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UNIVERSITY OF TWENTE – TECHOS VERDES

Introducing a comparison tool for energy consumption of houses in Honduras Bachelor thesis Robert Ruiter 7/27/2012


Bachelor Assignment 27-July-2012 Version: concept thesis R.J. Ruiter University of Twente Civil Engineering & Management r.j.ruiter-1@student.utwente.nl Company: Techos Verdes, Plaza Comercial Bioclimรกtica San Pedro Sula, Honduras Supervisor Company: Architect A. Stassano Supervisor University of Twente: ir. A.G. Entrop 1


Preface This research has been done for my bachelor thesis of the study Civil engineering at the University of Twente, the Netherlands. I lived from May the second to August the first In San Pedro Sula, Honduras. I worked for ten weeks at the plaza commercial Bioclimática Techos Verdes. This is a company managed by the Architect Angela Stassano which tries to educate people about all kind of possible improvements of their lives. I am the fourth student from ‘Twente’ doing a research for Techos Verdes. The research I did was a new kind of approach of the bioclimatic building design. I did not know much about the European energy labels and the people at the company even less. For me and for my supervisor the start of my research was a big search for the right approach and right ending. I hope my work can be used for promoting more energy efficient building designs in San Pedro Sula and eventually in the whole country. First of all I want to thank Angela Stassano for the change she gave me to come to Honduras. Special thanks go to Bram Entrop for giving me sharp but useful critics. I also want to thank the Renee, Janina and Saida from the office. It was always fun with you. I want to thank the gardeners, guards, workers and other guys for the fun times and playing ‘fútbol’ with me every day. And of course the women from the cafeteria for the good food every day. Last but not least I want to thank my family and friends in the Netherlands, especially my parents. Without you I would not be where I am right now! Robert Ruiter July 2012

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Abstract Sustainability is rapidly increasing in importance. Buildings account for a large part in the annual energy consumption in modern societies. Therefore the government in the Netherlands developed a labelling system for houses, from A till G. When the house uses a little bit of energy it will get an A label. When the house uses a lot of energy it will get a G label. When you want to sell or rent a house in the Netherlands, it is required to acquire a label that gives an indication of the amount of building related energy this specific house uses. In this way, energy consuming houses lose value, houses that use a little bit of energy gain value. The labels also stimulate the producers to design more and better energy efficient products. The energy label explained in NEN 7120 (Dutch Energy Norm) determines the ratio between the characteristic energy use and the maximum admissible energy use based on ground surface and building shell. In Europe this is already a common used tool to increase the awareness of house buyers and tenants. The energy label system is not well-known in Honduras. Before the energy labels are ready to launch in the Honduran real estate market they first have to be made suitable for the tropical climate of Honduras. The tropical climate in Honduras is totally different from the moderate sea climate in the Netherlands. The average temperature is 26,2 °C in Honduras and 10 °C in the Netherlands, the absolute humidity is on average 2,7 times higher compared to the Netherlands. There is more rainfall in Honduras and this is concentrated in 8 months of the year. For implementing the labelling system successful in Honduras, the assumptions used in the label calculation method has to be different to, because the climate is so different. The big houses together with many offices in San Pedro Sula consume a large part of the country’s energy. This is why these buildings are the scope of this research. The target group of buildings has a lot of design features in common. They are all build with single walls of concrete blocks, have a metal roof structure with a metal sheet roof. Almost all the buildings use air conditioning for cooling. To evaluate a building you can use the tables in appendix A. There are two tables; one for examining houses what rely on cooling by ventilation, the other one is for houses which use air conditioning to obtain a comfortable indoor climate. The most important part of a building design in the tropical climate of San Pedro Sula is the roof, followed by the windows. The available appliances are also really important; the water heating systems and the cooling equipment. Although the cooling equipment is far more important for houses with air conditioning. For this thesis are five buildings examined, tree houses and two offices. The examined buildings can be classified into two categories of design. The first category are the bioclimatic buildings, the examined buildings of this type are all designed by architect Angela Stassano. These buildings have some main characteristics. They have long eaves for shade; high, ventilated roofs so there will not accumulate heat which bothers the residents. The case buildings used for the investigation use also a mix of different green surroundings to help cooling the building. As you can see are the scores in the comparison table good for these buildings, the Las Casitas score an A label (the best label). The Techos Verdes office scored a B label. The second category is more common in Honduras. These are the buildings that only use air conditioning for cooling the building. These buildings are designed with the underlying thought of only relying on the air conditioning device and not using other cooling options. Both of these buildings scored a D label. 3


Table of contents 1.1 Problem statement and research goal .......................................................................................... 6 1.2 Research framework ......................................................................................................................... 8 1.2.1 Assumed values NEN 7120 ......................................................................................................... 8 1.3 Sub conclusion ................................................................................................................................... 9 2.1 General Climate of Honduras .......................................................................................................... 10 2.2 General climate of the Netherlands ................................................................................................ 12 2.3 Climate in San Pedro Sula: ............................................................................................................... 12 2.4 Sub conclusion ................................................................................................................................. 14 3.1 Energy consumption in San Pedro Sula ........................................................................................... 15 3.2 General architectural specifications ................................................................................................ 15 3.3 Sub conclusion ................................................................................................................................. 17 4.1 Checklist buildings primary relying on ventilation .......................................................................... 18 4.2 Checklist buildings primary relying on air conditioning .................................................................. 21 4.3 Sub conclusion ................................................................................................................................. 21 5.1 Examined houses ............................................................................................................................. 22 5.1.1 House one: Las Casitas (bioclimatic) ........................................................................................ 23 5.1.2 House two: Normal Honduran house (air-conditioned) .......................................................... 25 5.2 Examined offices ............................................................................................................................. 27 5.2.1 Office one: Techos Verdes office (bioclimatic) ......................................................................... 27 5.2.2 Office two: La Tara office (air-conditioned) ............................................................................. 29 5.3 Sub conclusion ................................................................................................................................. 30 Appendix A ........................................................................................................................................... 35 Appendix B ............................................................................................................................................ 39 Appendix C............................................................................................................................................. 47 Appendix D ............................................................................................................................................ 50 House one: Casa Grande (bioclimatic) .............................................................................................. 50 House two: Normal Honduran house (air-conditioned) ................................................................... 51 Office one: Techos Verdes office (bioclimatic).................................................................................. 52 Office two: La Tara office (air-conditioned) ...................................................................................... 53 Sub Conclusion ...................................................................................................................................... 54 Appendix D1: Small Las Casita ............................................................................................................... 55 4


Appendix D2: Big Las casita ................................................................................................................... 56 Appendix D3: Normal Honduran House ................................................................................................ 57 Appendix D4: Office Techos Verdes ...................................................................................................... 58 Appendix D5: Office La Tara .................................................................................................................. 59

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1 Introduction 1.1 Problem statement and research goal Sustainability is rapidly increasing in importance. At first, cars and machines had to be energy efficient. To do this, energy labels were introduced to increase the awareness of the crowd about the energy specifications of these machines. These labels also stimulate the producers to design more and better energy efficient products. In Europe, energy labels are also developed for houses. Buildings account for a large part in the annual energy consumption in modern societies. Within the European Union (EU) the energy use of the built environment is more than 40% of the total energy consumption (Entrop, 2009). The European Union implemented the Energy Performance of Buildings Directive (EPBD) with the explicit goal of promoting energy performance improvements in buildings. The Directive, which was recently recast, includes an explicit element on the disclosure of energy performance in buildings: ‘‘Member states shall ensure that, when buildings are constructed, sold or rented out, an energy performance certificate is made available to the owner or by the owner to the prospective buyer or tenant.’’ (Brounen, 2011) When you want to sell or rent a Figure 1 Dutch energy labels (Duurzaam thuis, 2010) house in the Netherlands, it is required to acquire a label that gives an indication of the amount of building related energy this specific house uses. This helps to increase the transparency of the real estate market. So these labels are being used as an extra tool for house buyers to take energy efficiency into account when making housing decisions.

