]HG LQWHUQDOO\DURXQGDVLQJOHFHQWUDOYRLG7KHURRIVKDSHVRIWKHVHVTXDUHIRRW EXLOGLQJVWUDQVIRUPLQVHFWLRQDURXQGDVSLUDORUJDQL]DWLRQIURPDVLPSOHVORSHLQ VHFWLRQWRDFRPSOH[WULDQJXODWHGJHRPHWU\DWWKHHQWUDQFHSRUFKHV

104 seattle center for buddhism | material culture | spring 2013

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WON DHARMA CENTER 7KHLQWHUQDORUJDQL]DWLRQRIHDFKRIWKHEXLOGLQJVDOORZVVLOHQWZDONLQJPHGLWDWLRQ DURXQGWKHFRXUW\DUG7KHFRXUW\DUGDOVRDFWVDVDSDVVLYHFRROLQJV\VWHPDOORZLQJ FURVVYHQWLODWLRQIRUWKHSXEOLFVSDFHVDQGRSHQJXHVWURRPV/LNHWKH0HGLWDWLRQ+DOO DOORIWKHVHEXLOGLQJVDUHFRQVWUXFWHGFRPSOHWHO\RIZRRGDQGDUHGHHSO\VKDGHGWR WKHZHVWDQGVRXWKWRDOORZQDWXUDOGD\OLJKWLQJZLWKRXWH[FHVVLYHKHDWJDLQ

Faith and Form magazine, vol. 1 2012, pgs. 9-11 http://www.hanrahanmeyers.com/wonmasterplan.html

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AMANKORA PARO LOCATION: Paro, Bhutan ARCHITECT: Kerry Hill Architects DESIGN: mankora is a series of lodges across the central and western valleys of Bhutan. The sole surviving Himalayan Buddhist Kingdom, Bhutan is located between the Tibetan Plateau and India, making it one of the most remote and pristine environments on earth. Amankora can tailor journeys that include a combination of its lodges located in the valleys of Paro, Thimphu, Punakha, Gangtey and Bumthang. Most structures in western Bhutan are constructed with Earth. Rammed earth is the dominant technique in the region, constructed by compacting soil between wood and shuttering. Tourism and other recent developments in these remote parts of the world have caused rammed earth to be LQFUHDVLQJO\UHSODFHGZLWKFRQFUHWH+RZHYHUWKH$PDQNRUDUHVRUWVKDYHFKDOOHQJHGWKHLQĂ XHQFH of moderinization by continuing to use this humble techinque in this luxury accomodations. Aman - peace Kora - circular pillgrammage Amankora Paro marked a unique entry into a secluded kingdom whose pristine Himalayan landscapes and remarkably preserved way of life have fascinated travellers the world over. Sited in Balakha Village, 20 minutes from Paro Airport, the resort is in the shadows of the imposing remains of the 17th century Drugyel Dzong. The suites are designed and built in Bhutanese style with natural rammed-earth walls, gently sloping roofs and wood-panelled interiors. The lodge is conceptualized as a village with the guest suites in a cluster of six buildings embodying the Bhutanese spirit but devoid of decoration.

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AMANKORA PARO

Kerry Hill -- Crafting Modernism in Asia Paciď&#x192;&#x17E;c, pgs 10-55

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Program Research 107


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AMANKORA THIMPU LOCATION: Thimpu Valley, Bhutan ARCHITECT: Kerry Hill Architects

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AMANKORA THIMPU

Kerry Hill -- Crafting Modernism in Asia Paciď&#x192;&#x17E;c, pgs 10-55

seattle center for buddhism | material culture | spring 2013

Program Research 109


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AMANKORA PUNAKHA LOCATION: Punakha Valley, Bhutan ARCHITECT: Kerry Hill Architects DESIGN: Kerry Hill has distinguished himself as an architect with his regionally sensitive approach to the design and construction of buildings across the Asia-Paciď&#x192;&#x17E;c region. He is recognized for developing resort architecture that is both climate and site-speciď&#x192;&#x17E;c, drawing on indigenous forms of tropical materials to produce high quality resorts indigenous forms of tropical materials to produce high quality resorts in extraordinary locations. Much of his work in southeast Asia is modern in a traditional setting. In his attempt to recreate a tradition setting, Kerry restored an old farmhouse, and built new rammed earth buildings behind. The interior has been kept dark to refer to the soot covered walls of the original kitchen.

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AMANKORA PUNAKHA

Kerry Hill -- Crafting Modernism in Asia Paciď&#x192;&#x17E;c, pgs 10-55

seattle center for buddhism | material culture | spring 2013

Program Research 111


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AMANKORA GANGTEY LOCATION: Gangtey, Bhutan ARCHITECT: Kerry Hill Architects DESIGN: The resort’s design is inspired by the pitched roofs and rammed earth construction of traditional Bhutanese architecture. It attempts to lightly add to the site, proclaiming minimal ornamentation, appearing almost monastic at times. Room interiors are lined with plywood, creating a “box within a box” design. Although the building mimics the design ideals of the area, it does not attempt to directly copy them. Traditional rammed earth construction was replaced by contemporary methods. As opposed to the plaster covered walls of older buildings, the modern rammed earth walls are left bare, displaying the marks of form ties.

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precedents

AMANKORA GANGTEY

Kerry Hill -- Crafting Modernism in Asia Paciď&#x192;&#x17E;c, pgs 10-55

seattle center for buddhism | material culture | spring 2013

Program Research 113


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SOI 53 APARTMENTS LOCATION: Bangkok, Thailand ARCHITECT: Kerry Hill Architects DESIGN: The Soi 53 Apartments were created to house the client and his three children’s families. The apartments front a small street/alley, known as a “soi,” next to a busy road in Bangkok. Due to the business of the streets, the apartments are designed with an inward focus, creating a private, secluded world for the family. Thee sides of the apartment are masonry walls with small openings. The fourth is a transparent screen wall, against which most of the primary living centers are focused. However, the majority of these spaces open into large, double height terraces, screened by wooden louvres. The terraces allow for a view into the communal space below, while also providing privacy and separation from the busy world outside.

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precedents

SOI 53 APARTMENTS

Kerry Hill -- Crafting Modernism in Asia Paciď&#x192;&#x17E;c, pgs 10-55

seattle center for buddhism | material culture | spring 2013

Program Research 115


precedents

WATER MOON MONASTERY LOCATION: Taipei, Taiwan ARCHITECT: Kris Yao DESIGN: The monastery is situated on the Guandu Plain facing the Keelung River with the Datun Mountain in the background. There is an 80 meter long lotus pond that reď&#x192;&#x;ects the colonnade. The transparent bottom is meant to evoke the ď&#x192;&#x;oating upper box which is the Grand Hall where there is a wall carved with religious Chinese Text. The light is able to shine through into the hall. The main construction material is concrete.

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WATER MOON MONASTERY

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precedents

WATER MOON MONASTERY

http://www.archdaily.com/330486/water-moon-monastery-artech-architects/ http://www.architizer.com/en_us/projects/view/water-moon-monastery/50179/

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precedents

CHUSHIN-JI LOCATION: Nagano, Japan ARCHITECT: Katsuhiro Miyamoto & Associates DESIGN: Chushin-ji is a Buddhist Temple in the Japanese Alps. The site has a history of over 550 years. It includes a dining hall, worship hall, oďŹ&#x192;ces, guest space, bedrooms, living rooms, and a loft. The roof is made of concrete, with the rest of the structure made of wood.

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precedents

CHUSHIN-JI

http://www.archdaily.com/63290/chushin-ji-katsuhiro-miyamoto-associates/ http://www.dezeen.com/2010/02/02/kuri-at-chushinji-temple-by-katsuhiro-miyamoto-associates/ http://www.architecturelist.com/2011/05/02/chushinji-temple-priestsquarters-nagano-by-katsuhiro-miyamoto-associates/

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precedents

HOUGHTON CHAPEL AND MULTIFAITH CENTER AT WELLESLEY COLLEGE LOCATION: Wellesley, Massachusetts ARCHITECT: Kieran Timberlake Architects DESIGN: Renovation and reprogram of the lower level of the Houghton Memorial Chapel.

seattle center for buddhism | material culture | spring 2013

Program Research 121


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HOUGHTON CHAPEL AND MULTIFAITH CENTER AT WELLESLEY COLLEGE

BEFORE

The walls of the worship room are resin embedded with linen which create a glowing atmosphere.

AFTER

At the main entrance, a water feature crafted out of custom fabricated polished concrete stands as a sacred element universal to all faiths.

