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THE GEOPATH

Interpretations of a landscape

1:50.000


The Geopath

Geostien

30 ECTS-point thesis Astrid Jakobsen Kirk vcx601 Supervisor: External lecturer Peter Lundsgaard Hansen Department of Geosciences and Natural Resource Management Faculty of Science University of Copenhagen December 2014


Preface The Danish landscape holds many stories, both of the glacial periods which have formed it and of the people who through time have shaped and influenced its changing expressions. Based on the glacial landscape, the hidden stories within the landscape and the initiative Geopark Vestjylland this thesis takes its starting in order to uncover the stories and connect them in the project called The Geopath. The project has been formed as a report where the initial part of the project is a program leading to a proposal. The material represents 30 ECTS credits and is the final project in my training as a landscape architect at the University of Copenhagen. I would like to thank landscape architect Peter Lundsgaard Hansen for inspiring guidance, nature guide Jens Hedevang and museum curator Mette Lund Andersen for sharing their knowledge about the area and my fellow students for their support. Nørrebro, December 2014 Astrid Jakobsen Kirk

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Abstract This thesis is based on the intermunicipal project Geopark Vestjylland and may be seen as a sub-project in the context of this overall initiative. Geopark Vestjylland aim to create information and learning centers across the landscape, creating more paths and improve overall accessibility. The area has great geological qualities, with its distinctive glacial landscape characters like marine forelands, lateral moraines, dead-ice landscapes and glacial plains. Through the area the main glacier edge goes East-West, whcich, as the only place in Denmark, can be observed in the soil at the coast slopes at Bovbjerg. The thesis The Geopath is a design proposal for a pathsystem emphasizing and interpretating the characteristics of the area. Through interventions and material use a coherent path in the landscape is facilitated. The Geopath is connected in a circle by the local railway VLTJ, which also divides the path into two sections each of about 20-25 km length. Based on George Descombes analytic and phenomenologic approach to the landscape, the project attempts to give the visitors an opportunity to experience the landscape on their own terms.

Resumé Dette speciale tager afsæt i det tværkommunale projekt Geopark Vestjylland og er et underprojekt i forbindelse med dette overordnede initiativ. Geopark Vestjylland har som mål at oprette flere informations- og læringscentre i landskabet, skabe flere stier og forbedre muligheden for adgang. Området rummer store geologiske kvaliteter i form af det markante glaciale landskab med landskabskarakterer som marint forland, randmoræner, død-is landskaber og smeltevandssletter. Gennem området løber gletsjernes hovedopholdslinje fra øst til vest og kan, som det eneste sted i Danmark, ses i kystskrænternes jordhorisonter ved Bovbjerg. Specialet The Geopath er et design forslag til et stinetværk, der formidler og fortolker områdets karakteristika. Gennem interventioner og materialebrug skabes et sammenhængende stiforløb i landskabet. Geostien er forbundet i en cirkel med den lokale jernbane VLTJ, der ligeledes opdeler stiforløbet i to sektioner af hver ca. 20-25km. Med udgangspunkt i George Descombes analytiske og fænomenologiske tilgang til landskabet er projektet et forsøg på at give den besøgende mulighed for at opleve landskabet på deres egne præmisser.

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Bovbjerg main glacier edge

1:2.000.000 Presumed glacier edges through time 5

Project area


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Introduction

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Introduction and motivation Vision and objects Background Theory and methology

10 12 14 16

Program The landscape

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Geology Hydrology Soil Birdlife Vegetation

24 30 34 36 38

Program A historical perspective

41

Draining the landscape Historic landmarks The Sea as a neighbor Settlement & infrastructure Tourism & connections

42 46 50 56 60

Idea

63

Idea References

64 68

The site

71

Characteristic areas

72

Proposal The Path

85

86 88

The path Serial vision

Proposal The Interventions

91

Interventions The Edge The View The Dike The Valley The Motion

92 94 96 98 100 102

Proposal Materials

105

Materials

106

Conclusion & Reflection

117

118

Conclusion & reflection

Bibliography Bibliography

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Appendix

123

Masterplan 1:25.000

122

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125


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INTRODUCTION

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Introduction and motivation My motivation for the topic of this thesis began during my time as an intern at the municipality of Lemvig. I was introduced to a fascinating glacial landscape, as well as the potentials and challenges occurring when planning in such an area. The following summer I was hired to elaborate on the existing landscape analysis of the municipality. During this period I became familiar with the area and spent the summer in the beautiful scenery. It is a landscape which unfortunately is rather inaccessible to the public, due to cultivation of the land and the many steep slopes and terrain. When the municipalities of Lemvig, Struer and Holstebro partnered up for the project called Geopark Vestjylland I thought it would be an obvious idea for a thesis topic. It would allow me to work with a complex landscape in a large scale, characterized by a strong cultural history, which is an interaction I have long found interesting. With this report I will give a concrete example of how the concept of a Geopark can be interpreted and communicated in the form of a path system. The conditions, potentials and vulnerabilities of the site will be carefully considered when the path is laid out. The path will also be a suggestion of how the summer houses at the West Coast can be connected to the city of Lemvig, through the story of the geological and cultural history of the site. The report is devided into different chapters; The Program, The Idea, The Site and The Proposal. In the chapters of The Program the hidden stories of the landscape and history, within the project area, is revealed. The Idea chapter is based on The Program and lead to a further classification of the site’s landscape characters. On the basis of The Idea and the analysis in the program, five areas are defined by their character in relation to the different stories. Finally The proposal and my interpretations of the landscape is illustrated through small interventions and material use.

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The North Sea

Project area

Nissum bredning

Municipal boundary

Lemvig Venø bugt

Klosterheden

Nissum fjord

Struer

Holstebro

1:300.000 The municipalities of Lemvig, Struer and Holstebro presents Geopark Vestjylland as an intermunicipal project.

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Vision and objects The overall vision of this thesis is to provide a strong basis for the dissemination of the glacial landscape series and the cultural history of the site. The project has three key focal points; Firstly the project seeks to investigate the landscape of the North-West area of Geopark Vestjylland, aiming to locate the characteristics and reveal the stories of the hidden landscape. Secondly the project should identify the possibilities for a subproject within the Geopark within the project area, based on the premises of the landscape. Thirdly the project should communicate and interpretate the story about the glacial landscape and the cultural and contemporary history of the site. The objective of this thesis is to asses the three issues mensioned above and create a design proposal for a path system on the premisses of the landscape.