The energy label explained in NEN 7120 (Dutch Energy Norm) determines the ratio between the characteristic energy use and the maximum admissible energy use based on ground surface and building shell (equation 1). (EQUATION 1)

 =

 

×    ×  

 : Energy index calculated to comply with the EPBD 6


 : Characteristic yearly energy use of a house based on NEN 7120(MJ)  : Total ground surface (m2)  : Total thermal transmission surface (m2)  , ! , " : Numerical correction factors 155 (MJ/m2), 106 (MJ/m2) and 9560 (MJ/m2). The NEN 7120 describes the whole labelling system and is a guideline to calculate the energy label for a house. There are ten categories of energy use which are included in this calculation (NEN 7120): 1. Energy for heating. This is the gas or electricity used to heat the house. 2. Additional energy (for heating). When houses are heated with a central heating system which heaths water, this water has to be pumped around the premises and this costs energy. 3. Heating water. Water used for washing and cooking has to be heated to an acceptable temperature. This costs gas or electricity for heating and electricity to pump it around the house. 4. Energy for fans. Fans need electricity. 5. Energy for lighting. Lightning needs electricity. 6. Summer comfort (installing shades). This post is added to the list so the designer takes during the design into account shades and some special building properties cost energy. 7. Energy used for cooling. Cooling by air-conditioning cost electricity. 8. Energy used for moisturizing (rare situations). Moisturizing equipment needs mostly electricity to vaporise water. 9. Energy generation by photovoltaic systems. Solar panels use sunlight to generate electricity. 10. Energy generation by combined heat and power systems. Combined heat and power systems use gas to generate heat and electricity. These systems generate more energy (in heat and electricity) out of the same amount of gas. Honduras 42,5 Percent of Honduras total energy consumption is used by the current building stock (ENEE, 2010). Most houses are made of single concrete walls with a roof of steel sheets. To cool the house, people use air conditioning or ventilation. The total amount of energy used by these houses can become lower by using sustainable building methods. Few Honduran inhabitants are familiar with the possibilities of sustainable building. Therefore this is a good opportunity for me to encourage people in building houses which consume less energy. The way to do this is increasing awareness about the energy consumption of a specific house. This is possible by granting houses an energy label, which tells you how energy efficient the house is. The energy labelling system explained in NEN 7120 is in Europe a method to enforce the real estate market to become more energy efficient. In Europe this is already a common used tool to increase the awareness of house buyers and tenants. The energy label system is not well-known in Honduras. Before the energy labels are ready to launch in the Honduran real estate market they first have to be made suitable for the tropical climate of Honduras. The Honduran houses are built to carry off heat as quickly as possible. There are two methods to do so. The first method is ventilating the house; the second method is installing air-conditioning. Dutch houses are designed to keep warmth inside. To this context arises the main question. In what way is it possible to use the determination method of the energy performance of Dutch buildings to calculate the energy performance of Honduran houses?

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1.2 Research framework The differences between the tropical climate of Honduras and the moderate climate in the Netherlands are considerable. The average temperature in the Netherlands (de Bilt) is 9,5 °C, the relative humidity is 82% and the precipitation per year is 802 mm. In Honduras (San Pedro Sula) the average temperature, humidity and the precipitation are respectively 26 °C, 80% and 1147 mm precipitation per year witch mostly falls in the raining season (May-October) (KNMI, 1997). Apparently Honduras is warmer and wetter as the Netherlands. Humidity is conditional upon the temperature, when you convert the relative humidity you will find the air in San Pedro Sula is containing 2,5 times as much water (19,5 g water per m3 air In San Pedro to 7,2 g in de Bilt), as the air in the Netherlands (UU, 2011). In the Netherlands a normal house uses in average 70% (Murphy, 2012) of its total energy consumption on keeping the inside temperature on an acceptable level and tap water heating. Houses are insulated and contain cavity walls. In the tropics heating is not required because the temperature is much higher. Therefore most houses are designed to constantly evacuate heat and to provide as much shadow as possible. Many houses are build up with a single wall of concrete blocks and contain a metal roof. In the tropics there are two types of houses. The first type uses (natural or mechanic) ventilation to manage a comfortable indoor temperature. Other houses use air-conditioning to keep their houses cool. There is a big difference between these approaches. In houses which are being constantly ventilated there is a need for an open design what improves the run trough of fresh air. The houses with air conditioning try to trap the existing air and cool this to the desired temperature. This has all kinds of negative consequences such as stuffy and dry air. The biggest demerit of air-conditioning systems is the great amount of energy needed to produce cold air. This phenomenon is called exergy. Cooling is much more energy consuming than heating (Juusela, 2009). There are many solutions to keep a house cool in the tropical climate of Honduras. Installing long eaves is a really simple solution to avoid the direct sunlight penetration through the windows. Increasing ventilation by building the house on poles and installing ventilation holes in the roof is a way to convey the heat out of the building. There are also guidelines available which tell you how to locate the windows in the walls for maximal ventilation (cross ventilation) (Baruch Givoni, 1994). Another possibility of cooling a house is establishing an internal courtyard (Sadafi et al, 2011).

1.2.1 Assumed values NEN 7120 To understand more of the underlying assumptions of the NEN 7120, it is useful to find out what the assumed values are. Not all of the values are specified in advance. In table 1 you can see these assumptions. Element Heating

Additional energy (for heating)

Netherlands -desirable inside temperature: Min 20°C, Max 24°C -Average outside temperature 9,5°C (table 2) -Intensity incoming solar radiation is 300 W/m2/hour -heating season lasts 212 days Energy used for pumps

Honduras - houses do not have heating installations, no heating season - Average outside temperature is 26°C -the solar radiation is much stronger in Honduras because it is closer to the equater. Heating houses is not necessary in Honduras so there are no pumps available 8


Heating water Energy for fans

Heating water is usually done with a boiler, fuelled by gas. Fans use electricity

Energy for lighting Summer comfort (installing shades)

Lighting uses electricity Some shades are electric and cost energy

Energy used for cooling

Air-conditioning cost energy, they are only used a few weeks per year. Moisturizing equipment is sometimes used in the Netherlands This energy generation is used relatively often in the Netherlands There is a big investment needed for such a system

Energy used for moisturizing (rare situations) Energy generation by photovoltaic systems Energy generation by combined heat and power systems

Mostly only electric shower water heating This is more important in Honduras, most houses use fans for many hours a day Lighting uses electricity More important in Honduras, every house here needs shade. Many houses do not have enough. More important in Honduras, the air-conditioning can be used whole year trough Moisturizing is not useful in the humid climate of Honduras Great potential for photovoltaic systems but until now not used Through the big investment and cheap energy prices not common in Honduras.

