As You [11]

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ÆÝãå»ë ¹áõ As you

¾É»ÏïñáݳÛÇÝ å³ñµ»ñ³Ï³Ý

E-magazine

N 11 / 2014


ù³Õ³ù³óÇ³Ï³Ý Ñ³ë³ñ³ÏáõÃÛáõÝ

civil society

лïËáñÑñ¹³ÛÇÝ ý»ÙÇÝÇëï³Ï³Ý ëáÉǹ³ñáõÃÛáõÝ

Post-soviet feminist solidarity

·»Ý¹»ñ

gender

гٳÏóí³Í ³Ýíï³Ý·áõÃÛ³Ý Ñ³ëϳóáõÃÛ³Ý ³½¹»óáõÃÛáõÝÁ ÏÇÝ Çñ³í³å³ßïå³ÝÝ»ñÇ ÏÛ³ÝùÇ íñ³

The influence of Integrated Security concept on women human rights defenders life

ë»é³Ï³Ý ³éáÕçáõÃÛáõÝ

sexual health

ê»é³Ï³Ý Ñ»ñå»ë

Genital herpes

ëáóÇ³É³Ï³Ý ³ñ¹³ñáõÃÛáõÝ

social justice

Ðá·»Ï³Ý Ë³Ý·³ñáõÙÝ»ñÇ Ñ³Ù³ß˳ñѳÛÇÝ ¹³ë³Ï³ñ·áõÙÝ»ñÁ ¨ ÝáõÛݳë»é³Ï³ÝáõÃÛ³Ý Ñ³ñóÁ

International classifications of mental disorders and the question of homosexuality

׳ݳå³ñÑáñ¹

traveller

îÝï»ë³å»ë ³Õù³ï, ÷áñÓ³éáõÃÛ³Ùµ ѳñáõëï Ðݹϳëï³Ý. ²ñ÷ÇÝ» ¶³Éý³Û³Ý

Economically poor, extensively rich India. Aprine Galfayan

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àÕçáõÛÝ, ëÇñ»ÉÇ ÁÝûñóáÕ, §ÆÝãå»ë ¹áõ¦ ¿É»ÏïñáݳÛÇÝ å³ñµ»ñ³Ï³ÝÇ ³ß˳ï³Ýù³ÛÇÝ ³ÝÓݳϳ½ÙÁ å³Ûͳé ïñ³Ù³¹ñáõÃÛ³Ùµ ù»½ ¿ Ý»ñϳ۳óÝáõÙ å³ñµ»ñ³Ï³ÝÇ 11-ñ¹ ѳٳñÁ: ä³ñµ»ñ³Ï³ÝÇ ³Ûë ѳٳñÇ §ø³Õ³ù³óÇ³Ï³Ý Ñ³ë³ñ³ÏáõÃÛáõݦ µ³ÅÝáõ٠ϳñáÕ »ë ͳÝáÃ³Ý³É Ñ»ïËáñÑñ¹³ÛÇÝ ý»ÙÇÝÇëï³Ï³Ý ëáÉǹ³ñáõÃÛ³Ý ·³Õ³÷³ñÇÝ: §¶»Ý¹»ñ¦ µ³ÅÝáõÙ Ý»ñϳ۳óÝáõÙ »Ýù ѳٳÏóí³Í ³Ýíï³Ý·áõÃÛ³Ý ·³Õ³÷³ñÁ, áñÇ Ù»Ë³ÝǽÙÝ»ñÁ ÃáõÛÉ »Ý ï³ÉÇë ³ÏïÇíÇëïÇÝ Ï³Ý· ³éÝ»É Å³Ù³Ý³ÏÇ ¨ ï³ñ³ÍáõÃÛ³Ý Ù»ç Çñ»Ýó ѳٳñ ³å³Ñáí í³ÛñáõÙ ¨ Ùï³Í»É ë»÷³Ï³Ý µ³ñûñáõÃÛ³Ý Ù³ëÇÝ: ê»é³Ï³Ý Ñ»ñå»ëÇ Ù³ëÇÝ Ï³ñáÕ »ë ϳñ¹³É §ê»é³Ï³Ý ³éáÕçáõÃÛáõݦ µ³ÅÝáõÙ: §êáóÇ³É³Ï³Ý ³ñ¹³ñáõÃÛáõݦ µ³ÅÝáõÙ ³Ûë ³Ý·³Ù Ëáë»É »Ýù Ñá·»Ï³Ý Ë³Ý·³ñáõÙÝ»ñÇ Ñ³Ù³ß˳ñѳÛÇÝ ¹³ë³Ï³ñ·áõÙÝ»ñÇ ¨ ÝáõÛݳë»é³Ï³ÝáõÃÛ³Ý Ñ³ñóÇ Ù³ëÇÝ: ²Ûë ³Ý·³Ù Ù»ñ ׳ݳå³ñÑáñ¹Ý ¿ ²ñ÷ÇÝ»Ý, áñÁ Ù³Ýñ³Ù³ëÝ Ýϳñ³·ñ»É ¿ Ðݹϳëï³ÝáõÙ áõÝ»ó³Í Çñ ÷áñÓ³éáõÃÛáõÝÁ: سÕÃáõÙ »Ýù ù»½ ѳ׻ÉÇ ÁÝûñóáõÙ:


Greetings dear reader, The staff of As You e-magazine presents you its 11th edition with great mood. In the section dedicated to Civil society you can get acquainted with the concept of Post-Soviet feminism solidarity. In Gender section we have introduced the ideas of integrated security, the mechanisms of which let the activist stop in time and space in a safe place to think about their well-being. In the Sexual Health section you can learn about Genital herpes. We have written about classification of mental disorders worldwide and about the issue of homosexuality in the Social Justice section. The traveller of this edition is Arpine and she presents her experience in India. Wish you a pleasant reading.


ù³Õ³ù³óÇ³Ï³Ý Ñ³ë³ñ³ÏáõÃÛáõÝ civil society

лïËáñÑñ¹³ÛÇÝ ý»ÙÇÝÇëï³Ï³Ý ëáÉǹ³ñáõÃÛáõÝ Post-soviet feminist solidarity Ø»Ýù Ñ³×³Ë ³ëáõÙ »Ýù, áñ Ù»½` ï³ñµ»ñ ÷áñÓ³éáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñáí ¨ ù³Õ³ù³Ï³Ý ï³ñµ»ñ ѳ۳óÝ»ñáí Ù³ñ¹Ï³Ýó, ÙdzíáñáõÙ ¿ ÙÇÙÛ³Ýó Ýϳïٳٵ ëáÉǹ³ñáõÃÛáõÝÁ: Ø»Ýù ëáÉǹ³ñáõÃÛáõÝ »Ýù ÷ÝïñáõÙ Ù»ñ ý»ÙÇÝÇëï³Ï³Ý Ù»Í Ñ³Ù³ÛÝùÝ»ñáõÙ ¨ Ù»ñ ï»Õ³Ï³Ý ËÙµ»ñáõÙ: ü»ÙÇÝÇëï³Ï³Ý ß³ñÅáõÙÁ, ÇÝãå»ë ݳ¨ ß³ï áõñÇß ß³ñÅáõÙÝ»ñ ëáódzɳϳÝ, ù³Õ³ù³Ï³Ý ¨ ïÝï»ë³Ï³Ý µéÝáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñÇ ¹»Ù, ÑÇÙÝíáõÙ »Ý ³Ý¹³ÙÝ»ñÇ ëáÉǹ³ñáõÃÛ³Ý íñ³: ê³Ï³ÛÝ Ç±Ýã »Ýù Ù»Ýù ѳëϳÝáõÙ ëáÉǹ³ñáõÃÛáõÝ ³ë»Éáí ¨ ÇÝãå»±ë »Ýù ѳëϳÝáõÙ ³ÛÝ ý»ÙÇÝǽÙÇ Ñ³Ù³ï»ùëïáõÙ: ²Ûë ѳñó»ñÇ å³ï³ë˳ÝÁ ¹Åí³ñ û ·ïÝ»Ýù µ³ó³ïñ³Ï³Ý µ³é³ñ³ÝÝ»ñáõÙ, ϳ٠ìÇùÇ廹dzÛáõÙ: ê³Ï³ÛÝ ³Ûë ѳñó»ñÁ ϳñáÕ »Ýù ï³É ÇÝùÝ»ñë Ù»½ ¨ Ù»ñ ÁÝϻݻñÇÝ: Ðݳñ³íáñ ¿, áñ ¹³ ÃáõÛÉ Ïï³ ³í»ÉÇ É³í ׳ݳã»É ¨ ѳëÏ³Ý³É ÙÇÙÛ³Ýó: âÝ³Û³Í Ëïñ³Ï³ÝáõÃÛ³Ý ï³ñµ»ñ ï»ë³ÏÝ»ñ ϳÝ` ¹ñ³Ýù ѳí³ë³ñ³å»ë å»ïù ¿ ³ÝÑ»ï³Ý³Ý

²ÝÛ³ Èíáí, àõÏñ³Çݳ ÆÝÓ Ñ³Ù³ñ ëáÉǹ³ñáõÃÛáõÝÝ ³ÛÝ ¿, »ñµ ¹áõù ¨ ÇÝã-áñ Ù»ÏÁ áõÝ»ù Ó»ñ ³½³ïáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñÁ ë³Ñٳݳ÷³ÏáÕ ÝáõÛÝ ÷áñÓ³éáõÃÛáõÝÁ, ë³Ï³ÛÝ ÙdzëÇÝ ¹áõù ѳëϳÝáõÙ ¨ ·ïÝáõÙ »ù ³Û¹ å³ï׳éÁ áõ ëÏëáõÙ ³ß˳ï»É ÙǨÝáõÛÝ ëϽµáõÝùáí: ä³ñï³¹Çñ ã¿, áñ ¹áõù ÇÝùÝ»ñ¹ áñáß³ÏÇ ÷áñÓÇ ÏñáÕ ÉÇÝ»ù` ѳëϳݳÉáõ ѳٳñ, û ÇÝãå»ë ¿, »ñµ ѳÛïÝíáõÙ »ë ÝÙ³Ý Çñ³íÇ׳ÏáõÙ: ºí ¹áõù ÷áñÓáõÙ »ù ÷áË»É Çñ³íÇ׳ÏÁ áã ÙdzÛÝ ÏáÝÏñ»ï Ù³ñ¹áõ û·Ý»Éáõ, ³ÛÉ Ý³¨ ³ß˳ñÑÁ ջϳí³ñáÕ ëϽµáõÝùÝ»ñÁ ÷áË»Éáõ Ýå³ï³Ïáíª ÝÙ³Ý Ó¨áí û·Ý»Éáí ݳ¨ Ó»½: ²ÝÓ³Ùµ »ë ëáÉǹ³ñáõÃÛáõÝÁ ã¿Ç ѳϳ¹ñÇ ÙÇÙdzÛÝ ³å³ïdzÛÇ, ³Ýï³ñµ»ñáõÃÛ³Ý ¨ ÷³Ï ÉÇÝ»Éáõ Ñ»ï: êáÉǹ³ñáõÃÛáõÝÁ ³Ù»Ý¨ÇÝ ÝÙ³Ý ã¿ ÙÇëÇáÝ»ñ³Ï³Ý ËÕ׳ѳñáõÃÛ³Ý: ÆÝãå»ë ݳ¨ ëáÉǹ³ñáõÃÛáõÝÁ ·»ñ³ÏïÇí ½·³óáÕáõÃÛáõÝ ¿, ³ÛëÇÝù, ³ÛÝ Ñ³ëϳóáõÃÛáõÝ ¿, ·áõÙ³ñ³Í ·áñÍáÕáõÃÛáõÝ, ³ÛÉ áã ÙdzÛÝ Ï³ñ»Ïó³Ýù: ü»ÙÇÝǽ٠ÇÝÓ Ñ³Ù³ñ ³ÝÙÇç³Ï³Ý ϳå áõÝÇ

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We often say solidarity towards each other unites us - the people with different experiences and political views. We seek solidarity in our large feminist communities and our local groups. Feminist movement, as well as many other movements against social, political and economic violence is based upon solidarity of the members. However, what do we understand when we say solidarity and how do we understand it within the feminism context? We can hardly find answer to these questions in glossaries or Wikipedia. But we can ask these questions to ourselves and our friends. It might help us understand and get to know each other in a better way. Although the types of discrimination vary, they are equally worth to being abolished

Ania Lviv, Ukiraine To me solidarity is when you and someone else have the same experience of limitation to your freedom but together you understand it and find the reason and start to work with the


ëáÉǹ³ñáõÃÛ³Ý Ñ»ï, ã¿ áñ ý»ÙÇÝǽÙÁ áõÕÕ³ÏÇ ÷áñÓ ã¿ Ý»ñ·ñ³í»É ϳݳÝó ·áñÍáÕ ÑÇ»³ñËÇÏ ÇßË³Ý³Ï³Ý Ñ³Ù³Ï³ñ·` áñå»ë ïÕ³Ù³ñ¹áõÝ Ñ³í³ë³ñ, ³ÛÉ ó³ÝÏáõÃÛáõÝ` ÑÇÙÝáíÇÝ ÷á÷áË»É ³Û¹ ѳٳϳñ·Á: ü»ÙÇÝǽÙÇ Ñ³Ù³ï»ùëïáõÙ ëáÉǹ³ñáõÃÛáõÝÁ ѳëϳݳÉáõ ѳñóáõÙ ÇÝÓ û·Ý»É ¿ ÇÝï»ñë»ÏóÇáÝ³É Ùáï»óáõÙÁ. ³ÛÝ ¿` ï³ñµ»ñ µ³ó³éáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñÇ ÙÇç¨ »Õ³Í ÷áËѳñ³µ»ñáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñÇ ÁݹáõÝáõÙÁ: ÆÝï»ñë»ÏóÇáݳÉáõÃÛáõÝÁ ÇÝÓ Ñ³Ù³ñ ³ÛÝ ¿, »ñµ Ù»Ýù ËáëáõÙ »Ýù ϳݳÝó ѳÙÁݹѳÝáõñ ÷áñÓ³éáõÃÛ³Ý Ù³ëÇÝ, ë³Ï³ÛÝ Ñ³ëϳݳáõÙ »Ýù, áñ ³Û¹ ϳݳÛù ·ïÝíáõÙ »Ý ï³ñµ»ñ ïÝï»ë³Ï³Ý ¨ ëáóÇ³É³Ï³Ý å³ÛÙ³ÝÝ»ñáõÙ` ϳËí³Í Ýñ³Ýó ˳íÇó, ë»é³Ï³Ý ÏáÕÙÝáñáßáõÙÇó, é³ë³ÛÇó, ¿ÃÝÇÏ å³ïϳݻÉÇáõÃÛáõÝÇó ¨ ³ÛÉ Ñ³Ý·³Ù³ÝùÝ»ñÇó: Ø»Ýù ã»Ýù ã³÷áõÙ µáÉáñÇÝ Áëï ÝáõÛÝ ë³Ý¹Õ³ÏÇ, Ù»Ýù Ñݳñ³íáñáõÃÛáõÝ »Ýù ï³ÉÇë ÇÝùÝáõñáõÛÝ Ýϳñ³·ñ»É ë»÷³Ï³Ý ÷áñÓ³éáõÃÛáõÝÁ, ë³Ï³ÛÝ ÙǨÝáõÛÝ Å³Ù³Ý³Ï Ù»Ýù ѳëϳÝáõÙ »Ýù, áñ Ù»ñ ÙÇç¨ ÁÝѳÝáõñ µ³Ý ϳ: Ðݳñ³íáñ ¿` ëáÉǹ³ñáõÃÛáõÝÁ Çé³óÇáÝ³É »ñ¨áõÛà ¿, ë³Ï³ÛÝ ¹³ ãÇ ëïÇåáõÙ ÇÝÓ Ññ³Å³ñí»É ³Û¹ ·³Õ³÷³ñÇó

ÎáÏá, §è³¹ÇÏ³É øíÇñ ³ýýÇÝÇïÇ ÏáÉÉ»ùïÇí¦ ´áõ¹³å»ßï, ÐáõÝ·³ñdz ¨ ´»éÉÇÝ, ¶»ñÙ³Ýdz ºë ³ÛÅÙ Ùï³ÍáõÙ »Ù ëáÉǹ³ñáõÃÛ³ÝÁ í»ñ³µ»ñíáÕ ù³Õ³ù³Ï³Ý ³ÛÝ ×³é»ñÇ Ù³ëÇÝ, áñáÝù ÑÝã»óíáõÙ ¿ÇÝ Ý»ñ·³ÕÃáÕÝ»ñÇ ¨ ÷³Ëëï³Ï³ÝÝ»ñÇ ÏáÕÙÇó ¶»ñÙ³ÝdzÛáõÙ ³ÝóϳóíáÕ ß³ï óáõÛó»ñÇ Å³Ù³Ý³Ï, ³ÛÝ ¿ñ` §ëáÉǹ³ñáõÃÛáõÝÁ å»ïù ¿ ÉÇÝÇ åñ³ÏïÇϦ: ºë ã»Ù ϳñÕ ³ë»É, û ÇÝãåÇëÇ ÇÙ³ëï »Ý Ý»ñ¹ñ»É ³Û¹ ³ñï³Ñ³ÛïáõÃÛ³Ý Ù»ç Ù³ñ¹ÇÏ, áíù»ñ ëï»ÕÍ»É »Ý ³ÛÝ, ë³Ï³ÛÝ »ë ϳñáÕ »Ù ³ë»É, û ÇÝãå»ë »Ýù ѳëϳÝáõÙ ³ÛÝ Ù»Ýù: ÆÙ ·áñÍÁÝÏ»ñáõÑÇÝ Ñ³Ùá½í³Í ¿, áñ ¹³ Ý߳ݳÏáõÙ ¿, û ëáÉǹ³ñáõÛÃáõÝÁ å»ïù ¿ ³í»ÉÇÝ ÉÇÝÇ, ù³Ý µ³é»ñÝ »Ý ¨ Ù»Í å³ëï³éÝ»ñ ÷³ÏóÝ»ÉÁ: êáÉǹ³ñáõÃÛáõÝÁ å»ïù ¿ ÉÇÝÇ ï»ë³Ý»ÉÇ, ³åñáõݳÏ, Ù»Ãá¹ÇÏ, ËÙµ³ÛÇÝ, ³ÛÉ áã ÙdzÛÝ ï»ë³Ï³Ý: âÝ³Û³Í »ë ã»Ù ϳñáÕ ãѳٳӳÛÝí»É ÝÙ³Ý Ù»Ïݳµ³ÝáõÃÛ³Ý Ñ»ï, ÙǨÝáõÛÝÝ ¿, ÇÙ ï»ë³ÝÏÛáõÝÁ ëáÉǹ³ñáõÃÛ³Ý åñ³ÏïÇÏ ÉÇÝ»Éáõ Ù³ëÇÝ, ϳåí³Í ¿ ëáÉǹ³ñáõÃÛ³Ý ÑáñǽáÝ³Ï³Ý ·áñÍÇù ÉÇÝ»Éáõ Ñ»ï: ÐáñǽáݳϳÝáõÃÛáõÝÁ ÙÇ µ³Ý ã¿, áñ ³ß˳ïáõÙ ¿ í»ñ¨Çó Ý»ñù¨: úñÇݳÏ` ³Ù»Ý¨ÇÝ Ý߳ݳÏáõÃÛáõÝ ãáõÝÇ ³ÛÝ, »ñµ »ë Ýëï³Í »Ù µ³ñÓñ³ù»ñÇ ÏïáõñÇÝ

same principle. It is not necessary to experience something on your own in order to understand how it feels like when you are in a certain situation. And you try to change the situation to not only help a certain person but in order to change the principles which rule the world, thus helping yourself consequently. I wouldn’t personally oppose solidarity with only apathy, indifference or not being open. Solidarity is not at all alike Missionary compassion. Solidarity is also a super active feeling, so it is a concept plus action and not only compassion. To me feminism has a direct link to solidarity, as feminism is not just an attempt to involve women in the current hierarchic system with being equal to men, but a desire to completely change that system. Intersectional approach helped me to understand solidarity within the context of feminism. That is accepting the correlations between different exceptions. To me intersection is when we talk about a common experience of women but we understand that these women are in different economic and social conditions depending on their stratum, sexual orientation, race, ethnic identity and other conditions. We don’t put everyone in the same scale, we give them opportunity to describe their own experience but at the same time we understand that we have something in common. Although the types of discrimination vary, they are equally worth to being abolished. It is possible that solidarity is an irrational phenomenon but it doesn’t make me give up on the idea

Coco, Radical Queer Affinity Collective Budapest, Hungary and Berlin, Germany I keep thinking of this political slogan that we’ve seen at many migrant/refugee solidarity demonstrations in Germany “solidaritat muss praktisch werden.” I’m not at all sure what was the intended meaning of those who first wrote the slogan. but I know how we interpreted it. My comrade insisted that it means how solidarity should be more than verbal expressions and