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Nissum bredning

The North Sea

Lemvig

Klosterheden

Project area with lakes, fjord and sea 1:125.000

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Background The basis of this thesis is the locally anchored initiative Geopark Vestjylland, which is working towards becoming a recognized UNESCO Geopark by 2020. UNESCO defines a Geopark as “a nationally protected area containing a number of geological heritage sites of particular importance, rarity or aesthetic” 1. Throughout the globe we see large landscape formations as the result of geological processes, on going volcanic activity or tectonic plate movement. We also have a dramatic landscape in Denmark, although on a smaller scale and without the direct influence of plate tectonics nor volcanic eruptions. The Danish landscape is, shaped by glaciers, which has deposited sediments and eroded landscapes. The glaciers have formed the landscape as we know it today and we could, as my former geology teacher did, call them “the alltime greatest landscape architect “. The landscape is in constant change and where the glaciers retreated man took over. The geological history of the landscape and the footprint of human activity, is a focal point in the development strategy of Geopark Vestjylland. In the presentation material of Geopark Vestjylland they descripe their definition of the geological and cultural heritage and diversity within the area. This description appoints selected areas of interest around the Geopark, which should create a basis for an “(...) understandable, relevant and diverse communication. Out in the landscape” 2. In the western area of the Geopark, the area of this project, local poets and painters have described and depicted the landscape and the light for many centuries. Now the Geopark initiative seeks to combine these cultural aspects with the experience of the landscape. The development strategy of Geopark Vestjylland consists of three stages, scheduled to a period of eight years (fig. 1). The first phase describes how the structure of the Geopark is developed and includes political processes. This thesis focus primarily on phase two, which should identify subprojects within the Geopark; “through the establishing of visitor centres, new paths and routes in the landscape with explanatory texts for guided tours, vacation packages, special Geopark food and more.” 2. The application for UNESCO is completed during phase three. The application should describe new paths, visitor centres and other initiatives of Geopark Vestjylland. The acceptance as a UNESCO global Geopark is a mark of quality, which is expected to increase the geotourism of the area2.

1: http://www.unesco.org/new/en/natural-sciences/environment/earth-sciences/globalgeoparks/ 2: http://www.geoparkvestjylland.dk/download/praesentation/Geopark-udgave-IV_7nov_ v3-3.pdf 14


Phase one

2013 Initial project development clarification of the political process 1.Political process - clarification Further project development 2. Political process - decision

2014 Phase two

Establishing project organization 2015

2016

Identification and selection of sub-projects Maturation of the subprojects Realization of subprojects

2017

2018

2019

Phase three 2020

Assessment of the basis for the Geopark application Preparation of the Geopark application Processing the Geopark application Inauguration of the Geopark Operation of the Geopark

fig. 1

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Theory and methodology This thesis is based on continuous study of the landscape, inspired by the approach of the Swiss landscape architect George Descombes. He prefers the discrete, tactical operations to the clumsy ”totality” of a master plan. ”Where small laconic interventions makes the walkers interpret their experience however they see fit”3. His method is therefore to emphasize the features already there, through clarifying the landscape, amplifying the character through subtraction and modesty – “through highly calculated interventions”. 3 He wants to avoid pretentious references and instead walk the site and amplify aspects of the landscape. He does so without pleading for a reconstruction of the history, but emphasize that the landscape architect should also leave a mark of the present. Catherine Dee is another landscape architect advocating for what she calls the “aesthetics of thrift”. Aesthetics of thrift is a philosophy, which brings the modernistic approach ‘less is more’ into an ecological and ethical response of limited interventions4. She argues against what she calls the “‘candy-store approach’ where the designer is afraid they might fail to address someone’s aesthetic values and therefore cover themselves by attempting to cater a little of all tastes”.4 Catherine Dee quotes Anne Spirn when saying that “the landscape has a language – but the language is in the landscape not in the words.” 4. The thoughts of Descombes and Dee can be combined in Professor Ola Bettum’s critique of some of the projects in the initiative of the National Tourist Routes in Norway. This initiative is a range of projects, which have been highly praised. The projects are often used as references. for example in the Realdania funded campaign ‘Steder i landskabet’.5 The initiative of the National Tourist Routes arose from an idea to tell the story of different sites and show the magnificent view along the roads. Roads, which had grown from the landscape through times without dynamite or cranes. Like the buildings also grew from the landscape where they were established, structures on the premises of the landscape6. Bettum’s critique is that many of the projects have become more a story about the installations than the landscape which they where made to enhance. He pleads that sometimes there seems to be a bigger wish to make a manifestation than landscape interpretation. He believes that small elements may just as well enhance rather than state a manifest. He talks about the phenomenology of a site, where the visitor should discover the light and the site himself 6. These thoughts remind of Descombes’ wish to emphasize inherent qualities in the landscape and reveal hidden ones, while also making the passing of time visible3.

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These methods and approaches to the landscape are quite phenomenological and concentrate on finding the genius loci of the site; which will be reflected in the method used for this thesis. I have had repeated visits to the site, where ideas and thoughts have been rejected or re-worked. There have been long days of hiking and short trips around the landscape, where I have crossed fields and wetlands inaccessible to the public. There have been days of driving around finding small paths and getting the big picture, all to get inspired from the landscape it self. The path is carefully laid out in the landscape so that it crosses the characteristic places and areas, which express the history and spatiality of the site. Through modelling, sketching, using meters of manifold, photographing and filming, these sites have been located, formed and visualized. The project is a vision plan of how to communicate and interpretate the story of this area. Land ownership have not been taken into account when laying out the path or the interventions. The path is, however, as far as possible located in the boundaries of the fields and are some places based on existing local initiatives and initiated trails.