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precedents

HOUGHTON CHAPEL AND MULTIFAITH CENTER AT WELLESLEY COLLEGE

Faith and Form, Vol. 3, 2009, pgs 6-11

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Program Research 123


precedents

BATTELL CHAPEL, YALE UNIVERSITY LOCATION: New Haven, Connecticut ARCHITECT: Newman Architects DESIGN: The architect Russell Sturgis built Battell Chapel for Yale University in 1876. It was much admired then for its gilding, bright stenciling, mosaic tile art, painted and oiled woodwork. In the 1920’s, however, the Victorian interior was painted over to emulate stone, as Yale turned to a Collegiate Gothic style. Engaged to renovate the chapel, research yielded clues to the original design and convinced Newman Architects that Battell needed to be returned to its original state. Yale agreed. They replicated the original stenciling in gold leaf and fteen painted colors, refurbished the wood paneling and pews, re-upholstered seat cushions, installed new carpeting, and replaced the brass railings in the balconies. They modied the apse, the focal point of the Chapel, to accommodate a small orchestra or small religious service. Retaining the character of the original lighting, the architects restored the original chandeliers, designed new wall sconces reminiscent of the original gas jets, and cleaned and installed new mechanical and lighting systems.

Faith and Form, Vol. 3, 2009, pgs 13-15

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precedents

SANCHI COMPLEX LOCATION: Sanchi, India 3rd century BCE to 12th CE

 

   

  



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Program Research 125


precedents

SANCHI COMPLEX

RECONSTRUCTION

STUPAS

126 seattle center for buddhism | material culture | spring 2013

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precedents

SANCHI COMPLEX

STUPAS

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Program Research 127


precedents

SANCHI COMPLEX

         



                                                                            

MONASTERIES

TEMPLES

A Global History of Architecture, Ching, Jarzombek, Prakash

128 seattle center for buddhism | material culture | spring 2013

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AJANTA CAVES LOCATION: Maharashtra, India BUILT: 390 CE DESIGN: The largest assemblage of Buddhist rock-cut caityas and viharas founs anywhere in South Asia. The caves consist of 30 odd caves that vary from 10-30 meters in elevation above the Waghora River. It was likely that this complex functioned as a college monastery, and at its prime it would have aďŹ&#x20AC;orded accomodations for up to several hundred teachers and pulpils.

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Program Research 129


precedents

AJANTA CAVES

130 seattle center for buddhism | material culture | spring 2013

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precedents

AJANTA CAVES

seattle center for buddhism | material culture | spring 2013

Program Research 131


precedents

AJANTA CAVES

132 seattle center for buddhism | material culture | spring 2013

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precedents

AJANTA CAVES

A Global History of Architecture, Ching, Jarzombek, Prakash

seattle center for buddhism | material culture | spring 2013

Program Research 133


precedents

CHAITYA HALL AT KARLI LOCATION: Maharashtra, India BUILT 120 CE DESIGN: The largest and most impressive of the Buddhist caityas, the Chaitya Hall at Karli stands at about 40 meters deep and 12 meters wide. The cave is fronted by a recessed entrance of stone screens, which has holes in it, indicating that origionally a larger wooden construction was added to complete the building. Karli is famous for its interior because of its balanced and measured nature of the overall composition of its elements.

A Global History of Architecture, Ching, Jarzombek, Prakash

134 seattle center for buddhism | material culture | spring 2013

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NALANDA MAHAVIHARA LOCATION: Nalanda, India BUILT 450 CE DESIGN: Multidisciplinary university complex that included buddhist teachings and practices as well as secular disciplines.

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seattle center for buddhism | material culture | spring 2013

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Program Research 135


precedents

NALANDA MAHAVIHARA

+0-/4-! +-./+-&".+# "((.

136 seattle center for buddhism | material culture | spring 2013

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precedents

NALANDA MAHAVIHARA

A Global History of Architecture, Ching, Jarzombek, Prakash

seattle center for buddhism | material culture | spring 2013

Program Research 137


precedents

WAT ARUN - TEMPLE OF DAWN LOCATION: Bangkok, Thailand BUILT: Before 1656 BE

A Global History of Architecture, Ching, Jarzombek, Prakash

138 seattle center for buddhism | material culture | spring 2013

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precedents

WAT PHRA KAEW_TEMPLE OF THE EMERALD BUDDHA LOCATION: Bangkok, Thailand BUILT: 18th Century

A Global History of Architecture, Ching, Jarzombek, Prakash

seattle center for buddhism | material culture | spring 2013

Program Research 139


precedents

WAT DOI SUTHEP LOCATION: Chiang Mai Province, Thailand BUILT: 1383

A Global History of Architecture, Ching, Jarzombek, Prakash

140 seattle center for buddhism | material culture | spring 2013

Program Research


PROJECT SITES PIONEER SQUARE

142

INTERNATIONAL DISTRICT

152

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Project Sites 141


pioneer square

HISTORY

- Seattleâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s origional downtown, dating back to its estblishment in 1852 - Took its name from Pioneer Place - Many of the origional buildings were lost in the Great Seattle FIre of 1889 - By 1890, many of the buildings were rebuilt in brick and stone

142 seattle center for buddhism | material culture | spring 2013

Program Research


pioneer square

HISTORY

seattle center for buddhism | material culture | spring 2013

Project Sites 143


pioneer square

HISTORY

- Home to a number of galleries, cafes, bars, night clubs, bookstores, the Seattle Underground Tour, Klondike Gold Rush National Historical Park as well as Skid Row

144 seattle center for buddhism | material culture | spring 2013

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pioneer square

HISTORY

seattle center for buddhism | material culture | spring 2013

Project Sites 145


pioneer square

HISTORY

MARCH 21 MARCH 21

JUNE 21

JUNE 21

SEPTEMBER 21

SEPTEMBER 21

DECEMBER 21 DECEMBER 21

146 seattle center for buddhism | material culture | spring 2013

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pioneer square

CONTEXT

2001-2013 1976-2000 1951-1975 1926-1950 1900-1925 1875-1899

Surrounding building dates

Deciduous Evergreen

Surrounding trees On-Street Bicycle Path Sharrows Underground Rail Transit Light Rail Station Arterial Street Pedestrian Path Pedestrian Only Plaza

Transportation

seattle center for buddhism | material culture | spring 2013

Project Sites 147


pioneer square

JAMES CORNER PLAN SEATTLE WATERFRONT PLAN Source: City of Seattle

148 seattle center for buddhism | material culture | spring 2013

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pioneer square

JAMES CORNER PLAN SEATTLE WATERFRONT PLAN Source: City of Seattle

connecting the city to the waterfront

activity center and connections to Seattle

seattle center for buddhism | material culture | spring 2013

Project Sites 149


pioneer square

JAMES CORNER PLAN SEATTLE WATERFRONT PLAN Source: City of Seattle

150 seattle center for buddhism | material culture | spring 2013

Project Sites


pioneer square

JAMES CORNER PLAN SEATTLE WATERFRONT PLAN Source: City of Seattle

seattle center for buddhism | material culture | spring 2013

Project Sites 151


international district

DANNY WOO GARDEN The Danny Woo Community Garden was built in 1975 to serve the low-income seniors of Seattle’s International District. Located adjacent to the City of Seattle’s Kobe Terrace Park, the Danny Woo Community Garden makes up part of 1.5 acres of the largest green space in Seattle’s Chinatown/International District (C/ID). The steeply terraced garden is comprised of nearly 100 plots, tended by about 70 elderly Asian gardeners. The garden is a place where gardening, food, and culture intersect as many of our elder immigrant gardeners grow crops and owers with connections to their countries of origin. Danny Woo was a Chinese American businessman and property owner in the International District. The property where the Danny Woo Garden sits is leased to InterIm for $1.00 a year, an arrangement that began in the early 1970s. While Mr. Woo has passed away, the arrangement continues with his children. By using the Seattle Parks property, more plots have been added to help accommodate the growing demand for garden space.

MAIN ST.

7TH AVE.

MAYNARD AVE. S. JACKSON ST.

152 seattle center for buddhism | material culture | spring 2013

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international district

DANNY WOO GARDEN

seattle center for buddhism | material culture | spring 2013

Project Sites 153


international district

DANNY WOO GARDEN

154 seattle center for buddhism | material culture | spring 2013

Project Sites


international district

DANNY WOO GARDEN

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Project Sites 155


international district

HISTORIC PANAMA HOTEL Panama Hotel (1910) 605 1/2 S Main Street, Seattleâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Nihonmachi (Japantown). ARCHITECT: Sabro Ozasa, a Japanese American architect and graduate of the University of Oregon.