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¨ í»ñ¨Çó ÇÙ »ñ³Ëï³·ÇïáõÃÛáõÝÝ »Ù ѳÛïÝáõÙ ³ÛÝ Ù³ñ¹Ï³Ýó, áíù»ñ Ëñ³Ù³ïÝ»ñáõÙ »Ý: ¸³ å»ïù ¿ ÉÇÝÇ åñ³ÏïÇÏ Ñ³ñ³µ»ñáõÃÛáõÝ` ÝáõÛÝù³Ý ï»ë³Ý»ÉÇ, áñù³Ý ¨ µáí³Ý¹³ÏáõÃÛáõÝÝ ¿ (é»ëáõñëÝ»ñ, ï³ñ³Íù, ÷áñÓ): Þ³ñÅáõÙÝ»ñÇ, ·áñÍÁÝÏ»ñÝ»ñÇ ÙÇç¨ Ñ³ñ³µ»ñáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñÁ, áñáÝù »Ýó¹ñíáõÙ »Ý áñå»ë ëáÉǹ³ñáõÃÛáõÝ, Ñ»Ýó ³ÛÝ ¿, ÇÝãå»ë Ù»Ýù å»ïù ¿ í³ñí»Ýù ¨ ÇÝãÇÝ å»ïù ¿ Ó·ï»Ýù: êáÉǹ³ñáõÃÛáõÝÁ ãÇ Ï³ñáÕ ÉÇÝ»É Ù»Ï³Ý·³ÙÛ³ ³ÏódzÏÝ»ñÇ, Ññ³å³ñ³ÏÝ»ñáõÙ óáõÛó»ñÇ ï»ëùáí, áñÁ Ù»½ ï³ÉÇë ¿ ï³ù ¨ ÙǨÝáõÛÝ Å³Ù³Ý³Ï Ë³Ùñ³Í ½·³óáÕáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñ, áñáÝù ³ÝÑ»ï³ÝáõÙ »Ý Ù»ñ Ùïù»ñÇó: ¸³ ãÇ Ï³ñáÕ ÉÇÝ»É ³ÝïáõÝ Ï³Ý³Ýó ѳ·áõëï µ³Å³Ý»Éáõ ٻϳݷ³ÙÛ³ ÷áñÓáí: êáÉǹ³ñáõÃÛáõÝÁ ³Ù»ÝûñÛ³ ÑáñǽáÝ³Ï³Ý ·áñÍáÕáõÃÛáõÝ ¿: Ø»Ýù ÑáñǽáݳϳÝáõÃÛáõÝ »Ýù ÷ÝïñáõÙ Ù»ñ ËÙµ»ñÇ Ý»ñëáõÙ, Ù»Ýù ³ÛÝ Ý³¨ å»ïù ¿ ÷Ýïñ»Ýù Ù»ñ ß³ñÅáõÙÝ»ñáõÙ: гϳé³Ï ¹»åùáõÙ Ù»Ýù ÏëÏë»Ýù ½µ³Õí»É Ï»ÕÍ å³Ûù³ñáí Ýñ³ ѳٳñ, û áõÙ §Ç½Ù¦-Ý ¿ ³í»ÉÇ é³¹ÇϳÉ, ¨ áõÙ å³Ûù³ñÝ ¿ ³í»ÉÇ Ï³ñ¨áñ: êáÉǹ³ñáõÃÛáõÝÁ ÑáñǽáÝ³Ï³Ý »ñ¨áõÛà ¿, ù³ÝÇ áñ ³ÛÝ »Ýó¹ñáõÙ ¿ å³Ûù³ñÇ ³ÝÑñ³Å»ßïáõÃÛ³Ý ÷á˳¹³ñÓ ×³Ý³ãáõÙ: ä³Ûù³ñÁ ÇÝùÝÇÝ Ï³ñáÕ ¿ ï³ñµ»ñ ÉÇÝ»É, ÇÝãå»ë ϳñáÕ »Ý ï³ñµ»ñ ÉÇÝ»É Ý³¨ å³Ûù³ñÇ é³½Ù³í³ñáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñÁ, ë³Ï³ÛÝ ëáÉǹ³ñáõÃÛáõÝÁ ³í»ÉÇÝ ¿, ù³Ý áõÕÕ³ÏÇ é³½Ù³í³ñáõÃÛáõÝ: Ðݳñ³íáñ ¿` ëáÉǹ³ñáõÃÛáõÝÁ Çé³óÇáÝ³É »ñ¨áõÛà ¿, ë³Ï³ÛÝ ¹³ ãÇ ëïÇåáõÙ ÇÝÓ Ññ³Å³ñí»É ³Û¹ ·³Õ³÷³ñÇó: ÆÙ Ùáï»óٳٵ »ë ݳËÁÝïñáõÙ »Ù ³í»ÉÇ ß³ï Çé³óáݳÉáõÃÛáõÝ Áݹ·ñÏ»É, ѻ勉µ³ñ` »ë ݳËÁÝïñáõÙ »Ù Çé³óÇáݳÉ, ë³Ï³ÛÝ åñ³ÏïÇÏ ëáÉǹñ³ñáõÃÛáõÝ: ²Ñ³ ÙÇ ù³ÝÇ Ñ³ë³ñ³Ï ûñÇݳÏÝ»ñ, áñáÝù »ë í»ñ³åñ»É »Ù ÇÙ ý»ÙÇÝdzëï³Ï³Ý ÙÇç³í³ÛñáõÙ: ÎÇëí»É ·Çï»ÉÇùÝ»ñáí (ѳϳé³Ï ãѳëϳóí³Í ÉÇÝ»Éáõ ½·³óáÕáõÃÛáõÝÇó, ³ÝÁݹѳï ÷áñÓ³·Çï³Ï³Ý ϳñÍÇùÇ Ï³ñÇùÇ ³ÝÑñ³Å»ßïáõÃÛáõÝÇó ¨ ³ÛÉÝ: ²Ûë ³Ù»ÝÁ ·Çï»ÉÇùÝ»ñÇ µ³ßËÙ³Ý ÑÇ»ñ³ñËÇÏ Ó¨Ç ³ñ¹ÛáõÝù ¿, áñÁ ɳÛÝ ï³ñ³Íí³Í ¿ Ïáñåáñ³ïÇí Ùß³ÏáõÛÃáõÙ): êáÉǹ³ñáõÃÛáõÝÁ ·³ÉÇë ¿ ³Ù»Ý ï»ÕÇó` ÇÙ Ùáï ÁÝÏ»ñáõÑáõó, Ýñ³ ݳËÏÇÝ Éùí³Í ½áõ·ÁÝÏ»ñáõÑáõó, µ³Ûù»ñ³Ï³Ý ѳ·áõëïáí ïñ³Ýë ³ÏïÇíÇëïáõÑáõó, áõë³ÝáÕ ³ÏïÇíÇëïÇó, áí ÏÇë³ßñç³½·»ëï ¿ ÏñáõÙ, ¨ ³ÛÉ ï³ñµ»ñ Ù³ñ¹Ï³ÝóÇó, áíù»ñ Ïáñóñ»É »Ý

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waving supportive banners. Solidarity should be tangible, active, methodological, participatory, and not merely theoretical. Though I don’t disagree with that interpretation, my initial understanding of how solidarity can or must become practical relates to how I believe solidarity to be a horizontal instrument. It’s not something that works from the top down. It’s not something that makes sense if I just sit atop a high-rise building throwing my appreciation and support down to those in the trenches. So it’s this relationship that must be practical, as well as the content. This relationship between movements, among comrades, one that actually feels in solidarity, is one that we have to practice and strive for each day. It cannot be a one-off action, a demonstration on the square, that gives us some warm, fuzzy feelings but then slips from our minds. Nor can it be a one-off practical distribution of warm winter clothes to a group of women experiencing homelessness. solidarity is a daily practice, just as horizontality is. We seek for horizontality inside our collectives and we must also do so inside our movements. Otherwise, we’re engaging in some self-righteous battle for whose ‘ism’ is the most radical or for whose struggle is the most urgent. Solidarity is horizontal because it entails a mutual recognition of struggle. Though our struggles may be different and we have many different strategies for approaching them, solidarity is something bigger than strategy. And solidarity is probably something quite irrational. Though that’s not something that turns me off about it. I’d much prefer to embrace more of the irrational in my politics. so I support a highly irrational, yet practical solidarity. Some examples, even if they sound simple, of solidarity that I’ve experienced among feminists: Sharing knowledge: (as opposed to this feeling of not knowing what to do, having always to seek expert opinions, etc. which results from hierarchies of knowledge and is commonly experienced in corporate settings)


³Û¹ù³Ý Å³Ù³Ý³Ï ¨ ç³Ýù, áñå»ë½Ç ÇÝÓ ëáíáñ»óÝ»Ý, û ÇÝãå»ë í»ñ³Ýáñ᷻٠ѻͳÝÇíë: Üñ³Ýù »ñµ»ù ÇÙ Ó»éùÇó ã»Ý ËÉ»É ·áñÍÇùÝ»ñÁ, áñå»ë½Ç Çñ»Ýù ¹³ ³Ý»Ý, Ýñ³Ýù »ñµ»ù Ñá·áó ã»Ý ѳݻÉ, áñ ³Û¹ù³Ý Å³Ù³Ý³Ï »Ý ͳËë»É ÇÝÓ íñ³, ¨ Ýñ³Ýù »ñµ»ù Çñ»Ýó ³ÛÝå»ë ã»Ý å³Ñ»É, û ϳñÍ»ë Ç٠ѳñó»ñÁ ß³ï ÑÇÙ³ñ »Ý ¨ ³Ýï»ÕÇ: ÜáõÛÝÇëÏ, »Ã» Ýñ³Ýù ³Û¹å»ë í³ñí»ÇÝ, ÙǨÝáõÛÝ ¿, ÑÇÙ³ Ù»ñ ËÙµáõÙ ³í»ÉÇ ß³ï Ù³ñ¹ÇÏ Ï³Ý, áíù»ñ ϳñáÕ³ÝáõÙ »Ý ѻͳÝÇí Ýáñá·»É, ¨ Ù»Ýù ß³ñáõݳÏáõÙ »Ýù ÏÇëí»É Ù»ñ ·Çï»ÉÇùÝ»ñáí ÑáñǽáÝ³Ï³Ý Ó¨áí: ÎÇëí»É ï³ñ³Íùáí (Ç Ñ³Ï³¹ñáõÙÝ ë»÷³Ï³ÝáõÃÛ³Ý Çñ³íáõÝùÇ ËÇëï å³Ñ³ÝçÝ»ñÇ) ²å³Ñáí ï³ñ³ÍùÇ ÏáÝï»ùëïáõÙ ³ÏïÇíÇëï³Ï³Ý ѳݹÇåáõÙÝ»ñÇ Ñ³Ù³ñ ß³ï í³Ûñ»ñ ãϳÝ, ³ÛÝå»ë áñ, »ñµ ÇÝã-áñ Ù»ÏÁ ÇÝã-áñ ï³ñ³ÍùÇ Ñ³ë³Ý»ÉÇÃÛáõÝ ¿ ëï³ÝáõÙ ¨ ³é³ç³ñÏáõÙ ¿ û·ï³·áñÍ»É ³ÛÝ µáÉáñ Ýñ³Ýó, áõÙ ï³ñ³ÍùÝ ³ÝÑñ³Å»ßï ¿ ѳݹÇåáõÙÝ»ñÇ Ñ³Ù³ñ, ³Ûë ù³ÛÉÁ Çëϳå»ë ϳñáÕ ¿ ß³ï û·ï³Ï³ñ ÉÇÝ»É: ²ÛÝï»Õ, áñï»Õ ïÝûñ»ÝÝ»ñÇ, ѳÛñ»ñÇ ¨ ³ÙáõëÇÝÝ»ñ Çß˳ÝáõÃÛ³Ý µ»éÇ å³ï׳éáí ëïÇåí³Í »Ýù »Õ»É Éé»É, ý»ÙÇݽÙÇ ßÝáñÑÇí, í»ñç³å»ë, ϳñáÕ »Ýù Ù»½ ³½³ïáõÃÛáõÝ ï³É

î³ÝÛ³ ê³ÝÏï ä»ï»ñµáõñ·, èáõë³ëï³Ý ü»ÙÇÝǽÙÁ ÇÝÓ Ñ³Ù³ñ »Ýó¹ñáõÙ ¿ å³Ûù³ñ ѳÛñÇß˳ÝáõÃÛ³Ý ¹»Ù` ÇÝãå»ë ËÙµáí, ³ÛÝå»ë ¿É áñ»ë ³Ýѳï: ÞÝáñÑÇí ³Û¹ å³Ûù³ñÇ, ý»ÙÇÝÇëï³Ï³Ý ï³ñ³ÍùÁ ¹³éÝáõÙ ¿ ï»Õ` ÙÇ ÷áùñ ³í»ÉÇ ³½³ï Ëïñ³Ï³ÝáõÃÛáõÝÇó, ù³Ý ѳÛñÇßË³Ý³Ï³Ý Ñ³ë³ñ³ÏáõÃÛáõÝÝ ¿: ²ÛÝï»Õ, áñï»Õ ïÝûñ»ÝÝ»ñÇ, ѳÛñ»ñÇ ¨ ³ÙáõëÇÝÝ»ñ Çß˳ÝáõÃÛ³Ý µ»éÇ å³ï׳éáí ëïÇåí³Í »Ýù »Õ»É Éé»É, ý»ÙÇݽÙÇ ßÝáñÑÇí, í»ñç³å»ë, ϳñáÕ »Ýù Ù»½ ³½³ïáõÃÛáõÝ ï³É: ²½³ïáõÃÛáõÝ` ³é³çÇÝ Ñ»ñÃÇÝ ËáëùÇ ³½³ïáõÃÛáõÝ: ²ÛÝ »Ýó¹ñáõÙ ¿ Ù»Í å³ï³ë˳ݳïíáõÃÛáõÝ Ù»ñ å³Ñí³ÍùÇ Ýϳïٳٳµ, ÇÝãå»ë ݳ¨ ½·³ÛáõÝáõÃÛáõÝ ³ÛÉáó Ýϳïٳٳµ: ²½³ïáõÃÛáõÝ ëï»Õͳ·áñÍ»Éáõ ¨ Ýáñ³ñ³ñáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñ ÷áñÓ³ñÏ»Éáõ Ñݳñ³íáñáõÃÛáõÝ: ü»ÙÇÝǽÙÁ ÷áñÓ³¹³ßï ¿, µ³óÇ ÑdzݳÉÇ ùíÇñ ѳٳÛÝùÝ»ñÇó ¨ óáõÛó»ñÇó, ³Ûëï»Õ ѳ׳˳ÏÇ ÙáÉ»·ÝáõÙ »Ý ³ÙåñáåÁ ¨ ϳÛͳÏÁ, áñáÝó íñ³ ¿É ѳí³ùíáõÙ »Ý ÷áÃáñÇÏÝ»ñÁ: ÜÙ³Ý å³ÛÙ³ÝÝ»ñáõÙ ¹ÇٳϳۻÉÁ Çñ³Ï³Ý Ù³ñï³Ññ³í»ñ

Solidarity comes from all around – from my close friend, from her jilted ex-girlfriend, from the trans activist in her full body biker gear, from the student activist always dressed in his skirt, and all the other people who shared so much time and effort so I could learn how to repair my own bicycle. They never took the tools out of my hands to do it themselves. They never sighed with frustration that I was taking up too much time out of their day. And they never acted as if my questions were stupid. But even if they’d had, there are more of us now skilled in DIY bike repair and we continue the process of sharing that knowledge horizontally. Sharing space: (as opposed to strict notions of private property and trespassing) safer spaces for activists to gather can be few in many contexts. So when someone gains access to space, then offers to share it with whoever may need to meet there, this can be really helpful. Thanks to feminism, at last we can give ourselves freedom in situations where we had to keep silent due to the burden of power of directors, fathers and husbands

Tania Saint Petersburg, Russia To me feminism assumes struggle against patriarchy in groups and as an individual. Thanks to this struggle feminist space becomes a place a little freer from discrimination than in patriarchy society. Thanks to feminism, at last we can give ourselves freedom in situations where we had to keep silent due to the burden of power of directors, fathers and husbands. Freedom – first of all freedom of speech. It means a great responsibility for our behavior as well as sensitivity towards others, freedom to create and try something new. Feminism is a testing ground; besides the wonderful queer communities and meetings, thunderstorm and lightning happen there resulting for the storms to gather in. Resisting in such conditions is a real challenge for feminist solidarity.

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¿ ý»ÙÇÝÇëï³Ï³Ý ëáÉǹ³ñáõÃÛ³Ý Ñ³Ù³ñ: êï»ÕÍ»É ÙÇ ï³ñ³Íù, áñï»Õ ãÝ³Û³Í ï³ñµ»ñ Çß˳ÝáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñÇ ×ÝßáõÙÝ»ñÇ, ߳ѳñÏáõÙÝ»ñÇ, ÷Éáõ½áõÙÝ»ñÇ ¨ ÏáñͳÝáõÙÝ»ñÇ, ѳݳñ³íáñ ¿ ¹»é ëï»Õͳ·áñÍ»É ¨ ëÇñ»É. Ñ»Ýó ë³ ¿É Ý߳ݳÏáõÙ ¿ ëï»ÕÍ»É ý»ÙÇÝÇëï³Ï³Ý ëáÉǹ³ñáõÃÛ³Ý ï³ñ³Íù: ºë å³ïñ³ëï »Ù å³ßïå³Ý»É ϳݳÝó ¨ Ï³Ý³óÇÝ, ë³Ï³ÛÝ Ï³Ý³óÇ ³·ñ»ëdzÛÇÝ »ë ³Ûïë ¹»Ù ã»Ù ï³

´»Éɳ è³åáåáñï ê³ÝÏï ä»ï»ñµáõñ·, èáõë³ëï³Ý êáÉǹ³ñáõÃÛáõÝÝ ÇÝÓ Ñ³Ù³ñ ëϽµáõÝùáñ»Ý ϳñ¨áñ ѳñó»ñáõÙ ÙÇÙÛ³Ýó ³ç³Ïó»ÉÝ ¿, ÑÝñ³íáñáõÃÛ³Ý ¹»åùáõÙ, ݳ¨ ÃÇÏáõÝù ¹³éݳÉÝ ¿ ÏÛ³ÝùÇ ¹Åí³ñ Çñ³íÇ׳ÏÝ»ñáõÙ: ü»ÙÇÝǽÙÇ ßñç³Ý³ÏÝ»ñáõÙ ¹³ Ý߳ݳÏáõÙ ¿ ѳϳ½¹»É ÏݳïÛ³óáõÃÛ³ÝÁ ¨ å³ßïå³Ý»É ϳݳÝó, áíù»ñ ³éÝãíáõÙ »Ý ³Û¹ »ñ¨áõÛÃÇ Ñ»ï: ØÛáõë ÏáÕÙÇó, »ñµ »ë Ýáñ»Ï ¿Ç ý»ÙÇÝǽÙáõÙ, »ë ϳñÍáõÙ ¿Ç, û å³ñï³íáñ »Ù ëÇñ»É µáÉáñ ϳݳÝó ¨ ÉÇÝ»É Ýñ³Ýó ùáõÛñÁ: ÐÇÙ³ ãáõݻ٠³Û¹ ½·³óáÕáõÃÛáõÝÁ: ÆÝÓ³ÝÇó ³Û¹ù³Ý ¿É ß³ï ãϳ, ¨ »ë µ³í³Ï³Ý ã»Ù µáÉáñÇ Ñ³Ù³ñ: ºë å³ïñ³ëï »Ù å³ßïå³Ý»É ϳݳÝó ¨ Ï³Ý³óÇÝ, ë³Ï³ÛÝ Ï³Ý³óÇ ³·ñ»ëdzÛÇÝ »ë ³Ûïë ¹»Ù ã»Ù ï³: ü»ÙÇÝǽÙÁ ¨ ëáÉǹ³ñáõÃÛáõÝÁ, ûñ¨ë, ³ÛÝ ¿, áñ ¹áõñë ãѳݻë Ý»ñùÇÝ ï³ñ³Ó³ÛÝáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñÁ »ÝóÙß³ÏáõÛÃÇ ë³ÑÙ³ÝÝ»ñÇó ¨ ÝÙ³Ý Ó¨áí ÃßݳÙÇÝ»ñÇÝ áëÏáñÝ»ñ ãßåñï»ë: ²Ù»Ý ¹»åùáõÙ, ÇÝÓ Ñ³Ù³ñ ëáÉǹ³ñáõÃÛáõÝÁ ë³ñÇ å»ë ϳݷݻÉÝ ¿ «Ù»ñáÝó» ÏáÕùÇÝ, ÇѳñÏ» ÙÇÝ㨠ɳí ÇÙ³ó³Í ë³ÑÙ³ÝÝ»ñÁ: ²ÛÝï»Õ, áñï»Õ ѳë³ñ³ÏáõÃÛ³Ý ³Ý¹³ÙÝ»ñÇ ÙÇç¨ Ï³ ÉdzñÅ»ù ѳٳËÙµáõÙ`ϳåí³Í Ýñ³Ýó Çñ³íáõÝùÝ»ñÇ ¨ å³ñï³Ï³ÝáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñÇ Ñ»ï, ³Û¹ï»Õ ù³Õ³ù³Ï³ÝáõÃÛáõÝ ÉÇÝ»É ãÇ Ï³ñáÕ

ÆñÇݳ êáÉáÙ³ïÇݳ, §¶»Ý¹»ñÝÇÛ Ù³ñßñáõï¦ ØÇÝëÏ, ´»É³éáõë γñ ųٳݳÏ, »ñµ »ë Ù³ëݳÏóáõÙ ¿Ç ØÇÝëÏáõÙ ï»ÕÇ áõÝ»óáÕ Ï³Ý³Ýó ÙÇç³½·³ÛÇÝ ÷³é³ïáÝÇ Ï³½Ù³Ï»ñåã³Ï³Ý ·áñÍ»ñÇÝ: ²Û¹ ÁÝóóùáõÙ »ë ß³ï ï³ñ³Ïáõë³Ï³Ý ½·³óáÕáõÃÛáõÝ áõÝ»Ç. ³Ñ³ ³ñ¹»Ý 5-ñ¹ ³Ý·³ÙÝ ¿ñ, áñ ÷³é³ïáÝÇÝ Ù³ëݳÏóáõÙ ¿ÇÝ ³í»ÉÇ ù³Ý 100 ýÇÉÙ, ³í»ÉÇ ù³Ý 25 »ñÏñÝ»ñÇó, µ³Ûó ÙǨÝáõÛÝ ¿, ÇÝã-áñ µ³Ý å³Ï³ëáõÙ ¿ñ:

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I am ready to protect women and what feminine is, but I won’t let feminine aggression slap me on the cheek

Bella Rapoport Saint Petersburg, Russia To create a space where in spite of different oppressions from the government, manipulations and collapses it is still possible to create and to love, that is what it means to create a feminism solidarity space. To me solidarity is supporting each other in crucial issues and if possible, it is a shoulder to rely on in difficult life situations. Within the frames of feminism it means to counteract misogyny and to protect women who are facing it. On the other hand, when I was new in feminism I thought I was supposed to love all women and be their sister. Now I don’t have that feeling. I am a single one person only, and I am not enough for everyone. I am ready to protect women and what feminine is, but I won’t let feminine aggression slap me on the cheek. Feminism and solidarity are for not letting out your inner disagreements out of the subculture boundaries and thus not to feed your enemies. In any case, to me solidarity is to stand by “our people” to the limits which we know well. In a place where a total array among the members of the society concerning their rights and responsibilities exists, politics cannot exist

Irina Solomatina, Gender Route Minsk, Belarus There was time when I participated in organizing international female festival held in Minsk. During this time I had a lot of contradictory feelings, it was the fifth time, and more than 100 movies were included in the program from more than 25 countries but still something was missing. Later when I got education on gender studies in European State University (I was an auditor there) I realized that female consolidation or solidarity was missing among the women who were shooting films for that festival.