3: Descombe, G. (1999) 4: Dee, C. (2010) 5: Rohde, S. M. et al (2012) 6: Bettum, Ola (2013)

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Grey day at the North Sea

Grå dag ved Vesterhavet, Jens Søndergaard, 1928

Jens Andersen Søndergaard (1895-1957) had a small atelier in Bovbjerg, where he painted the landscapes and the relations between man, landscape and sea. It is the meeting between these elements, which this thesis evolves around. 19


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PROGRAM

THE LANDSCAPE

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Memorial stone of Thøger Larsen

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LANDSKAB by Thøger Larsen Det suser svalt over Muld og Strand i Danmark, Bakkers og Bølgers Land, og hvisk i Træerne, nær og fjærn, og Kvad, der mumler i Møllens Kværn, og Brus fra Brisen mod Søens Bred og Aandepustet fra Blomsterbed er Danmarks Stemme, der moderøm betror dig en blid og bundløs Drøm. Vejr og Vinger (1923) The Danish poet Thøger Larsen (1875-1928) was born at Gjellerodde and lived most of his adult life in Lemvig. He wrote about the landscape, the people, the universe and the world which surrounded him. In this chapter the landscape will be examined closely and studied in order to reveal the stories within it and to program a proposal for The Geopath. The different stories will be explained in order to lay out the path and illustrate which stories may be experienced when following the path.

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Geology The characteristic landscape features within the project area, is influenced by different periods of the landscape development. It is mainly a glacial landscape influenced by the last two ice ages; Saale which lasted from approximately 390.000 years to 130.000 years ago, and Weichsel which began about 117.000 years ago and ended 11.500 years ago.7 In Geopark Vestjylland the landscape is part of a so called glacial series. The glacial series referes to a landscape dominated by different landscape formations formed by the glacier, and revolving around the main glacier edge. The line of the glacier edge can be seen in the soillayers at the coast cliffs at Bovbjerg, as the only place in Denmark. The lateral moraine landscape North of the glaciers edge provides excellent opportunities for panoramic views to all corners of the site. Immediately South of the moraine there are enormous glacial plains, which is now the flat moorland of Klosterheden. Between the lateral moraine landscape and the plains is a rather wavy and bumpy landscape, indicating this to be a dead ice area, where the glacier left large blocks of ice in its withdrawal phase. The distinctive lateral moraine North of the glacier edge, contrasts sharply to the flat raised seabed at Harboøre Tange, called the marine foreland. The marine foreland has repeatedly been raised and lowered when influenced by the relative sea level and the post-glacial rebound of the land. The area around Gjellerodde has developed later, also due to the post-glacial rebound, but mainly because of erosion and sediment deposition caused by shifting currents; conditions constantly reshaping the spit.

Soil layers indicate the edge of the glaciers

** 7: Sand-Jensen, K. 2006 24


Made from Per Smed’s ”Landskabskort” (1978)

Bovbjerg

1: 125.000

Moraine landscapes from Saale glaciation, mainly with clayey soil Marine foreland build up since atlantic transgression (6000 B.C.)

Atlantic transgression shoreline

Ice maginal hills

Outwash plain (sandur)

Dune landscape

Glacier edge

Landscape, hummocky or pitted due to dead-ice formation

Meltwater stream terrace

Tunnel valley

Lakes

Sea cliff

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Hofsjรถkull glacier

Morain hills Me ltwa ter plai ns

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The characteristic landscape features that are visible in Denmark, was formed during and immediately after the ice ages where large glaciers covered the country. The movement of the glaciers can be observed when studying the stones found at the beach. The stones lying on the beach, and those in the cliffs, have the same origin: they are initially brought here by glaciers and glacial rivers and deposited in moraines and glacial gravel. Later, as cliffs erode, they end up on the beach. The origin of the stones can be determined to the Scandinavian mountain areas. Today the same processes can be experienced in Iceland, where both glaciers Langjรถkull and Hofsjรถkull are examples of flat land glaciers.8 Illustrated at the picture on the opposite page.9

8: Sand-Jensen, K. 2006 9: http://www.nasa.gov/sites/default/files/hofsjokull_ice_cap_iceland_1.jpg 27


III

II

IV

I

VI

I

V

VI Section lines Map illustrating 2,5 m terrain curves

I

Lateral moraine

II

Shoreline of The Stone Age sea

III

IV

V

VI

Fjord

Marine foreland with drainage canals

The North Sea

Sand dunes

Marine foreland with drainage canals

The North Sea

Lateral moraine

VI

Dead-ice landscape 28


Lateral moraine

Tunnelvalley

Marine foreland

Gjeller Sø

Marine foreland

Fjord

Shoreline of The Stone Age sea

Lateral moraine

Shoreline of The Stone Age sea

Sønder vese

Lateral moraine

Meltwater Plain

Sections of the landscape 1:10.000 29


Hydrology An interesting subject connected to this landscape is the story of hydrology and wetlands in relation to human activities. The flat land of the marine foreland is a shattered pattern of lakes and small ponds which through time have been both a basis of life and a threat. These lakes tells a story about the old sailing corridor from the fjord to The North Sea as well as the threat of floodings. From about 300 B.C. to about 1150 A.D., the Iron Age, Viking Age and early Middle Ages, this was an important sailing route, until the area eroded with sand, and closed the inlet.10 Peoples livelihood changed as they became farmers and ever since it has been a battle against the sea, keeping water from flooding what now became farmland. This continuous fight is visible in the landscape today, where dikes, pumps, and straight drainage canals are unambiguous markers of this. Because of the many wetlands, lakes and small ponds part of the area is rather inaccessible, seeing there have been made no actions to improve the conditions for potential visitors.

10: http://www.northseatrail.org/show_single_article.php?article_id=3214&lang=dk& 30


Noret Mellemvese Søndervese Ferring sø The North Sea

Nørrevese Smedshavevese Hygum Nor Vestersø - reclaimed Nissum Bredning -Limfjord Gjellersø Hornsø

Lemvig sø

Lem vig

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Wetland Lake

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Ferring sø

Søndervese

The North Sea

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Mellemvese


Nørrevese

Noret

Panoramic view from Enbjerg

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Soil The formation of the landscape and the geology of the site is reflected in the soil conditions of the area. As illustrated on the opposite page, the area corresponding to the marine foreland consists of the sandy soil types like saline gravel (A), saline sand (B), shifting sands (C) and saline clay (D). The glacial plains also consist of sandy soils, but opposed to the saline marine foreland it is fresh water and meltwater soils left by the glaciers (E, F). In contrast the area of the moraine consist of the clayish glacial till (G,H) with smaller areas of melt water sands, where the dead-ice melted after the glacial periods. The different soil types have great variation in structure and is a visible sign of the glacial movement through the landscape.

