In addition to the two sculptures depicting groupings of individuals, there are twenty-four lions lying on slabs, lining the walkway that Anka also created. These lions represent power and silence. In terms of style and function, the lions are similar to Indian and Egyptian sculptures that feature the sphinx. Sphinxes placed at city gates of Indian and Egyptian cities to fend off the enemy allude to the strength of the ruler. Following that tradition, so do the lions at the Mausoleum.
The arts and the economy
For over four centuries, religion dictated what was considered culture in the Ottoman Empire. Culture was a non factor in the Ottoman economy, but all that changed when Turkey became a secular republic. Initially, as indicated as a matter of government policy, Turkey’s visual and performing arts were transformed and created by central and west European talent who supported the reforms and assisted in the development of a cultural infrastructure. What was created by these reforms grew from the strength of its own momentum. 22 The modernization and westernization of Turkey’s culture was intertwined with Atatürk’s nation-building agenda, but an unforeseen by-product of cultural development has been a tourism industry that not only fullfils that dream but is envied by countries worldwide. In order for this development to have taken place, the four hundred plus years of control that religion had over the country had to be broken. Although the process of cultural development was started and nurtured as an integral part of public policy, over time it has reached a self sustaining stage in both the public and the private sectors, thus impacting its own evolution. Aided and abetted by various levels and agencies of government, the policy has encouraged Turkey’s social and economic development. According to the United Nations World Trade Organization (UNWTO): “Cultural tourism forms an important component of international tourism in our world today.It represents movements of people motivated by cultural intents, such as study tours, performing arts, festivals, cultural events, visits to sites and monuments,
as well as travel for pilgrimages.” 23 A growing number of visitors are becoming special interest travelers who rank the arts, heritage and/or other cultural activities as one of the top five reasons for traveling. Worldwide international arrivals are forecast by the UNWTO to top 1 billion by 2010 and over 1.6 billion in 2020. 24 In addition to the year long art exhibitions in newly created museums and galleries, 25 in 2007, the International Istanbul Music Festival celebrated its thirty-fifth anniversary. The 2005-2006 season government statistics speak eloquently to the vibrancy of opera in Turkey. There were five opera and ballet halls operating in Turkey, having a total 3,860 seating capacity, one each in Ankara, Mersin, Mersin, Istanbul, and İzmir. They had 189 different performances, of which 85 were domestic and
104 were brought in from abroad with an attendance totaling 245,448. 26 While the function of the émigrés was to teach and help create various arts infrastructures, even Atatürk could not have foreseen the level of influence that these artists would have on the culture of the country. Nor could anyone in those early years of the Republic have imagined the impact that culture would have on the economy. According to the World Tourism Organization (WTO) Turkey earned $20.5 billion in 2008 from tourism. This translates to $2,847 on a per-capita basis.27 Turkey ranked 11th in terms of tourist arrivals and ninth in tourism revenues among the world’s top 20 tourism destinations according to its State Planning Organization (DPT)28 and cultural offerings are a major drawing card in Turkey’s tourist trade. w
REFERENCES 1. This article is based on: Reisman Arnold, Arts in Turkey: How ancient became contemporary (Charleston, SC: BookSurge Publishing. 2009) 2. The museum was opened in 1937 in the crown prince suites of the Dolmabahçe Palace by an express order of M.K.Atatürk. It was the first art museum in Turkey. The museums permanent collection contains the works of most of the famous Turkish painters starting with the end of the 19th century and what is known as the the “Military painters” school. The museum’s permanent collection has paintings by Seker Ahmet Pasa, Osman hamdi Bey, Halil Pasa, Sevket dag, Ibrahim Calli, Avni lifij, Cemal Tollu, Elif Naci, Turgut Zaim and other well known Turkish Painters. 