²í»ÉÇ áõß, »ñµ »ë ºíñáå³Ï³Ý å»ï³Ï³Ý ѳٳÉë³ñ³ÝáõÙ ëï³ó³ ·»Ý¹»ñ³ÛÇÝ áõëáõÙݳëÇñáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñÇ Ù³ëݳ·Çï³Ï³Ý ÏñÃáõÃÛáõÝ (¹³ë»ñÇÝ Ù³ëݳÏóáõÙ ¿Ç áñå»ë ³½³ï áõÝÏÁݹÇñ), ѳëϳó³, áñ å³Ï³ëáõÙ ¿ñ ϳݳÝó ѳٳËÙµáõÙÁ, ϳ٠ëáÉǹ³ñáõÃÛáõÝÁ, ³ÛÝ Ï³Ý³Ýó Ùáï, áíù»ñ ýÇÉÙ»ñ ¿ÇÝ ëï»ÕÍáõÙ ³Û¹ ÷³é³ïáÝÇ Ñ³Ù³ñ: ²ñ¨Ùáõïùáõ٠ϳݳÛù, áíù»ñ ½µ³ÕíáõÙ »Ý ÝÙ³ïÇå ÷³é³ïáÝÝ»ñ ϳ½Ù³Ï»ñå»Éáí, ³ÝáõÙ »Ý ¹³ ³í»ÉÇ ·Çï³Ïóí³Í, ³ÛëÇÝùÝ Ýñ³Ýù ÇÝã-áñ Ó¨áí ѳٳËÙíáõÙ »Ý ¨ ÷áñÓáõÙ »Ý å³Ñ³ÝçÝ»ñÇ ÷³Ã»Ã ³é³ç³ñÏ»É, Ç ¹»Ùë Ýñ³Ý, û ÇÝãå»ë ¿ ϳéáõóí³Í ³ß˳ñÑÁ: ²ÛÝ Å³Ù³Ý³Ï, »ñµ Ýñ³Ýù ½·áõÙ »Ý ³Ý³ñ¹³ñáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñÁ (ó³íáù, áã µáÉáñÝ »Ý ½·áõÙ ¹³), ëÏëáõÙ »Ý ÷áñÓ»É Ó¨³Ï»ñå»É ¨ Ý»ñϳ۳óÝ»É ³Û¹ å³Ñ³ÝçÝ»ñÁ, ¨ Ýñ³Ýó ëÏáõÙ »Ý Ù»Õ³¹ñ»É, û Ýñ³ù íï³Ý·³íáñ »Ý ³ß˳ñѳϳñ·Ç ѳٳñ, ³ÛÝÇÝã, Ýñ³Ýù áõÕÕ³ÏÇ ó³ÝϳÝáõÙ »Ý ÷áË»É ³ÛÝ: سñ¹ÇÏ, áíù»ñ µ³Ëí»É »Ý ³Ý³ñ¹³ñáõÃÛ³Ý Ñ»ï, Ñ³×³Ë Çñ»Ýù Çñ»Ýù ѳñó »Ý ï³ÉÇë` áíù»ñ »Ý ¹³ë³Ï³ñ·»ñÇ ÁÝïñáõÃÛ³Ý ¨ ϳé³í³ñÙ³Ý å³ï³ë˳ݳïáõÝ»ñÁ, áñáÝó ÙÇçáóáí Ù»Ýù ³Ýí³Ý³ÏáãáõÙ, ·Ý³Ñ³ïáõÙ ¨ ¹³ë³Ï³ñ·áõÙ »Ýù ³ß˳ñÑÁ: лÝó ÝáõÛÝ å³ÑÇÝ ³é³ç ¿ ·³ÉÇë ù³Õ³ù³Ï³ÝáõÃÛ³Ý Ã»Ù³Ý, ÇÝãå»ë å³ï³Ñ»ó, áñ ù³Õ³ù³Ï³ÝáõÃÛáõÝÁ ϳ ³ÛÝï»Õ, áñï»Õ Ù³ñ¹ÇÏ Ñ³Ù³ÙÇï ã»Ý ѳٳï»Õ µÝ³Ïí»Éáõ ï³ññ³Ï³Ý ëϽµáõÝùÝ»ñÇ Ñ»ï, ϳ٠³ÛÉ Ï»ñå ³ë³Í Ýñ³Ýó ѳٳï»Õ ·áÛáõÃÛ³Ý ÑÇÙ³Ý³Ï³Ý ¹ñáõÛÃÝ»ñÇ Ñ»ï: ²ÛÝï»Õ, áñï»Õ ѳë³ñ³ÏáõÃÛ³Ý ³Ý¹³ÙÝ»ñÇ ÙÇç¨ Ï³ ÉdzñÅ»ù ѳٳËÙµáõÙ`ϳåí³Í Ýñ³Ýó Çñ³íáõÝùÝ»ñÇ ¨ å³ñï³Ï³ÝáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñÇ Ñ»ï, ³Û¹ï»Õ ù³Õ³ù³Ï³ÝáõÃÛáõÝ ÉÇÝ»É ãÇ Ï³ñáÕ: ø³Õ³ù³Ï³Ý å³Ûù³ñÁ ÙdzÛÝ ³ß˳ñÑÁÝϳÉÙ³Ý ÁݹѳÝáõñ ï»ëɳϳÝÇ Ñ³ñϳ¹ñáõÙÝ áõ í»ñ³ñï³¹ñáõÙÁ ã¿: ²Û¹ ÇëÏ å³ï׳éáí ѳñϳíáñ ¿ ·ñ»É ë»÷³Ï³Ý ý»ÙÇÝÇëï³Ï³Ý å³ïÙáõÃÛáõÝÁ` »ÉÝ»Éáí Ù»ñ ï³ñµ»ñáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñÇó, ¨ ÷Ýïñ»É Ñݳñ³íáñáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñ, áñáÝù ϵ³ó»Ý Ýáñ ÑáñǽáÝÝ»ñ »Ýó¹ñáÕ ³ÛÉ »ñÏËáëáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñ: àõñ³Ë »Ù Ýϳï»É, áñ Ï³Ý ß³ñÅáõÙÝ»ñ, áñáÝù ѳí³ï³ñÇÙ »Ý Çñ»Ýó ùáõÛñáõÃÛ³ÝÁ

¾ÉíÇñ³ Ø»ÉÇùë»ÃÛ³Ý ºñ¨³Ý, г۳ëï³Ý Ðݳñ³íáñ ã¿ Ëáë»É ý»ÙÇÝǽÙÇ Ù³ÇëÝ ¨ ѳßíÇ

In West, women who are engaged in organizing such festivals do it with more consciousness, therefore they somehow attained solidarity and they try to offer a set of requirement about how the world is constructed. When they feel injustices (and unfortunately not everyone does) they start to try to form and present their requirements and they are blamed of being dangerous for the world while they only wish to change the system. People who have come across injustice often ask themselves who are the ones responsible for the choice and control of categories through which we name, evaluate and categorize the world. At that time the problem of politics comes forth – how come that there is always politics where people do not agree with elementary principles of dwelling or with the principles of their co-existence? In a place where a total array among the members of the society concerning their rights and responsibilities exists, politics cannot exist. Political struggle is not only the enforcement and reproduction of the common vision. That’s why it is necessary to write down your feminist story based on our differences and to look for possibilities which would open a new view and which would suppose the necessity of a dialog. I am happy to observe, that there are initiatives which are devoted to their sisterhood

Elvira Meliksetyan Yerevan, Armenia In my opinion solidarity is one of the main parts of the ideology of Feminism. One cannot talk about feminism, not taking into consideration the issue of solidarity. It is simply impossible, as the ideology of feminism is developed around the ideas of solidarity, empathy and support. Unfortunately in nowadays women movement around the world, more and more often I come across with so called ”feminism movement”. But when looking deeply into the processes they go through, I see almost no sense of soli-

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ã³éÝ»É ëáÉǹ³ñáõÃÛ³Ý Ñ³ñóÁ: Æ٠ϳñÍÇùáí, ëáÉǹ³ñáõÃÛáõÝÁ ý»ÙÇÝÇëï³Ï³Ý ·³Õ³÷³ñ³ËáëáõÃÛ³Ý Ï³ñ¨áñ³·áõÛÝ Ù³ë»ñÇó Ù»ÏÝ ¿` ϳéáõóí³Í ϳñ»Ïó³ÝùÇ ¨ ³ç³ÏóáõÃÛ³Ý íñ³: ò³íáù, ³í»ÉÇ Ñ³×³Ë Ï³ñ»ÉÇ ¿ Ýϳï»É, áñ ѳٳß˳ñѳÛÇÝ Ù³ëßï³µáí ųٳݳϳÏÇó ý»ÙÇÝÇëï³Ï³Ý ß³ñÅáõÙÝ»ñáõÙ ³í»ÉÇ ùÇã ¿ ½·³óíáõÙ ëáÉǹ³ñáõÃÛáõÝÁ ³ÏïÇíÇëïÝ»ñÇ ÙÇç¨: Ð³×³Ë ¹³ ϳåí³Í ãÇ ÉÇÝáõÙ ý»ÙÇÝǽÙÇ Ñ»ï áñå»ë ³Û¹ÇëÇÝ, ë³Ï³ÛÝ ` ý»ÙÇÝǽÙÇ ¨ ϳݳÝó ß³ñÅÙ³Ý Ó¨Ç Ñ»ï: ØǨÝáõÛÝ Å³Ù³Ý³Ï »ë áõñ³Ë »Ù ѻ層É, áñ ³í»ÉÇ ¨ ³í»ÉÇ Ñ³×³Ë »Ý ëÏëí»É ëÏǽµ ³éÝ»É Ýáñ ݳ˳ӻéÝáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñ, áñáÝù ѳí³ï³ñÇÙ »Ý Çñ»Ýó ß³ñÅáõÙÝ»ñÇÝ, Çñ»Ýó ý»ÙÇÝÇëï³Ï³Ý ·³Õ³÷³ñ³ËáëáõÃÛ³ÝÁ, Çñ»Ýó ùáõÛñáõÃÛ³ÝÁ: ÜٳݳïÇå ѳ۳óùÁ, Çëϳå»ë, Ýáñ áõÅ ¿ ï³ÉÇë: Þ³ñÅÙ³Ý Ù»ç ³é³ç³ÝáõÙ, ͳÕÏáõÙ ¨ ÁÝï»É³ÝáõÙ »Ý ïñ³Ù³µ³Ý³Ï³Ý ë˳ÉÝ»ñ, áñ ëáÉǹ³ñáõÃÛáõÝÁ áãÝãÇ ãÇ Ýå³ëïáõÙ

гݳ Îáã»ïÏáí³, §ºñ»Ë³Ý»ñ 404¦ ØáëÏí³, èáõë³ëï³Ý ºë ÏáÕÙ »Ù ýÇÙÇëï³Ï³Ý Ý»ñ³é³Ï³Ý ¨ ÇÝï»ñë»ÏóÇáÝ³É áõÕÕáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñÇÝ: ²ß˳ï»Éáí ȶ´îøƲ (É»ëµÇ, ·»Û, µÇë»ùëáõ³É, ïñ³Ý뷻ݹ»ñ, ùíÇñ, ÇÝï»ñë»ùë, ³ë»ùëáõ³É) ¹»é³Ñ³ëÝ»ñÇ Ñ»ï` »ë ³éÝãíáõÙ »Ù Ëïñ³Ï³ÝáõÃÛ³Ý å³ï׳é ѳݹÇë³óáÕ ÇÝùÝáõÃÛ³Ý ³ÛÝåÇëÇ Ù³ë»ñÇ Ñ»ï, ÇÝãåÇëÇù »Ý` ë»éÁ, ·»Ý¹»ñÁ, ë»é³Ï³ÝáõÃÛáõÝÁ ¨ ï³ñÇùÁ Ù»Ï ÷³Ã»ÃáõÙ: ÆÝÓ Ñ³Ù³ñ ý»ÙÇÝÇëï³Ï³Ý ëáÉǹ³ñáõÃÛ³Ý Ñ³ëϳóáõÃÛ³Ý ·É˳íáñ ËݹÇñÝ ³ÛÝ, áñ ß³ï»ñÝ ÁݹáõÝáõÙ »Ý ³ÛÝ áñå»ë ѳٳ·áñͳÏóáõÃÛáõÝ` ÑÇÙÝí³Í ÁݹѳÝáõñ ·³Õ³÷³ñ³ËáëáõÃÛ³Ý íñ³, ³ÛÉ áã áñå»ë Ù»Ãá¹³µ³ÝáõÃÛáõÝ: ºí ³ÝÑÇÙÝ ¿ ³ÛÝ ÷³ëïÁ, áñ ý»ÙÇÝÇëï³Ï³Ý ÙÇïùÁ í³Õáõó ³ñ¹»Ý ³Ýó»É ¿ ѳë³ñ³Ï³Ï³Ý ß³ñÅáõÙÝ»ñÇ Ý»ñùÇÝ Ï³Ýáݳϳñ·Çó ¨ Ó»éù ¿ µ»ñ»É ³ÝÏ³Ë ·Çï³Ñ»ï³½áï³Ï³Ý ¹åñáóÇ Ï³ñ·³íÇ׳Ï: лïËáñÑñ¹³ÛÇÝ »ñÏñÝ»ñáõÙ ³ÝÑݳñ ¿ ϳ٠¹Åí³ñ ¿ ëï³Ý³É ·»Ý¹»ñ³ÛÇÝ ÏñÃáõÃÛáõÝ, ë³Ï³ÛÝ, ßÝáñÑÇí óñ·Ù³ÝÇã ³ÏïÇíÇëïÝ»ñÇ µ³½Ù³ÙÛ³ ³ß˳ï³ÝùÇ, ³Ñé»ÉÇ ù³Ý³ÏáõÃÛ³Ùµ ý»ÙÇÝÇëï³Ï³Ý ï»ùëï»ñ »Ý óñ·Ù³Ýí»É, áñáÝù ѳë³Ý»ÉÇ »Ý ¿É»ÏïñáݳÛÇÝ ï³ñµ»ñ³Ïáí ÇÝãå»ë Ý»ñùÇÝ Ñ³Ù³ÛÝùÇ/ûÕ³ÏÇ, ³ÛÝå»ë ¿É ³ÝѳïÝ»ñÇ Ñ³Ù³ñ: ²ÛëåÇëáí, Ù³ñ¹Ï³Ýó å³ï³ë˳ݳïíáõÃÛ³Ý Ù»Í ï³ñµ»ñáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñÇ

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darity among the activists. Sometimes it is not about the feminism, but the image of feminism and women movement. Meanwhile I am happy to share that more and more often I come across with young developed initiatives that are truly devoted to their movement, to their belief in the ideology of feminism, to their sisterhood. This is really empowering view! Mistakes appear and blossom in the movement saying that solidarity does not support anything

Hana Kochetkova, Children 404 Moscow, Russia I stand for inclusive and intersectional feminism directions. Working with LGBTQIA (lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer, intersex and asexual) teenagers I deal with such parts of identity being a reason for discrimination such as sex, gender, sexuality and age all in one package. To me the main problem in the idea of feminist solidarity concept is that a lot of people take it as a cooperation based on common ideology and not as a methodology. And the fact that feminist idea has long ago passed by movements’ inner policy and has gained a status of independent scientific-research school is baseless. In post-soviet countries it is impossible or difficult to have gender education but thanks to years of work of translator-activists, huge amount of feminist texts have been translated which are available in electronic version for members of the communities and for individuals as well. So because of differences among responsibilities of people calling them feminists, logical mistakes appear and blossom in the movement saying that solidarity does not support anything, and at the same time social discrimination myths appear which mutate like syndrome and are distributed among feminists. For instance, large and systemized social research of “Ethnos” institution led by feminist investigator could bring all the cruel discussions in regards of endemic feminisms conditioned


å³ï׳éáí, áíù»ñ Ñéã³ÏáõÙ »Ý Çñ»Ýó áñå»ë ý»ÙÇÝÇëï, ß³ñÅÙ³Ý Ù»ç ³é³ç³ÝáõÙ, ͳÕÏáõÙ ¨ ÁÝï»É³ÝáõÙ »Ý ïñ³Ù³µ³Ý³Ï³Ý ë˳ÉÝ»ñ, áñ ëáÉǹ³ñáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñÁ áãÝãÇ ã»Ý Ýå³ëïáõÙ, ÙǨÝáõÛÝ Å³Ù³Ý³Ï ³é³ç³ÝáõÙ »Ý ëáóÇ³É³Ï³Ý Ëïñ³Ï³Ý³óÝáÕ ÙÇý»ñÁ, áñáÝù Ùáõï³óíáõÙ »Ý ѳٳËï³ÝÇßÝ»ñÇ å»ë ¨ µ³Å³ÝíáõÙ ý»ÙÇÝÇëïÝ»ñÇÝ: úñÇݳÏ` ëáóÇ³É³Ï³Ý §¿ÃÝáë¦ Ï³éáõÛóÇ É³Ûݳٳëßï³µ ¨ ѳٳϳñ·í³Í ѻﳽáïáõÃÛáõÝÁ, áñÁ ³Ýó ÏϳóÝ»ñ ·ñ³·»ï ý»ÙÇÝÇëï ѻﳽáïáÕÁ, ϳñáÕ ¿ñ ³í»ÉÇ Ï³éáõóáÕ³Ï³Ý áõÕáõ íñ³ ¹Ý»É µáÉáñ ³ÛÝ ¹³Å³Ý µ³Ý³í»×»ñÁ, áñáÝù í»ñ³µ»ñíáõÙ »Ý Ùß³ÏáõÛÃáí å³Ûٳݳíáñí³Í ¿Ý¹»ÙÇÏ ý»ÙÇÝǽÙÝ»ñÇÝ: ÐáõÙ³ÝǽÙ

ìÇÏïáñdz ÈáÙ³ëÏá ØáëÏí³, èáõë³ëï³Ý

by culture to a more constructive ground. Humanism

Victoria Lomasko Moscow, Russia I don’t really like “-isms”. Even if it is to use one of the “-isms”, then let it be humanism, which includes humanitarian approach towards everyone, and feminism is the same as humanism but it puts emphasizing on women and their problems. It is very easy to look into the topic of feminism and solidarity when feminists express solidarity and support each other. Zara Harutyunyan Hehine Babayan

ÆÝÓ ³ÛÝù³Ý ¿É ¹áõñ ã»Ý ·³ÉÇë §Ç½Ù¦ »ñÁ: ºÃ» ÝáõÛÝÇëÏ å»ïù ¿ û·ï³·áñÍ»É §Ç½Ù¦-»ñÇó Ù»ÏÁ, ³å³ ÃáÕ ¹³ ÉÇÝÇ ÑáõÙ³ÝǽÙÁ, áñÁ Çñ Ù»ç Ý»ñ³éáõÙ ¿ Ù³ñ¹³ëÇñ³Ï³Ý Ùáï»óáõÙ µáÉáñÇ Ýϳïٳٵ, ÇëÏ ý»ÙÇÝǽÙÁ, ¹³ ÝáõÛÝ ÑáõÙ³ÝǽÙÝ ¿, áõÕÕ³ÏÇ ³Ûë ¹»åùáõÙ ß»ßïÁ ¹ñí³Í ¿ Ñ»Ýó ϳݳÝó íñ³, Ñ»Ýó ϳݳÝó í»ñ³µ»ñíáÕ ËݹÇñÝ»ñÇ íñ³: ü»ÙÇÝǽÙÇ ¨ ëáÉǹ³ñáõÃÛ³Ý Ã»Ù³Ý ß³ï Ñ»ßï ¿ í»ñͳݻÉ` »ñµ ý»ÙÇÝÇëïÝ»ñÁ ëáÉǹ³ñ »Ý ¨ û·ÝáõÙ »Ý ÙÇÙÛ³Ýó: ¼³é³ гñáõÃÛáõÝÛ³Ý Ð»ÕÇÝ» ´³µ³Û³Ý