A B C D E F G H 34


Saline gravel

Meltwater gravel

Shifting sand

Meltwater sand

Saline sand

Freshwater sand

Saline clay

Freshwater gravel

Glacial till

Lakes

Meltwater gytje

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Made from GIS soiltypemap

1: 125.000


Birdlife Bird migration routes follow Earth longitudes as the birds move from North to South in the fall and from South to North during spring in search for food. The flat marine foreland with the pattern of lakes and ponds makes an important area in the bird migration as it functions as a resting place on the journey as well as a nesting site. The North-East area around Gjellerodde and Plet Enge is part of a larger EF-bird protection area in Nissum Bredning and Harboøre Tange. Based on the breeding bird species also the wetlands and areas around Søndervese, Mellemvese, Noret and Nørrevese are appointed as IBA – Important Bird Areas by DOF.11 Breeding birds listet in the Wild Birds Directive annex 1 Little tern | Dværgterne | Sterna albifrons Common tern | Fjordterne | Sterna hirundo Pied avocet | Klyde | Recurvirostra avocetta Short eared owl | Mosehornugle | Asio flammeus Migratory birds The whooper swan | Sangsvane | Cygnus cygnus The pink-footed goose | Kortnæbbet Gås | Anser brachyrhynchus Pale bellied brant goose | Lysbuget Knortegås | Branta bernicla hrota Pied avocet | Klyde | Recurvirostra avocetta There are no real facilities for birdwatchers in the area, around Gjellerodde or the southern area of Plet Enge or any of ‘Veserne’. The picture below is from an excursion arranged by DOF and shows the participants on top of Engbjerg.12

11: http://www.dofbasen.dk/IBA/lokalitet.php?lokid=39 12: DOF - Dansk Ornotologisk forening (picture above) 36


1: 125.000 EF- birdprotection area Important Bird Area (IBA) Lake

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Vegetation As next-door neighbour to The North Sea and Limfjorden, this area is rather windswept and the air is salty. These factors contribute to a particular architectural expression in the vegetation, which is characteristic for the western part of Denmark. In the area of the marine foreland the sandy, cultivated fields are shielded from the wind through series of hedgerows shaped by the wind. Certain places there are small groves of trees planted on the poor farmland to protect the sand from drifting. On the good moraine soil above the glacier edge and in the area of the wavy dead ice landscape the vegetation mainly functions as shelter around the buildings and water holes. Here the vegetation growth is also limited in height and often shaped after the buildings. Generally the landscape in the project area is a relatively open landscape, especially the flat marine foreland and the glacial melt water plains. Only cut through with the long rows of hedges and small groves of trees as the main vegetation. South of the project area is one of Denmark’s largest plantations, Klosterhede Plantation. It is located immediately South of the former edge of the gletjser, on the sandy and gravelly moorland. Through time farmers used this area for grazing, but in 1880 the state bought large areas and started to plant mountain pines and other robust species.13

East

13: http://naturstyrelsen.dk/naturoplevelser/naturguider/klosterheden/historie/ 38

West


Klosterheden Plantation 1: 125.000

Hedgerows to keep sandy soils from drifting Scattered vegetation to shield houses from the wind Platations on sandy unfruitful soils Lakes

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40


PROGRAM

A HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE

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Draining the landcape The landscape has undergone significant changes in recent time where the landscape is greatly influenced by the need for farm land. The consequences thereof is manifested in the drainage of wet meadows and by controlling the waterways through straight drainage canals.

The landscape in 1862 - 1899

Water Wetland Land

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The landscape in 2014

Water Wetland Land

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Nor ygum H t a kes land nd di nals a g the farm a c e l in ib acces estroy and in ds from d t h g i oo tra The s ent stormfl v e r p to

ug and-d was h

44

6

in 182


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Historic landmarks The Danish West Coast is described as an ‘iron coast’14 where the harsh wind and water currents have caused many shipwrecks through time. The map on page 48 illustrate the number of shipwrecks during the period from 1st of January 1858 till the 31st of December 1882.15 Along the coastline and at the project area there are many landmarks, which have been used for navigation. Many of these landmarks are churches, which through time has moved closer and closer to the sea as the coastline has eroded. In 1876-1877 the lighthouse at Bovbjerg was build in order to prevent shipwreckings. The lighthouse was painted red in order to easily distinguish between the white churches and the lighthouse.

14: http://www.jernkysten.dk/# 15: http://www.fjaltringtranshistorie.dk/redning/image/Jernkysten%201882.JPG 46


Fe rr Trans Church 70 m from the coast slopes

ing

Ch ur ch

Bovbjerg Lighthouse

The North Sea

47


Shipwrecks near the site

48


49


The Sea as neighbor

The eroding coastline

* The North Sea is a characteristic neighbor and weather conditions have caused the coastline to erode, forcing people to move from their houses and making small villages end up in the sea.

On the opposite page there is a letter from Arthur Immanuel Christensen to The Ministry of Farming and Fishery, to get permission to move his house further into the country, fearing that it would otherwise end up in the sea.16

16: http://www.fjaltringtranshistorie.dk/historien/H-veddybaa.html 50


Til Ministeriet for Landbrug og Fiskeri. Grunden til, at jeg søger Hjælp til at faa Huset flyttet er, at jeg føler mig stærkt truet af Havet, som bortskærer store Stykker af Skrænten. Under Stormen den 12-13 Februar i Aar, tog Havet saa meget af Skrænten, at der nu kun er ca. 30 Meter til Huset. Dersom Havet tager lige saa meget en Gang til, som under sidste Storm, er der Fare for, at Huset vælter. Naar der stormer og Havet slaar mod Skrænten, saa sprøjter Vandet op paa Huset, og naar det blæser, saa fyger Sandet ind under Tagstenene, Vinduer og Døre til stor Gene for Madvarer og lignende. Jeg ansøger hermed om at faa bevilget Dækning af Omkostningerne ved Flytningen næst efter Kreditforeningen. Jeg beder høfligst den ærede Minister fremme Sagen saa hurtig som mulig, da jeg under disse Forhold som er her jo ikke ved hvor længe vi har Tag over Hovedet. Med Agtelse Arthur Immanuel Christensen. Dybaa, Fjaltring pr. Ramme.