156 seattle center for buddhism | material culture | spring 2013

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international district

HISTORIC PANAMA HOTEL

seattle center for buddhism | material culture | spring 2013

Project Sites 157


international district

HISTORIC PANAMA HOTEL

158 seattle center for buddhism | material culture | spring 2013

Project Sites


international district

HISTORIC PANAMA HOTEL SENTO AND JAPANESE BATH CULTURE In the basement, there was (and remains to this day) a “sento,” a Japanese-style public bathhouse. The Panama Hotel’s sento, named the Hashidate-Yu, is the only such bathhouse remaining intact in the United States today (2010). The Hashidate-Yu drew on a 1,200-year-old tradition of Japanese bathing. Japanese sentos were a central feature of Buddhist temples, used in purication rites. The temples also provided baths for the general public, since many homes at the time did not have private facilities. Eventually, the religious implications faded, but the sentos continued to be used as gathering places. Japanese immigrants sought out sentos upon arrival in their new communities. The Hashidate-Yu had separate baths -- one for men and one for women and children. Over the years the Panama Hotel served as a home for generations of Japanese immigrants, Alaskan shermen, and international travelers. The combination of businesses, hotels, and bathhouses provided necessary services for the community. Facilities like the sentos allowed the Japanese immigrants to share their cultural traditions. Before World War II, there were at least four sentos in Seattle: the Hashidate-Yu, the Shimoji, the Hinode, and the Naruto. Most of Seattle’s Nihonmachi, like many across the western United States, disappeared during World War II when the United States government forced 120,000 people of Japanese ancestry into internment camps. In Seattle many families packed their belongings into trunks and suitcases and stored them for safekeeping in the hotel’s basement.

seattle center for buddhism | material culture | spring 2013

Project Sites 159


international district

HISTORIC PANAMA HOTEL ABANDONED PROPERTY Sadly, many of the families never returned to collect their belongings. Takashi Hori (who was himself interned from 1942 to 1945), owned and ran the Panama Hotel from 1938 to 1985. He found more than 50 trunks of property and made several attempts to reunite the items with their owners. In 1985, Jan Johnson bought the Panama Hotel from the Hori family and began renovations. She too attempted to nd the owners of the property left in the hotel. She then took the belongings that were left unclaimed and created a small museum in the basement of the hotel. The artifacts include old Japanese American photographs, a dusty footlocker, a cloth coat with a fur collar, a pair of men’s socks, and other pieces of everyday life. Many of the items have been included in temporary exhibitions at Ellis Island and the Japanese American National Museum.

Two Japanese American women storing valuables in the

Fumiko Hayashida and her daughter, 1942. Declared

basement of the hotel. This chest still remains along with

“enemy aliens” and turned into human cargo overnight,

many others remains where it was left over 50 years ago.

they are awaiting shipment into an internment camp in Mojave Desert.

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international district

HISTORIC PANAMA HOTEL NATIONAL LANDMARK In 2001, Johnson opened The Panama Hotel Tea House, an Asian tea house on the Main Street side of the building. Large format black-and-white photos hang on exposed brick walls. The photos depict people and scenes from a bygone era -- launderers, shopkeepers, a butcher, a stationer, a bookstore, a orist, a dentist, and a parade oat. A long sleek counter is lined with tea. Gleaming hardwood oors surround a “window” to the oor below, revealing a part of the museum. Visitors can take a tour of the Hashidate-Yu sento, which looks much as it did when it was open for business, complete with the mosaic oors, wooden lockers, and marble and concrete tubs. The tea house provides a means for people to experience a piece of Japanese culture and explore a bit of history. It also provides a means for Japanese Americans to reconnect with their past. Since the teahouse opened, many elderly Nisei have come to the hotel. They have lled in the dates, and names of the people in several of the photographs. For many of them, Ms. Johnson reports, it is an emotional experience, bringing back memories of the thriving community that once lived and worked in this neighborhood. The Panama Hotel was declared a National Historic Landmark building in 2006.

seattle center for buddhism | material culture | spring 2013

Project Sites 161


international district

KOBE TERRACE

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Project Sites


international district

.25 m iles

KOBE TERRACE

Proposed Street Car

t

e

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Project Sites 163


pioneer square site model by various studio members massing model by kristopher chan 164 seattle center for buddhism | material culture | spring 2013

Project Sites


STUDENT PROJECTS ARENDSE AGGER

166

OLGA AMIGUD

175

DHARA GORADIA

183

VERONICA MACALINAO

190

ERICA WITCHER

197

MICHAEL GILBRIDE

202

JORDAN INMAN

208

KRISTOPHER CHAN

216

JUSTIN SCHWARTZHOFF

221

ALLISON EDDY

227

KATE REEF

232

MATT KIKOSICKI

238

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Student Projects 165


SEATTLE CENTER FOR BUDDHISM ARENDSE AGGER

166 seattle center for buddhism | material culture | spring 2013

Student Projects


SEATTLE CENTER FOR BUDDHISM SEATTL TEMPLE

RESIDENTS

COMMUNITY

ARENDSE EMILIE AGGER, SUSAN JONES STUDIO, SPRING 2013

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Student Projects 167


MATERIAL AND PROGRAM

MATERIAL AND PROGRAM 168 seattle center for buddhism | material culture | spring 2013

Student Projects


Meditation

Dining Hall

Admin Book Cafe

Temple

1st Ave

Post Ave

SECTION Protection

Outdoor Circulation

Sun light

FORMAL APPROACH

INSIDE / OUTSIDE

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Student Projects 169


GROUND FLOOR PLAN 1/16 +6392(*03368IQTPI3J½GIWERH&SSO'EJI RESIDENTS: YRMXW[MXLWLEVIHOMXGLIRERHFEXLVSSQW

'31192-8= 8IQTPISJ½GIFSSOGEJIHMRMRKLEPPOMXGLIRERHQIHMXEXMSRWTEGI

98-0-8-)7%2('-6'90%8-32

463+6%1

STREET

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Student Projects


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6'0 10 '0"

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1. Community dining hall and kitchen 2. Residential dining room and kitchen 3. Laundry room

Student Projects 171


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6'0" 6

10

10'0"

'0"

10

10'0"

'0"

10

6'0" 6

"

6'0

10'0"

'0"

10 '0"

10

5TH FLOOR: Residential "

6'0 '0"

10

172 seattle center for buddhism | material culture | spring 2013

Student Projects


EAST ELEVATION

WEST ELEVATION

SOUTH ELEVATION COURTYARD SPACE

seattle center for buddhism | material culture | spring 2013

Student Projects 173


NATURAL LIGHT

RAINWATER COLLECTION 79440=+EPPSRWTIV]IEV

Rainwater use pr day:

()1%2(+EPPSRWTIV]IEV

*PYWLMRK  ¾YWL KEPPSRTIV¾YWL TIVHE]   

VIWMHIRXW\ !KEPPSRWTVHE] ;EWLMRKGPSXLIWERHPMRIR[EWLTV[IIOTVVIWMHIRX

KEPPSRWTV[EWL \!KEPPSRWTVHE]

7836%+)+EPPSRW

SUSTAINABILITY

CLT FACADES : 16,929 f2 = 43 PANELS ROOF: 5,306 f2 = 14 PANELS ROOMS: 14,080 f2 = 36 PANELS CONCOURSES: 7,932 f2 = 20 PANELS CORES: 15,978 f2 = 40 PANELS MAIN STRUCTURE: 26,280 f2 = 66 PANELS

IN ALL: 219 PANELS 3-PLY 274 TREES 3.9 ACRES

174 seattle center for buddhism | material culture | spring 2013

Student Projects


THE DHARMA OF WATER OLGA AMIGUD

seattle center for buddhism | material culture | spring 2013

Student Projects 175


BOARD 1

SEATTLE BUDDHIST CENTER:

OLGA AMIGUD ARCH 502 _SPRING 2013_SUSAN JONES

WATER

THE DHARMA OF WATER NATURAL PROCESSES ON THE SITE GLACIAL TERRAIN

MAIN STREET

THE CITY AND ITS PEOPLE

CONCEPTUAL MODEL

7TH STREET

CITY GRID

THE SITE OF THE PROJECT IS DEEPLY CONNECTED TO BOTH THE CITY (AND ITS RIGOROUS GRID) AND THE NATURE (NATURAL TERRAIN OF THE GLACIAL FORMATIONS, NEIGHBORING KOBE PARK AND DENNY WOO GARDEN). CONCEPTUALLY, THE COMPLEX OF BUILDINGS STRIVES TO UNITE THE TWO, MAINTAINING THE RIGOR OF THE GRID EXPRESSED THROUGH THE VISIBLE “RIBS” OF THE CLT PANELS AND, AT THE SAME TIME, BRINGING IN AND MAKING VISIBLE THE NATURAL PROCESSES THAT TAKE PLACE ON THE SITE AND AROUND IT. THE TEMPLE CREATES A LANDMARK ON THE SITE OVERLOOKING THE CITY, WHILE REPRESENTING THE RELIGION OF MANY PREVIOUSLY PERSECUTED PEOPLES (SUCH AS THE AMERICAN JAPANESE CITIZENS WHO UNDERWENT INTERNMENT DURING WWII). IN ITS PROMINENT POSITION AT THE TOP OF THE HILL, THE BUILDING HAS AN OPPORTUNITY TO EDUCATE: TO EXPOSE THE CYCLES OF NATURE, TO MAKE THEM VISIBLE IN A BEAUTIFUL WAY. THE PATH THAT LEADS THROUGH THE CENTER OF THE COMPLEX, BECOMES THE EXTERIOR “GRAND STAIRCASE,” PROVIDING CIRCULATION THROUGH THE BUILDINGS, YET BRINGING ONE’S AWARENESS TO THE CHANGING SEASONS.