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·»Ý¹»ñ gender

äݹǰñ, ѳٳéÇ°ñ, ¹ÇٳϳÛÇ°ñ ¨ ·áÛáõÃÛáõÝ áõÝ»óÇ°ñ гٳÏóí³Í ³Ýíï³Ý·áõÃÛ³Ý Ñ³ëϳóáõÃÛ³Ý ³½¹»óáõÃÛáõÝÁ ÏÇÝ Çñ³í³å³ßïå³ÝÝ»ñÇ ÏÛ³ÝùÇ íñ³ Insist, persist, resist, and exist! The influence of Integrated Security concept on women human rights defenders life ´áÉáñÝ áõÝ»Ý Ù³ñ¹áõ Çñ³íáõÝùÝ»ñÇ Ù³ëÇÝ µ³ñÓñ³Ó³ÛÝ»Éáõ, ¹ñ³Ýù å³ßïå³Ý»Éáõ ¨ ³ç³Ïó»Éáõ Çñ³íáõÝù: ´áÉáñÝ áõÝ»Ý Ù³ñ¹áõ Çñ³íáõÝùÝ»ñÝ ³å³Ñáí å³ßïå³Ý»Éáõ Çñ³íáõÝùª ³é³Ýó ѳßí»Ñ³ñ¹³ñÇ í³ËÇ, ÇÝãåÇëÇÝ Ï³ñáÕ ¿ ÉÇÝ»É ýǽÇÏ³Ï³Ý µéÝáõÃÛáõÝÁ, ½ñå³ñïáõÃÛáõÝÁ ϳ٠ѳñÓ³ÏáõÙÝ»ñÝ Çñ»Ýó ÁÝï³ÝÇùÝ»ñÇ íñ³: ´áÉáñÁ ѳí³ë³ñ³å»ë Çñ³íáõÝù áõÝ»Ý å³ßïå³Ý»Éáõ Ù³ñ¹áõ Çñ³íáõÝùÝ»ñÁ ¨ í³Û»É»Éáõ ÉdzñÅ»ù ÏÛ³Ýù, ³é³Ýó ½áѳµ»ñ»Éáõ Çñ»Ýó ³åñáõëïÇ ÙÇçáóÝ»ñÁ, ³éáÕçáõÃÛáõÝÁ ϳ٠»ñç³ÝÏáõÃÛáõÝÁ: ì»ñçÇÝ ï³ëݳÙÛ³ÏÝ»ñÇ ÁÝóóùáõÙ Ù³ñ¹áõ Çñ³íáõÝùÝ»ñÁ å³ßïå³ÝáÕ Ï³½Ù³Ï»ñåáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñÝ ³ÙµáÕç ³ß˳ñÑáõ٠ѳçáÕáõÃÛ³Ùµ ٻͳóñ»É »Ý Ù³ñ¹áõ Çñ³íáõÝùÝ»ñÇ å³ßïå³ÝÝ»ñÇ ¹»ñÁ ëáíáñ³Ï³Ý ù³Õ³ù³óÇÝ»ñÇ Çñ³íáõÝùÝ»ñÇ å³ßïå³ÝáõÃÛ³Ý Ñ³ñóáõÙ: ²Ûë ç³Ýù»ñÇ ³ñ¹ÛáõÝùáõÙ Ù³ñ¹áõ Çñ³íáõÝùÝ»ñÇ å³ßïå³ÝÝ»ñÁ ëÏë»É »Ý í³Û»É»É ÙÇç³½·³ÛÇÝ ×³Ý³ãáõÙ ¨ ѳñ·³Ýù: î³ñûñÇÝ³Ï ¿, µ³Ûó Çñ»Ýó ³ß˳ï³ÝùÇ ·Ý³Ñ³ï³Ï³ÝÇ ÙÇç³½·³ÛÇÝ µ³ñÓñ³óÙ³ÝÁ ѳÙÁÝóó ëÏë»É »Ý ³×»É Çñ»Ýó ë»÷³Ï³Ý Çñ³íáõÝùÝ»ñÇ áïݳѳñÙ³Ý ¹»åù»ñÝ Çñ»Ýó ÇëÏ »ñÏñÝ»ñáõÙ, áñáÝù ϳ½Ù³Ï»ñåíáõÙ »Ý ϳé³í³ñáõÃÛ³Ý, ½ÇÝí³Í ËÙµ³íáñáõÙÝ»ñÇ ¨ ÝáõÛÝÇëÏ Çñ»Ýó ë»÷³Ï³Ý ѳٳÛÝùÇ ÏáÕÙÇó: ²Ûë ³×áÕ ëå³éݳÉÇùÝ»ñÇÝ Ç å³ï³ë˳ݪ ÙÇ ß³ñù Ù³ñ¹áõ Çñ³íáõÝùÝ»ñÁ å³ßïå³ÝáÕ Ï³½Ù³Ï»ñåáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñ ëÏë»É »Ý ³ß˳ï³ÝùÝ»ñ ï³Ý»É ÙÇç³½·³ÛÇÝ ûñÇÝ³Ï³Ý Ù»Ë³ÝǽÙÝ»ñ Ù߳ϻÉáõ áõÕÕáõÃÛ³Ùµ, áñå»ë½Ç ϳñáÕ³Ý³Ý å³ßïå³Ý»É Ù³ñ¹áõ Çñ³íáõÝùÝ»ñÇ å³ßïå³ÝÝ»ñÇÝ ¨ Ñݳñ³íáñáõÃÛáõÝ ï³Ý Ýñ³Ýó ³å³Ñáí ϳï³ñ»É Çñ»Ýó ³ß˳ï³ÝùÁ: ²Û¹ ç³Ýù»ñÝ ³ñ¹ÛáõÝù ïí»óÇÝ 1998 Ãí³Ï³ÝÇÝ, »ñµ زÎ-Ç ¶É˳íáñ ²ë³ÙµÉ»³Ý ÁݹáõÝ»ó سñ¹áõ Çñ³íáõÝùÝ»ñÇ å³ßïå³ÝÝ»ñÇ Ù³ëÇÝ Ñéã³Ï³·ÇñÁ: ÎÇÝ Çñ³í³å³ßïå³ÝÝ»ñÇ Ñ³Ù³ñ ëï»ÕÍí³Í, ûñ¨ë, É³í³·áõÛÝ ·áñÍÇùÝ»ñÇó Ù»ÏÁ ϳñáÕ »Ýù ѳٳñ»É гٳÏóí³Í ³Ýíï³Ý·áõÃÛ³Ý ·³Õ³÷³ñÁ` гٳÏóí³Í ³Ýíï³Ý·áõÃÛ³Ý Ñ³Ý¹ÇåáõÙ-¹³ëÁÝóóÝ»ñÁ Ñݳñ³íá-

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Everyone has the right to stand up, to speak out and to defend human rights. Everyone has the right to defend human rights safely, without fear of retribution, such as physical violence, slander or attacks on their families. Equally, everyone has the right to defend human rights and enjoy a full life, without sacrificing livelihoods, health or happiness.

Over the past few decades, human rights organizations across the world have successfully raised the profile of human rights defenders and their vital role in protecting the rights of ordinary citizens. As a result of these efforts, human rights defenders began to enjoy increasing international recognition and respect. Paradoxically, as awareness of their work blossomed internationally, they were being subjected to escalating violations of their own rights within their own countries – at the hands of their government, armed groups and even their own communities. In response to these mounting threats, a number of human rights organizations started to work towards developing international legal mechanisms to enshrine the rights of human rights defenders to allow them to do their work, and to do it safely. These efforts culminated in 1998, in the adoption by the United Nations General As-


ñáõÃÛáõÝ »Ý ï³ÉÇë ÏÇÝ ³ÏïÇíÇëïÝ»ñÇÝ ½³ñ·³óÝ»Éáõ ë»÷³Ï³Ý ³ÝÓÇ å³ßïå³ÝáõÃÛ³Ý é³½Ù³í³ñáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñÝ áõ ÑÙïáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñÁ: ²ÛÝ Å³Ù³Ý³ÏÇ ¨ ï³ñ³ÍáõÃÛ³Ý Ù»ç ëï»ÕÍí³Í ÙÇ ï»Õ ¿, áñï»Õ ÏÇÝ ³ÏïÇíÇëïÝ»ñÁ ϳñáÕ »Ý ÏÇë»É Çñ»Ýó ¹Åí³ñáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñÝ áõ ³ÝѳݷëïáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñÁ, ïËñáõÃÛáõÝ å³ï׳éáÕ Çñ³¹³ñÓáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñÁ ¨ ³ÝÏñÏÝ»ÉÇ Ñ³çáÕáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñÁ. ë³ ï³ñ³Íù ¿, áñï»Õ ϳݳÛù ϳñáÕ »Ýù ϳ½Ù»É ѳٳÛÝù ¨ ѳٳï»Õ ½³ñ·³óÝ»É Ñ³ÕóѳñÙ³Ý é³½Ù³í³ñáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñÁ ¨ ÑÙïáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñÁ` ÇÝãå»±ë ß³ñáõÝ³Ï»É ³åñ»É, ÇÝãå»±ë ÙÝ³É ³Ýíï³Ý· áõ áÕç³ÙÇï, ¨ ÙǨÝáõÛÝ Å³Ù³Ý³Ï ß³ñáõÝ³Ï»É ³ÛÝ ÏÛ³ÝùÝ áõ ·áñÍáõÝáõÃÛáõÝÁ, áñÁ Ýñ³Ýù ëÇñáõÙ »Ý: гٳÏóí³Í ³Ýíï³Ý·áõÃÛ³Ý ¹³ëÁÝóóÝ»ñÇ Ù³ëݳÏó»É »Ý ³í»ÉÇ ù³Ý 300 ÏÇÝ Ù³ëݳÏÇóÝ»ñ ³í»ÉÇ ù³Ý 50 »ñÏñÝ»ñÇó: Ø»Ýù Ñݳñ³íáñáõÃÛáõÝ »Ýù áõÝ»ó»É ѳݹÇå»Éáõ гٳÏóí³Í ³Ýíï³Ý·áõÃÛ³Ý ¹³ëÁÝóó³í³ñÝ»ñÇ Ñ»ï: γݳÛù, áíù»ñ í»ñ³ÇÙ³ëï³íáñ»É »Ý Çñ»Ýó ÏÛ³ÝùÁ ݳ¨ ѳٳÏóí³Í ³Ýíï³Ý·áõÃÛ³Ý ·³Õ³÷³ñÇ ßÝáñÑÇí, áíù»ñ áõÝ»Ý ß³ï ï³ñµ»ñ ÷áñÓ³éáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñ ¨ Ùß³ÏáõÛóÛÇÝ å³ïϳݻÉÇáõÃÛáõÝ, å³ï³ëË³Ý»É »Ý ïñí³Í ÙǨÝáõÛÝ Ñ³ñóÇÝ`

ÇÝãá±õ »Ý ³ÝÑñ³Å»ßï ѳٳÏóí³Í ³Ýíï³Ý·áõÃÛ³Ý ¹³ëÁÝóóÝ»ñÁ ϳݳÝó ѳٳñ: ¾ñÛáݳ, ²Éµ³Ýdz гٳÏóí³Í ³Ýíï³Ý·áõÃÛ³Ý ¹³ëÁÝóóÝ (в¸) ³Ýíï³Ý· ÙÇç³í³Ûñ ¿ ³å³Ñáíáõ٠ϳݳÝó ѳٳñ, áñï»Õ Ýñ³Ýù ϳñáÕ »Ý Ùï³Í»É Çñ»Ýó ³Ýíï³Ý·áõÃÛ³Ý ¨ µ³ñûñáõÃÛ³Ý Ù³ëÇÝ, ÇÝãå»ë ³ÝÓÝ³Ï³Ý ÏÛ³ÝùáõÙ, ³ÛÝå»ë ¿É ³ß˳ï³í³ÛñáõÙ: ºë ϳñÍáõÙ »Ù, áñ ³Éµ³Ý³Ï³Ý Ùß³ÏáõÛÃÁ Ëñ³ËáõëáõÙ ¿ ϳݳÝó ËÝ³Ù»É áõñÇßÝ»ñÇÝ, Ñá· ï³Ý»É Ýñ³Ýó Ù³ëÇÝ, ³é³çݳѻñÃáõÃÛáõÝÁ ï³É áõñÇßÝ»ñÇ Ï³ñÇùÝ»ñÇÝ ¨ ó³ÝÏáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñÇÝ, Ñ»ïá Ýáñ ÙdzÛÝ Ùï³Í»É Çñ»Ýó Ù³ëÇÝ: γݳÝóÇó ³ÏÝϳÉíáõÙ ¿ ³é³çÇÝ Ñ»ñÃÇÝ Ñá·³É ÁÝï³ÝÇùÇ, Çñ»Ýó ³ÙáõëÇÝÝ»ñÇ ¨ »ñ»Ë³Ý»ñÇ Ï³ñÇùÝ»ñÁ, ¨ ³å³ ÙdzÛÝ Çñ»ÝóÁ: ê³ Ý߳ݳÏáõÙ ¿, áñ »ñµ ÏÇÝÝ ³ÏïÇíÇëï ¿, ݳ ÉñÇí ¹ñáõÛùáí ³ß˳ïáõÙ ¿ û° ³ß˳ï³ÝùÇ í³ÛñáõÙ, û° ï³ÝÁª ÉÇÝ»Éáí ÏÇÝ ¨ Ù³Ûñ, ¨ Ñ³×³Ë ³Ýï»ëáõÙ ¿ Çñ ë»÷³Ï³Ý ³éáÕçáõÃÛáõÝÝ áõ µ³ñûñáõÃÛáõÝÁ: ²Û¹ å³ï׳éáí »ë ϳñÍáõÙ »Ù, áñ в¸-Á ³ÏïÇíÇëï ϳݳÝó ѳٳñ ³ç³ÏóáõÃÛ³Ý ÙÇç³í³Ûñ ¿: Üñ³Ýù ϳݳÝó ³å³ÑáíáõÙ »Ý ³Ýíï³Ý· ÙÇç³í³Ûñáí, áñï»Õ Ýñ³Ýù ϳñáÕ »Ý Å³Ù³Ý³Ï ïñ³Ù³¹ñ»É Çñ»Ýù Çñ»Ýó, ³í»ÉÇ ËáñÁ Ùï³Í»É áñáß µ³Ý»ñÇ Ù³ëÇÝ ¨ áñ³ÏÛ³É Å³Ù³Ý³Ï ³ÝóϳóÝ»É áõ ÏÇëí»É ÷áñÓáí Çñ»Ýó ÝÙ³Ý

sembly of the Declaration on Human Rights Defenders. Combined security concept is probably one of the best tools for women human right defenders. The meeting-courses of combined security allow women activists to develop self-defense skills and strategies. It’s a place, created in time and space, where the women activists can share their difficulties and concerns, challenges and successes, it’s a place where women can create a community and together develop the struggle strategies and skills: how to live on, how to stay safe and sound, and the same time, to continue the life and activities they like. More than 300 women from more than 50 countries took part in the combined safety courses. We had an opportunity to meet the trainers of the courses. The women, who reinvent their lives also due to the concept of the combined safety, who have different experiences and cultural legacy, answered the same question:

Why women need Integrated Security workshops? Erjona, Albania ISW provides a safe space for women where they can think of themselves, of their own security, well- being both at personal level and at workplace. I believe that Albanian culture encourages women to look after others, take care of them, prioritize others’ needs and desires before theirs. Women are expected to prioritize their family, their husbands ‘and children’s needs before their own needs. This means that when woman is an activist, she is working full time at her job, and fulltime at home being a mother and a wife, often overlooking herself, her personal health and wellbeing. Therefore, I believe that ISW are a great source of support for activist women. They provide women with a safe space where they can take time for themselves, reflect more on things, and spend qualitative time with them and share experiences with others

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áõñÇß Ï³Ý³Ýó Ñ»ï: в¸-Ç ÁÝóóùáõÙ ùÝݳñÏí³Í ß³ï ËݹÇñÝ»ñ, ÇÝãåÇëÇù »Ý, Ù³ñÙÝÇ ¨ Ñá·áõ ÙdzÏóáõÙÁ, Ñáõ½³Ï³Ý ÇÝï»É»ÏïÁ, Ùïù»ñÁ ¨ ³ÛÉÝ, ëáíáñ³µ³ñ ã»Ý Ëñ³Ëáõëíáõ٠ϳ٠áõëáõó³ÝíáõÙ ³Éµ³Ý³Ï³Ý Ùß³ÏáõÛÃáõÙ: ²ÛëåÇëáí, ϳݳÛù áõÝ»Ý Ñݳñ³íáñáõÃÛáõÝ ëï»ÕÍ»Éáõ Çñ»Ýó ë»÷³Ï³Ý ϳå»ñÁ, áñáÝù Ïû·Ý»Ý Çñ»Ýó å³Ñå³Ý»É µ³ñûñáõÃÛáõÝ ¨ ³Ýíï³Ý·áõÃÛáõÝ Çñ»Ýó ³ÝÓÝ³Ï³Ý ¨ ·áñÍÝ³Ï³Ý ÏÛ³ÝùáõÙ: ¾ÉíÇñ³, г۳ëï³Ý ºë ã¿Ç ó³Ýϳݳ ï³ñµ»ñáõÃÛáõÝ ¹Ý»É Ñ³Û ¨ áã Ñ³Û Ï³Ý³Ýó ÙÇç¨, »ñµ ËáëùÁ ·ÝáõÙ ¿ ѳٳÏóí³Í ³Ýíï³Ý·áõÃÛ³Ý Ù³ëÇÝ, ù³ÝÇ áñ, ÇÝãå»ë óáõÛó ¿ ï³ÉÇë ï³ñµ»ñ ³½·áõÃÛ³Ý Ý»ñϳ۳óáõóÇã ϳݳÝó Ñ»ï ѳٳ·áñͳÏó»Éáõ ÇÙ ÷áñÓÁ, ϳݳÝó Çñ³íÇ׳ÏÁ Ñ³×³Ë ÝáõÛÝÝ ¿ ÉÇÝáõÙ, ϳ٠·áÝ» ÝáõÛÝÝ »Ý ÉÇÝáõÙ µéÝáõÃÛ³Ý ³ÛÝ ³ñÙ³ïÝ»ñÁ, áñÇ Ñ»ï ³éÁÝãáõÃÛáõÝ »Ý áõÝ»ó»É: ²ÛÝáõ³Ù»Ý³ÛÝÇí, »Ã» ѳñóÝáõÙ »ùª ³ñ¹Ûáù г۳ëï³Ýáõ٠ϳݳÛù ϳñÇù áõÝ»Ý Ù³ëݳÏó»Éáõ в¸-ÇÝ ¨ áñ¹»·ñ»Éáõ ¹ñ³ ·³Õ³÷³ñ³ËáëáõÃÛáõÝÁ, ÇÙ å³ï³ë˳ÝÁ ÏÉÇÝǪ ³Ûá°: Ø»Ýù ѳëï³ï³å»ë áõÝ»Ýù ¹ñ³ ϳñÇùÁ, ù³ÝÇ áñ ѳÛñÇßË³Ý³Ï³Ý Ñ³Ù³Ï³ñ·Á ¨ Ù»ñ ³í³Ý¹áõÛÃÝ»ñÇ ×ÝßáõÙÁ §ÃáõÛÉ ã»Ý ï³ÉÇë¦ Ï³Ý³Ýó ßáõÝã ù³ß»Éáõ ¨ Ï»ÝïñáݳݳÉáõ Çñ»Ýó ³ÝÓÇ íñ³, ·Ý³Ñ³ï»Éáõ, ³ñŨáñ»Éáõ ¨ Çñ»Ýù Çñ»Ýó ѳñ·»Éáõ: ²Ñ³ û ÇÝãáõ г۳ëï³ÝÇ å»ë »ñÏñÝ»ñáõÙ ë³ ³Ù»Ý³³é³çݳÛÇÝ ËݹÇñÝ»ñÇó Ù»ÏÝ ¿: ²½ñ³, ´áëÝdz ¨ лñó»·áíÇݳ гٳÏóí³Í ³Ýíï³Ý·áõÃÛ³Ý ¹³ëÁÝóóÝ»ñÁ ÑdzݳÉÇ Ñݳñ³íáñáõÃÛáõÝ »Ý ï³ÉÇë ÷á˳ݳÏí»Éáõ ³Ýíï³Ý·áõÃÛ³Ý é³½Ù³í³ñáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñÇ Ï³éáõóí³ÍùÇ, ï³ñµ»ñ Ùáï»óáõÙÝ»ñÇ ¨ µáÉáñ ³ëå»ÏïÝ»ñÇ ³é³ÝÓݳѳïÏáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñáí: гٳÏóí³Í ³Ýíï³Ý·áõÃÛ³Ý ¹³ëÁÝóóÝ»ñÁ ß³ï É³í »Ý Ï³éáõóí³Íª û·ï³·áñÍ»Éáí ³ÙµáÕç³Ï³Ý Ùáï»óáõÙ Ù»ñ Ñá·»µ³Ý³Ï³Ý, ýǽÇÏ³Ï³Ý ¨ ϳ½Ù³Ï»ñåáõÃÛ³Ý ³Ýíï³Ý·áõÃÛ³Ý ¨ µ³ñûñáõÃÛ³Ý í»ñ³µ»ñÛ³É (¨ »ë ûÝɳÛÝ Ù³ëÝÇÏÝ ¿É ϳí»É³óÝ»Ç áñå»ë в¸-Ç ÙÇ Ù³ë): ܳïdz, ìñ³ëï³Ý ìñ³ëï³ÝÁ »ñÏÇñ ¿, áñï»Õ Ù»Ýù ß³ï »Ýù ËáëáõÙ ·»Ý¹»ñ³ÛÇÝ Ñ³í³ë³ñáõÃÛ³Ý, ϳݳÝó Çñ³íáõÝùÝ»ñÇ Ù³ëÇÝ, µ³Ûó áã ÙÇ ³Ïïáõ³É ϳݳÝó ß³ñÅáõÙ ãáõÝ»Ýù, Ï³Ý ß³ï ùÇã áã ýáñÙ³É ËÙµ»ñ, áñáÝù å³Ûù³ñáõÙ »Ý ë»ùëǽÙÇ ¹»Ù ¨ ½µ³Õíáõ٠ϳݳÝó Çñ³íáõÝùÝ»ñÇ Ñ³ñó»ñáí: Þ³ï ³ÏïÇíÇëïÝ»ñ, áñáÝù ÷áñÓáõÙ »Ý Ýå³ëï»É ÷á÷áËáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñÇÝ, ëïÇåí³Í »Ý áõß³¹ñáõÃÛáõÝ

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like them. Many topics discussed during ISW like linking body and mind, emotional intelligence, mindfulness etc are not really encouraged and taught in the Albanian culture. So, women have the opportunity to explore more these concepts, and also the opportunity of developing their own network that helps them sustain wellness and safety in their personal life and at work also. Elvira, Armenia I wouldn’t make a separation between Armenian and non-Armenian women when talking about the need of Integrated Security, because due to my experience of cooperation with women of different nationalities, I have figured out that the situation of women is often common, or at least the roots of the violations they face are similar. Nevertheless if questioning if a women in Armenia needs to participate in an ISW and internalize its ideology, I would say - Yes. We are definitely in need of it, as the system of patriarchy, the oppression of our customs and habits do not ‘’let’’ women breathe and concentrate on themselves, to appreciate and to value themselves, to respect them overall. That is why in the countries, like Armenia, this is one of the most essential topics. Azra, Bosnia and Herzegovina Integrated security workshop is a great opportunity to exchange security strategies in terms of the structure, different approaches and all aspects. ISWs are very well structured in using a holistic approach on our psychological, physical and organizational safety and wellbeing (and I would add online component as part of IS as well). As such they are a combination of great tools and practical skills. Natia, Georgia Georgia is the country where we speak a lot about gender equality, women’s rights, but we have no actual women’s rights move-