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As illustrated at the upper picture on the opposite page it was decided that coastal defence was necessary. This began an industry of groyne construction along the West Coast.17 17: http://www.fjaltringtranshistorie.dk/historien/havetsomnabo.html 52


Dramatic coast cliffs at Bovbjerg 1907, with the first attempts of groins

The eroded coastline 107 years later

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Today traces of World War 2 can be found in the landscape in terms of bunkers. They can can be seen along the coastline of Denmark and at strategic sites on high grounds. 54


Bunkers from WWII hidden in the terrain

Bunker at Gjellerodde

Bunker at Engbjerg

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oas tlin e

Ramme defens

ing dike

Th eS ton eA ge c

Coastli

ne 201 4

Settlement and infrastructure

ad oric ro Prehist

Archaeological findings 1: 125.000

The project area is characterized by many burial mounds placed on high grounds in the morain landscape. The story of the geology is reflected in the archaeological findings and burial mounds in the landscape. It is obvious how the marine foreland has evolved later than the high grounds of the moraine.

56


Hygum Bakker

Ramme defensing dike

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Lemvig Sø Lemvig 1767

Søndervese

VLTJ at Strande St. 2014

Lemvig is located in the bottom of a tunnelvalley, in a small inlet protected from the strong winds from The North Sea. 18 VLTJ is a private railway line build in 1879, connecting the small villages between the towns of Vemb, Lemvig and Thyborøn. The railway is a crucial link to the local infrastructure, as it serves as a connection to the national railway system.

18: http://www.lemviginfo.dk/kirken.htm (the upper illustration above) 58


Thyborøn Lemvig Vemb

The VLTJ in relation to the Danish railway system 1: 2.000.000

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Tourism and connections

Vrist

Gjellerodde Vejlby

Lemvig camping

Lemvig Ferring

Bovbjerg

Fjaltring

Existing paths 1: 125.000

The diagram above illustrate existing paths in the landscape in relation to Lemvig and the summer house area around Lemvig. Existing paths in the landscape is either small trodden trails ending “blind� or part of larger bikeroutes following the existing roadstructure. Non of the paths are directly connecting the summer house areas at the westcoast with the main city of Lemvig. Existing bikeroutes along a road Existing trodden paths

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61

n path alo ng Ferrin g

A trodde abet”

sø, as par t of the p roject “Sp or i landsk


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IDEA

63


Idea In this chapter the The Geopath idea is elaborated, on the basis of the previous programing chapters. Being in a landscape gives a better understanding of it than reading about it. This is the basic idea of Geopark Vestjylland; you have to experience the landscape, out in the landscape. 19 This led me to the idea of the Geopath, which will connect the story about the glacial series, with the cultural and contemporary history of the site. As mentioned in the vision, the Geopath should provide a strong basis for the dissemination of these hidden stories. The path is 45 km long and it is connected with the railway. The railway divide the path in two sections, a northern part and a southern part. The layout of the path is not structured like baroque landscape sceneries, but it seeks to imitate the landscape by creating a natural movement through the landscape, like the movement of the glaciers. Through small architectural interventions, and the use of recognizable elements and materials, the path will be cohesive and support the landscape characteristics.

19: http://www.geoparkvestjylland.dk/ 64


1: 125.000

The Geopath The VLTJ The glacier edge

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ing am Fr

the

g rou

th nt me ve mo

ht

l he

e cap ds an

66


Hygum Bakker North

67


References The Swiss way

3

2

2

17

20

17

1 Haupteingang

1 Haupteingang

P

Neuss Düsseldorf Köln

P

16

15

H

Neuss Düsseldorf Köln

H

14

A46

21

The following three projects have been a great inspiration, in terms of the landscape architect’s phenomenological and analytical approach to the landscape. In 1987 George Descombe designed a 2 km walking path on the The Swiss Way which in total is about 35 kilometers long. He worked both with historians, botanists, archaeologists and artists to recognize the genius loci of the site. 20 Museum Insel Hombroich was established in 1987 to make the visitors do their own discoveries of art and nature. 22 The area of Cap de Creus was restored in the 2010, to rediscover the sites consubstantial values. 23 20: Descombes, G. (1999) 21: http://festivalesanteriores.buenosaires.gob.ar/bafici/home10/photobase/films/un_archi tecte_dans_le_paysage_1_small.jpg 22: http://www.inselhombroich.de/museum-insel-hombroich/museum/?lang=en 23: http://www.landezine.com/index.php/2011/03/tudela-club-med-restoration-in-cap-decreus-by-emf-landscape-architecture/ 68

A46


Museum Insel HombroichMuseum Insel Hombroich

6

Cap de Creus

6

3 7

7

5

5

4

8

4

8

9

9

16 10

10

23

15

11

13

11

12

13

P

14

N

12 P

50 m N öffentlich zugängliche Gebäude private Nutzung/beschränkt zugänglich

50 m öffentlich zugängliche Gebäude private Nutzung/beschränkt zugänglich

23

22

23

69


70


THE SITE

71


Characteristic areas The project area is divided into five overall areas of different landscape characters. On the basis of the analysis in the program the five areas are defined by their character in relation to the different stories; geology, hydrology, soil, vegetation, birdlife, cultural history, historic landmarks, the sea, settlement, infrastructure and turism. The character areas that can be persieved from The Geopath, is represented in the map on the opposite page. The landscape characters will be enhanced through small architectural interventions and the expression of The Geopath will be coherent throug material use.