Table 1 Elements of NEN 7120 with the Dutch and Honduran guidelines and assumptions, Research framework

In table 2 are the average temperatures in the Netherlands and Honduras visible per month. As you can see in the Netherlands is a large variation in temperatures. In Honduras is the temperature the whole year trough almost the same. Month Netherlands Honduras

Jan Feb Mar 2,6 5,0 6,8 23,5 24,1 25,8

Apr May 9,3 13,3 27,1 28,1

Jun 16,0 27,7

Jul 17,4 27,1

Aug 17,4 27,3

Sep 14,6 27,2

Oct 11,3 26,0

Nov Dec year 7,1 4,0 9,5 24,7 23,7 26,0

Table 2 Average monthly temperatures (째C) (WKI, 1997)

1.3 Sub conclusion Sustainability is rapidly increasing in importance. Buildings account for a large part in the annual energy consumption in modern societies. Therefore the government in the Netherlands developed a labelling system for houses, from A till G. When the house uses a little bit of energy it will get an A label. When the house uses a lot of energy it will get a G label. When you want to sell or rent a house in the Netherlands, it is required to acquire a label that gives an indication of the amount of building related energy this specific house uses. In this way, energy consuming houses lose value, houses that use a little bit of energy gain value. The labels also stimulate the producers to design more and better energy efficient products. The energy label explained in NEN 7120 (Dutch Energy Norm) determines the ratio between the characteristic energy use and the maximum admissible energy use based on ground surface and building shell. In Europe this is already a common used tool to increase the awareness of house buyers and tenants. The energy label system is not well-known in Honduras. Before the energy labels are ready to launch in the Honduran real estate market they first have to be made suitable for the tropical climate of Honduras. 9


2 Climatic differences Weather specifications The Dutch energy labelling system is attuned to the Dutch climate. The climate values are included in the correction factors used in equation 1. This means the calculations which have to be done to obtain an energy label use Dutch temperatures and other Dutch climate values, namely the values from the TRY de Bilt, (Hensen, 2001). For introducing the energy labels in the tropical climate of Honduras and especially San Pedro Sula it is useful to examine the prevalent climate.

2.1 General Climate of Honduras Honduras, with an area of 112,492 km², is located between the latitude 13 °N and 17 °N and between the longitude 83 °W and 89 °W. There are six different climate zones in the country (figure 2). These are the Atlantic coastal zone, the northern interior, central zone, west zone, the eastern and the south part of Honduras. I will shortly describe each zone with her different climate specifications.

Figure 2 Climate zones Honduras, San Pedro Sula is in the orange box. (Google maps, 2012)

Atlantic coastal zone According to the Köppen climate classification, this area belongs to the climate of tropical rainforest. Rains occur throughout the year, with an average of 2643 mm and 167 rainy days year. The rainy season begins in June with a gradual increase until September, showing the absolute maximum in October, November and December, with an average of 400 mm per month. The least wet months are April and May with an average precipitation of 80 mm per month. The average annual relative humidity is 82% and the average annual temperature is 27 °C. With an average maximum temperature of 30 °C and a minimum of 20.7 °C, the warmest months are May and June with an average of 28.1 °C and 28.2 °C respectively. The freshest are December and January with averages of 24.3 °C and 23.9 °C respectively. (SMNH, 2011) Northern Interior This is the area where San Pedro Sula is situated, the place where I will gather my research data. The existing climate of tropical savannah is characterized by two seasons: the dry time in January through 10


April, with the months of March and April as driest with an average of 25 mm precipitation per month. The rainy season begins in June and ends in November or December. The average annual rainfall is 1128 mm. There is an average of 150 rainy days a year, with a maximum amount in September of 176 mm. The annual average relative humidity is 75%, with an average temperature of 26.2 °C, a maximum average of 30.0 °C and a minimum of 21.9 °C. (SMNH, 2011)

Central zone This area is characterized by two seasons, one dry and one rainy. The first occurs between January and April, February being the driest month, with an average precipitation of 8.0 mm. The rainy season begins in mid-May and ends in October. Average annual rainfall is 1004 mm with 118 days of rain and average relative humidity of 70%. The average annual temperature is 24.9 °C with a maximum of 27.1 °C in April and a minimum of 22.7 °C in January for places as far as 500m above sea level. An average of 21.5 °C, with a maximum of 23.5 °C in April and an average minimum of 19.5 °C in January to places to 1.000 m above sea level. (SMNH, 2011) West zone For the terrain in this area are two types of weather, the first by Köppen is a "mesothermal" climate with a dry winter in places above the 1,400 m. This season starts in December en ends in March with a minimum precipitation of 0.5 mm in January. The rainy season starts in mid-April en last until November with a monthly maximum of 300 mm precipitation in June. The annual rainfall is 1290 mm which falls in 160 days, with a relative humidity of 76%. The average temperature is 18.3 °C, with an average maximum of 22.4 °C and a minimum of 12.5 °C. The second type of climate is tropical savannah to the sites below 1,400 m. With a dry season from December to April, and a rainy season which occurs from May to November with a maximum of 303 mm in September. The annual rainfall 1395 mm, this falls in 144 days and there is a relative humidity of 76%. The annual temperature is 24.5 °C, with a maximum of 28.9 °C and minimum 19.0 °C. (SMNH, 2011) Eastern This region includes a tropical savannah climate. The area is characterized by two seasons: a dry season between December and April, with February being the driest month with an average of 19.0 mm. The Rainy season occurs from May to November and has a maximum monthly average in September of 211 mm. The annual rainfall is 1200 mm which falls in 153 days, the relative humidity of 74%. The average annual temperature is 25.0 °C, with a maximum of 30.2 °C and a minimum of 18.6 °C. The hottest month is April with 27.0 °C average, and January as the coolest month with 23.0 °C. (SMNH, 2011) South According to Köppen the South region consists of a tropical savannah climate. The area has a dry season from December to April with a monthly average precipitation of 3,0 mm. The rainy season occurs from May to October, the absolute maximum occurs in September with 345 mm of rainfall per month. The annual average rainfall is 1,680 mm, which falls in 102 raining days. The average relative humidity is 66%. The average annual temperature is 29.1 °C, with an average maximum temperature of 34.5 °C and a minimum of 23.4 °C. The hottest month is April with an average of 30.7 °C with an average minimum of 27.5 °C in September. (SMNH, 2011)

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2.2 General climate of the Netherlands The Netherlands have a temperate maritime climate influenced by the North Sea and Atlantic Ocean, with cool summers and moderate winters. Daytime temperatures vary from 2 °C – 6 °C in the winter and 17 °C – 20 °C in the summer. Since the country is small there is little variation in climate from region to region, although the marine influences are less inland. Rainfall is distributed throughout the year with a dryer period from April to September. The average yearly rainfall is 766mm. Especially in fall and winter strong Atlantic low-pressure systems can bring gales and uncomfortable weather. Sometimes easterly winds can cause a more continental type of weather, warm and dry in the summer, but cold and clear in the winter with temperatures sometimes far below zero. Holland is a flat country and has often breezy conditions, although more in the winter than in the summer, and more among the coastal areas than inland. The climate of The Netherlands can be classified as oceanic climate in the Köppen classification; a warm temperate humid climate with the warmest month lower than 22°C over average and four or more months above 10°C over average. (weatheronline, 2012)

2.3 Climate in San Pedro Sula: The research for this thesis will be done in San Pedro Sula, with her population of almost 900.000 the second largest city of Honduras. San Pedro Sula is situated in the Valle de Sula and belongs to the Northern Interior zone. The people say San Pedro Sula is hot and humid all year long Temperature The temperature in San Pedro Sula is compared to the Netherlands really high; the monthly average temperature is always between the 24 and 28 degrees. The maximum average temperature in the Netherlands is 17 °C, and in the winter lowers this to a minimum of only 2 °C (figure 3b). Degree days The biggest difference in the temperature becomes visible when you look at the so called degreedays. A heating degree day is a day when the outside temperature 1 degree Celcius below 18 °C is. A cooling degree day is a day when the outside temperature 1 degree Celcius above 18 °C is (KWA, 2012). In table 3 becomes the difference visible, in San Pedro Sula occur a lot of cooling degree days and almost no heating degree days. In the Netherlands is opposite.