ã¹³ñÓÝ»É Çñ»Ýó ³éáÕçáõÃÛ³ÝÝ áõ Çñ»Ýó ³ÝÓݳÛÇÝ ³ÛÉ ³ëå»ÏïÝ»ñÇÝ: гٳÏóí³Í ³Ýíï³Ý·áõÃÛ³Ý ¹³ëÁÝóóÝ»ñÝ ³í»ÉÇÝ »Ý, ù³Ý ·áñÍÇùÝ»ñÇ ËáõÙµÁ, áñáÝù û·ÝáõÙ »Ý Ëáõë³÷»É Ñáõ½³Ï³Ý ³ÛñáõÙÇó ëå³éí»Éáõó ϳ٠Ëáë»É Ëïñ³Ï³ÝáõÃÛ³Ý ¹»åù»ñÇ Ù³ëÇÝ, áñáÝó Ù»Ýù »Ýù ѳݹÇåáõÙ: ê³ Ñݳñ³íáñáõÃÛáõÝ ¿ ÁÝÓ»éáõ٠ϳéáõóí³Íù³ÛÇÝ Ùáï»óáõÙ óáõó³µ»ñ»Éáõ Ù»ñ ³ÏïÇíǽÙÇÝ, ѳëϳݳÉáõ, áñ áñù³Ý ¿É ÇÝïÇÙ ¨ ³Ýϳåï»ÉÇ ÉÇÝÇ ³ÛÝ Ù»ñ ÏÛ³ÝùÇÝ, å»ïù ¿ Ñëï³Ï ·ÇÍ ù³ß»É Ù»ñ ³ÝÓÝ³Ï³Ý ÏÛ³ÝùÇ ¨ ³ß˳ï³ÝùÇ ÙÇç¨: ê³ Ï³Ý³Ýó Ñݳñ³íáñáõÃÛáõÝ ¿ ÁÝÓ»éáõÙ ÙdzëÇÝ Ñ³í³ùí»Éáõ, ëï»ÕÍ»Éáõ ѳñ·³Ýùáí É»óáõÝ ÙÇç³í³Ûñ, ÏÇëí»É ÷áñÓáí ¨ Éë»É Ù»ÏÁ ÙÛáõëÇÝ: ºë ѳÙá½í³Í »Ù, áñ ѳٳÏóí³Í ³Ýíï³Ý·áõÃÛáõÝÝ û·ÝáõÙ ¿ ëï»ÕÍ»Éáõ Ýáñ ѳñóÏÝ»ñ ÏÇÝ ³ÏïÇíÇëïÝ»ñÇ Ñ³Ù³ñ, áã ýáñÙ³É Ñ³ñóÏÝ»ñ, áñáÝù ³í»ÉÇ áõÕÕí³Í »Ý ÷á÷áËáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñÇÝ:

ment, we have very few informal groups that protest sexism and advocate women’s rights. Many activists that are pushing forward the change are disregarding their own health and other dimensions of their personality. Integrated security workshops are more than a set of tools that help us avoid burnout or name discrimination that we face. It is an opportunity to take a structured approach to our activism, to see that however intimate and inherent to our lives, there is a line to be drawn between our personal lives and the work we do. It is an opportunity for women to sit down together, create a space of respect and mutual sharing and listen to each other. I believe that integrated security helps create new platforms of women activists, platforms that are informal and more change oriented.

üñáëÇݳ, سϻ¹áÝdz γݳÛù سϻ¹áÝdzÛáõ٠ѳݹÇåáõÙ »Ý µ³½Ù³ÃÇí Ù³ñï³Ññ³í»ñÝ»ñǪ ëÏë³Í ³½·³ÛÇÝ ù³Õ³ù³Ï³ÝáõÃÛáõÝÇó, áñÁ ß»ßïáõÙ ¿ ѳÛñ»Ý³ëÇñáõÃÛáõÝÝ áõ ѳÛñÇß˳ÝáõÃÛáõÝÁ, ¨ ³ÛëåÇëáí ³Ùñ³óÝáõÙ ³í³Ý¹³Ï³Ý ·»Ý¹»ñ³ÛÇÝ ¹»ñ»ñÁ: àõݻݳÉáí ·»Ý¹»ñ³ÛÇÝ Ñ³í³ë³ñáõÃÛ³Ý ¨ ѳϳËïñ³Ï³ÝáõÃÛ³Ý Ù³ëÇÝ Ñ³Ù³å³ï³ëË³Ý ûñ»Ýë¹ñáõÃÛáõÝ` ¹»é¨ë Ï³Ý Ý߳ݳϳÉÇ µ³ó»ñ ûñ»Ýë¹ñáõÃÛ³Ý ¨ ¹ñ³ ÏÇñ³ñÏÙ³Ý Ù»ç: γݳÛù »ÝóñÏíáõÙ »Ý µéÝáõÃÛ³Ý ï³ñµ»ñ ï»ë³ÏÝ»ñÇ, ÇëÏ Ù»ñ ûñ»ÝùÇ Ñ³Ù³Ï³ñ·Á û¨ Ùß³Ï»É ¿ ÉáõÍáõÙÝ»ñ ÁÝï³Ý»Ï³Ý µéÝáõÃÛ³Ý í»ñ³µ»ñÛ³É, µ³Ûó ãÇ ×³Ý³ãáõÙ ·»Ý¹»ñ³ÛÇÝ ÑÇÙù áõÝ»óáÕ µéÝáõÃÛáõÝÁ ¨ ãÇ ³å³Ñáíáõ٠ѳٳñÅ»ù ³ç³ÏóáõÃÛáõÝ Ëáó»ÉÇ Ï³Ý³Ýó ËÙµ»ñÇ Ñ³Ù³ñ: ȶ´î ѳٳÛÝùÝ»ñÇ Ñ³Ý¹»å ³ÝѳݹáõñÅáճϳÝáõÃÛáõÝÁ ¨ µéÝáõÃÛáõÝÁ ѳ׳˳ÏÇ µÝáõÛà ¿ ÏñáõÙ, ¨ ÝٳݳïÇå ·áñÍ»ñÇÝ ÁÝóóù ãÇ ïñíáõÙ: гٳÏóí³Í ³Ýíï³Ý·áõÃÛ³Ý ¹³ëÁÝóóÝ»ñÁ å³ñï³¹Çñ »Ý سϻ¹áÝdzÛÇ Ï³Ý³Ýó ѳٳñ, áñå»ë½Ç Ýñ³Ýù ϳñáÕ³Ý³Ý ëï³Ý³É ·Çï»ÉÇù ¨ ÑÙïáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñª Çñ³½»Ïí»Éáõ Çñ»Ýó »ñ³ß˳íáñí³Í Çñ³íáõÝùÝ»ñÇ Ù³ëÇÝ, ϳñáÕ³Ý³Ý ë³ÑÙ³Ý»É ³ÛÝ µ³½Ù³ÃÇí ѳë³ñ³Ï³Ï³Ý ¨ ³ÝÓÝ³Ï³Ý éÇëÏ»ñÁ, áñáÝó ѳݹÇåáõÙ »Ý ³Ù»Ý ûñ, ¨ ³Ù»Ý³Ï³ñ¨áñÁ, áñå»ë½Ç ÷áË³Ý³Ï»Ý ¨ ëáíáñ»Ý é³½Ù³í³ñáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñª Çñ»Ýó ë»÷³Ï³Ý µ³ñûñáõÃÛ³Ý å³Ñå³ÝÙ³Ý Ñ³Ù³ñ:

Frosina, FYR Macedonia Women in Macedonia face multiple challenges starting from national politics which accent patriotism and patriarchy and are thereby reinforce traditional gender roles. Even though there is a legislative framework for gender equality and anti-discrimination, there are significant gaps between legislation and implementation. Women are exposed to different forms of violence and our legal system has so far developed mostly in treatment of cases of domestic violence but yet not recognizing it’s characteristics of gender based violence and not providing adequate support for vulnerable groups of women. Violence and intolerance against LGBT communities is frequent and cases are not preceded. Integrated security workshops are a must for women in Macedonia so that they can be provided with knowledge and tools to raise their awareness on their guaranteed rights, to identify the multiple risks public and private that their facing on daily bases and most of all to exchange and learn strategies for dealing including their own well being.

лÕÇÝ» ´³µ³Û³Ý

Heghine Babayan

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ë»é³Ï³Ý ³éáÕçáõÃÛáõÝ sexual health

ê»é³Ï³Ý Ñ»ñå»ë Genital herpes

ê»é³Ï³Ý Ñ»ñå»ëÁ ë»é³Ï³Ý ׳ݳå³ñÑáí ÷á˳ÝóíáÕ í³ñ³Ï ¿, áñÝ Ñ³ñáõóíáõÙ ¿ Ñ»ñå»ë ëÇåÉ»ùë íÇñáõë (³ÛëáõÑ»ï Ðêì) 1-ÇÝ ¨ 2-ñ¹ ïÇå»ñÇ ÏáÕÙÇó:

ì³ñ³ÏÇ ÷á˳ÝóáõÙÁ лñå»ë ÇÝý»óÏdzݻñÁ ÷á˳ÝóíáõÙ »Ý íݳëí³ÍùÝ»ñÇ, ÉáñÓ³ÛÇÝ Ù³Ï»ñ»ëÝ»ñÇ, ë»é³Ï³Ý ûñ·³ÝÝ»ñÇ ³ñï³½³ïáõÏÇ ¨ µ»ñ³Ý³ÛÇÝ ³ñï³½³ïáõÏÇ Ñ»ï ß÷ٳٵ: Ðêì-1 ¨ Ðêì-2 ϳñáÕ »Ý ݳ¨ óñí»É / ³ñï³Ý»ïí»É ³éáÕç »ñ¨³óáÕ Ù³ßÏÇó: êáíáñ³µ³ñ, ³ÝÓÁ ϳñáÕ ¿ í³ñ³Ïí»É Ðêì-2 ÇÝý»ÏódzÛáí ÙdzÛÝ ë»é³Ï³Ý Ðêì-2 ÇÝý»Ïódz áõÝ»óáÕ ³ÝÓÇ Ñ»ï ë»é³Ï³Ý ѳñ³µ»ñáõÃÛ³Ý ×³Ý³å³ñÑáí: öá˳ÝóáõÙÝ ³Ù»ÝÇó Ñ³×³Ë Ç Ñ³Ûï ¿ ·³ÉÇë í³ñ³Ïí³Í ½áõ·ÁÝÏ»ñáçÇó, áí ãáõÝÇ ï»ë³Ý»ÉÇ Ù³ßÏÇ ³Ëï³Ñ³ñáõÙ ¨ ϳñáÕ ¿ ãÇٳݳ, áñ ÇÝùÁ í³ñ³Ïí³Í ¿:

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Genital herpes is a sexually transmitted infection (STI) caused by the herpes simplex viruses type 1 (HSV-1) or type 2 (HSV-2).

Transmission of Infection Herpes infections are spread through contact with lesions in mucosal surfaces or both oral and genital secretions. In fact, HSV-1 and HSV-2 can also be present in seemingly healthy skin. Indeed, a person can only get an HSV-2 infection by having sexual intercourse with someone who is infected with the virus. In other words, transmission most commonly involves a partner who does not have a visible sore and probably does not even know that is infected. Symptoms: Most individuals infected with HSV-1 or HSV-2 are asymptomatic, or have very mild symptoms that go unnoticed or are mistaken for another skin condition. As a result, 81.1% of infected individuals remain unaware of their infection. When


²Ëï³Ýß³ÝÝ»ñÁ Ðêì-1-áí ϳ٠Ðêì-2-áí í³ñ³Ïí³Í ³ÝѳïÝ»ñÇ Ù»Í Ù³ëÁ ³Ý³Ëï³ÝÇß »Ý ϳ٠áõÝ»Ý ß³ï ÃáõÛÉ ³ñï³Ñ³Ûïí³Í ³Ëï³Ýß³ÝÝ»ñ, áñáÝù ÁÝóÝáõÙ »Ý ³ÝÝϳï ϳ٠ß÷áÃíáõÙ »Ý Ù³ßÏÇ ³ÛÉ ËݹÇñÝ»ñÇ Ñ»ï: ²ñ¹ÛáõÝùáõÙ, í³ñ³Ïí³Í ³ÝÓ³Ýó 81.1% ÙÝáõÙ »Ý ³Ýï»ÕÛ³Ï Çñ»Ýó í³ñ³Ïí³ÍáõÃÛ³Ý í»ñ³µ»ñÛ³É: ºñµ ³Ëï³Ýß³ÝÝ»ñÝ Ç Ñ³Ûï »Ý ·³ÉÇë, Ýñ³Ýù ëáíáñ³µ³ñ ÉÇÝáõÙ »Ý Ù»Ï Ï³Ù ³í»ÉÇ µßïÇÏÝ»ñÇ ï»ëùáíª Ù³ßÏÇ, áõÕÇÕ ³Õáõ, µ»ñ³ÝÇ ¨ ³ñï³ùÇÝ ë»é³Ï³Ý ûñ·³ÝÝ»ñÇ ßáõñç: ¶³ÕïÝÇ ßñç³ÝÇ ÙÇçÇÝ ï¨áÕáõÃÛáõÝÁ í³ñ³Ïí»Éáõó Ñ»ïá 4 ûñ ¿ (ï³ï³ÝíáõÙ ¿ 2-12 ûñí³ ÁÝóóùáõÙ): ´ßïÇÏÝ»ñÁ å³ïéíáõÙ »Ý ¨ ÃáÕÝáõÙ ó³íáï Ëáó»ñ, áñáÝù å³Ñ³ÝçáõÙ »Ý »ñÏáõëÇó ãáñë ß³µ³Ã, áñå»ë½Ç ɳí³Ý³Ý: ²Ûë ³Ëï³Ýß³ÝÝ»ñ áõݻݳÉÁ ÏáãíáõÙ ¿ ¿åǽá¹/¹ñí³·: ê»é³Ï³Ý Ñ»ñå»ëÇ ÏÉÇÝÇÏ³Ï³Ý Ýϳñ³·ÇñÁ ï³ñµ»ñíáõÙ ¿ í³ñ³ÏÇ ³é³çÇÝ ¨ ѳçáñ¹áÕ ¹ñí³·Ç ÙÇç¨: лñå»ëÇ ³é³çÇÝ ¹ñí³·Á ½áõ·³ÏóíáõÙ ¿ Ñ»ñå»ïÇÏ íݳëí³ÍùÝ»ñÇ ³í»ÉÇ »ñϳñ ï¨áÕáõÃÛ³Ùµ, µ³ñÓñ íÇñáõë³ÛÇÝ ³ñï³óñٳٵ / ³ñï³Ý»ïٳٵª ¹³ñÓÝ»Éáí ÑÇí³Ý¹áõÃÛ³Ý ï³ñÍáõÙÝ ³í»ÉÇ Ñ³í³Ý³Ï³Ý, ¨ ѳٳϳñ·³ÛÇÝ ³Ëï³Ýß³ÝÝ»ñáí, Ý»ñ³éÛ³É` ï»Ý¹, Ù³ñÙÝÇ ó³í»ñ, ³Ûïáõóí³Í ³íß³ÛÇÝ Ñ³Ý·áõÛóÝ»ñ ¨ ·É˳ó³í: ê»é³Ï³Ý Ñ»ñå»ëÇ ÏñÏÝíáÕ ¹ñí³·Ý»ñÁ ѳ׳˳ÏÇ »Ý` Ù³ëݳíáñ³å»ë ÇÝý»ÏódzÛÇ ³é³çÇÝ ï³ñí³ ÁÝóóùáõÙ: ÐÇí³Ý¹Ý»ñÇ Ùáï³íáñ³å»ë Ï»ëÁ, áíù»ñ ÝϳïáõÙ »Ý ÑÇí³Ý¹áõÃÛ³Ý ÏñÏÝáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñÁ, áõÝ»Ý åñá¹ñáÙ³É Ýß³ÝÝ»ñ, ÇÝãåÇëÇù »Ý` ÃáõÛÉ, ͳÏáÕ, ³ÛñáÕ ó³í»ñ áïù»ñáõÙ, ÏáÝùáõÙ ¨ Ñ»ïáõÛùáõÙ, áñáÝù Ç Ñ³Ûï »Ý ·³ÉÇë Ñ»ñå»ïÇÏ ó³Ý³íáñÙ³Ý ¹áõñë ·³Éáõó ÙÇ ù³ÝÇ Å³ÙÇó ÙÇ ù³ÝÇ ûñí³ ÁÝóóùáõÙ: ÎñÏÝíáÕ ¹ñí³·Ý»ñÇ ³Ëï³Ýß³ÝÝ»ñÁ ëáíáñ³µ³ñ ³í»ÉÇ Ï³ñ× »Ý ¨ ³í»ÉÇ ùÇã ͳÝñ, ù³Ý ë»é³Ï³Ý Ñ»ñå»ëÇ ³é³çÇÝ ¿åǽá¹Á: âÝ³Û³Í ÇÝý»ÏóÇ³Ý Ï³ñáÕ ¿ ÙÝ³É ûñ·³ÝǽÙáõÙ ³Ýë³ÑÙ³Ý Å³Ù³Ý³Ï, ¿åǽá¹Ý»ñÇ ù³Ý³ÏÁ Ó·ïáõÙ ¿ Ýí³½Ù³Ý Å³Ù³Ý³ÏÇ ÁÝóóùáõÙ: ÐÇí³¹áõÃÛ³Ý ÏñÏÝáõÙÝ ³í»É ùÇã ѳ׳˳ÏÇ »Ý Ðêì-1 íÇñáõëáí, ù³Ý Ðêì-2-áí:

symptoms do occur, they typically appear as one or more vesicles on or around the genitals, rectum or mouth. The average incubation period after exposure is 4 days (range from 2 to 12). The vesicles break and leave painful ulcers that may take between two to four weeks to heal. Experiencing these symptoms is referred to as having an “outbreak” or episode. Clinical manifestations of genital herpes differ between the first and recurrent outbreaks of HSV. The first outbreak of herpes is often associated with a longer duration of herpetic lesions, increased viral shedding (making HSV transmission more likely) and systemic symptoms including fever, body aches, swollen lymph nodes, and headache. Recurrent outbreaks of genital herpes are particularly common during the first year of infection. Approximately half of patients who recognize recurrences have prodromal symptoms such as mild tingling or shooting pains in the legs, hips and buttocks occurring from hours to days before eruption of herpetic lesions. Symptoms of recurrent outbreaks are typically shorter in duration and less severe than the first outbreak of genital herpes. Although the infection can stay in the body indefinitely, the number of outbreaks tends to decrease over time. Recurrences are much less frequent for genital HSV-1 infection than for genital HSV-2 infection.

Complications Genital herpes causes painful genital ulcers in many adults that can be severe and persistent in persons with suppressed immune systems, such as HIV-infected persons. Both HSV-1 and HSV-2 can also cause rare but serious complications such as blindness, encephalitis (inflammation of the brain), and aseptic meningitis (inflammation of the linings of the brain). Development of extra genital lesions in the buttocks, groin, thigh, finger, and eye may occur during the course of infection. Some persons who contract genital herpes have concerns about how it will impact their overall health, sex life, and relationships. Embarrassment, shame, and social stigma associated with a herpes diagnosis can interfere with patient’s relationships.

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´³ñ¹áõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñ

Genital herpes and HIV

ê»é³Ï³Ý Ñ»ñå»ëÝ ³é³ç³óÝáõÙ ¿ ó³íáï ë»é³Ï³Ý Ëáó»ñ, áñáÝù ϳñáÕ »Ý ÉÇÝ»É Í³Ýñ ¨ ѳñ³×áÕ ÁÝÏ×í³Í ÇÙáõÝ Ñ³Ù³Ï³ñ· áõÝ»óáÕ ³ÝÓ³Ýó Ùáï, ÇÝãåÇù »Ý ØƲì-áí í³ñ³Ïí³Í ³ÝÓÇÝù: º°í Ðêì-1, ¨° Ðêì-2 ϳñáÕ »Ý ݳ¨ ³é³ç³óÝ»É Ñ³½í³¹»å, µ³Ûó Éáõñç µ³ñ¹áõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñ, ÇÝãåÇëÇù »Ý` ÏáõñáõÃÛáõÝÁ, ¿Ýó»ý³ÉÇïÁ (áõÕ»ÕÇ µáñµáùáõÙ), ³ë»åïÇÏ Ù»ÝÇÝ·ÇïÁ (áõջճóճÝÃÝ»ñÇ µáñµáùáõÙÁ): ¾ùëïñ³·»ÝÇï³É íݳëáõÙÝ»ñÇ ½³ñ·³óáõÙÁ Ýëï³ï»ÕáõÙ, ³×áõÏáõÙ, ³½¹ñ»ñáõÙ ¨ ³ãùáõ٠ϳñáÕ ¿ Ç Ñ³Ûï ·³É ÑÇí³Ý¹áõÃÛ³Ý ÁÝóóùáõÙ: àñáß ³ÝÓÇÝù, áíù»ñ áõÝ»Ý ë»é³Ï³Ý Ñ»ñå»ë, áõÝ»Ý ³ÝѳݷëïáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñ, û ÇÝãå»ë ³ÛÝ Ï³½¹Ç Çñ»Ýó ÁݹѳÝáõñ ³éáÕçáõÃÛ³Ý, ë»é³Ï³Ý ÏÛ³ÝùÇ ¨ ѳñ³µ»ñáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñÇ íñ³: γñáÕ ¿ ÉÇÝ»É ³ñï³Ñ³Ûïí³Í ³ÙáÃ˳ÍáõÃÛáõÝ ¨ ˳ñ³Ý` ϳåí³Í Ñ»ñå»ëÇ ³ËïáñßÙ³Ý Ñ»ï, áñÁ Ý߳ݳϳÉÇáñ»Ý ϳñáÕ ¿ ³½¹»É å³óÇ»ÝïÇ Ñ³ñ³µ»ñáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñÇ íñ³:

Genital ulcerative disease caused by herpes make it easier to transmit and acquire HIV through sexual intercourse. There is an estimated 2- to 4-fold increased risk of acquiring HIV when the person is exposed to that infection while genital herpes is present. This is because genital herpes can cause ulcers or breaks in the skin or mucous membranes (lining of the mouth, vagina, and rectum) which provide protection against infections, including HIV. Herpetic genital ulcers can bleed easily and when they come into contact with the mouth, vagina, or rectum during sex they increase the risk of HIV transmission.