III

II

IV

V

I Characteristic areas 1: 125.000 Character area 72


1

2

3

4

5

Geology

Hydrology

Soil

Birdlife

Vegetation

6

Draining the landscape

7

8

Historic landmarks

The Sea

9

Settlment & Infrastructure

10

Tourism

I

II

III

IV

V

Stories hidden in the character areas

73


HØFDE 1

8

ferring 10 Summer house area 10 MUSEUM OF jENS sØNDERGÅRD 1 MINI MUSEUM ABOUT THE GEOLOGY

8

7 fERRING CHURCH

WW2

3 GLACIER EDGE glacier

edge

7 10 BOVBJERG LIGHTHOUSE the north sea

7 TRANS CHURCH RAMME DIKE

be

Å

9

Dy

10 TRANS ferieby

1 MELTWATER VALLEY ALONG DYBE ÅDAL

1

Geology

3

Soil

7

Landmark

8

The Sea

9

Settlement & infrastructure

10

Tourism

10 Summer house area 9 BEGINNING OF THE PREHISTORIC ROAD 9 FJALTRING STONE AGE SETTLEMENT 9

8

STONE AGE SETTLEMENT

THE STORY OF ARTHUR IMMANUEL CHRISTENSEN 7

74 FJALTRING CHURCH


VIEW TOWARDS THE glacial PLAINS 1 9 RAMME STATION

ramme

Area I

1: 25.000

This is the area of the glacier edge and the edge of the landscape. Stories about the sea and the coastline, the landmarks, churches, lighthouse and shipwrecks. Soil layers indicate the edge of the glacier. 75


2 PUMP HOUSE

NORET

NØRREVESE

ENGBJERG CHURCH 7

MELLEMVESE 1 MARINE FORELAND 8 4

WW2

PROTECTED BIRDAREA

SØNDERVESE 8 WW2

VEJLBY

9

9 FISHERMENS HUTS

STRANDE ST STRANDE

E OF 2 014

FERRING SØ

COASTL IN

1 VIEW TOWARDS VANDBORG MELTWATERVALLEY

TL

IN E

OF

ST ON

EA GE

TRAVELLING ROUTE OF THE VIKINGS

1

9

CO AS

9

FISHERMENS HUTS

76

1

Geology

2

Hydrology

4

Birdlife

7

Landmark

8

The Sea

9

Settlement & infrastructure


Area II

1: 25.000

There is a strong geological story within the terrain changes, from the marine foreland to the lateral moraine. There are many settlements from the Stone Age along the former coastline, which is also an important bird area. It has been an important area for lookout and the traveling route of the Vikings. 77


5 Area dominated by hedgerows

4 Protected birdarea

2 PUMP HOUSE

HYGUM NOR

RYLETORVET

DIKE

6

6 Area dominated by canals and dikes

SMEDSHAVEVESE

F

EO

E ON ST

E AG

IN TL

1

AS CO

1

1

Geology

2

Hydrology

4

Birdlife

5

Vegetation

6

Draining the landscape 78

HYGUM BAKKER LATERAL MORAIN

FISHERMENS HUTS


NISSUM BREDNING

2 PUMPHOUSE

2 Vestersø - reclaimed

Gjellerodde Gjellersø

5 Plantation

6 MEMORY STONE OF THØGER LARSEN

6 GJELLERGÅRD /CULTURAL HISTORIC CENTRE

Area III

1: 25.000

The area is part of the marine foreland and is strongly influenced by cultural history, where wetlands have been reclaimed through drainage and dikes. It is a landscape of farming, hedgerows, pumping houses and grazing pastoral landscape. 79


10 SUMMER HOUSES

1 SAND BEACH 1 tunnelvalley slopes

1

lem vig

Lateral morain

1 Lateral morain horn sø

7 TØRRING CHURCH

10 camping

HEDGEROWS

VINKEL HAGE

1 meltwater slopes

9

10 golf course

GRAZING SLOPES

1 tunnelvalley slopes 10 THE MUSEUM OF RELIGIOUS ART

7 LEMVIG CHURCH 9 Churchyard 10 MUSEUM OF LEMVIG 9

Lemvig station lemvig sø

lemvig 1

Geology

7

Landmark

9

Settlement & infrastructure

10

Tourism 80


Area IV

1: 25.000

This is a populated area, located in a tunnelvalley and influenced by tourism, summer houses, camping areas, beaches, a golfcourse and the main town, Lemvig. In this area there is a special meeting between human activity and geology. 81


Strande STATION

BONNET

CIER 1 GLA

EDGE

1 DEAD- ICE LANDSCAPE

1

Geology

9

Settlement & infrastructure

RAMME 82

9 RAMME STATION


vltj

9 LEMVIG STATION LEMVIG

9

j vlt

Area V

1: 25.000

This area is observed through the framing windows of the VLTJ. The train is connecting the Geopath, and brings another dimension to the path. The landscape is experienced in another pace, where the dead-ice landscape and the lateral moraine is perceived differently through the frame. 83


84


PROPOSAL

THE PATH

85


THE NORTH SEA

The path In this chapter The Geopath is illustrated in it’s full context and it is shown how it intersect the stories from the program. VEJLBY

The master plan 1:50.000 provides an overview of the area and the path and a more detailed map can be found in the scale of 1:25.000 as an appendix (page 125). In the end of the chapter there is a serial vision illustrating the spatial sequences of the landscape formations along the path.

FERRING

FJALTRING

86


NISSUM BREDNING

GJELLERODDE

LEM VIG

KLINKBY

LEMVIG

BONNET

E

R EDG GLACIE

THE GEOPATH EXISTING PATH RAILWAY INTERVENTION IMPORTANT SIGHTLINE HISTORIC TRACES LANDMARK LAKES 2,5 M HIGHTS BUILDINGS RAMME

SERIAL VISION 87

Masterplan 1: 50.000


(indsæt skitser)

Serial vision

VLTJ is framing the landscape

The area of Ramme Dike and the burial mounds

Along Dybe Å viewing The North Sea between the meltwater valley slopes

Along the beach beneath the coast slopes of Bovbjerg

Along Ferring Sø beneath the Stone Age coastline 88


On top of the Stone Age coastline at Engbjerg, viewing the marine foreland

On the dike along Hygum Nor - emphasized by new hedgerows

Along the dike between Nissum Bredning and the reclaimed Vestersø

Viewing the tunnelvalley and Lem Vig

In the meltwater valley at Horn Sø 89


90


PROPOSAL

THE INTERVENTIONS

91


INTERVENTIONS In this chapter the stories from the character areas, are interpreted in five architectural interventions along The Geopath. The interventions should underline the characteristics and like the references of Museum Insel Hombroich, Cap de Creus and The Swiss Way, The Geopath should provide facilities for the visitor to do their own discoveries of the landscape. Along The Geopath and between the interventions, concrete information about the area can be found on existing pump houses and bunkers (see the visualisation on page 114-115).