Netherlands, The Bilt (KWA,2012) Honduras, San Pedro Sula (degreedays, 2012)

Yearly cooling degree days 79 3086

Yearly heating degree days 3040 2

Table 3 Degree days Netherlands and Honduras

Humidity The people in San Pedro Sula say it is really humid in their city. If you first look at the relative humidity you will see it is almost the same as in the Netherlands (figure 3a). When the absolute humidity is calculated, thus the actual amount of evaporated water per m3 of air, big differences become visible. In figure 3c you can see the actual humidity in San Pedro Sula is on average 2,7 times higher as de Bilt (Netherlands).

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100

30

80

25 20

60

15 40

10

20

5

a

0

b

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12

25 20 15

San Pedro Sula

10

De Bilt

5

c

0 1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12 3

Figure 3 (a) Relative humidity %, (b) Average temperature 째C, (c) Absolute humidity g water/m air (KNMI,1997)

Precipitation Information about the precipitation in San Pedro Sula is gathered by (vd Bent, 2009). He got this information from the DIMA, the local water department of the municipality of San Pedro Sula. The measurement site is located 5 km from the centre. The average yearly precipitation in San Pedro Sula for the last ten years is 1301mm, with a minimum yearly precipitation of 905mm (1997) and a maximum of 1842mm (1995), see figure 4.

Figure 4 Yearly precipitation San Pedro Sula (DIMA, 2006)

Figure 5 Average monthly precipitation San Pedro Sula (DIMA, 2006)

The average monthly precipitation shows the dry season which starts in February and ends in May. In June starts the rainy season, the rains becomes less until September but in October and November the rainy season is at his wettest point (figure 5). Other weather phenomenons The Caribbean knows a hurricane season, this also influences Honduras. Although there are not many hurricanes, the few who hit Honduras can strike the country hard like hurricane Mitch in 1998.

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2.4 Sub conclusion Trough this chapter it is become clear the tropical climate in Honduras is totally different from the moderate sea climate in the Netherlands. The average yearly temperature is 26,2 째C in Honduras and 10 째C in the Netherlands, the absolute humidity is on average 2,7 times higher compared to the Netherlands. The average yearly rainfall in San Pedro Sula is 1128 mm, the dry time is January to April. The yearly rainfall in the Netherlands is 766 mm. The rainfall occurs throughout the whole year. For implementing the system successful in Honduras, the assumptions used in the label calculation method has to be different to, because the climate is so different. The Dutch labeling system uses the Dutch climate values to calculate the energy labels for houses. This means the best houses in the labeling system (label A), consume the least energy in the Dutch climate. If you would build the same house somewhere else, it would probably use more energy. It is also important to keep in mind the different opinions between countries about the conditions people still feel comfortable in, and what they do not accept anymore.

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3 General specifications of buildings Interviews

3.1 Energy consumption in San Pedro Sula In Honduras live officially in 2010 about 8.200.000 people who together use 1.390.000 connections to the national grid. This is the total amount of connections, the bulk of connections is for residential use (1.270.000). The Northwest part of the country has a contribution of 587.000 of the connections. Especially the region Cortes (1.570.000 inhabitants) and its main city San Pedro Sula (719.000 inhabitants) use a big part of the consumed energy (table 4). (ENEE, 2012) Connections San Pedro Sula North West Honduras Total Honduras

140.129 587.108 1.392.034

Connections (%) 10 42 100

Consumed energy (kwh) 90.334.515 219.092.385 430.687.680

Consumed energy (%) 21 51 100

Table 4 Energy consumption and connections to national grid in Honduras (ENEE, 2012).

San Pedro Sula consumes 21% of the nation’s energy. The residential and commercial part of the energy consumption in San Pedro Sula is 70% (respectively 38% and 32%) of the total energy consumption. The other energy goes to the industry (26%) and to government agencies (4%). Moreover, when you look at the number of connections with the national grid you will see the residential and commercial electricity consumption per connection is a lot bigger compared to the whole region (70%) and it is more than double compared to the whole country, see table 5. (ENEE, 2012) Energy consuming sectors Residential Comercial Total

San Pedro Sula 248 1.575 645

northwest region 139 1.094 373

Honduras 143 1.028 309

Table 5 kWh per connection, per region (ENEE, 2012).

The city of San Pedro Sula is inhabited by less than ten percent of the nations citizens, nevertheless they use 21% of the total energy consumption in Honduras. Some neighbourhoods of San Pedro Sula are covered with big houses equipped with large, energy consuming air conditioning devices. There was no data available about the roll these houses play in the city’s residential energy use. Yet this research will focus on these houses because they play certainly a part in the elevated energy consumption of the city San Pedro Sula.

3.2 General architectural specifications As told before this thesis the focus will be on houses in the higher part of the real estate market of the city San Pedro Sula. This is because these houses use the most energy, and so there are more opportunities to restrict this energy consumption. The houses in the examined category have a floor surface of average 300 m2 and are mostly only built on ground level. This type of houses cost between the 3 and 5 million Lempira’s (125.000-200.000 euro). Also included in this research are 15


small offices, this is because there are a lot of these energy consuming buildings and it was easy to get access to two of these offices. The offices are from 3 till 6 persons and their floor surface is about 30-40 m2.Through interviews with local experts there are found the following general information about buildings in the examined category. The houses in the examined category have mostly a hipped roof, there are also some shed and gable roofs. The structure of the roof is totally made of steel, the upper part exists of metal sheets. This type of house has sometimes insulation under the metal sheets and at the bottom you can find sheetrock. The foundation of most buildings is made of a strip foundation, this is made of Figure 6 House built up with concrete blocks concrete blocks or reinforced concrete. The walls of the building are made of concrete blocks or sometimes bricks, and metal roof structure. there is always only a single wall without any insulation and the walls will be covered with plaster (figure 6). The floor is made of concrete, covered mostly with tiles. The height of the ceilings is mostly 2,70 or 2,80 meters. Some offices are lower (2,40 m) because they are designed for using air conditioning. Old houses have cross ventilation in the roof, ventilation in top of the walls and in the point of the roof. The modern houses are designed for using air conditioning, they look like copies of buildings in the United States and do not have ventilation in the roofs. All the houses are freestanding. The windows of the houses are single glassed in aluminum frames. Many houses have big fixed windows, the smaller windows have a sliding system to open them. The parts which can be opened contain mosquito screens. Most of the windows are unprotected from the sun, the eaves are to small (60 cm) and there are no other possibilities to block the sun. Many times the only option for shade is curtains inside of the house. The average house is occupied by five or six persons; two parents, two or three children and a maid. Houses have 3 or 4 bedrooms. Many houses in the examined range use air conditioning. This can be a central air conditioning device what cools the whole house or separate units in different rooms. Most house use also fans for cooling. When you buy a house, most of the time the only equipment installed is the air conditioning and a reserve water tank under the house. It is clearly visible that is most houses the designers do not think about the air conditioning (figure 7), the placement is many times far from logical. Sometimes there are some installations for heating water and some build in piping and connections for the use of gas equipment. Only the lower incomes use gas for cooking because it is cheaper but more work (the input of gas is by canisters, mostly portable ones). For electric cooking and the input of other big (air conditioning) equipment houses need a 220 V connection, all the houses have a 120 V Figure 7 illogical situated AC devices connection.