KOBE PARK DENNY WOO GARDEN

W

AT

ER

MOVEMENT OF WATER ON THE SITE: OPPORTUNITY FOR COLLECTION

7TH AVENUE SOUTH

W

AL

K

WALK

SOUTH MAIN STREET

CONSTRUCTED WETLAND

CONVERT ROOF INTO GREENHOUSES

JACKSON STREET

176 seattle center for buddhism | material culture | spring 2013

Student Projects


BOARD 2 AMIGUD_ARCH502_SPRING 2013

KOBE PARK

I-5

SECTION PERSPECTIVE A

DENNY WOO GARDEN

DENNY WOO GARDEN WALL

I-5

GREEN WALK, CONSTRUCTED BIOSWAILES

UPPER TEMPLE SQUARE

LAYPERSON’S RETREAT

7TH AVENUE SOUTH

MIXED RESIDENCES

SECTION PERSPECTIVE B

MONKS’ KUTI

SOUTH MAIN STREET

MAIN TEMPLE FLOOR

CONSTRUCTED

WETLAND GARAGE ENTRANCE

MAIN TEMPLE FLOOR LEVEL 0

GREEN WALK, CONSTRUCTED BIOSWAILES

(TO UNDERGROUND GARAGE)

GREEN HOUSES

SCALE 1/16” = 1’ - 0”

seattle center for buddhism | material culture | spring 2013

Student Projects 177


BOARD 3 AMIGUD_ARCH502_SPRING 2013

THE PATH OF WATER

GREYWATER TO RESIDENCES PUMP TANK COLLECTION FROM RESIDENTIAL QUARTERS

GREYWATER TO TEMPLE COLLECTION FROM TEMPLE ROOFS

RAIN

WAT

ER S

TOR

AGE

WATER, A PROMINENT ELEMENT IN MANY ESTERN CULTURES AND RELIGIONS TAKES A PROMINENT POSITION HERE AS WELL,

WETLAND FILTRATION

NK

A

IN T

MA

IN ITS PROMINENT POSITION AT THE TOP OF THE HILL, THE BUILDING HAS AN OPPORTUNITY TO EDUCATE THE PUBLIC BY EXPOSING THE NATURAL CYCLES THAT BECOME INVISIBLE IN THE CITY.

WETLAND FILTRATION

1. SCUPER AS DESIGN ELEMENT: FLOW OF WATER MADE VISIBLE 2. FROM A GREEN LEDGE WATER IS DIRECTED TO THE WETLAND 3. WETLAND CONTINUES TO FILTER WATER

3.

1. 2. 3.

SECTION PERSPECTIVE A

178 seattle center for buddhism | material culture | spring 2013

Student Projects


BOARD 4 AMIGUD_ARCH502_SPRING 2013

WALKING THE PATH

TO KOBE PARK INTERIOR SPACES CIRCULATION

UPPER GATHERING SPACE

PAT HA THE LONG STRE ET

MAIN ENTRANCES

H LEX UG MP RO O TH E C TH PL PA EM T E TH

LOWER GATHERING SPACE

ROOF INTEGRATED PHOTOVOLTAIC PANELS

STACK VENTILATION

CONSTRUCTED WETLAND

VISIBLE WATER TREATMENT AND COLLECTION

MEDITATION

COMMUNITY GREEN HOUSES TEMPLE

DINING SENTO

SECTION PERSPECTIVE B

seattle center for buddhism | material culture | spring 2013

Student Projects 179


MEDITATION

TEMPLE - INTERIOR PERSPECTIVE

LAYPERSON’S RETREAT

MIXED RESIDENCES

MONKS’ KUTI

BOARD 5 AMIGUD_ARCH502_SPRING 2013

MEDITATION FLOOR LEVEL +1

SCALE 1/16” = 1’ - 0”

VIEW FROM SENTO ENTRANCE LEVEL

DINING FLOOR LEVEL -1 SCALE 1/16” = 1’ - 0” SCALE 1/16” = 1’ - 0”

ELEVATION ELEVATION ELEVA E EVA EV VA ATION IO MAIN STREET - SOUTH ALLEY A LLEY L -YALLEY SSO OUTH TH JACKSON JACKSO ACKS A KSSO ON STREET STREET EET

180 seattle center for buddhism | material culture | spring 2013

Student Projects


BOARD 6 AMIGUD_ARCH502_SPRING 2013

WOMEN & CHILDREN

MEN

OFFICE/ REGISRTRATION

SENTO LOCKERS

PHYSICAL MODEL: 1/8” = 1’ - 0”

CONSTRUCTED WETLAND

SENTO AND CONSTRUCTED WETLAND LEVEL -2

SCALE 1/16” = 1’ - 0”

PHYSICAL MODEL: 1/8” = 1’ - 0” VIEW OF FACADE ON 7TH AVENUE

LOWER CISTERN

MECHANICAL

PARKING GARAGE LEVEL -3

SCALE 1/16” = 1’ - 0”

ELEVATION 7TH AVENUE SOUTH

seattle center for buddhism | material culture | spring 2013

Student Projects 181


BOARD 7 AMIGUD_ARCH502_SPRING 2013

TEMPLE WEST WING

ROOF INTEGRATED PHOTOVOLTAIC PANELS

STRUCTURAL CLT: 7-PLY CNC ROUTED TO SPECIFICATIONS

319 TREES REQUIRE 3 ACRES OF MANAGED FORESTLAND Managed forest is planted at 500 to 800 seedlings per acre, at maturity, 100 trees per acre remain. It requires 30 to 40 years to grow a mature tree ready for harvesting.

129 TREES

190 TREES

RESIDENCES: 50 CROSS-LAMINATED TIMBER 7-PLY PANELS

AND 32 3-PLY PANELS

40’

TEMPLE: 43 CROSS-LAMINATED TIMBER 7-PLY PANELS

STRUCTURE: 7-PLY CLT PANELS

319 PINE TREES

CONCRETE FOUNDATIONS (CONCRETE WATER COLLECTION CISTERNS BELOW)

10’

EXAMPLE OF CNC PATTERN FOR STRUCTURAL MEMBERS: 10’ X 40’ CLT PANEL

WALLS: 7-PLY CLT OPENINGS ARE ROUTED OUT USING CNC PREFABRICATION PROCESS

WALL - FLOOR CONNECTIONS

RESIDENCES EAST WING

182 seattle center for buddhism | material culture | spring 2013

Student Projects


A PLACE FOR RITUAL AND RETREAT DHARA GORADIA

seattle center for buddhism | material culture | spring 2013

Student Projects 183


SEATTLE CENTER FOR BUDDHISM A PLACE FOR RITUAL AND RETREAT

DHARA GORADIA ARCH 502 MATERIAL CULTURE SPRING 2013

urban retreat | west elevation

urban forest | east elevation 184 seattle center for buddhism | material culture | spring 2013

Student Projects


BUDDHA

DHARMA

E

SANGHA

N

12 PM - 6 PM

MEDITATION AND THE PATH TO ENLIGHTENMENT 16

16

8’

16’

16’

24’

8’