92


The Dike

The View

The Valley

The Edge

The Motion

Location of the interventions 1:125.000

Character area Intervention

93


The Edge

Tile b

orde r

Gravel path

The intervention called The Edge is located at the very edge of the coastal cliffs at Bovbjerg in character area I. The intervention is an interpretation of the geological basis and provides facities for a rest. The main edge of the glacier is illustrated by pillars defining the edge but also leads the eyes towards the view. As illustrated in the photo of the concept model, the pillars continue at the beach.

line

Costal cliffs

Bench

Section

Pillars

Plan detail 1:200

94


Gravel path

Pillars

Costal cliffs

Section 1:200

95 Photo of the concept model


The View The View intervention is refacilitation of an out look bunker from WW2 in character area II. The bunker will be reused for bird watching and provides facilities for sheltered views towards Harboøre Tange and The North Sea. The path along the edge of the Stone Age coastline is cut grass and widens up towards the bunker and the view. The path is altered into a tile bordered gravel path indicating the change.

Tile

bor der

Gra

ss p

ath

tion line

Gravel path

Steps

Fenced grazing area

ch

Reused bunker

Ben

Sec

Fields

Plan detail 1:200

96


Section 1:200

97

Photo of the concept model Fields

Gravel path

Steps

Reused bunker

Fenced grazing area


The Dike The Dike is an intervention underlining stories about the cultural history of area III. The path is established on the top of the dike beside the canal at Hygum Nor. At this intervention the planting of an Alnus cordata and Sorbus intermedia hedgerow underline the stringent and manmade character of the landscape, as well as the long sightlines along canals.

e Section lin

ch

Ben

Field

a

edi

nd

s

nu f Al

wo ero

g

Hed

er

aa dat cor

ath

p vel Gra

ord

b Tile

Sor

rm inte bus

Deck

er

eel bord Corten st

e Dik

om d fr

ubs

shr

ane

cle

gum t Hy al a

Nor

n row erg v O

Can

e

dik

Plan detail 1:200

98


Dike cleaned from shrubs

Deck

Gravel path

Bench

Hedgerow of Alnus cordata and Sorbus intermedia

Field

Overgrown dike

Canal at Hygum Nor

Section 1:200

99

Photo of the concept model


The Valley The Valley is located in character area IV and the intervention is a figuratively and psysical connection between the natural environment of the meltwater valley and the trimmed nature at the golf course. It is an interpretation of the meeting between geology, civilsation and nature, where the steps imitate the cow’s horizontal trails on the slopes.

Existing shrubs

Alnus cordata

Reinfo rced ste ps

Golf course

Existing shrubs

Str e

am

Ra ise

d

de

ck Wetland

n line Sectio

Meltwater valley

Plan detail 1:200

100


Section 1:200

101

Photo of the concept model

Golf course

Alnus cordata

Reinforced steps

Meltwater valley

Raised deck

Wetland


The Motion

Railw

ay

The Motion is an intervention in character area V which will be experienced from the VLTJ, in order to draw the traveller’s attention towards the landscape. The intervention is experienced in a glimpse of 6 seconds, when the train is moving through the dead-ice landscape. The hundred meter long row of pillars are placed with varying gaps along the railway, flickering the light in the train, before the intervention has passed and disappears.

Pillar ro w

of 100 m

Pond (in Dead-Ice landscape)

Sectio n line

Plan detail 1:200

102


4 m high pillars

Section 1:200

103 Photo of the concept model


104


PROPOSAL

MATERIALS

105


Materials In the following chapter, four visualisations illustrate different scenarios along the path, in between the interventions. The visualisations also illustrate which materials will be used in the creation of the path and how. The materials are chosen to make The Geopath stand out from the other paths in the area, and ensure a coherent experience even though the path leads through different landscapes. A B C D E F

raised decks at areas of wetland corteen steel details; edge of the raised deck, handrails, reinforced steps wood details at handrails and the seat of benches main paths are gravel paths paths crossing grazing fields are trodden paths tile for benches and borders of the gravel path for marking rest facilities

106


A B C D E F

107


108


Visualization from the southern trail, viewed from Strande along Ferring Sø. The area nearest to the canal is often flodded and like other wetlands along the path a raised deck is applied. The material imitates the cattle grids found in the area and has raised edges with corten steel. 109


The steep slopes is made more accessible with a simple handrail in corten steel, which also indicate the direction of the trail. 110 The visualisation illustrate the slopes of Engbjerg overlooking Mellemvese and Nørrevese.


111


112


Opposite Engbjerg church a small grove of Alnus trees makes a perfect spot for resting on the path. The path is made with gravel and the reststops is emphasized with a bord of tiles. Benches along the path are all made113 from red tile with a seat of wood.


The historic pump houses and bunkers along the path will be used for pitstops and informationcentres about geology, birds, histories and landscapes. The area is highlighted with a bord of tile. The visualisation illustrates the pump house at the dikes of Hygum Nor. 114