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3.3 Sub conclusion In Honduras live 8,2 million people. 10% of then lives in San Pedro Sula and they consume 21% of nations energy. Most of this energy is consumed by residential and commercial buildings. The big houses in San Pedro Sula account for a big part in the cities energy consumption. This is why the scope of this research are houses in the higher part of the real estate market and offices. The target group of buildings has a lot of design features in common. They are all build with single walls of concrete blocks, have a metal roof structure with a metal sheet roof. Almost all the buildings use air conditioning for cooling.

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4 System for evaluating buildings in San Pedro Sula Checklist Following chapter gives clarification about the tables which can be found in appendix A and B. These tables contain a checklist to help evaluating the energy consumption rate of a building in the tropical climate of Honduras. There are two tables; the first one is for houses that use bioclimatic design features such as cross ventilation in the living space. The second table is for closed houses that use primarily air condition for cooling of the living space. The explanations of the categories are given below. To use the lists, the only thing what has to be done is fill in the column ‘points’. When a specific item is really energy consuming fill in 10 points, the other way round fill in 0 points. All the numbers between are also possible. Only the part of ‘energy generating installations’ is different, here the best score (energy generation equals consumption) is worth 10 points. The next column called ‘value’ is the degree of importance of the specific item. The last column gives the actual score, these will be added up. At the bottom of the table you can see the energy label.

4.1 Checklist buildings primary relying on ventilation Part

Roof

Windows

Other

Surroundings

%

35

25

10

15

Green solutions 15

Appliances 50

Energy generation -50

Table 6 part and amount of influence on energy consumption

As shown in table 6 the roof is the most important part of the house, than the windows. This is followed by the other part, Surroundings and green solutions. The appliances are half as important as the whole design and the part of energy generation can nullify the appliances part. 1 Roof In the tropical climate of Honduras the roof is the most important part of the house. The roof protects that which is underneath it against rain and the sun. The roof type of the house is a way to reduce the solar radiation on the roof. A flat roof should be prevented in a hot climate. The biggest part of the roof should be facing south to take away the sun radiation. (1.1) The eaves of a roof have as function to protect the walls and windows against rain and solar radiation. The sun is in the morning low (east) in the afternoon the sun is at his highest point (south) and in the evening the sun goes down again in the west direction. All this means the house needs long eaves (1,5 meter for a one storage building) in the west and east direction, the south direction is protected with less long eaves (1 meter) and the north façade only needs a standard eave (0,6 meter) for rain protection. (1.2) The material of the roof is important for the insulation value and the reflection value. A white roof saves only a little of the incoming solar radiation, a dark roof saves almost all the radiation. A reflecting metal sheet roof is the best top layer, to follow with an insulation layer. This can be any kind of insulation. Every insulation material has different properties but in general, how thicker the layer(s), the better for the insulation value. (1.3) Hot air is used to go up, so under the roof this air will accumulate. To prevent this, ventilation in the roof is really important. To remove all the hot air effectively, cross ventilation has to be assured. This is possible by having ventilation opening in the eaves, and in the top part of the roof.(1.4) 18


To be sure the hot air underneath the roof is separated from the actual living space you can install a ceiling. A normal door has a height of 210 cm. The lowest ceilings are 240 cm above ground level, this means hot air is partly in the same space as the living space. When the ceiling is raised this problem can largely being solved. (1.5) 2 Windows Windows are needed for natural illumination and ventilation. To have enough sunlight in the house the surface of the windows has to be as big as possible. It is also logical every room should have windows to prevent the use of lightning in the daytime. (2.1) Ventilation of the living space is mostly done though the windows. For effective cross ventilation every room needs at least two windows and they need to be as big as possible. (2.2) When you want to use the windows for the ventilation of the building, it is important you can open them. Windows can be completely open are the best for this, mosquito screens are useful against insects but they will decrease the airflow. (2.3,2.4) Mostly the windows are not fully protected against the sun by the overhanging eaves. This means there must be sun shading devices installed; effective shades against in the south are horizontal. The lower sun in the morning and afternoon can be eliminated by vertical devices. It is preferred to install the shading devices outside, inside shading devices (curtains) are good for controlling the amount of incoming light but are useless against incoming solar heat. (2.5) 3 Other The colour of the walls can be useful for saving energy in a building in the tropical climate of Honduras. If the walls have a light colour, this will reflect a part of the incoming solar radiation. (3.1) Installing shading devices for protection of the wall is also useful. (3.2) When a house is build on poles this will give it more possibilities for ventilation. A higher house catches more wind and the wind goes also underneath it. (3.3) 4 Surroundings The surroundings of a building in the tropical climate of Honduras are really important for its performance. Sometimes there are close to the building devices which provide shade to it. (4.1) The surroundings have especially a big influence on the ventilation of the building. Most properties are surrounded by big walls at three sides. The street side of the road is the only side where it is not necessary to have a closed wall, a fence or a gate with free space in it can be sufficient for safety and this will create a lot more margin for the wind to enter the property. (4.2) With setback is meant the distance between the building and the edge of the property. This free space is really important for the wind to cool the building. The legislative minimum is the lower limit for this category. By extending this free space, the wind gets more room and this will improve the thermal conditions in the building. (4.3) 5 Green solutions Plants and trees can help to improve the thermal performance of a building if they are applied properly. A green roof can function as a extra insulation layer to cool the roof surface. (5.1) Green walls can be utilized in two ways. One is to let plants grow directly on the wall, the other is to leave some space between plants and wall. In this way the wall will be ventilated and shaded. (5.2) More shading can be obtained by planting trees and building pergolas next to the house, a big tree can even give shade to the roof. (5.3) Another solution linked to ventilation is the green surface of the property. Plants can absorb a lot of solar power what and most of this will not reflect on the building, pavement reflects a lot more. (5.4) 6 Appliances The architectural specifications of a building determine how the conditions in the house will be without appliances. To create a comfortable climate you will need appliances for cooling, lightning 19


hot water and many more things. The appliances what matter for the energy label of the house are the building bound appliances; these are discussed in part 6 of the table. In the tropical climate of Honduras cooling equipment is almost always at hand. Without it the temperature and the humidity will be in most houses uncomfortable high. The efficiency of air conditioning devices is conditional upon the type of equipment, the age and the number of devices. Air conditioning devices can be classified in window devices, split devices and high efficiency devices. The worst situation is multiple old window units, this building will get all the points for this category. The best situation is no AC equipment, see table 7 for help with the judgment of the air conditioning.