ê»é³Ï³Ý Ñ»ñå»ë ¨ ØƲì ê»é³Ï³Ý Ëáó³ÛÇÝ ÑÇí³Ý¹áõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñÁ, áñáÝù ³é³ç³ÝáõÙ »Ý Ñ»ñå»ëÇ ³ñ¹ÛáõÝùáõÙ, ØƲì í³ñ³ÏÇ ÷á˳ÝóáõÙÁ ¨ Ó»éù µ»ñáõÙÁ ë»é³Ï³Ý ׳ݳå³ñáí ¹³éÓÝáõÙ »Ý ³í»ÉÇ Ñ»ßï: Øáï³íáñ ѳßí³ñÏÝ»ñáí ØƲì Ó»éù µ»ñ»Éáõ éÇëÏÁ »ñÏáõëÇó ãáñë ³Ý·³Ù ٻͳÝáõÙ ¿, »ñµ ³Û¹ ÇÝý»ÏódzÛÇ ¿ùëåá½ÇóÇ³Ý ï»ÕÇ ¿ áõÝ»ÝáõÙ, »ñµ ³éϳ ¿ ë»é³Ï³Ý Ñ»ñå»ë: ê³ ³ÛÝ å³ï׳éáí, áñ ë»é³Ï³Ý Ñ»ñå»ëÁ íݳëáõÙ ¿ Ù³ßÏÁ ¨ ÉáñӳóճÝÃÝ»ñÁ (µ»ñ³ÝÇ, Ñ»ßïáóÇ ¨ áõÕÇÕ ³ÕÇÝ å³ïáÕ ß»ñïÁ), áñÝ ïñ³Ù³¹ñáõÙ ¿ å³ßïå³ÝáõÃÛáõÝ í³ñ³ÏÝ»ñÇó` ³Û¹ ÃíáõÙ ØƲì-Çó: лñå»ïÇÏ ë»é³Ï³Ý Ëáó»ñÁ ϳñáÕ »Ý Ñ»ßïáñ»Ý ³ÛñáõݳÑáë»É, ¨, »ñµ ë»é³Ï³Ý ѳñ³µ»ñáõÃÛ³Ý ÁÝóóùáõÙ ß÷áõ٠ϳ µ»ñ³ÝÇ, Ñ»ßïáóÇ Ï³Ù

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Treatment There is no cure for herpes. However antiviral medications can prevent or shorten outbreaks during the period of time the person takes the medication. In addition, daily suppressive therapy (i.e. daily use of antiviral medication) for herpes can reduce the likelihood of transmission to partners.

Prevention Correct and consistent use of condoms can reduce the risk of getting genital herpes. However, outbreaks can occur in areas that are not covered by a condom. The surest way to avoid transmission of sexually transmit-


áõÕÇÕ ³Õáõ Ñ»ï, ³ÛÝ Ù»Í³óÝáõÙ ¿ ØƲì-Ç ÷á˳ÝóÙ³Ý éÇëÏÁ:

´áõÅáõ٠лñå»ëÇ Ñ³Ù³ñ µáõÅáõÙ ãϳ: гϳíÇñáõë³ÛÇÝ ¹»Õ»ñÁ ϳñáÕ »Ý, ë³Ï³ÛÝ, ϳÝË»É Ï³Ù Ï³ñ׳óÝ»É ¹ñí³·Ý»ñÁ ³ÛÝ Å³Ù³Ý³Ï³Ñ³ïí³ÍÇ ÁÝóóùáõÙ, »ñµ ³ÝÓÝ ÁݹáõÝáõÙ ¿ ¹»Õáñ³ÛùÁ: ´³óÇ ¹³ ûñ»Ï³Ý/³Ù»ÝûñÛ³ ÁÝÏ×áÕ Ã»ñ³ådzÝ, ³ÛëÇÝùݪ ѳϳíÇñáõë³ÛÇÝ ¹»Õ»ñÇ ³Ù»ÝûñÛ³ û·ï³·áñÍáõÙÁ ϳñáÕ ¿ Ýí³½»óÝ»É Ñ»ñå»ëÁ ½áõ·ÁÝÏ»ñáçÁ ÷á˳Ýó»Éáõ ѳí³Ý³Ï³ÝáõÃÛáõÝÁ:

γÝ˳ñ·»ÉáõÙÁ ä³Ñå³Ý³ÏÝ»ñÇ ×Çßï ¨ Ñ»ï¨áÕ³Ï³Ý ÏÇñ³éáõÙÁ ϳñáÕ ¿ Ýí³½»óÝ»É ë»é³Ï³Ý Ñ»ñå»ëáí í³ñ³Ïí»Éáõ éÇëÏÁ: ê³Ï³ÛÝ ÑÇí³Ý¹áõÃÛ³Ý ¹ñí³·Ý»ñÁ ϳñáÕ »Ý Ç Ñ³Ûï ·³É ³ÛÝ ßñç³ÝÝ»ñáõÙ, áñáÝù ã»Ý ͳÍÏíáõÙ å³Ñå³Ý³Ïáí: ê»é³Ï³Ý ׳ݳå³ñÑáí ÷á˳ÝóíáÕ í³ñ³ÏÝ»ñÁ, ³Û¹ ÃíáõÙ ë»é³Ï³Ý Ñ»ñå»ëÁ ϳÝ˳ñ·»É»Éáõ É³í³·áõÛÝ ï³ñµ»ñ³ÏÁ ë»é³Ï³Ý ÏáÝï³ÏïÇó Ó»éÝå³Ñ ÙݳÉÝ ¿ ϳ٠»ñϳñ³Å³ÙÏ»ï, ÙáÝᷳ٠ѳñ³µ»ñáõÃÛáõÝ ëï»ÕÍ»ÉÝ ¿ ½áõ·ÁÝÏ»ñáç Ñ»ï, áí ѻﳽáïí»É ¿ ¨ í³ñ³Ïí³Í ã¿: лñå»ëáí í³ñ³Ïí³Í ³ÝÓÇÝù å»ïù ¿ Ëáõë³÷»Ý Çñ»Ýó ½áõ·ÁÝÏ»ñÝ»ñÇ Ñ»ï ë»é³Ï³Ý ³ÏïÇíáõÃÛáõÝÇó, »ñµ Ñ»ñå»ïÇÏ ó³Ý»ñÁ ¨ ÑÇí³Ý¹áõÃÛ³Ý ³ÛÉ Ýß³ÝÝ»ñÝ ³éϳ »Ý: γñ¨áñ ¿ ÇٳݳÉ, áñ »Ã» ³ÝÓÁ ãáõÝÇ áñ¨¿ ³Ëï³Ýß³Ý, ݳ ¹»é ϳñáÕ ¿ ½áõ·ÁÝÏ»ñáçÁ í³ñ³Ï»É: ì³ñ³Ïí³Í ³ÝÓ³Ýó ë»é³Ï³Ý ½áõ·ÁÝÏ»ñÝ»ñÇÝ å»ïù ¿ ËáñÑáõñ¹ ï³É, áñ ù³ÝÇ áñ Ýñ³Ýù ϳñáÕ »Ý í³ñ³Ïí»É, å»ïù ¿ ³Ýå³ÛÙ³Ý û·ï³·áñÍ»Ý å³Ñå³Ñ³Ý³ÏÝ»ñ` Ýí³½»óÝ»Éáõ ѳٳñ í³ñ³ÏÙ³Ý éÇëÏÁ:

ted infections, including genital herpes, is to abstain from sexual contact or to be in a long-term mutually monogamous relationship with a partner who has been tested and is known to be uninfected. Persons with herpes should abstain from sexual activity with partners when sores or other symptoms of herpes are present. It is important to know that even if a person does not have any symptoms, he or she can still infect sex partners. Sex partners of infected persons should be advised that they may become infected and they should use condoms to reduce the risk.

ì³ñ¹³Ý гٵ³ñÓáõÙÛ³Ý

Vardan Hambardzumyan

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ëáóÇ³É³Ï³Ý ³ñ¹³ñáõÃÛáõÝ social justice

Ðá·»Ï³Ý Ë³Ý·³ñáõÙÝ»ñÇ Ñ³Ù³ß˳ñѳÛÇÝ ¹³ë³Ï³ñ·áõÙÝ»ñÁ ¨ ÝáõÛݳë»é³Ï³ÝáõÃÛ³Ý Ñ³ñóÁ International classifications of mental disorders and the question of homosexuality

ÜáõÛݳë»é³Ï³ÝáõÃÛ³Ý ¨ ¹ñ³ å³ï׳éÝ»ñÇ Ñ³ëϳóáõÙÁ »ñϳñ Å³Ù³Ý³Ï ùÝݳñÏí»É ¿ ï³ñµ»ñ ·Çï³Ï³Ý ѳñÃáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñáõÙ: ²ÝóÝ»Éáí ѳëϳóÙ³Ý »ñϳñ ׳ݳå³ñÑ` Ý»ñϳÛáõÙë Ñá·»Ï³Ý ³éáÕçáõÃÛ³Ý áÉáñïáõÙ ÝáõÛݳë»é³Ï³ÝáõÃÛáõÝÁ ѳٳñíáõÙ ¿ ë»é³Ï³Ý ÏáÕÙÝáñáßÙ³Ý Ó¨»ñÇó Ù»ÏÁ: ²ÝÓÇ ë»é³Ï³Ý ÏáÕÙÝáñáßáõÙÁ Ù³ñ¹áõ Ñáõ½³Ï³Ý, éáÙ³ÝïÇÏ ¨ ë»é³Ï³Ý ·ñ³íãáõÃÛáõÝÝ ¿ ³ÛÉ Ù³ñ¹áõ Ýϳïٳٵ (в², ²ÐÎ, Æȶ²-ºíñáå³), ÇëÏ ÝáõÛݳë»é³Ï³ÝáõÃÛáõÝÁ` Ù³ñ¹áõ Ñáõ½³Ï³Ý, éáÙ³ÝïÇÏ ¨ ë»é³Ï³Ý ·ñ³íãáõÃÛáõÝÁ ÝáõÛÝ ë»éÇ ³ÝÓÇ Ýϳïٳٵ: àñáß Å³Ù³Ý³Ï³ßñç³Ý ÝáõÛݳë»é³Ï³ÝáõÃÛáõÝÁ ѳٳñí»É ¿ ѳÝó³·áñÍáõÃÛáõÝ, ÇëÏ ³ÛÝáõÑ»ï¨ Ñá·»Ï³Ý Ë³Ý·³ñáõÙ: 20-ñ¹ ¹³ñÇ í»ñçáõÙ ³éáÕç³å³Ñ³Ï³Ý áõ Ñá·»µáõÅ³Ï³Ý Ï³½Ù³Ï»ñåáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñÁ ÝáõÛݳë»é³Ï³ÝáõÃÛáõÝÁ Ñ³Ý»É »Ý Ñá·»Ï³Ý Ë³Ý³·³ñáõÙÝ»ñÇ Ñ³Ù³ß˳ñѳÛÇÝ ¹³ë³Ï³ñ·áõÙÝ»ñÇ ß³ñùÇó: Ü»ñϳÛáõÙë Ñá·»Ï³Ý ³éáÕçáõÃÛ³Ý áÉáñïáõ٠ѳëï³ïí³Í »Ý ¨ ÙÇç³½·³ÛÇÝ Ù³ëݳ·»ïÝ»ñÇ ÏáÕÙÇó ÏÇñ³éíáõÙ »Ý Ñá·»Ï³Ý Ë³Ý·³ñáõÙÝ»ñÇ ³ËïáñáßÙ³Ý ¨ ¹³ë³Ï³ñ·Ù³Ý 2 ѳٳϳñ·»ñ: ²é³çÇÝÁ ²éáÕç³å³ÑáõÃÛ³Ý Ñ³Ù³ß˳ñѳÛÇÝ Ï³½Ù³Ï»ñåáõÃÛ³Ý (³ÛëáõÑ»ï` ²ÐÎ) ÏáÕÙÇó Ùß³Ïí³Í Ðá·»Ï³Ý ¨ í³ñù³ÛÇÝ Ë³Ý·³ñáõÙÝ»ñÇ ÙÇç³½·³ÛÇÝ ¹³ë³Ï³ñ·áõÙÝ ¿ (í»ñçÇÝ ï³ñµ»ñ³ÏÁ` Ðظ-10, ³ÛëáõÑ»ï `Ðظ), áñÝ ÁݹáõÝíáõÙ ¨ ÏÇñ³éíáõÙ ¿ ³ß˳ñÑÇ ï³ñµ»ñ »ñÏñÝ»ñáõÙ` ³Û¹ Ãíáõ٠ݳ¨ ѳ۳ëï³ÝÛ³Ý Ñá·»µáõÅ³Ï³Ý ¨ Ñ᷻ûñ³å¨ïÇÏ åñ³ÏïÇϳÛáõÙ: ÆëÏ »ñÏñáñ¹Á Ðá·»µáõÛÅÝ»ñÇ ³Ù»ñÇÏÛ³Ý ³ëáódzódzÛÇ (³ÛëáõÑ»ï` в²) ÏáÕÙÇó Ùß³Ïí³Í Ðá·»Ï³Ý Ë³Ý·³ñáõÙÝ»ñÇ ³ËïáñáßÙ³Ý ¨ íÇ׳ϳ·ñáõÃÛ³Ý Ó»éݳñÏÝ ¿ (í»ñçÇÝ ï³ñµ»ñ³ÏÁ` ²ìÒ-V, ³ÛëáõÑ»ï`²ìÒ), áñÁ ÑÇÙݳϳÝáõÙ ÏÇñ³éíáõÙ ¿ ³Ù»ñÇÏÛ³Ý Ñá·»µáõų-

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Different scientific dimensions have discussed the understanding of homosexuality and its reasons. Passing a long way homosexuality is currently seen as one type of sexual orientation in the mental health field. Sexual orientation is a person’s emotional, romantic and sexual attraction to an other person (APA, WHO, ILGA Europe) that is to say homosexuality is a person’s romantic and sexual attraction to a person of the same sex. In the past homosexuality was considered a crime and afterwards as mental disorder. In the end of 20th century health and psychiatric organizations removed homosexuality from the list of international classifications of mental disorders. Nowadays two mental disorders classification systems are established and being practiced by international professionals. The first one is the International Classification of Diseases (the last revision is ICD-10, from now: ICD) developed by the World Health Organization (from now: WHO) which is accepted in different countries, as well as in Armenian psychiatric and psychotherapeutic practice. The second one is Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of mental disorders (the last revision is DSM-V, from now: DSM) developed by the American Psychiatric Association (from now: APA) which is mainly used in American psychiatric and psychotherapeutic practice but is accepted in other countries as well. Until the 19th century homosexual activities were discussed from moral, religious and legal approaches, considering it as a “crime


Ï³Ý ¨ Ñ᷻ûñ³å¨ïÇÏ åñ³ÏïÇϳÛáõÙ, ë³Ï³ÛÝ ÁݹáõÝ»ÉÇ ¿ ݳ¨ ³ÛÉ »ñÏÝ»ñáõÙ: ØÇÝ㨠19-ñ¹ ¹³ñÁ ÝáõÛݳë»é³Ï³Ý ·áñÍáÕáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñÁ ùÝݳñÏí»É »Ý µ³ñá۳ϳÝ, ÏñáÝ³Ï³Ý ¨ Çñ³í³Ï³Ý ï»ë³ÝÏÛáõÝÇó` ³ÛÝ ¹Çï³ñÏ»Éáí áñå»ë §Ñ³Ýó³·áñÍáõÃÛáõÝ µÝáõÃÛ³Ý ¹»Ù¦ ϳ٠§ëá¹áٳϳÝáõÃÛáõݦ ¨ Ñ»ï³åݹí»É ûñ»ÝùÇ ÏáÕÙÇó: ²ÛÝ Ñ³Ýó³·áñÍáõÃÛáõÝ ¿ñ ѳٳñíáõ٠ݳ¨ г۳ëï³ÝáõÙ ÙÇÝ㨠2003Ã.: ÐÐ øñ»³Ï³Ý ûñ»Ýë·ñùáõ٠ϳï³ñí³Í ÷á÷áËáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñÇ Ñ³Ù³Ó³ÛÝ` ÝáõÛݳë»é³Ï³ÝáõÃÛáõÝÝ ³å³ùñ»³Ï³Ý³óí»É ¿, ³ÛëÇÝùÝ` ÝáõÛݳë»é ѳñ³µ»ñáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñÝ ³Ûɨë ã»Ý ѳٳñíáõÙ ùñ»áñ»Ý å³ïÅ»ÉÇ: 19-20-ñ¹ ¹¹-áõÙ ÝáõÛݳë»é ѳñ³µ»ñáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñÁ ѳÛïÝí»É »Ý µÅßÏ³Ï³Ý ¨ Ñá·»µáõÅ³Ï³Ý Ñ³ÝñáõÃÛ³Ý áõß³¹ñáõÃÛ³Ý Ï»ÝïñáÝáõÙ` ¹Çï³ñÏí»Éáí áñå»ë Ñá·»Ï³Ý Ë³Ý·³ñáõÙ: ØÇÝ㨠1930-³Ï³ÝÝ»ñÁ µÅßÏ³Ï³Ý åñ³ÏïÇϳÛáõÙ ÝáõÛݳë»é³Ï³ÝáõÃÛáõÝÁ µ³ó³ïñíáõÙ ¿ñ ÇÝí»ñëÇáÝ í³ñϳÍáí, ѳٳӳÛÝ áñÇ` ÝáõÛݳë»é³Ï³ÝáõÃÛáõÝÁ Ï»Ýë³µ³Ý³Ï³Ý ·áñÍáÝÝ»ñÇ` Ù³ñ¹áõ §·»Ý»ñǦ Ý»ñ·áñÍáõÃÛ³Ý ³ñ¹ÛáõÝù ¿ñ: ÜáõÛݳë»é³Ï³Ý Ù³ñ¹ÇÏ ÝÛ³ñ¹³ÑáõÙáñ³É Ñ»ñÙ³ýñá¹ÇïÝ»ñ ¿ÇÝ (ÐÇñßý»É¹), áíù»ñ áõÝ»ÇÝ ³Ý³ïáÙÇ³Ï³Ý ¨ ýǽÇáÉá·Ç³Ï³Ý ï³ñµ»ñáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñ ï³ñ³ë»é³Ï³Ý Ù³ñ¹Ï³ÝóÇó: ²Ûë ßñç³ÝáõÙ ÝáõÛݳë»é³Ï³ÝáõÃÛ³Ý Ñ³ñóÁ ½»ñÍ ãÇ ÙÝáõ٠ݳ¨ Ñá·»í»ñÉáõÍ³Ï³Ý ¹åñáóÇ Ñ³Û³óùÇó, áñáõÙ Ó¨³íáñíáõÙ »Ý »ñÏáõ Ùáï»óáõÙÝ»ñ: ²é³çÇÝÇ Ñ³Ù³Ó³ÛÝ (üñáÛ¹)` ÝáõÛݳë»é³Ï³ÝáõÃÛáõÝÁ ϳ°Ù ѳٳñíáõÙ ¿ñ ë»é³Ï³Ý ÇÝí»ñëdz, áñÁ ë»é³Ï³Ý ½³ñ·³óÙ³Ý ÷áõÉ»ñÇ ³Ýµ³ñ»Ñ³çáÕ Ñ³ÕóѳñÙ³Ý ³ñ¹ÛáõÝù ¿ñ ¨ »Ýó¹ñáõÙ ¿ñ Ñ᷻ûñ³å¨ïÇÏ ÙÇç³ÙïáõÃÛáõÝ, ϳ°Ù áñáß Ù³ñ¹Ï³Ýó ¹»åùáõÙ` ÝáñÙ³É ½³ñ·³óÙ³Ý Ñ»ï¨³Ýù ¨ Ù³ñ¹áõ Ý»ñùÇÝ µÝ³½¹Ç ³ñï³Ñ³ÛïÙ³Ý Ó¨: ºñÏñáñ¹Ç ѳٳӳÛÝ (è³¹á ¨ Ñ»ï¨áñ¹Ý»ñ)` ÝáõÛݳë»é³Ï³ÝáõÃÛáõÝÁ ѳٳñíáõÙ ¿ñ ýáµÇÏ Ëáõë³÷áõ٠ѳϳé³Ï ë»éÇó, áñÁ ÍÝáÕÝ»ñÇ ÏáÕÙÇó Ù³ÝÏáõÃÛ³Ý ï³ñÇùáõÙ ë»é³Ï³ÝáõÃÛ³ÝÝ áõÕÕí³Í ³ñ·»ÉùÝ»ñÇ ³ñ¹ÛáõÝù ¿ñ, ¨ »Ýó¹ñáõÙ ¿ñ «µáõÅáõÙ»: лÝó Ñá·»í»ñÉáõÍ³Ï³Ý ¹åñáóÝ ¿ñ, áñ ËáãÁݹáïáõÙ ¿ñ ÝáõÛݳë»é³Ï³ÝáõÃÛ³Ý` Ñá·»Ï³Ý Ë³Ý³·³ñáõÙÝ»ñÇ ß³ñùÇó ¹áõñë ѳݻÉáõÝ: 1949Ã-ÇÝ ²éáÕç³å³ÑáõÃÛ³Ý Ñ³Ù³ß˳ñѳÛÇÝ Ï³½Ù³Ï»ñåáõÃÛáõÝÁ Ðظ-6-áõÙ Ý»ñ³éáõÙ ¿ Ñá·»Ï³Ý Ë³Ý·³ñáõÙÝ»ñÇ µ³ÅÇÝÁ, ÇëÏ 1952Ã-ÇÝ ¹áõñë ¿ ·³ÉÇë ²ìÒ-I-Á, áñáÝóáõÙ ÝáõÛݳë»é³Ï³ÝáõÃÛáõÝÁ Ý»ñϳ۳óíáõÙ ¿ Ñá·»Ï³Ý Ë³Ý·³ñáõÙÝ»ñÇ ß³ñùáõÙ:

against nature” or “sodomy” and being pursuit by law. In Armenia it was considered a crime until 2003. According to the changes in the RA Criminal Code homosexuality was decriminalized, in other words homosexual relations were not considered to be criminally punishable anymore. During 19-20th century homosexual relations appeared in the attention of medical and psychiatric communities being seen as mental disorder. Until 1930’s homosexuality was explained by inversion hypothesis in the medical practice. According to this hypothesis homosexuality was caused by biological factors, “genes” influences. Homosexual people were neuro-endocrinological hermaphrodites (Hirschfield) who have anatomical and physiological differences from heterosexual people. During this period of time two approaches were stated about the reason of homosexuality from the psychoanalytic point of view. According to the first one (Freud) homosexuality for some people was seen as sexual pervasion that was the reason of unfavorable overcoming of sexual development stages and assumed psychotherapeutic intervention. And in some cases it was seen as a reason of normal development process and was a form of expression of human instinct. According to the second view (Rado and followers) homosexuality was considered as phobic avoidance of the other sex caused by parental prohibitions during childhood sexuality and assumed “treatment”. The psychoanalytic school was hampered to remove homosexuality form the list of mental disorders for a long time. In 1949 the World Health Organization included the section of mental disorders in ICD-6, and in 1952 DSM-I was published by the American Psychiatric Association. In both classifications homosexuality was included as a mental disorder. The further changes in both classifications have been influenced by several factors. First of all, during 1940-1950s two psychologist-researchers (Evelyn Hooker and Alfred Kinsley) published the results of their research about homosexuality. According to the research re-