8-12 PM

6 PM - 9 PM

PRAYER, TEACHING, AND THE EXCHANGE OF KNOWLEDGE

STUDY AND MEMORIZATION

6-8 AM

9 PM - 4 AM

ALMS, OFFERINGS, AND THE EXCHANGE OF GOODS

REST

4 AM - 6 AM MEDITATION

concept development | the cycles of sangha, buddha, and dharma

EE T STR RY ER CH

UN

UE VEN DA 2N

POST AVE A E AV

WESTERN WES W ESTERN AVE AVE

SU

MM

ER

S

STR ES JAM

EET

N

YESLER YE YES Y ESSLER WAY

W

E INT

RS

U

WASHINGTON STREET

overall site plan

seattle center for buddhism | material culture | spring 2013

Student Projects 185


PUBLIC PANTRY

WC WC O OF OFFERING FFE FER RING RI ING NG COURT COUR CO URT

RETREAT RE ETR TRE EAT EA AT PA P ATI TIO PATIO

MORNING MEDITATION UP

UP

JURXQGÃ&#x20AC;RRUSODQ´ ¶

sangha | ground | exchange

186 seattle center for buddhism | material culture | spring 2013

Student Projects


¿IWKÀRRU

LILALS 0S E5 H N R2TIK 1AA-IM V B K

0 1 K LILALS S E5 H N R2TIK AA-IM V B

LILALS 0S E5 H N R 2TIK 1A A-IM V B K

K-1250 MAINSAIL BATHS VIKRELL

K-1250 MAINSAIL BATHS VIKRELL

K-1250 MAINSAIL BATHS VIKRELL

LILALS 0S E5 H N R2TIK 1A A-IM K B V

0 1 K LL IALS S E5 H N R2TIK AA-IM B V

LILALS 0S E5 H N R2TIK 1A A-IM K B V

VIKRELL BATHS MAINSAIL K-1250

K-1250 VIKRELL BATHS MAINSAIL

VIKRELL BATHS MAINSAIL K-1250

LILALS 0S E5 H N R 2TIK 1AA-IM V B K

0 1 K LILALS S E5 H N R2TIK A A-IM V B

LILALS 0S E5 H N R2TIK 1AA-IM V B K

0 2TIK 1A K LILALS SE5 H N R A-IM V B

LILALS 0S E5 H N R 2TIK 1A A-IM V B K

LL IALS 0 S E5 H N R 2TIK 1A A-IM V B K

K-1250 MAINSAIL BATHS VIKRELL

K-1250 MAINSAIL BATHS VIKRELL

K-1250 MAINSAIL BATHS VIKRELL

0 1 K LILALS SE5 H N R2TIK A A-IM B V

LILALS 0 SE5 H N R 2TIK 1 AA-IM K B V

VIKRELL BATHS MAINSAIL K-1250

0S 1A K LILALS E5 H N R2TIK A-IM V B

LILALS 0 S E5 H N R2TIK 1AA-IM V B K

LILALS 0SE5 H N R2TIK 1 A A-IM V B K

RETREAT RE RET RETR ETREAT REAT EAT EA AT P PA PAT AT AT TIIO PATIO UP

KUTI

MONK DINING

0’ MONK STUDY

0’

8’

8’

16’

16’

32’

VHFRQGÀRRU

GUEST

LAY HOUSING

32’

VL[WKÀRRU

seattle center for buddhism | material culture | spring 2013 LILALS 0 SE5 H N R 2TIK 1A A-IM K B V

K-1250 VIKRELL BATHS MAINSAIL

VIKRELL BATHS MAINSAIL K-1250

PUBLIC PANTRY

WC WC

OF O OFF OFFERING FF FF FER FE ERING RIN RIN ING NG N G COUR COUR UR U RT COURT

MORNING MEDITATION UP

DN

JURXQGÀRRU´ ¶

KITCHEN

SANGHA DINING SANGHA STUDY LIBRARY

KUTI

ADMIN KUTI

N 0’ 8’

0’ 16’

WKLUGÀRRU

TEMPLE BELOW

INDIVIDUAL MEDITATION

GROUP MEDITATION

(OPEN TO ABOVE)

8’

16’

LAY HOUSING

N

32’

N MONK TEMPLE

32’ 0’

0’ SANGHA TEMPLE (OPEN TO ABOVE)

TEA

N

IRXUWKÀRRU

INDIVIDUAL MEDITATION

N

N

8’ 16’

32’

N

8’

16’

32’

VHYHQWKÀRRU

Student Projects 187


ZHVWHDVWVHFWLRQ´ ¶

30’ X 50’ CISTERN - 50,000 GALLON CAPACITY MINIMUM 36,812 GALLON FILTRATION AND HARVESETING WILL PROVIDE 66% WATER SUPPLY FOR 100 OCCUPANTS ADDITIONAL CAPACITY TO ACCOMODATE ROOF RUNOFF

2700 SF ROOF RUNOFF 57,500 GALLONS RAINWATER HARVEST/YR

PARTIALLY RECESSED FRENCH DRAIN PLANTERS WITH GRAVEL BEDS 1607 SF PATIO RUNOFF

2% SLOPE

85 SF SIDEWALK RUNOFF

ANNUAL RAINFALL: 38”

ANNUAL RAINFALL: 38”

35,000 GALLONS RAINWATER HARVEST / YR

1812 GALLONS RAINWATER HARVEST / YR

50’

30’ X 50’ CISTERN - 50,000 GALLON CAPACITY MINIMUM 36,812 GALLON FILTRATION AND HARVESETING WILL PROVIDE 66% WATER SUPPLY FOR 100 OCCUPANTS

RECESSED FRENCH DRAIN GRAVEL BEDS

ADDITIONAL CAPACITY TO ACCOMODATE ROOF RUNOFF

¶ VVRXWKQRUWKVHFWLRQ´ RXWKQQRUWKVVHFWLRQ´  ¶ 188 seattle center for buddhism | material culture | spring 2013

Student Projects


7 7 ply 8’ panels 14 trees

8’

17 7 ply 8’ panels 51 trees 16’

8’

DH 10 7 ply 10’panels 25 trees

AR

16’

MA

15 7 ply 8’ panels 30 trees

256 TREES

BU 12 7 ply 10’panels 30 trees

DD 16’ HA

4.2 ACRES FIR FOREST

16 7 ply 8’ panels 32 trees

18 7 ply 10’ panels 45 trees 5 7 ply 8’ panels 12.5 trees

SA

NG

24’

HA

3 PLY

7 PLY

17 3 ply 8’ panels 17 trees

clt diagram

dharma | sky | meditation

seattle center for buddhism | material culture | spring 2013

Student Projects 189


SEATTLE CENTER FOR BUDDHISM ERICA WITCHER

190 seattle center for buddhism | material culture | spring 2013

Student Projects


SEATTLE CENTER FOR BUDDHISM PIONEER SQUARE, SEATTLE

seattle center for buddhism | material culture | spring 2013

ERICA WITCHER ARCH 502 - SUSAN JONES - SPRING 2013 Student Projects 191


30 30’

10 10’

10 10’

10 10’ C

B

A

D

10 10’ 0

10’ 10’ F

E

10’ G

H

A

FIRST AVENUE

ADMIN

POST AVENUE

1

LOBBY/ bookshop

30’

2 10’ MEDITATION SPACE

B

3

TEA HOUSE

10’

B

4 10’ 5

A

1

GROUND FLOOR PLAN

0’

8’

16’

32’

mechanical room

ON

RI

MA

ET

RE

ST

rainwater cistern

IA

MB

LU

CO

ET

RE

ST

P RY

ER

CH

T

ST

E RE

LOWER LEVEL PLAN ND

CO

SE EN

AV UE

FIRST AVENUE

POST AVENUE

Y WA

WESTERN AVENU E

AN

SK

A AL

S

ME

JA

ET

RE

ST

YESLER WAY

OCCIDENTAL AVENUE S

S WASHINGTON STREET

SITE PLAN 0’

192 seattle center for buddhism | material culture | spring 2013

50’ 100’

200’

Student Projects


30’

10’

10’

10’ C

B

A

10’

D

10’

10’

F

E

30’

G

H

10’

10’

10’ C

B

A

D

10’

10’ F

E

10’ G

H

1

1

30’

rooftop garden

30’

2

2 communal kitchen /dining

10’

public meditation

3

10’ 3

10’

10’

4

4

10’ 5

7

4 30’

10’

10’

10’ C

B

A

D

10’

10’ F

E

10’ 5

30’

10’ G

10’

10’

10’ C

B

A

H

D

10’

10’ F

E

10’ G

H

1

1

30’

30’

2

2

10’

10’ 3

3

10’

10’ 4

4

10’

10’ 5

5

6

3 30’ A

10’

10’

10’ B

C

D

10’

10’ E

F

30’

10’ G

H

A

10’

10’

10’ B

C

D

10’ E

10’ F

10’ G

H

1

1

kitchen

30’

30’

temple level 2

dining hall

2

2 10’

10’

monk meditation

3

3

10’

10’

4

4 10’

10’

5

2

5

5 FLOOR PLANS

seattle center for buddhism | material culture | spring 2013

0’

8’

16’

32’

Student Projects 193


“EVERYTHING IN NATURE CHANGES, NOTHING IS STATIC”