Type of equipment Age Amount Points:

Worst Window unit >10 years > 3 devices 10

Average Split device 2-10 years 2 devices

Best High efficiency < 2 years < 2 devices 

No equipment

0

Table 7 evaluation cooling equipment

Installing fans in a house is a good way for introducing a more comfortable indoor climate. If this is not enough they could be combined with an air conditioning device. Another way of heat air outlet is the installation of heat extractors, heat extractors who use electricity are also useful but the ones what do not need energy are preferred. (6.1) Water heating takes place in almost every house, shower water has to be heated and people want warm tap water to wash dishes for example. (6.2) Table 8 can be used as a tool to evaluate the water heating installations in a building. Utilization

Worst

Average

Best

Only shower water heating

Electrical shower head 110 V Electrical tap water heating Separate electrical heating

Electrical shower head 220 V

Water heater close to bathroom

Boiler in bathroom

High efficiency water heater Central water heating system and insulated distribution

Only tap water heating Heating for multiple taps

Points:

10

Electrical shower water heating, gas tap water heating in kitchen 

No equipment

0

Table 8 evaluation water heating equipment

Separate lights do not consume really much energy, yet together they can inflate the energy consumption pretty much. When there are sufficient windows in every room, the lights can stay out during daytime. The points for this are already included in the natural illumination in the window chapter. However, the best thing is to have high efficient light in the building, and no more lights as necessary. The outside lights for safety are mostly necessary, the decoration lights not. When applied efficient lighting is again a must. (6.3) Cooking and heating with gas is cheaper as electricity. When gas piping is already installed in the kitchen and maybe some other rooms (water heating, laundry room) people choose quicker for gas use. (6.4) Other (eccentric) installed appliances can affect the energy consumption tremendously. This category is for things as a Jacuzzi or saunas. (6.5) A separate category is for the energy generating installations. Items such as solar panels and solar water heating can deliver an enormous amount of energy. The best is when the generation is so high 20


is compensates all the consumed energy. When this is the case the distribution is different, only this time the best solution is 10 points. (6.6)

4.2 Checklist buildings primary relying on air conditioning Part

Roof

Windows

Other

Surroundings

%

35

20

15

15

Green sollutions 15

Appliances 75

Energy generation -75

Table 9 part and amount of influence on energy consumption

As shown in table 9 the roof is the most important part of the house, than the windows. This is followed by the other part, Surroundings and green solutions. The appliances are almost as important as the whole design and the part of energy generation can nullify the appliances part. Changes from the ventilated building table Houses what are designed for the use of air conditioning have to be evaluated at a different way than houses what rely on ventilation. Many of the design solutions are implementable on both types of buildings. The big difference is that the design of mainly air conditioned houses tries to keep the cooled air inside the house. This means extra insulation in ceiling and walls to raise the R-value of the thermal transmission surface (the part of the building having contact with the outside conditions. (1.5, 3.1, the numbers refer to the parts in the ‘Closed house’ table with changes in them, compared to the ‘closed house’ table). However insulation in walls is not common here because cavity walls are also occasional. The insulation value of windows has to increase to, double or high performance windows are advisable. (2.4) When the house is raised from ground level, the floor has to be insulated as well. (3.3) The night temperature is mostly cool enough to be comfortable for night ventilation so it is useful to keep some ventilation possibilities which can be closed during the hot days. The ventilation is less important compared to the first type of house. (2.2) The roof still has to be ventilated as good as possible. Because this type of building is depends on cooling equipment this equipment is much more important, and their weight in the calculations will also be bigger.

4.3 Sub conclusion To evaluate a building you can use the tables in appendix A. The most important part of a building design in the tropical climate of San Pedro Sula is the roof, this is good for 35% of the total design score. A roof provides shade, protects from the rain, keeps the heat out and can be designed as a heat outlet. The windows also account for a big part in the buildings performance. Good shading options, ventilation at night and getting a cool environment around the building by green surroundings can be applied on all the buildings. The difference with a building using ventilation as primary cooling option, and a building using air conditioning are the windows and the insulation. A building with air conditioning wants to keep the cool air in and therefore needs a good insulated thermal shell.

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5 Applying the system on case buildings in San Pedro Sula Case buildings For my research I have investigated two types of houses and two types of offices in San Pedro Sula (figure 8). There must be said these houses are not representative for all the houses in Honduras. Both of them belong to richer people compared to the average Honduran people. The supposed value increase of the building will also be larger for bigger houses (Popescu, 2012) as for average houses. The introduction of the energy labels will be more useful for these buildings than average.

5.1 Examined houses The first type of house is a house designed by my supervisor, Architect A. Stassano. It is a so-called bioclimatic house (number 1 in figure 9). This type of house uses ventilation and shading for keeping the inside of the house cool, there is no air-conditioning installed. In the north of San Pedro Sula is a private development inside the urban development located with 19 Bioclimatic houses. I have examined two of those houses, a small and a big one. The big house has a surface of 100 m2 (10x10m), the small house is about 70 m2 (Âą8x8,5m). I will only describe the big house, the design of the small house is exactly the same. The second house is uninsulated and uses air-conditioning for cooling for some rooms (number 2 in figure 9). When I was in the house, it was really hot and humid, this was May 15th, at 3:00 PM. At that moment the air conditioning was off, the residents said they only use it at night. It was hard for me to stay there, and do my job. The house is built of concrete blocks covered with plaster, and has a sheet metal roof. The information about the available appliances and how the residents use them can be found in Appendix C.

Figure 8. location San Pedro Sula (red dot). 9. Case houses (1 and 2) and offices (3 and 4)

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5.1.1 House one: Las Casitas (bioclimatic) Specifications Las Casitas The bioclimatic houses (figure 10) are designed to keep the inside temperature at an acceptable level without the help of an air conditioning device. Many people here do not believe it is possible to live in a house without air conditioning. The majority of new buildings is fully equipped with air conditioning, so people are used to use it in all the buildings. To avoid people installing an air conditioning device on their own, the residents have to sign a contract to not use air conditioning.

2

Figure 10 Las casita (70 m version)

The living space of the big Casitas is 100 m2. The houses contain big eaves that stop almost all the sunlight trying to enter the building. Furthermore rest the house on 2,4 m long columns. In table 10 are the specifications of the Las Casitas presented. Specifications Las Casitas (100 m2 version) Part of building Roof

Eaves of the roof

Walls

What to measure Total surface

How to measure

Quantity

Sum of length x width

m2

Material

Determine what type of insulation and other materials are used

Ventilation Height of the roof

Asking owners Height above ground level

Ratio m

Length of overhang Ventilation installed in eaves

Length of overhang perpendicular to the wall Asking owners

m

Surface

Length x width

m2

Ratio

Value 172 m2 = pyramid hip roof consisting f 4 x a triangle of 13 m wide and 6,6 m long. The top of the roof is raised, this is to create an outlet for hot air accumulating under the roof. Multi layer metal roof:so called â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;cinduâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; roof. There is an insulation layer underneath. Under the roof is a lot of ventilation space for hot air to get out. In the highest part of the roof is a heat outlet. Bad/Acceptable/Good Lowest point: 5,5 m Highest point: 7,2 m With heat outlet: 7,97 m 1,5 m on all the 4 sides Not in the eaves but Above every window are big ventilation openings installed Bad/Acceptable/Good Walls including windows and door: 4 walls x 10m x 2,4m = 23