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¸³ë³Ï³ñ·áõÙÝ»ñáõ٠ѻﳷ³ ÷á÷áËáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñÇ íñ³ ³½¹»óáõÃÛáõÝ »Ý áõÝ»ó»É ÙÇ ù³ÝÇ Ñ³Ý·³Ù³ÝùÝ»ñ: Ü³Ë 1940-1950-³Ï³ÝÝ»ñÇÝ »ñÏáõ Ñá·»µ³Ý ѻﳽáïáÕÝ»ñ (¾í»ÉÇÝ ÐáõÏ»ñ ¨ ²Éýñ»¹ ÎÇÝëÉÇ) Ññ³å³ñ³ÏáõÙ »Ý ÝáõÛݳë»é³Ï³ÝáõÃÛ³Ý Ù³ëÇÝ Çñ»Ýó ѻﳽáïáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñÇ ³ñ¹ÛáõùÝ»ñÁ, ѳٳӳÛÝ áñáÝó` ÝáõÛݳë»é³Ï³ÝáõÃÛáõÝÁ ¨ ï³ñ³ë»é³Ï³ÝáõÃÛáõÝÁ Ý»ñϳ۳óíáõÙ »Ý áã û áñå»ë ѳϳ¹ñáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñ, ³ÛÉ ÙÇ »ñ¨áõÛÃÇ` ë»é³Ï³Ý ÏáÕÙÝáñáßÙ³Ý ¹ñë¨áñÙ³Ý »ñÏáõ µ¨»éÝ»ñ: ØÛáõë ÏáÕÙÇó 1970-³Ï³ÝÝ»ñÇÝ ³í»É³ÝáõÙ »Ý ëáódzÉù³Õ³ù³Ï³Ý ï³ñµ»ñ ·áñÍáõÝ»áõÃÛáõÝ, »ñµ ·»Û ³ÏïÇíÇëïÝ»ñÁ µáÕáùÇ ³ÉÇù »Ý µ³ñÓñ³óÝáõÙ Ñá·»µáõÅ³Ï³Ý ¨ ³éáÕç³å³Ñ³Ï³Ý ѳÝñáõÃÛ³Ý ¹»Ù: Üñ³Ýù 1970Ã-ÇÝ ê³Ý üñ³ÝóÇëÏáÛáõÙ µáÕáùÇ ³Ïódzݻñ »Ý ϳ½Ù³Ï»ñåáõÙ ²Ù»ñÇÏÛ³Ý Ñá·»µáõÅ³Ï³Ý ³ëáódzódzÛÇ Ñ³Ù³ÅáÕáíÇ ÁÝóóùáõÙ` Ý»ñËáõÅ»Éáí Ý»ñë ¨ ³ñï³Ñ³Ûï»Éáí Çñ»Ýó µáÕáùÁ Ñá·»µáõÛÅÝ»ñÇ Ùáï»óáõÙ³Ý ¹»Ù: ²ñ¹ÛáõÝùáõÙ, ѳßíÇ ³éÝ»Éáí ³ÏïíÇëï³Ï³Ý ß³ñÅÙ³Ý µáÕáùÝ»ñÁ ¨ Ñá·»µ³Ý³Ï³Ý ѻﳽáïáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñÇ ïíÛ³ÉÝ»ñÁ ÝáõÛݳë»é³Ï³ÝáõÃÛ³Ý Ù³ëÇÝ` 1974Ã-ÇÝ Ðá·»µáõÛÅÝ»ñÇ ³Ù»ñÇÏÛ³Ý ³ëáódzóÇ³Ý í»ñ³Ý³ÛáõÙ ¿ ²ìÒ-II-Á ¨ Ñ»é³óÝáõÙ ÝáõÛݳë»é³Ï³ÝáõÃÛáõÝÁ Ñá·»Ï³Ý Ë³Ý·³ñáõÙÝ»ñÇ ß³ñùÇó: àñå»ë ÷áËѳïáõóáõÙ ²ìÒ-II-áõÙ ³í»É³ÝáõÙ ¿ §ê»é³Ï³Ý ÏáÕÙÝáñáßÙ³Ý Ë³Ý·³ñáõÙ¦ ¹³ë³Ï³ñ·áõÙÁ, ѳٳӳÛÝ áñÇ` ÝáõÛݳë»é³Ï³ÝáõÃÛáõÝÝ ³é³ÝÓÇÝ ãÇ Ñ³Ù³ñíáõÙ Ñá·»Ï³Ý Ë³Ý·³ñáõÙ, ë³Ï³ÛÝ ³ÛÝ Ë³Ý·³ñáõÙ ¿, »Ã» ³ÝÓÁ ¹ÇëÃñ»ë ¿ ³åñáõ٠ϳåí³Í Çñ ë»é³Ï³Ý ÏáÕÙÝáñáßÙ³Ý Ñ»ï ¨ ó³ÝϳÝáõÙ ¿ ³ÛÝ ÷áË»É: ²ìÒ-III-áõÙ ³ÛÝ ÷á˳ñÇÝíáõÙ ¿ §¾·á-¹ÇëÃáÝÇÏ ÝáõÛݳë»é³Ï³ÝáõÃÛáõݦ »½ñáõÛÃáí` å³Ñå³Ý»Éáí ÝáõÛÝ ÇÙ³ëïÁ, ÇëÏ Ñ»ï³·³ í»ñ³Ý³ÛáõÙÝ»ñáõÙ` (²ìÒ III-ì-áõÙ (1987Ã.), ²ìÒ-IV (1994Ã.) ¨ ²ìÒ-IV-TR(2000Ã.)) ¹áõñë ¿ ѳÝíáõÙ ¹³ë³Ï³ñ·áõÙÇó` ÷á˳ñÇÝí»Éáí §âï³ñµ»ñ³Ïí³Í ë»é³Ï³Ý ³Ý·³ñáõÙ¦ µ³ÅÝáõÙ ³éϳ Ï»ïáí: Ü»ñϳÛáõÙë ²ìÒ V-áõÙ (2013Ã.) ÷á÷áËáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñ »Ý ϳï³ñí»É, áñï»ÕÇó ѳÝí»É ¿ ³é³ÝÓÇÝ Ï»ïÁª ÑÇÙÝí³Í ë»é³Ï³Ý ÏáÕÙÝáñáßÙ³Ý íñ³, ù³ÝÇ áñ ³Û¹ ë³ÑÙ³ÝáõÙÁ ãÇ Ñ³Ù³ñí»É ·áñÍݳϳÝáñ»Ý û·ï³Ï³ñ: 1992Ã-ÇÝ Ðظ-áõÙ ÝáõÛݳë»é³Ï³ÝáõÃÛáõÝÁ áñå»ë ³é³ÝÓÇÝ Ë³Ý·³ñáõÙ ¹áõñë ¿ ѳÝíáõÙ Ñá·»Ï³Ý Ë³Ý·³ñáõÙÝ»ñÇ ß³ñùÇó ¨ ³é³ÝÓݳóíáõÙ ·»Ý¹»ñ³ÛÇÝ ÇÝùÝáõÃÛ³Ý Ë³Ý·³ñáõÙÝ»ñÇó (Ðظ-10), ë³-

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sults homosexuality and heterosexuality were not seen as counterpoints but as poles of expressions of the same phenomena: sexual orientation. On the other hand, during 1970s social and political activities began to influence on this issue, when gay activists started protesting against the psychiatric and health communities. In 1970 they organized a protest during the American Psychiatric Association’s conference in San Francisco by breaking in the conference and expressing their point of view against the psychiatrists’ approach. As a result taking in the consideration the activist movement protests as well as the results of psychological researches about homosexuality, the American Psychiatric Association revised DSM-II and removed homosexuality from the list of mental disorders in 1974. As compensation a new classification was added in DSMII: “Sexual orientation disturbance”. According to this classification homosexuality wasn’t assumed as a mental disorder itself, but the disorder is diagnosed when an individual had distress related to the sexual orientation and wanted to change it. In DSM-III it was replaced by “Egodystonic homosexuality”, having the same meaning. In future revisions (DSM-III-R (1987), DSM-IV (1994), DSM-IV-TR (2000)) was removed from the classifications and replaced with “Sexual disturbance not otherwise specified”. At the moment some changes were made in DSM-V (2013) and the “Sexual disturbance not otherwise specified” was removed because the mentioned definition didn’t con-


ϳÛÝ å³Ñå³ÝíáõÙ »Ý ë»é³Ï³Ý ݳËÁÝïñáõÃÛ³Ý Ñ»ï ³éÁÝãíáÕ »ñÏáõ ˳ݷ³ñáõÙÝ»ñ: ²é³çÇÝÁ §ê»é³Ï³Ý ѳëáõÝáõÃÛ³Ý Ë³Ý·³ñáõÙ¦-Ý ¿, »ñµ ³ÝѳïÁ ï³é³åáõÙ ¿ ë»÷³Ï³Ý ë»é³Ï³Ý å³ïϳݻÉáõÃÛ³Ý ¨ ÏáÕÙÝáñáßÙ³Ý Ï³ëϳÍÝ»ñÇó, áñáÝù µ»ñáõÙ »Ý ﳷݳåÇ ¨ ¹»åñ»ëdzÛÇ: ÆëÏ »ñÏñáñ¹Ý §¾·á-¹ÇëïáÝÇÏ ë»é³Ï³Ý ÏáÕÙÝáñáßáõÙ¦-Ý ¿, »ñµ ³Ûó»ÉáõÇ ë»éÇ å³ïϳݻÉáõÃÛáõÝÝ áõ ÏáÕÙÝáñáßáõÙÁ ϳëϳÍÇ ï³Ï ã»Ý ¹ñíáõÙ, ë³Ï³ÛÝ ³ÝѳïÁ ó³ÝϳÝáõÙ ¿, áñ ¹ñ³Ýù áõñÇß ÉÇÝ»Ý ³éϳ Éñ³óáõóÇã Ñá·»µ³Ý³Ï³Ý ϳ٠í³ñù³ÛÇÝ Ë³Ý·³ñáõÙÝ»ñÇ Ñ»ï¨³Ýùáí ¨ ÷áñÓáõÙ ¿ µáõÅí»É` ³ÛÝ ÷áË»Éáõ Ýå³ï³Ïáí: Ü»ñϳÛáõÙë ²ÐÎ-Ý í»ñ³Ý³ÛáõÙ ¿ Ðظ-Ý ¨ åɳݳíáñáõÙ ¿ Ðظ-11-Á Ññ³å³ñ³Ï»É 2017Ã-ÇÝ: §ê»é³Ï³Ý ˳ݷ³ñáõÙÝ»ñÇ ¨ ë»é³Ï³Ý ³éáÕçáõÃ۳ݦ ¹³ë³Ï³ñ·áõÙÝ»ñÇ í»ñ³Ý³Ûٳٵ ½µ³ÕíáÕ §²ß˳ï³Ýù³ÛÇÝ ËáõÙµ¦-Ý ³é³ç³ñÏáõÙ ¿ ¹áõñë Ñ³Ý»É Ðظ-11-Çó §Ðá·»µ³Ý³Ï³Ý ¨ í³ñù³ÛÇÝ Ë³Ý·³ñáõÙÝ»ñ ϳåí³Í ë»é³Ï³Ý ½³ñ·³óÙ³Ý ¨ ÏáÕÙÝáñáßÙ³Ý Ñ»ï¦ Ï»ïÁ, ù³ÝÇ áñ ³ÛÝ ãÇ Ñ³Ù³å³ï³ë˳ÝáõÙ Ù³ñ¹áõ Çñ³íáõÝùÝ»ñÇ ëï³Ý¹³ñïÝ»ñÇ ã³÷³ÝÇßÝ»ñÇÝ: ´³óÇ ¹ñ³ÝÇó Ý»ñϳÛáõÙë ³éϳ ¿ ÷áñÓ³ñ³ñ³Ï³Ý ѻﳽáïáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñÇ å³Ï³ë, áñáÝù ϳñáÕ »Ý ѳëï³ï»É ë»é³Ï³Ý ÏáÕÙÝáñáßÙ³Ý ï³ñµ»ñ ³ñï³Ñ³ÛïáõÙÝ»ñÇ å³ÃáÉá·ÇÏ µÝáõÛÃÁ: ²ÛëåÇëáí ÝáõÛݳë»é³Ï³ÝáõÃÛ³Ý Ù³ëÇÝ å³ïÏ»ñ³óáõÙÝ»ñÇ ÷á÷áËáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñÁ ¨ ¹ñ³Ýó ¹áõñë ѳÝáõÙÁ Ñá·»Ï³Ý Ë³Ý·³ñáõÙÝ»ñÇ Ñ³Ù³ß˳ñѳÛÇÝ ¹³ë³Ï³ñ·áõÙÝ»ñÇó å³ÛٳݳíáñíáõÙ ¿ÇÝ ÙÇ ù³ÝÇ ·áñÍáÝÝ»ñáí: Ü³Ë ÝáõÛݳë»é³Ï³Ý ѳñ³µ»ñáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñÇ ùÝݳñÏáõÙÁ ÏñáÝ³Ï³Ý ¨ Çñ³í³Ï³Ý ¹³ßïÇó ï»Õ³÷áËíáõÙ ¿ ëϽµáõÙ µÅßÏ³Ï³Ý ¨ Ñá·»µáõÅ³Ï³Ý Ñ³ÝñáõÛÃÇ, ³ÛÝáõÑ»ï¨ Ý³¨ ù³Õ³ù³óÇ³Ï³Ý ¨ ëáóÇ³É³Ï³Ý Ñ³ÝñáõÛÃÇ ùÝݳñÏÙ³Ý ¹³ßï, áñÇ áõß³¹ñáõÃÛáõÝÝ ¿É Ñ»Ýó µ»ñáõÙ ¿ Ýñ³Ý, áñ ϳñ¨áñí»Ý Ù³ñ¹áõ Çñ³íáõÝùÝ»ñÁ: ØÛáõë ÏáÕÙÇó ëÏëáõÙ »Ý ½³ñ·³Ý³É áõ µ³ñ»É³íí»É Ñ»Ýó Ñá·»Ï³Ý Ë³Ý·³ñáõÙÝ»ñÇ Ñ³Ù³ß˳ñѳÛÇÝ ¹³ë³Ï³ñ·áõÙÝ»ñÁ` Ý»ñ³é»Éáí Ù³ñ¹áõ Çñ³íáõÝùÝ»ñÇ ¨ ûµÛ»ÏïÇí ѻﳽáï³Ï³Ý ïíÛ³ÉÝ»ñÇ íñ³ ÑÇÙÝí³Í ã³÷³ÝÇßÝ»ñ: ºí Ç í»ñçá ÷á÷áËáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñÇÝ Ýå³ëïáõÙ ¿ ݳ¨ ù³Õ³ù³óÇ³Ï³Ý áõ ëáóÇ³É³Ï³Ý ß³ñÅÙ³Ý ½³ñ·³óáõÙÁ, áñÁ Ñݳñ³íáñáõÃÛáõÝ ¿ ëï»ÕÍáõÙ ¹Çï³ñÏ»É ÝáõÛݳë»é³Ï³ÝáõÃÛáõÝÝ ³ÛÉ ï»ë³ÝÏÛáõÝÇó:

sider it as practically useful. In the ICD homosexuality was removed from the list of mental disorder as a separate disorder in 1992 and was distinguished from the gender identity disorders (ICD-10). However, two disorders related to the sexual preference continue to exist in the list of mental disorders. The first one is “Sexual maturation disorder” when the individual suffers from uncertainty about his or her gender identity or sexual orientation, which causes anxiety or depression. And the second one is “Ego-dystonic sexual orientation” when the gender identity or sexual preference is not in doubt but the individual wishes it was different because of associated psychological and behavioral disorders and may seek treatment in order to change it. Nowadays the WHO is revising ICD and planning to publish ICD-11 in 2017. “The working group” who is revising the classifications of “Sexual disorders and sexual health” suggests removing the “Psychological and behavioral disorders associated with sexual development and orientation” point from ICD-11, because it does not meet human rights standards. Besides currently there is a lack of experimental studies that can prove the pathological nature of the different expressions of sexual orientation. Thus, the changes in understanding homosexuality and its removal from the international classifications of mental disorders were caused by several factors. Firstly, the discussion of homosexual relations moved from the religion and legal fields to medical and psychiatric and later to political and social communities’ field which led to highlighting of human rights. Moreover, the international classifications of mental disorders started to develop themselves by including the importance of human rights priority and making decisions based on the objective research data. And finally, the changes were also related to the political and social movements’ evolvement that provided the space to view homosexuality from other perspective.

ÈÇÉÇà ²í»ïÇëÛ³Ý

Lilit Avetisyan

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׳ݳå³ñÑáñ¹ traveller   îÝï»ë³å»ë ³Õù³ï, ÷áñÓ³éáõÃÛ³Ùµ ѳñáõëï Ðݹϳëï³Ý. ²ñ÷ÇÝ» ¶³Éý³Û³Ý

Economically poor, extensively rich India. Aprine Galfayan

²ÝóÛ³É ï³ñÇ ßáõñç ³ÙÇë 7 ³åñ»É »Ù Ðݹϳëï³ÝáõÙ` æ³Û÷áõñ ù³Õ³ùáõÙ: ¸³ë³í³Ý¹áõÙ ¿Ç ¹åñáóáõÙ: ²Û¹ ÁÝóóùáõ٠ݳ¨ ׳ݳå³ñÑáñ¹»É »Ùª ÙÇ ùÇã ÑÛáõëÇëáõÙ, ÙÇ ùÇã ѳñ³íáõÙ ¨ ÇѳñÏ» è³ç³ëï³Ý ݳѳݷáõÙ, áñÇ Ù³Ûñ³ù³Õ³ùÝ ¿ æ³Û÷áõñÁ: Ðݹϳëï³ÝÁ ¿ÃÝÇÏ, ÏñáÝ³Ï³Ý áõ Ùß³ÏáõóÛÇÝ ³éáõÙÝ»ñáí ß³ï µ³½Ù³½³Ý »ñÏÇñ ¿, áñÇ ÙdzÛÝ ÙÇ ÷áùñ Ù³ëÝ »Ù ï»ë»É: àõëïÇ ÇÝã ¿É å³ïÙ»Ù Ðݹϳëï³ÝÇ Ù³ëÇÝ, ÑÇÙÝí³Í ¿ ÇÙ ë³Ñٳݳ÷³Ï ³ÝÓÝ³Ï³Ý ÷áñÓ³éáõÃÛ³Ý íñ³: ¸åñáóÝ, áõñ ³ß˳ïáõÙ ¿Ç, ·ïÝíáõÙ ¿ñ µ³í³Ï³ÝÇÝ ³Õù³ï ¨ ³Ý³å³Ñáí óճٳëáõÙ: àõÝ»Ç ³ß³Ï»ñïÝ»ñ, áõÙ ÍÝáÕÝ»ñÁ ÏñÃáõÃÛáõÝ ã¿ÇÝ ëï³ó»É, áÙ³Ýù ¿É ÝáõÛÝÇëÏ ï³é³×³Ý³ã ã¿ÇÝ: Þ³ï ¿ÇÝ Ý³¨ ³ñÑ»ëï³íáñ ϳÙ

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Last year I lived in Jaipur, India for about seven months. I was teaching at a school. I took my time to travel and explore the North, South of India and of course Rajasthan province, the capital of which is Jaipur. In ethnic, religious and cultural aspects India is a country of great diversity and I was able to see only a small part of it. So, whatever I tell about India is based on my subjective personal experience. The school where I was working in, is situated in a rather poor and unsecured district. I had pupils whose parents didn’t have proper education and some of them didn’t even know the alphabet. There were also many craftsmen and salesmen caste representatives; I got acquainted to the culture of these classes through my colleagues and pupils. I