EAST ELEVATION - NEW

EAST ELEVATION - WEATHERED

OUTDOOR MEDITATION SPACE - SUMMER

OUTDOOR MEDITATION SPACE - FALL 194 seattle center for buddhism | material culture | spring 2013

Student Projects


“INTERCONNECTED FACTORS THAT SUPPORT AND MODERATE ONE ANOTHER”

MEDITATION

HOUSING

TEMPLE

LOBBY / BOOKSTORE TEA SHOP / ADMINISTRATION

HOUSING CIRCULATION / EXITS PRIMARY CIRCULATION





 



   

  

RAINWATER CAPTURE ON ALL ROOFS NATURAL DAYLIGHTING / HEATING GREEN ROOF RAINWATER-FILTERING HANGING PLANTS NATURAL VENTILATION RAINWATER CISTERN

SECTION AA - FACING WEST

SECTION BB - FACING NORTH seattle center for buddhism | material culture | spring 2013

Student Projects 195


10’

40’

CLT DIAGRAM 10’

10’

40’

=

3 ply

Roof Square Footage = 4,075 sf

141’

7 ply

1.25 Trees

101 PANELS

Average Annual Rainfall in Seattle = 36.2”

40’

=

303 TREES

=

4.3 ACRES

= 3 Trees

82,756 gallons of rainwater per year 2,277 gallons per inch of rainfall monthly water budget = 6,896 gallons Cistern Size = 10’ x 15’ x 20’ can hold 22,200 gallons - 3 months worth of rain

WATER METRICS AT 70 TREES PER ACRE

TREE METRICS 196 seattle center for buddhism | material culture | spring 2013

Student Projects


KOBE TERRACE URBAN RETREAT CENTER MICHAEL GILBRIDE

seattle center for buddhism | material culture | spring 2013

Student Projects 197


K o b e Te r r a c e U r b a n R e t r e a t C e n t e r MICHAEL GILBRIDE | ARCH 502 | SUSAN JONES | SPRING 2013

198 seattle center for buddhism | material culture | spring 2013

Student Projects


COMMUNITY P-Patch

Kobe Terrace

Maynard Ave. S

7th Ave. S

P-Patch

ADMIN

RETREAT

S. Jackson 10th Ave. S

8th Ave. S

S. King

MEDITATION LIFE

5th Ave. S

4th Ave. S

S. Main

Hing Hay

HOUSING

P-Patch

RETREAT

LIFE

Yesler

S. Washington

LOBBY MAIN ENTRY

CAFE RETREAT ENTRY

G

DININ

ENGAGE

TEMPLE

S. Wellers

WALKING MEDITATION

HOUSING ENTRY

PARKING

W. ELEAVATOR

E. ELEAVATOR

ENGAGE

RETREAT

MONKS SRO RESIDENTS STAFF LAY SANGHA

SRO ROOMS

ID Housing Alliance

KUTI

ADMIN MEDITATION LEARNING DINING

WALKING TEMPLE

PARKING

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

1

2

3

4

5

SECTION A 1” = 16’

seattle center for buddhism | material culture | spring 2013

Student Projects 199


LEVEL 2 - TEMPLE/WALKING MEDITATION: +8’ 1” = 16’

9:12pm

5:12am

7TH AVENUE

MAIN STREET

e un

st

21

J

7:56am

4:21pm

c De

st

21

LEVEL 4 - PLAZA: +30’ 1” = 16’

200 seattle center for buddhism | material culture | spring 2013

Student Projects


B A

C

C’

A’ B’ LEVEL 5 - MEDITATION: +46’ 1” = 16’

LEVEL 7 - 18 HOUSING: +46’ 1” = 16’

SECTION B 1” = 16’

seattle center for buddhism | material culture | spring 2013

Student Projects 201


SEATTLE CENTER FOR BUDDHISM VERONICA MACALINAO

202 seattle center for buddhism | material culture | spring 2013

Student Projects


T H E S E ATT L E TEMPLE

CENTER FOR BUDDHISM

SANGHA

VERONICA MACALINAO

HALL

I

I

ARCHITECTURE 502

SUSAN JONES

I

SPRING 2013

The project is located in the Historic Pioneer Square District in downtown Seattle, at 615 1st Avenue South, approximately at the intersection of 1st Avenue South and Yesler Way. In terms of its physical characteristics, the site is 7,780 square feet and holds the shape of a wedge in plan, with the topography of the site sloping down off 1st Avenue South towards Post Avenue.

HOUSING

the siteâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s physical context helps to form a distinct sense of place that is what makes up Pioneer Square. In terms of the greater Seattle area, the site holds a vital role within the urban fabric, marking the point in which the city grid shifts from running northwest and southeast to north and south. This is also emphasized through the consistent presence of street wall, with the buildings coming right up to the sidewalk. In addition, the site is very accessible, having a close proximity to the Colman Dock Ferry Terminal, the Underground Bus and Light Rail, as well as the King Street Train Station.

TEA HOUSE BOOKSHOP

PARKING & SERVICE

ET

RE

ST

ET

RE

CIRCULATION

ST

ST

S

ER

FF

JE

ON

5TH AVENUE

2ND AVENUE

JA

OCCIDENTAL WAY

1ST AVENUE

YESLER WAY

S ME

ET

RE

E

CH

4TH AVENUE

PROGRAM

Y RR

3RD AVENUE

KITCHEN DINING HALL

ADMIN

MEDITATION HALL

TEMPORARY RETREAT

Within the heart of the historic Pioneer Square District, along the edge of the iconic Pioneer Park,

HISTORIC PIONEER SQUARE DISTRICT

seattle center for buddhism | material culture | spring 2013

Student Projects 203


SECTION B

SECTION A

0’

4’

0’

4’

8’

8’

seattle center for buddhism | material culture | spring 2013

Student Projects 205


ALLEY ELEVATION

0’

FIRST AVENUE ELEVATION

4’

8’

0’

4’

8’

206 seattle center for buddhism | material culture | spring 2013

Student Projects


pl y

pl y

3

7

9

pl y

CROSS-LAMINATED TIMBER

28,260 sqft

7,421 sqft

33,933 sqft

number of 10’ X 40’ clt panels

17 panels

19 panels

85 panels

number of trees

106 trees

57 trees

267 trees

sqft of clt

total number of trees = 430 total number of acres of forest (at 70 trees/acre) = 6

Solar Analysis

Connection to the Natural Environment

Due to the limited sun exposure on site,

In an effort to connect to nature, this project

this project works to maximize natural

incorporates the natural environment into the

daylighting. The shallow width of the rooms

program; the individual cells of the meditation hall

that make up the meditation hall and

frame the view of Elliot Bay, the temporary retreat

the temporary retreat housing allow for

housing frames the view of Pioneer Square Park and

maximum light penetration, and the temple

the heavy tree canopy and temple frame the sky

design incorporates an expansive skylight

above.

WKDWSURYLGHVOLJKWWRÀRRGWKHHQWLUHW\RI the space.

Water Collection This project includes a 55,361 gallon cistern in the garage to collect rainwater for use in irrigation and WRLOHWÀXVKLQJ total site area

8,524 sqft

maximum water storage capacity

55,661 gallons

average rainfall per sqft (in Seattle)

3.166 feet

seattle center for buddhism | material culture | spring 2013

student projects

207


THERAVADA SEATTLE JORDAN INMAN

208 seattle center for buddhism | material culture | spring 2013

Student Projects


eastern easte astern a rn morn morning mornin o in ing ng sun n

western weste w ern evening sun

Seattle averages 38.2 inches of rainfall annually. On a 7,780 square foot site, this means that about 185,250 gallons of rainwater can be harvested per year.

local shade-tolerant grasses and shrubs are planted around the building perimeter, particularly where the CLT meets the ground, help provide aesthetic contrast to the architecture and HJ[HZHIPVĂ&#x201E;S[LYMVY[OLYHPU^H[LYTHUHNLTLU[ of the site.

the bioswales around the building and the plantPUNZ VU [OL YVVM OLSW Ă&#x201E;S[LY V\[ WHY[PJ\SH[LZ heavy metals, and harmful chemicals that accumilate in the rainwater prior to entering the holding tank on the lower level.

according to the EPA, the average American uses about 75 gallons of water everyday. For the Seattle Theravada Center, a maximum capacity of 30 people for an entire year equals about 800,000 gallons of water per year (much more than the 185,000 gallons that falls on the site).