Material

Position Floor

Windows

Surface Material

Height for a house on poles Surface Amount Position

Mosquito screens Surroundings Open space Verdure

96m2 Excluded windows and doors: 80,8 m2 Asking, observing The walls are all made of concrete blocks, the lower 40 cm is uncovered, the rest of the wall is covered with white plaster on the inside and outside. Number of hours the Sunhours The walls catch a negligible walls are collecting sun x m2 amount of sunlight. 2 Length x width m 100 m2 Asking, observing Metal sheets covered with concrete. The top layer consists of tiles Height m The columns are 2,4 m. The floor on ground level is 0,20 m. Length x width m2 Total surface of the windows is 15,2 m2 Number of windows There are 16 windows and two doors with light and air openings. Number of hours the Sunhours Negligible because of the big windows are collecting x m2 eaves, some windows catch sun sun in the afternoon Yes/No Yes, every window and front door and in all the ventilation openings. A lot of open space, the terrain is surrounded by a fence so the wind can go easily trough it. Some trees and bushes around the house, none of them is really providing shade to the house. 2

Table 10 Specifications Las Casitas (100 m )

Score on comparison table Max Total Roof Windows Other Surroundings Green solutions Appliances Energy generation total appliances Label A

339 62 14 0 16 105 142 0 142

1500 350 250 100 150 150 500 -500 500

Table 11 Energy label Las Casitas

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5.1.2 House two: Normal Honduran house (air-conditioned) Specifications Normal Honduran House Case house number two (figure 11) is a normal Honduran house. The house has a surface of 96m2. It is a house with a really simple design, the surface is square and the roof is a gable roof, applied with small eaves (40cm). On one side of the building is the roof extended to create a carport, this eliminates all the sun radiation on this side of the building. But because of the supporting wall the ventilation decreases significant on this side of the building. Almost the whole house is fully exposed to the sun, there is at the front, and in the back of the house some covering, which provide shade for some hours of the day. The big carport catches sun for almost the whole day. Furthermore contains the garden 1 bush what provides some shade.

Figure 11 Case house two: normal Honduran house

In table 12 are all the specifications of the Normal Honduran house.

Specifications Normal Honduran house Part of building Roof

What to measure Total surface Material

How to measure

Quantity m2

Ventilation Height of the roof

Sum of length x width Determine what type of insulation and other materials are used Asking owners Height above ground level

Eaves of the roof

Length of overhang

Length of overhang perpendicular to the wall

m

Asking owners

Ratio

Walls

Ventilation installed in eaves Surface

Length x width

m2

Ratio* m

Value 3,70m x 13m x 2 = 96,2m2 Steel Roof, no insulation. Under the steel roof are panelit or sheetrock panels. Bad/Acceptable/Good Roof type: Gable roof, with two slopes of 3,70m x 13m. Angle of the roof: 14째 Lowest point: 3,2 m Highest point: 4,1m 0,4 m on 3 sides. South side of the building has a carport, there is never sun on this wall. No ventilation under eaves Bad/Acceptable/Good Front/back: 24,7 m2 Side: 41,6 m2 25


Floor

Windows

Material

Asking, observing

Position

Number of hours the walls are collecting sun

Sunhours x m2

Surface Material Height for a house on poles Surface

Length x width Asking, observing Height

m2

Length x width

m2

There are 9 windows faced to the sun; five are 1,4m x 1,4m, one is 1,4m x 1,8m and three are 0,50m x 0,50m. The windows under the carport never catch sunlight. The average time of incoming sun per window is estimated on 6. Every window do has shadings on the inside.

Amount Position

Number of windows Number of hours the windows are collecting sun -

Sunhours x m2

The total windows collect 6 hours x 13,07m = 78 sunhours x m2 ~ 80 sunhours x m2 Yes, every window and front door

Mosquito screens Surroundings Open space Verdure

m

Yes/No

Concrete blocks, covered with plaster and painted green (inside white plaster) long wall: half of the wall catches sun for 6 hours. 41,6 x 0,5 x 6 = 124,8 sunhours x meter. short wall: half of the wall catches sun for 8 hours. 24,7 x 0,5 x 6 = 74,1 sunhours x meter. 93,6 m2 Concrete, covered with tiles House on ground level

The house is at three sides surrounded by a wall; this obstructs the wind from reach the house. Some trees and bushes around the house, one tree is providing shade to the

Table 12 Specifications Normal Honduran house

Score on comparison table Total Roof Windows Other Surroundings Green solutions Appliances Energy generation total appliances Label D

853 157 95 71 84 124 322 0 322

Max 1750 350 200 150 150 150 750 -750 750

Table 13 Energy label Normal Honduran House

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5.2 Examined offices The two offices are both small (40 and 30 m2) and contain both only the appliances which are necessary for a whole workday at an office. The first office (number 3 in figure 9) is a bioclimatic office; it uses the same principals of design like the bioclimatic houses. There is no air conditioning, between the roof and the ceiling is free space to convey the hot air and there is plenty of ventilation and shade. The other office (number 4 in figure 9) is a â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;normalâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; office. The major part of cooling the building is using the air conditioning. The other cooling implement is the ventilated roof, between the roof and the ceiling of the office is some free space, this is ventilated trough two openings. The second office is probably representative for most of the offices in San Pedro Sula. The information about the available appliances and how the employees use them can be found in Appendix C.

5.2.1 Office one: Techos Verdes office (bioclimatic) Specifications Techos Verdes Office The Techos Verdes office (figure 12) is a so called bioclimatic design. This means the discharge of heat is done without the use of air conditioning. The front and back side of the building exists almost fully out of glass. The top and lower part of these windows consists of grid with mosquito screens, these are always open. The office is situated between two other buildings, this decreases the opportunities for ventilation. In table 14 are all the specifications of the Techos Verdes office. Figure 12 Office Techos Verdes

Specifications Techos Verdes office Part of building Roof

Eaves of the roof

What to measure Total surface Material

How to measure

Quantity

Value

Sum of length x width Determine what type of insulation and other materials are used

m2

Ventilation Height of the roof

Asking owners Height above ground level

Ratio m

Length of overhang Ventilation installed in eaves

Length of overhang perpendicular to the wall Asking owners

m

7,1m x 10m = 71 m2 Roof is made of corrugated metal sheets, between the roof and the ceiling is a lot of fully ventilated free space. No insulation Bad/Acceptable/Good The lowest part of the roof is 4,3 m above ground level, the highest part is 5,7 m above ground level. The roof is a shed roof type. Bad/Acceptable/Good 1,2 meter

Ratio

Front and back ventilation

27


Walls

Floor

Windows

Surface Material Position

Length x width Asking, observing Number of hours the walls are collecting sun

m2

Surface Material Height for a house on poles Surface Amount Position

Length x width Asking, observing Height

m2

Length x width Number of windows Number of hours the windows are collecting sun -

m2

Mosquito screens Surroundings Open space Verdure

Sunhours x m2

m

Sunhours x m2 Yes/No

Two walls completely closed: 8m x 3,5m = 28 m2. Two walls fully glazed. The walls are made of concrete blocks covered with plaster, outside no plaster The walls do not collect sun. 8m x 5m = 40m2 Concrete 2 walls fully covered with windows: 2 x 5m x 3,5m = 35 m2 There are shades installed in front of the windows, nevertheless there gets some sun into the office. This is estimated on 20 sunhours x m2 per day

Because the office is build between two other buildings and there is a lot of vegetation, there is almost no wind reaching the building. Many bushes, trees and grass.