³é¨ïñ³Ï³Ý ϳëï³Ý»ñÇ Ý»ñϳ۳óáõóÇãÝ»ñÁ. ·áñÍÁÝÏ»ñÝ»ñÇë áõ ³ß³Ï»ñïÝ»ñÇë ÙÇçáóáí ͳÝáóó»É »Ù ݳ¨ ³Û¹ ¹³ë³Ï³ñ·»ñÇ Ùß³ÏáõÛÃÇÝ: ܳ¨ ÁÝÏ»ñÝ»ñ áõ ͳÝáÃÝ»ñ áõÝ»Ç ³í»ÉÇ ³å³Ñáí áõ ÏñÃí³Í ¹³ë³Ï³ñ·Çó, ÇëÏ Ýñ³Ýù ³ÛÉ Ùß³ÏáõÛà ¿ÇÝ Ý»ñϳ۳óÝáõÙ: ²åñ»É »Ù ÙÇ ï³ÝÁ, áñï»Õ ï³ñµ»ñ »ñÏñÝ»ñÇó, µáÉáñ Ù³Ûñó³Ù³ùÝ»ñÇó »Ï³Í Ù³ñ¹ÇÏ Ï³ÛÇÝ. ³Û¹ ÙÇç³½·³ÛÇÝ ÙÇç³í³ÛñáõÙ ¿ ³Ýó»É ųٳݳÏÇë ÙÇ Ù³ëÁ: Ðݹϳëï³ÝáõÙ ÇÝÓ Ñ³Ù³ñ ³é³çÇÝ ¹Åí³ñáõÃÛáõÝÁ, áñÇÝ »ë ѳݹÇå»É »Ù, Ëïñ³Ï³Ý í»ñ³µ»ñÙáõÝùÝ ¿ñ ϳݳÝó Ýϳïٳٵ: æ³Û÷áõñÁ µ³í³Ï³ÝÇÝ å³Ñå³ÝáÕ³Ï³Ý Ñ³ë³ñ³ÏáõÃÛáõÝ áõÝÇ. ϳݳÛù ÑÇÙݳϳÝáõÙ Çñ»Ýó ï³Ý Ý»ñëáõÙ »Ý, ѳÝñ³ÛÇÝ í³Ûñ»ñáõÙ ïÕ³Ù³ñ¹ÇÏ »Ý, ³Ý·³Ù ÷áÕáóáõÙ ù³ÛÉ»ÉÁ, ³é³í»É ¨ë ٻݳÏ, ÏÝáç ѳٳñ ß³ï ïѳ×, ÝáõÛÝÇëÏ Ýí³ëï³óÝáÕ ÷áñÓ³éáõÃÛáõÝ ¿: Ðݹϳëï³ÝáõÙ ß³ï áõÅ»Õ ¿ ÁÝï³ÝÇùÇ ÇÝëïÇïáõïÁ: ä»ïáõÃÛ³Ý ëáóÇ³É³Ï³Ý ¹»ñÇ ÃáõÛÉ ÉÇÝ»Éáõ ³ñ¹ÛáõÝùáõ٠ٻͳÝáõÙ ¿ ϳËí³ÍáõÃÛáõÝÁ ÁÝï³ÝÇùÇó, ÇëÏ ÁÝï³ÝÇùÝ ¿É, Çñ Ñ»ñÃÇÝ, ë³Ñٳݳ÷³ÏáõÙ ¿ ³ÝѳïÇ ³½³ïáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñÁ: Ø»Ýù ϳñáÕ »Ýù ÁÝï³ÝÇùÁ ¹Çï³ñÏ»É ·áñͳïáõÇ Ï³ñ·³íÇ׳ÏáõÙ, ù³ÝÇ áñ ÁÝï³ÝÇùÇ »Ï³ÙáõïÁ ÑÇÙݳϳÝáõÙ ëï³óíáõÙ ¿ ÁÝï³Ý»Ï³Ý µÇ½Ý»ëÇó: úñÇÝ³Ï Í»ñáõÃÛ³Ý Ï³Ù ÑÇí³Ý¹áõÃÛ³Ý Å³Ù³Ý³Ï ËݳÙáÕÝ ¿ÉÇ ÁÝï³ÝÇùÝ ¿ ¨ å³ï³ë˳ݳïáõ ¿ Ñá·³É Çñ ÑÇí³Ý¹ ³Ý¹³ÙÇ Ù³ëÇÝ: ²ÛÉ Ï»ñå ³ë³Í, ÙdzÛÝ³Ï Ù³ñ¹áõÝ, áí ¹áõñë ¿ Ùݳó»É ÁÝï³ÝÇùÇó, ß³ï ¹Åí³ñ ÏÉÇÝÇ ·á۳層ÉÁ: ²ÙáõëÝáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñÁ ÝáõÛÝå»ë ÁÝï³ÝÇùÝ»ñÇ ÙÇç¨ Ñ³Ù³Ó³ÛÝáõÃÛ³Ùµ »Ý ϳñ·³íáñíáõÙ: êáíáñ³Ï³Ý »ñ¨áõÛà ¿ ÍÝáÕÝ»ñÇ Ñ³Ù³ñ (ѳïϳå»ë ³Õçϳ ѳñ³½³ïÝ»ñÇ Ñ³Ù³ñ) ·ïÝ»É §É³í ÷»ë³óáõ¦ Çñ»Ýó ³ÕçÏ³Ý ³ÙáõëݳóÝ»Éáõ ѳٳñ: ²ÛÝ Ñ³ñóÁ, û Ù³ñ¹ÇÏ Çñ³ñ Ñ»ï ëÇñá±í »Ý ³Ùáõëݳó»É, û± å³Ûٳݳíáñí³ÍáõÃ۳ٵ߳ï Ñ³×³Ë ¿ ùÝݳñÏíáõÙ: ÀÝï³ÝÇùÝ»ñÁ µ³Ý³ÏóáõÙ »Ý ÙÇÙÛ³Ýó Ñ»ï, ѳٳӳÛÝ»óÝáõÙ »Ý §·áñͳñùÁ¦, áñÝ Áݹ·ñÏáõÙ ¿ ݳ¨ å³Ûٳݳíáñí³ÍáõÃÛáõÝ ûÅÇïÇ ßáõñç: úÅÇïÇ Ñ³ñóÁ ѳïϳå»ë Ëݹñ³Ñ³ñáõÛó ¿: ÀÝï³ÝÇùÝ»ñ ï»ë³, áñáÝù Çñ»Ýó 10-20 ï³ñí³ ÁÝï³Ý»Ï³Ý »Ï³ÙáõïÇ ã³÷ å³ñïù»ñ áõ ïáÏáëáí ·áõÙ³ñ-

had also more educated friends and acquaintances and they were representing different culture. I was living in a house with people from different countries and continents so I was also able to spend part of my time in that international atmosphere. The first challenge that I faced in India was the discrimination towards women. Jaipur has a rather conservative society: most women stay at home and men are mostly in public places. For a woman, walking down the street by herself is a very unpleasant experience, it even feels like a humiliating trial. Family as an institution is still a very strong concept in India. Because of the weak social role of the State, there is dependence from the family that often restricts the freedom of the individuals. We can consider the family as the employer since the income is a result of the family buisness. For example in case of illness or senility, the family is the responsible to take care of sick member. In other words, it would be very difficult for a single person to survive if he or she is driven out of the familly. Marriages in India are still arranged by agreements between families. It is very common for parents (usually the girl’s relatives) to find a “good groom” to marry their daughter. Therefore is not rare to ask whether someone is married by love or by agreement. The families negotiate with each other and arrange “the deal” which includes a dowry. The dowry issue is very complicated. I saw families taking loans equivalent to 10-20 years of the family income to get their daughters married. Not being married is considered to be a problem. Single women, of course, if they aren’t religious leaders, are usually driven out of the society. Despite these restrictions and discrimination there are also liberal women, involved with NGOs and undertaking legislative activities, lecturing, etc. It was also interesting to observe cases, where educated women executing important work in the social field, were totally changed after entering their husband’s family. For example, they preserve all the hierarchies in the relationship between the woman and her father-in-law or the husband’s brother: they cover their head and face, serve them, keep silence in front of them, etc.

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Ý»ñ ¿ÇÝ í»ñóñ»É ³ÕçÇÏÝ»ñÇÝ ³ÙáõëݳóÝ»Éáõ ѳٳñ: â³Ùáõëݳݳó³Í ÉÇÝ»ÉÝ ¿É ¿ ËݹÇñ: â³Ùáõëݳó³Í ϳݳÛù, »Ã» ÇѳñÏ» Ñá·¨áñ ³é³çÝáñ¹Ý»ñ ã»Ý, ÑÇÙݳϳÝáõÙ ¹áõñë »Ý ÙÁÕíáõ٠ѳë³ñ³ÏáõÃÛáõÝÇó: ²Ûë µáÉáñ ë³Ñٳݳ÷³ÏáõÙÝ»ñÇ áõ Ëïñ³Ï³ÝáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñÇ å³ÛÙ³ÝÝ»ñáõÙ ï»ë³ ݳ¨ Éǵ»ñ³É ϳݳÝó, áíù»ñ Ý»ñ·ñ³íí³Í »Ý ѳë³ñ³Ï³Ï³Ý ϳ½Ù³Ï»ñåáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñáõÙ, ¹³ë³ËáëáõÙ »Ý ¨ ³ÛÉÝ: лï³ùñùÇñ ¿ñ ݳ¨ ¹Çï³ñÏ»É ¹»åù»ñ, »ñµ ϳݳÛù, áíù»ñ ɳí ÏñÃáõÃÛáõÝ »Ý ëï³ó»É, ѳÝñ³ÛÇÝ áÉáñïáõ٠ϳñ¨áñ ³ß˳ï³Ýù »Ý ϳï³ñáõÙ áõ µ³í³Ï³ÝÇÝ Ñ³Ù³ñÓ³Ï »Ý, ÉÇáíÇÝ ÷áËíáõÙ »Ý, »ñµ ÙïÝáõÙ »Ý Çñ»Ýó ³ÙáõëÝáõ ÁÝï³ÝÇù: úñÇݳÏ, ëÏ»ëñ³ÛñÇ Ï³Ù ³í³· ï»·ñáç Ñ»ï ѳñ³µ»ñáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñáõÙ å³Ñå³ÝáõÙ »Ý µáÉáñ ÑÇ»ñ³ñËdzݻñÁª ͳÍÏáõÙ ·ÉáõËÝ áõ ¹»ÙùÁ, ëå³ë³ñÏáõÙ Ýñ³Ýó, Éáõé (ãËáëϳÝ) ÙÝáõÙ Ýñ³Ýó Ùáï ¨ ³ÛÉÝ: Ðݹϳëï³ÝáõÙ ÝáõÛÝÇëÏ ÏÝáç ³í³Ý¹³Ï³Ý ѳ·áõëïÁ ¹Çï³ñÏ»ÉÇë ¹áõ ϳñáÕ »ë ³Ù»Ý ÇÝã ÇÙ³Ý³É Ýñ³Ýó ëáóÇ³É³Ï³Ý Ï³ñ·³íÇ׳ÏÇ Ù³ëÇÝ. áñ ϳëï³ÛÇó ¿, ³Ùáõëݳó³Í ¿ ³ñ¹Ûáù, ïÕ³ »ñ»Ë³ áõÝÇ, û áã, ³ÙáõëÇÝÁ ϻݹ³ÝÇ ¿, û áã ¨ ³ÛÉÝ: γݳÝó Çñ³í³½áõñÏ íÇ׳ÏÁ, ÇÝãå»ë ݳ¨ ³í³Ý¹áõÛÃÝ»ñÁ Ýå³ëïáõÙ »Ý ë»éáí å³Ûٳݳíáñí³Í ÑÕÇáõÃÛ³Ý ³ñÑ»ëï³Ï³Ý ÁݹѳïáõÙÝ»ñÇ ù³Ý³ÏÇ ³×ÇÝ: ä³ï׳éÝ»ñÇó Ù»ÏÁ ýÇݳÝë³Ï³ÝÝ ¿ª Ëáõë³÷»Éáõ ³ÛÝ Í³Ëë»ñÇó, áñáÝù ÁÝï³ÝÇùÁ å»ïù ¿ ÏñÇ Çñ»Ýó ³ÕçÇÏÝ»ñÇÝ ³ÙáõëݳóÝ»Éáõ ѳٳñ: ´³óÇ ³Û¹, ÇÝãå»ë Ù»½ Ùáï, ³ÛÝï»Õ ¿É ïÕ³ »ñ»Ë³Ý ¿ ѳٳñíáõÙ «ï³Ý ÍáõËÁ å³ÑáÕÁ»: ÀÝï³ÝÇùÇ ÑÇÙÝ³Ï³Ý ·áõÙ³ñ í³ëï³ÏáÕÁ ïÕ³Ù³ñ¹ÇÏ »Ý, ÇëÏ Ï³Ý³Ýó ¹»ñÝ ³í»ÉÇ ß³ï ï³ÝÝ ¿` ËáѳÝáóáõÙ: γñ¹³óÇ Ý³¨, áñ ÑÇݹáõ³Ï³Ý ÏñáÝáõÙ §¹ñ³ËïǦ ÙÇ ï»ë³Ï ϳ, áñÇÝ Ï³ñ»ÉÇ ¿ ѳëÝ»É ÙdzÛÝ ³ñáõ ½³í³Ï áõݻݳÉáõ ÙÇçáóáí, áñáÑ»ï¨ í»ñçÇÝë áñáß³ÏÇ ³ÕáÃùÝ»ñ áõ Ñá·¨áñ ³ñ³ñáÕáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñ ³Ý»Éáõ ³ñïáÝáõÃÛáõÝ áõÝÇ: лï³ùñùÇñ ¿ñ ÇٳݳÉ, áñ ÑݹÇÏ Ï³Ý³Ûù Ñå³ñï³ÝáõÙ »Ý Çñ»Ýó ×»ñÙ³ÏáÕ Ù³½»ñáí ¨ ³í³· ï³ñÇùáí. ѳí³Ý³µ³ñ, áñáíÑ»ï¨ ï³ñÇùÇ Ñ»ï ݳ¨ ëáóÇ³É³Ï³Ý Ï³ñ·³íÇ׳ÏÝ ¿ ÷áËíáõÙ: úñÇݳÏ, »Ã» ÏÇÝÁ ïÕ³ »ñ»Ë³

26

In India by observing a woman’s traditional clothing you may know almost everything about her social status, which casta she is from, if she is married, has a son or even if her husband is alive. A mix between the lack of women rights and traditions has led to the dissemination of sex selective abortion. One of the main reasons of this practice is financial: to avoid the costs that families have to make to marry their daughters. Besides, in India as well as in our country the male child is considered as a keeper of the hearth. The main income is also earned by men, and women’s role is mostly domestic, in the kitchen. I also read that there is a type of “heaven” in hinduism, which can be reached only through having a male child because he has privalage of saying some prayers and doing religious ceremonies. It was interesting to find out that Indian women are proud of their hair turning grey and adulthood, perhaps because the social status changes with the age. For example, if a woman has a son, after his marriage she can become mother-in-law and in a way “take revange of her youth from her son’s wife”. There are many jokes about quarells between son’s wife and mother-in-law, but also many lawsuits connected with domestic violence. Along with such common phenomenon of objectifying women, discrimination, violence and preassure towads them, I met also excellent examples of strong women. The practice of “self-assistance groups” was a great discovery for me, we can say, this is an Indian phenomenon and exists in a very few places except this country. The average selfassistance group is organized by 10 women who create a fund out of their private savings and after some time they start providing the accumulated sum to the group members with 1 % loan and the benefit is equally divided among all the group members at the end of the year. Each group decides it’s working rules: how much percent of loan to take, for how long and as well as the budgets limit. It is interesting that these women had supersede the banks who gave credits from the region not by force but by the strength of their organizing skills. 10 years ago, as it is now in our country, the banks suggested loans with 23-24 %.


áõÝÇ, í»ñçÇÝÇë ³ÙáõëÝáõÃÛáõÝÇó Ñ»ïá Ϲ³éݳ ëÏ»ëáõñ ¨ Ïϳñáճݳ §Çñ »ñÇï³ë³ñ¹áõÃÛ³Ý íñ»ÅÁ ÉáõÍ»É Ñ³ñëÇó¦: ²ÛÝï»Õ ¿É ß³ï ϳï³ÏÝ»ñ Ï³Ý Ñ³ñë-ëÏ»ëáõñ ÏéÇíÝ»ñÇ Ù³ëÇÝ, ÇÝãå»ë ݳ¨ µ³½Ù³ÃÇí ¹³ï³Ï³Ý ·áñÍ»ñ` ÁÝï³Ý»Ï³Ý µéÝáõÃÛ³Ý Ñ»ï ϳåí³Í: γݳÝó ³é³ñϳ۳óÙ³Ý áõ ×ÝßÙ³Ý, ϳݳÝó Ýϳïٳٵ µéÝáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñÇ áõ Ëïñ³Ï³ÝáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñÇ Ñ³Ù³ï³ñ³Í »ñ¨áõÛÃÝ»ñÇ ÏáÕùÇÝ Ñ³Ý¹Çå»óÇ Ý³¨ ϳݳÝó Ý»ñáõÅÇ Ñ½áñ³óÙ³Ý ÑdzݳÉÇ ûñÇݳÏÝ»ñ: ÆÝÓ Ñ³Ù³ñ Ù»Í µ³ó³Ñ³ÛïáõÙ ¿ñ §ÇÝùÝû·ÝáõÃÛ³Ý ËÙµ»ñǦ åñ³ÏïÇϳÝ, áñÁ, ϳñ»ÉÇ ¿ ³ë»É, Ñ»Ýó ÑÝ¹Ï³Ï³Ý ý»ÝáÙ»Ý ¿ ¨ Ðݹϳëï³ÝÇó µ³óÇ ß³ï ùÇã ï»Õ»ñáõÙ ·áÛáõÃÛáõÝ áõÝÇ: ÆÝùÝû·ÝáõÃÛ³Ý ËÙµ»ñáõ٠ϳ½Ù³Ï»ñåíáõÙ »Ý ÙÇçÇÝáõÙ 10 ϳݳÛù, áíù»ñ Çñ»Ýó ë»÷³Ï³Ý ËݳÛáÕáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñÇ ýáݹ »Ý ëï»ÕÍáõÙ, ÇëÏ áñáß Å³Ù³Ý³Ï ³Ýó, ýáݹáõÙ Ïáõï³Ïí³Í ·áõÙ³ñÁ ëÏëáõÙ »Ý 1% í³ñÏáí ïñ³Ù³¹ñ»É ËÙµÇ ³Ý¹³ÙÝ»ñÇÝ, ß³ÑáõÛÃÝ ¿É ï³ñ»í»ñçÇÝ Ñ³í³ë³ñ³ã³÷ µ³Å³ÝáõÙ »Ý ËÙµÇ µáÉáñ ³Ý¹³ÙÝ»ñÇ ÙÇç¨: ÊÙµ»ñÇó Ûáõñ³ù³ÝãÛáõñÁ áñáßáõÙ ¿ Çñ ³ß˳ï³Ýù³ÛÇÝ Ï³ÝáÝÝ»ñÁª ù³ÝÇ ïáÏáëáí í³ñÏ ï³É/í»ñóÝ»É, áñù³Ý ųٳݳÏáí, ÇÝã ³é³í»É³·áõÛÝ ·áõÙ³ñÇ ë³ÑÙ³ÝÝ»ñáõÙ: лï³ùñùÇñ ¿, áñ ³Ûë ϳݳÛù í³ñϳïáõ µ³ÝÏ»ñÇÝ ï³ñ³Í³ßñç³ÝÇó ¹áõñë »Ý ÙÕ»É áã û µéÝáõÃÛ³Ùµ, ³ÛÉ Çñ»Ýó ϳ½Ù³Ï»ñåÙ³Ý áõÅáí: 10 ï³ñÇ ³é³ç, ÇÝãå»ë ³ÛÅÙ Ù»½ Ùáï ¿, µ³ÝÏ»ñÁ Ýñ³Ýó í³ñÏ»ñ »Ý ³é³ç³ñÏ»É 23-24%-áí: ²ÛÝ Ñ³Ý·³Ù³ÝùÁ, áñ ËÙµ»ñáõÙ ÙdzÛÝ Ï³Ý³Ûù »Ý ÉÇÝáõÙ, Ýå³ëïáõÙ ¿ Ýñ³Ýó ³Ýѳï³Ï³Ý ½³ñ·³óÙ³ÝÁ, ïÝï»ë³Ï³Ý ³ÝϳËáõÃÛ³ÝÁ, ÇÝãå»ë ݳ¨ ÁÝï³ÝÇùáõÙ áõ ѳٳÛÝùáõÙ Ýñ³Ýó ¹»ñÇ Ù»Í³óÙ³ÝÁ: ºë ß³ï Ïáõ½»Ç, áñ г۳ëï³ÝáõÙ ¿É ÝÙ³Ý Ý³Ë³Ó»éÝáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñ Çñ³·áñÍí»ÇÝ: Ø»Ýù ÑÇÙݳϳÝáõÙ áñ¨¿ µ³Ý ëáíáñ»Éáõ ³ÏÝϳÉÇùáí ³ñ¨Ùáõïù »Ýù ݳÛáõÙ, ë³Ï³ÛÝ ëáóÇ³É³Ï³Ý áõ ïÝï»ë³Ï³Ý ß³ï ѳñó»ñÇ å³ï³ë˳ÝÝ»ñ ϳñáÕ »Ýù ·ïÝ»É Ý³¨ ³ñ¨»ÉùáõÙ: ø³Õ³ù³Ï³Ý áõ Ùß³ÏáõóÛÇÝ ÝÙ³ÝáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñÁ ѳßíÇ ³éÝ»Éáíª Ýñ³Ýó ÷áñÓÁ, Ñݳñ³íáñ ¿, Ù»½ Ùáï ³í»ÉÇ Ý»ñ¹³ßݳÏáñ»Ý ï»Õ³Ûݳóí»Ý:

æ³Û÷áõñ Jaipur

Now, as women of many families are involved in this alternative system, banks aren’t needed any more. Moreover, in case of need, the groups functioning in different villages help each other providing money for communal or personal plans. They say there isn’t any case of unrepaid loans. Such results are reached through influence of different factors. Manly because the group members are from the same community, and if one of them is irresponsible, could lose all social connections. The fact that there are only women in groups, increased their individual development, economical independence and their role in the family and society. I would really like such initiatives to be realized also in Armenia. Usually we tend to look for solutions in the western world, though we can find answers to many social and economical issues in the east. Taking into consideration political and cultural similarities, their experiments may be better adapted to our country.

Ü»ÉÉÇ ²é³ù»ÉÛ³Ý

Nelly Arakelyan

27


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Heghine Babayan Nvard Margaryan Mamikon Hovsepyan Kolya Hovhannisyan Nelly Arakelyan

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