seattle center for buddhism | material culture | spring 2013

Student Projects 209


The Seattle Theravada Center is located on the Historic Pioneer Square on First Avenue and Yesler Way, directly across the street from the Pioneer Building and it’s adjacnt park. Designed as both a long-term retreat for practicing Buddhists and as a place for visitors quickly stopping in, the facility houses a tea shop and library/reading room at ground level: a gathering point and transition space from the bustling city prior to starting one’s journey through the Temple and Meditation Hall above them. Including the religious aspects of the program, there is also a dining hall and industrial kitchen to feed the monks and guests of [OLYL[YLH[VMÄJLZMVYMHJPSP[`HKTPUPZ[YH[PVUOV\ZPUN\UP[ZMVY]PZP[PUNTVURZHUK\UP[Z for retreat guests. The CLT is expressed as a massive, planar element that both seperates the occupant from the world around him while also directing views and circulation within the building. Maintaining the integrity of the CLT plane, this design encourages little waste as possible and creates visual interest and architecvtural language not by subtracting from the CLT, but by celebrating the spaces between the mass.

connection ect ec to c city ity it ty

street trees

pioneer square provides a great connection to the city of Seattle and all it has to offer

1st Avenue has a great variety of street trees that create spatial and textural contrast to the urban environment

KLVWRULFDOVLJQLðFDQFH

Located directly across from the historic Pioneer Building and the totem pole

brick / masonry

The buildings surrounding the site are almost exclusively built around 1900, and create a material palette of masonry

This site plan shows the location of the project. It is on 1st Avenue, and has a close connection to future development along Alskan Way

A view from the western edge of the site looking east towards the Pioneer Building.

vines / green wall

The walls along Post Alley, the quietest part of the site, are covered in a beautiful vine, a strong contrast to the brick red

This historic photo shows the totem pole and iron walkway that still stand outside of the Pioneer Building, which is just east of the site.

This building is just west of the site, and provides a great visual edge that I envision to be connected to a outdoor meditation space for the temple

private

Pioneer Bldg

public

Urban Beach

210 seattle center for buddhism | material culture | spring 2013

Student Projects


tea

reading room

piio ionee ee er park k

NYV\UKÅVVY N

0

1 16”=1’ 1/1

5

10

20

50

RP[JOLU

TLKP[H[PVU OHSS

ZLJVUKÅVVY

0 5 10

20

50

ÄM[OÅVVY

0 5 10

HJJLZZPISL YVVM

20

50

HKTPU TVURSP]PUN

[LTWSL

[OPYKÅVVY

0 5 10

20

50

ZP_[OÅVVY

0 5 10

20

50

50

ZL]LU[OLPNO[OÅVVY

0 5 10

20

50

SV\UNL

MV\Y[OÅVVY

0 5 10

20

seattle center for buddhism | material culture | spring 2013

Student Projects 211


212 seattle center for buddhism | material culture | spring 2013

Student Projects


offices

kitchen

dining tea shop + lobby

section 2 - living and service core

0

1/16”=1’

5

10

20

50

housing block

meditation hall

temple

reading room

section 1 - the sangha 1/16”=1’

seattle center for buddhism | material culture | spring 2013

0

5

10

20

50

Student Projects 213


temple

main sangha activities

214 seattle center for buddhism | material culture | spring 2013

services + living core

Student Projects


trees

clt

&/7ñRRUSODWHV Ã&#x201E;]LWS`WHULSZ

KRXVLQJFRUHDQG LQWHULRUZDOOV

&/7FRPSRVLWHEHDP [OYLLWS`WHULSZ

[OYLLWS`WHULSZ Ã&#x201E;]LWS`WHULSZ

H[SRVHG&/7SODQHV [OYLLWS`WHULSZ

3 ply

5 ply

1.25 Trees

2 Trees

8â&#x20AC;&#x2122;

8â&#x20AC;&#x2122;

40â&#x20AC;&#x2122;

=

40â&#x20AC;&#x2122;

110 PANELS = 138 TREES

=

84 PANELS

140â&#x20AC;&#x2122;

= 168 TREES

TOTAL = 306 TREES

100 TREES

200 TREES

300 TREES

AT 70 TREES PER ACRE = 4.4 ACRES

seattle center for buddhism | material culture | spring 2013

Student Projects 215


THE SEATTLE CENTER FOR BUDDHISM KRISTOPHER CHAN

216 seattle center for buddhism | material culture | spring 2013

Student Projects


THE SEATTLE CENTER FOR BUDDHISM

PIONEER SQUARE VERNACULAR

A

POST AVENUE

02

01

03

A

seattle center for buddhism | material culture | spring 2013

Student Projects 217


06

12 11 05 10

SECOND + THIRD FLOORS

FIFTH FLOOR

01 OFFICES 02 TEA SHOP 03 WATER CISTERN 04 MECHANICAL ROOM 05 HOUSING UNIT 06 MONK’S DINING ROOM

07 COUNSELING ROOM 08 TEMPLE 09 MEDITATION GARDEN 10 KITCHEN 11 DINING AREA 12 MEDITATION NICHES

09

08

04

07

BASEMENT

218 seattle center for buddhism | material culture | spring 2013

FOURTH FLOOR

8'

Student Projects


YE S

F ROO

LER Y WA ENUE

IRST AV

BUILD OUT TO THE EDGES

FIFTH YES LER Y WA ENUE FIRST AV

TH FOUR

SETBACKS

YES LER Y WA

D THIR

ENUE FIRST AV

OPEN ON GROUND LEVEL

YES LER

ND SECO

Y WA ENUE FIRST AV

PROGRAMMATIC ORGANIZATION

LER

YES

ND GROU

Y WA ENUE FIRST AV

VEGETATION + MEDITATION GARDEN

CLT METRICS GROUND 3 PLY: 2184 SQ. FT.

EXTERIOR WALLS 7 PLY: 11050 SQ. FT.

SECOND + THIRD 3 PLY: 9177 SQ. FT. 7 PLY: 4255 SQ. FT.

FLOORS 7 PLY: 26930 SQ. FT.

FOURTH + FIFTH 3 PLY: 2025 SQ. FT. 7 PLY: 2295 SQ. FT.

x376 TREES

TOTALS 3 PLY 13386 SQ. FT./400 SQ. FT. PER BOARD x 1.25 TREES PER BOARD = 41.8 TREES

CLT CONSTRUCTION

WATER METRICS SEATTLE: RAIN 38.5 IN. ANNUALLY .498 GAL COLLECTED/SQ.FT. 5914 SQ. FT. ROOF AREA

7 PLY 44530 SQ. FT/400 SQ. FT. PER BOARD x 3 TREES PER BOARD = 333.975 TREES

2945 GAL./YEAR TO BE COLLECTED

TOTAL TREES: 376 TREES ≈ 5.36 ACRES

CISTERN SIZE: 5.5' x 57' 8" x 9' 3"

seattle center for buddhism | material culture | spring 2013

Student Projects 219


INTERIOR OF THE TEMPLE

EAST ELEVATION

SECTION AA

8'

8' KRISTOPHER CHAN

220 seattle center for buddhism | material culture | spring 2013

Student Projects


CENTER FOR BUDDHIST STUDIES JUSTIN SCHWARTZHOFF

seattle center for buddhism | material culture | spring 2013

Student Projects 221


International District

Center for Buddhist Studies Orientation I-5

Kobe Terrace Park

Amtrack

S Main St

The Center for Buddhism stands on a hill at the northwest corner of Seattleâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s International District, bordering Kobe Terrace park. While primarily serving t he neighborhood, visitors are also expected from other city districts, as well as from outside Seattle.

S Jackson St 7th Ave S

222 seattle center for buddhism | material culture | spring 2013

Student Projects


B

Ground Floor scale 1/16” : 1’-0”

A

A

B

West Elevation scale 1/16” : 1’-0”

0’

5’

15’

3

5’

Urban Retreat Tucked between the I-5 highway, downtown, and the melting pot of the international district, the temple remains serine. The center buffers the busy exterior, while inviting the neighboring park into itself. To the south, it claims the surrounding mountains as a fourth wall.

seattle center for buddhism | material culture | spring 2013

Student Projects 223


224 seattle center for buddhism | material culture | spring 2013

Student Projects


B A

A

Meditation

0’ 5’

15’

35’

75’

B

scale 1/32” : 1’-0” B A

A

Housing

scale 1/32” : 1’-0”

B B A

A B

Dining

scale 1/32” : 1’-0”

B A

A B

Section A-A

0’

5’

15’

3

5’

scale 1/16” : 1’-0”

Parking

scale 1/32” : 1’-0”

Buddha Dharma Shanga The three jewels of Buddhism, in which Buddhists seek refuge. The meditation space for Dharma floats above the site, connected to the community below by the Buddha.

seattle center for buddhism | material culture | spring 2013

Student Projects 225


10’

10’

=

40’

3 Ply CLT

=

40’

1.25 Trees

7 Ply CLT

102 Panels

3 Trees

62 Panels

313.5 Trees or 4.5 Acres

Ceremonial Detention Pond 1069 gallons detained yearly Rainwater Collection 1826 gallons collected yearly

Main Resevior 10,000 gallon capacity

Section B-B

0’

5’

15’

3

5’

scale 1/16” : 1’-0”

Lotus on the Hill The lotus flower represents perfection emerging from chaos, as well as standing as an image of purification. Dead forests become structure. Rainwater is collected, filtered and used.