3. That invitation from the government of Turkey saved Leopold Levy from what befell many French Jews under the Nazis. It also enabled aspiring artists to benefit from Levy’s creativity and expertise. <http://www.haaretz.com/hasen/spages/386088.html>. Viewed December 15, 2005. 4. http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/ht/11/waa/ht11waa.htm 5. http://www.arthistoryarchive.com/arthistory/arabic/Turkish-Artists.html 6. The Nemrut Mountain is located South of Malatya (75km) or North of Kahta (50km), Adıyaman in SE Turkey. The statues were found in 1881 by Kral Sester, a German archeologist. In 1987, the Nemrut mountain was made a world heritage site by UNESCO. The sculptures shown are at the cone shaped summit of this 2,200m mountain. Among these are rather representartive sculptures of the mythical figures of Apollon, Zeus, Hercules and others. The statues are more than 2000 years old. Photo compliments Dr. Sezgin Aytuna, Ankara Turkey 7. Photo compliments Dr. Sezgin Aytuna, Ankara Turkey 8. Photo compliments Dr. Sezgin Aytuna, Ankara Turkey 9. Metin And, “Atatürk and the Arts, with Special Reference to Music and Theater,” in J.M. Landau ed., Atatürk and the Modernization of Turkey, (Boulder CO, Westview Press , 1984) pp 215-233. 10. Metin And, “Atatürk and the Arts, with Special Reference to Music and Theater,” in J.M. Landau ed., Atatürk and the Modernization of Turkey, (Bouldr CO, Westview Press , 1984) pp 228. 11. Umut Erhan, MD and Haldun Cezayirlioðglu, http://www.kentheykelleri.com/ personal communication 26 February 2008. 12. Burcu Pelvanoğlu Sculpture in Public Places - From the Monument to Contemporary Arrangements of Space http://www.sanalmuze.org/ sergilereng/content.php?liste=H 14. http://www.sanalmuze.org/koleksiyonumeng/ 15. Although the first Turkish public statue installation was in Sarayburnu, the first idea to have a statue came from Konya through a request made to Atatürk by its sitting mayor Kâzım Bey for permission to create one. Gültekin Elibal, Atatürk ve Resim-Heykel, Türkiye İş Bankası Kültür Yayınları, İstanbul, 1973, s.197. 16. Gültekin Elibal, Atatürk ve Resim-Heykel, Türkiye İş Bankası Kültür Yayınları, İstanbul, 1973, s.194. 17. From Güzel Sanatlar Academisi, (Academy of Fine Arts), Yearbook, Istanbul 1937. Currently it is the Devlet Güzel Sanatlar Akademisi or the Istanbul State Academy of Fine Arts. 18. http://www.sanalmuze.org/sergilereng/ 19. Sculptors, Hüseyin Anka Özkan, and İlhan Koman were Rudolf Belling students at the time of the competition for the Mausoleum’s design. 20. The Battle of Sakarya or the Battle of Sangarios in 1921 was an important engagement in the Greco-Turkish War (1919-1922), a part of the Turkish War of Independence . The battle was fought during August 23 - September 13, 1921, close to the banks of Sakarya River and in the immediate vicinity of Polatlı, which is today a district of Ankara. 21. Murat Ural,“Anıtkabir’de Sanat ‘Büyük Acı’yı Estetiğe Dönüştürmenin Bilinci; Yalın ve İnsani”, Atatürk İçin Düşünmek. İki Eser: Katafalk ve Anıtkabir İki Mimar: Bruno Taut ve Emin Onat, İstanbul Teknik Üniversitesi Rektörlüğü Yayını, İstanbul, 1998, p. 101. 22. The musical and performing arts are discussed in Reisman Arnold, Classical European music and opera: The case of Post-Ottoman Turkey. (Charleston, SC: BookSurge Publishing. 2009) 23. Cultural Tourism and Poverty Alleviation - The Asia-Pacific Perspective, Madrid, Spain, UNWTO, 2005 24. Cultural Tourism and Poverty Alleviation - The Asia-Pacific Perspective, Madrid, Spain, UNWTO, 2005 p. 1. 25. See a book to be published in 2009: Reisman Arnold, Off the beaten path: Reclaiming industrial spaces for exhibiting fine arts in Istanbul. (Charleston, SC: BookSurge Publishing. 2009). 26. See Turkish statistical Institute’s “Culture statistics”, http://www.tuik.gov.tr/VeriBilgi.do?tb_id=15&ust_id=5. 27. It is interesting to note that archeologically similarly endowed and with a similar climate oil exporting Iran’s total GNP per-capita is $1,750; in Iraq it is $1, 050; in Egypt it is $1,350; and non oil endowed Islamic countries such as Morocco $1,200; and Syria $970. Significantly, Turkey’s tourism revenues exceed that of Iran’s total GDP by over $1,000 or by 57% per head. 28. Anonymous “Turkey ranks high in tourism revenue” ANKARA - Anatolia News Agency April 16, 2008
FALL’09 | VOICE OF ATATÜRK 21
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