115


116


CONCLUSION AND REFLECTION

117


Conclusion and reflection This thesis proposes a concrete example of how the concept of a Geopark can be interpreted and communicated in the form of a path system with landscape interventions. The Geopath will take the hiker through the area of a glacial landscape series and the cultural landscape. The path is a hiking route divided in two sections and connected with the railway VLTJ. Each part is about a day’s walk and the path provides rest facilities along the way. The visitor is required to bring their own supplies of food and water. However, water supplies could easily be implemented along the path. The project have been a way for me to test an approach to landscape architecture which have required me to spend much time in the landscape, investigating it in detail and discovering the hidden stories within it. I have been walking and thinking, finding the genius loci of the site in order to create the interventions on the terms of the landscape. It is the largest project area I have worked with and the approach relate well to the fact that this project is basically a hiking route. Because when facilitating a hiking route one should bear in mind, that hiking is in fact about walking in the landscape, discovering it and feeling it. The dimension about interpreting the landscape is illustrated in the interventions. The stories and analysis in the program are all true, whereas the interventions are my own interpretations of these stories. The interventions are made to indicate landscape characters and guide the direction of the eye. They are very subtle and intend to enhance the experience of the landscape. The informational facilities should contribute to the factual understanding of the landscape. These information’s can be found along the path on existing elements like pump houses and bunkers, like it is illustrated on the last visualisation (page 114-115). Being in dialog with the landscape is essential for a landscape architect. The investigational approach in this thesis might seem rather time consuming, but I believe some elements can be extracted for my future work as a landscape architect. The way of observing a landscape may very well be transferred to projects of a smaller scale. George Descombe’s contribution to the Swiss Way was a 2 km long route and the landscape was analysed even closer and more detailed. The way of locating stories and consultating specialists in different disciplines, brings another dimension to a project no matter the areal size.

24: http://www.geoparkvestjylland.dk/download/praesentation/Geopark-udgave-IV_7nov_ v3-3.pdf, p. 4 118


Privat cadastral borders which The Geopath is crossing

1:125.000

Recreational connections in rural areas are often on the terms of the land owners, a fact that have not been taken into consideration in this project. The diagram above illustrate the cadastral borders, which The Geopath is intersecting. Some of these landowners are part of the project ‘Spor i landskabet’, and may be interested in joining the project. One of the visions of Geopark Vestjylland is to make the geological, historical and ecological qualities of the area visible. 24 This vision relates well to the campaign ‘Steder i landskabet’., a campaign which is intended to promote and utilize the potentials of the remote areas in Denmark. 25

25: Rohde, Signe Marie et. al. (2012), p. 4 119


120


BIBLIOGRAPHY

121


Texts: Dee, Catherine (2010) Form, Utility, and the Aesthetics of Thrift in Design Education. Landscape Journal, volume 29, number 1, 2010. P. 21-35. Descombes, George (1999) Shifting sites: The Swiss Way, Geneva. Recovering Landscape: Essays in Contemporary Landscape Theory, p. 79-85 Edited by James Corner Princeton Architectural Press Foxley, Alice (2010) Distance & engagement Walking, thinking and making landscape. Vogt Landscapearchitects. Lars Müllers publishers Hansen, Kjeld (2011) Folk og fortællinger fra det tabte land Forlaget BæreDygtighed p. 325-350 Hauxner, Malene (2011) Supernatur. Europæisk landskabsarkitektur 1967-2007 set fra Danmark. IKAROS Press Morin, Francois-Yves (1991) The project ‘Swiss Way’ Extracts from an interview with Francois-Yves Morin. Nørregård-Nielsen, Hans Edvard og Klein, Kirsten (2012) Limfjorden 1, Stemmer og Steder. Gyldendal Rohde, Signe Marie and Andersen, Christian (2012) Steder i Landskabet Realdania Dansk bygningsarv A/S Sand-Jensen, Kaj (2006) Naturen i Danmark, Geologien. Gyldendal. 1. udgave, 1. oplag. Lectures: Bettum, Ola (2013) Landskapet i turistvegene. En kritisk reflektjon. IMPULSforelesning http://vimeo.com/66185160 (28.10.2014) Photos: Astrid Jakobsen Kirk (unless otherwise stated) Page 18-19: http://www.kunsten.dk/da/udforsk-samlingen/udvalgte-kunstnere/jens-soendergaard/kunstvaerker/graa-dag-ved-vesterhavet (13.11.2014) Page 26: http://www.nasa.gov/sites/default/files/hofsjokull_ice_cap_iceland_1.jpg (13.11.2014) Page 36: http://www.dofvestjylland.dk/index.php/nyhedsarkiv/676-seniorturen-til-veserne-og-harboore-tange-i-blaesevejr (19.08.2014) Page 48-49: http://www.fjaltringtranshistorie.dk/redning/image/Jernkysten%201882.JPG (12.12.2014) Page 50: http://www.fjaltringtranshistorie.dk/historien/H-veddybaa.html (12.12.2014) Page 53: Bovbjerg Minimuseum Page 58: http://www.lemviginfo.dk/kirken.htm Page 68: http://festivalesanteriores.buenosaires.gob.ar/bafici/home10/photobase/films/un_architecte_dans_le_paysage_1_small.jpg (13.11.2014) Page 69: http://www.landezine.com/index.php/2011/03/tudela-club-med-restoration-in-cap-de-creus-by-emf-landscape-architecture/ (12.11.2014) Websites: http://www.dofbasen.dk/IBA/lokalitet.php?lokid=39 (19.08.2014) http://www.dofvestjylland.dk/index.php/nyhedsarkiv/676-seniorturen-til-veserne-og-harboore-tange-i-blaesevejr (19.08.2014) http://www.geoparkvestjylland.dk/ (19.08.2014) http://www.geoparkvestjylland.dk/download/praesentation/Geopark-udgave-IV_7nov_v3-3.pdf (27.08.2014) http://naturstyrelsen.dk/naturoplevelser/naturguider/klosterheden/historie/ (25.09.2014) http://www.europeangeoparks.org ( 28.08.2014) http://www.unesco.org/new/en/natural-sciences/environment/earth-sciences/global-geoparks/ ( 28.08.2014) http://www.inselhombroich.de/museum-insel-hombroich/museum/?lang=en (13.11.2014) http://www.northseatrail.org/show_single_article.php?article_id=3214&lang=dk& (17.11.2014) http://www.jernkysten.dk/# (12.12.2014) http://www.fjaltringtranshistorie.dk/historien/H-veddybaa.html (12.12.2014) http://www.fjaltringtranshistorie.dk/historien/havetsomnabo.html (12.12.2014) Maps: Per Smed’s ”Landskabskort” (1978) ArcMap 10.2.2 122


APPENDIX

123


124


Appendix Masterplan 1:25.000

125


Thesis Astrid J Kirk  
Thesis Astrid J Kirk  
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