226 seattle center for buddhism | material culture | spring 2013

Student Projects


BUDDHISM IN PIONEER SQUARE: AN EXPLORATION OF PATH ALLISON EDDY

seattle center for buddhism | material culture | spring 2013

Student Projects 227


BUDDHISM IN PIONEER SQUARE: AN EXPLORATION OF PATH spring 2013

site plan

1ST AVE

arch 502

POST AVE

allison eddy

creating path

section A

228 seattle center for buddhism | material culture | spring 2013

Student Projects


DN entry

p

ramp dn

gather

DN meditation

DN DN DN

A

B

tea room

ramp dn

ramp dn admin

bookstore DN

1st avenue

ram dn

post ave

wc

site plan 1/8”= 1’-0”

street level meditation space

seattle center for buddhism | material culture | spring 2013

student projects

229


kitchen

dining

UP

shared space

2nd level

temple space main temple

UP

shared space

3rd,4th,5th level

monk meditation space

DN

shared space

6th level

plans

1/16”= 1’-0”

elevation

230 seattle center for buddhism | material culture | spring 2013

street level meditation view

1/16”= 1’-0”

Student Projects


SUSTAINABILITY METRICS

40’ 8’

10’

10’

10’

20’

16’

16’

clt diagram

10’

40’

3 ply 8’x40’

290 PANELS

=

141’

=

290 TREES

1 Tree

amount of clt used in project: 290 3 ply 8’ x 40’ boards number of trees used: 290 approximately 4 acres of land

square footage of roof x inches of rain 6096 sf x .498 = amount of rain collected in one year

seattle center for buddhism | material culture | spring 2013

student projects

231


SEATTLE BUDDHIST CENTER KATE REEF

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Student Projects


THE BUILDING IS PLACED IN THE INTERNATIONAL DISTRICT, T A HISTORIC COMMUNITY OF SEATTLE WITH A DIVERSE POPULATION BOTH IN ETHNICITY AND AGE. THIS HISTORY R CAN BE SEEN IN THE DANNY WOO PARK AND KOBE TERRACE LOCATED NORTH OF THE PROPOSED SITE. THE P PAR K IS A SYMBOL FOR THE ASIAN COMMUNITY PARK OF THE INTERNATIONAL DISTRICT WITH A COMMUNITY GARDEN AND JAPANESE GARDEN. THE PARK HAS A LARGE INFLUENCE ON THE SITE NOT ONLY BECAUSE OF ITS HISTORY BUT ALSO AS DESTINATION FOR THE INTERNATIONAL DISTRICT. THE COMMUNITY USES THE PARK AS A RETREAT AND ALSO A WAY OF TRANSPORTATION FROM THE INTERNATIONAL DISTRICT TO DOWNTOWN. CONNECTING THE BUILDING WITH THE PARK WILL BE ONE OF THE MAIN WAYS THAT THE CENTER CAN EMBRACE THE SITE. A SITE VISIT ALSO BROUGHT GREAT INSIGHT INTO THE BUILDING DESIGN. ONE OF THE OBVIOUS FACTORS INFLUENCING THE BUILDING IS THE

TOPOGRAPHY

CONNECTION TO BOTH THE PARK AND THE COMMUNITY.

JACKSON STREET

7TH AVE ENUE ENU EN E

NOISE

WITH I-5 LOOKOUT DESTINATION. THE SITE IS ALSO A CENTER OF RUNNING EAST OF THE SITE. THIS NOISE IS CONSTANT AND CAN HAVE AN EFFECT ON SOMEONE STANDING IN THE SITE. A FINAL OBSERVATION OF THE SITE IS ITS CONNECTION TO KOBE TERRACE. THE GREEN PARK EXTENDS INTO THE SITE AND SHOULD BE UTILIZED AND CONTINUED WITH THE BUDDHIST CENTER. A

MAY MA AYN YNA NAR ARD AVEN ARD AV VEN NU UE

OF THE SITE. LOCATED AT THE TOP OF A HILL OVERLOOKING SOUTH SEATTLE, IT IS APPARENT THAT THIS BUILDING WILL BE A

6T 6 TH AVENUE E

ARCH 502 CLT MATERIAL CU ULT TURE KATE REEF

INTERNATIONAL DISTRICT

5TH AVENUE

SEATTLE BUDDHIST CE

ELEVATION V 1/16”= 1’

SITE PLAN

RETREAT HOUSING HOUSING G

TEMPLE E DINING

TEAHOUSE MEDITATION

PARKING

seattle center for buddhism | material culture | spring 2013

Student Projects 233


HOUSING (+50’)

KITCHE KITCH KIT K KI ITCH CH CHE HEN E

HOUSING

TEMPLE (+26’)

OFFICE

TEMPLE

TEASHOP

DINING HALL (+14’)

DINI NING HALL NI

KIT TCH CHEN HEN H

MEDITATION (-14’))

GROUND FLOOR 1/16” = 1’

MEDITATION

USING THE SITE ANALYSIS, THE BUILDING TOOK SHAPE AS A BALANCE BETWEEN PUBLIC AND PRIVATE SPACE AS WELL AS A UNION OF OUTDOOR AND INDOOR SPACES. THE TEASHOP AND OFFICES HOLD THE GROUND FLOOR AS A DYNAMIC PUBLIC SPACE THAT EXTENDS THE STREET AND PARK INTO THE BUILDING. FROM THERE, THE CIRCULATION FALLS TO EAST SIDE OF THE BUILDING WORKING AS A SOUND BUFFER ALONG WITH THE BARRIER WALLS. THE TEMPLE BECOMES THE MAIN SPACE HOLDING A DOUBLE HEIGHT WHILE ALSO EXTENDING UP INTO THE HOUSING UNITS ABOVE. THE MEDITATION HALL SITS BELOW USING THE TOPOGRAPHY TO ITS ADVANTAGE AS PLACE FOR OUTDOOR MEDITATION AND WALKING.

1/32” = 1’

234 seattle center for buddhism | material culture | spring 2013

Student Projects


EAST-WEST SECTION 1/8” = 1’

TEMPLE

seattle center for buddhism | material culture | spring 2013

Student Projects 235


10’

10’

40’

3 ply

=

141’

7 ply

1.25 Trees 118 PANELS

AT 70 TREES PER ACRE

40’

=

354 TREES

=

5.1 ACRES

=

CLT 3 Trees

WATER 7800 SF OF ROOF AREA X .498 GAL./SF = 3885 GALLONS

WATER CISTERN

SUSTAINABILITY THE BUILDING USES SUSTAINABLE APPROACHES TO ITS DESIGN WITH BOTH MATERIALS AND LANDSCAPE. CLT IS USED THROUGHOUT THE BUILDING AS A WAY TO SEQUESTER CARBON AND ALSO USE TREES AFFECTED BY THE PINE BEETLE. WITH THE LANDSCAPE CAME THE OPPORTUNITY TO TAKE ADVANTAGE OF THE TOPOGRAPHY AS A WAY TO DISTRIBUTE COLLECTED WATER FROM A CISTERN TO USE IN THE RAIN GARDEN AT THE SOUTH END OF THE SITE.

RAIN GARDEN

236 seattle center for buddhism | material culture | spring 2013

Student Projects


NORTH-SOUTH SECTION 1/16”=1’

MEDITATION HALL

seattle center for buddhism | material culture | spring 2013

Student Projects 237


INTERNATIONAL DISTRICT CENTER FOR BUDDHISM MATT KIKOSICKI

238 seattle center for buddhism | material culture | spring 2013

Student Projects


seattle center for buddhism | material culture | spring 2013

Student Projects 239


240 seattle center for buddhism | material culture | spring 2013

Student Projects


seattle center for buddhism | material culture | spring 2013

Student Projects 241


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Student Projects


$0.00 ISBN 978-0-615-89294-8

90000>

9 780615 892948

CLT | material culture

ARCH 502 | SUSAN JONES, FAIA | UW CBE DEPARTMENT OF ARCHITECTURE

CLT | Material Culture  

The CLT: Material Culture Studio focused on conceptual, environmental and design implications from an emerging new building material, Cross...

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