Table 14 Specifications Techos Verdes office

Score on comparison table Max Total 461 Roof 104 Windows 63 Other 48 Surroundings 80 Green solutions 95 Appliances 71 Energy generation 0 total appliances 71 Label B

1500 350 250 100 150 150 500 -500 500

Table 15 Energy label Techos Verdes office

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5.2.2 Office two: La Tara office (air-conditioned) Specifications La Tara office The building is used as an office, there are on the left and right side of the building other buildings. The front side is the only side with windows. The back of the office contains a wall used as a terrain separation. Between the ceiling of the office and the actual roof is some space which is ventilated at the front and backside of the building. In table 16 are all the specifications of the La Tara office. (figure 13) Figure 13 La Tara office

Specifications La Tara office Part of building Roof

Eaves of the roof

Walls

Floor

What to measure Total surface Material

How to measure

Quantity

Sum of length x width Determine what type of insulation and other materials are used

m2

Ventilation Height of the roof

Asking owners Height above ground level

Ratio m

Length of overhang Ventilation installed in eaves Surface Material Position

Length of overhang perpendicular to the wall Asking owners

m

0,50m

Ratio

Bad/Acceptable/Good No ventilation installed in eaves

Length x width Asking, observing Number of hours the walls are collecting sun

m2

Surface Material Height for a

Length x width Asking, observing Height

m2

front: 8,7 m2 (excluding windows) back: 14 m2 (no windows) Only the front and the back wall of the building are exposed to the elements, at both sides of the building are other buildings. So the sun on the walls will be really little. The front of the building, with the door and the big windows, points east-south-east. This means is will catch sun for a long time (7 hours) = 61 sunhours/m2. 5m x 6m = 30m2 Concrete covered with tiles -

Sun hours x m2

m

Value 2,75m x 6m x 2 = 32,9 m2 (with eaves = 45,5 m2 The roof is a compound of a metal sheet, whit shingle underneath. Bad/Acceptable/Good The roof has two ventilation holes in the front. The ceiling is 2,40 m high. The (gable) roof is on average 3m high.

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Windows*

house on poles Surface Amount Position

Mosquito screens

Surroundings

Open space Verdure

m2 13 Sun hours x m2 Yes/No

The outside door is always open, next to the door are 4 windows. Inside the building is another (closed) door what keeps the heat out. Behind the outside door is some sort of counter, with only small windows for more safety. This is more than a meter inside and there will never shine sun trough these windows. Total: 1,6 m x 1,75 m x 7 hours = 20 sun hours x m2 The big window cannot open; the small ones do have screens. The office is situated on a complex with a number of other offices, there is some space between these buildings. Between the offices are some little green beds, still most of the surroundings are paved. Length x width Number of windows Number of hours the windows are collecting sun -

Table 16 Specifications La Tara office

Score on comparison table Max Total Roof Windows Other Surroundings Green solutions Appliances Energy generation total appliances Label D

999 161 134 100 90 130 384 0 384

1750 350 200 150 150 150 750 -750 750

Table 17 Energy label La Tara office

5.3 Sub conclusion For this thesis are five buildings examined, tree houses and two offices. The examined buildings can be classified into two categories of design. The first category are the bioclimatic buildings, the examined buildings of this type are all designed by architect Angela Stassano. These buildings have some main characteristics. They have long eaves for shade; high, ventilated roofs so there will not accumulate heat which bothers the residents. The case buildings used for the investigation use also a mix of different green surroundings to help cooling the building. As you can see are the scores in the comparison table good for these buildings, the Las Casitas score an A label (the best label). The Techos Verdes office scored a B label. The second category is more common in Honduras. These are the buildings that only use air conditioning for cooling the building. These buildings are designed with the underlying thought of only relying on the air conditioning device and not using other cooling options. Both of these buildings scored a D label. 30


6 Conclusion Sustainability is rapidly increasing in importance. Buildings account for a large part in the annual energy consumption in modern societies. Therefore the government in the Netherlands developed a labelling system for houses, from A till G. When the house uses a little bit of energy it will get an A label. When the house uses a lot of energy it will get a G label. When you want to sell or rent a house in the Netherlands, it is required to acquire a label that gives an indication of the amount of building related energy this specific house uses. In this way, energy consuming houses lose value, houses that use a little bit of energy gain value. The labels also stimulate the producers to design more and better energy efficient products. The energy label explained in NEN 7120 (Dutch Energy Norm) determines the ratio between the characteristic energy use and the maximum admissible energy use based on ground surface and building shell. In Europe this is already a common used tool to increase the awareness of house buyers and tenants. The energy label system is not well-known in Honduras. Before the energy labels are ready to launch in the Honduran real estate market they first have to be made suitable for the tropical climate of Honduras. The tropical climate in Honduras is totally different from the moderate sea climate in the Netherlands. The average temperature is 26,2 °C in Honduras and 10 °C in the Netherlands, the absolute humidity is on average 2,7 times higher compared to the Netherlands. There is more rainfall in Honduras and this is concentrated in 8 months of the year. For implementing the labelling system successful in Honduras, the assumptions used in the label calculation method has to be different to, because the climate is so different. The big houses together with many offices in San Pedro Sula consume a large part of the countryâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s energy. This is why these buildings are the scope of this research. The target group of buildings has a lot of design features in common. They are all build with single walls of concrete blocks, have a metal roof structure with a metal sheet roof. Almost all the buildings use air conditioning for cooling. To evaluate a building you can use the tables in appendix A. There are two tables; one for examining houses what rely on cooling by ventilation, the other one is for houses which use air conditioning to obtain a comfortable indoor climate. The most important part of a building design in the tropical climate of San Pedro Sula is the roof, followed by the windows. The available appliances are also really important; the water heating systems and the cooling equipment. Although the cooling equipment is far more important for houses with air conditioning. For this thesis are five buildings examined, tree houses and two offices. The examined buildings can be classified into two categories of design. The first category are the bioclimatic buildings, the examined buildings of this type are all designed by architect Angela Stassano. These buildings have some main characteristics. They have long eaves for shade; high, ventilated roofs so there will not accumulate heat which bothers the residents. The case buildings used for the investigation use also a mix of different green surroundings to help cooling the building. As you can see are the scores in the comparison table good for these buildings, the Las Casitas score an A label (the best label). The Techos Verdes office scored a B label. The second category is more common in Honduras. These are the buildings that only use air conditioning for cooling the building. These buildings are designed with the underlying thought of only relying on the air conditioning device and not using other cooling options. Both of these buildings scored a D label. 31


7 Recommendations The current set-up of the labeling system tables is very basic. Also somebody who wants to use it needs to have some knowledge about building designs. Many owners do not have blueprints of their house what makes the evaluation more difficult. Especially knowledge about bioclimatic architecture would be useful in these cases. Otherwise it will not be possible to make a good judgment about the building. The same system as in the Netherlands is possible but for a real accurate system more research is needed. The system in the Netherlands is therefore based on extensive long term research. The labeling system There are some points in the table which have to be refined. For example, shading is included in every part of table. This means there is overlap in some parts of the table. For some items are a lot of points to score. For example the air conditioning has a value of 40 points. To divide these points more precisely, air conditioning must somehow be divided in more sub tabs. The same goes for water heating systems and some other installations. The scores of the Normal Honduran House and the La Tara Office are too low. Especially the La Tara office should score lower, a F or G label because this is almost the most energy consuming office you can imagine. Practicability For myself I have some doubts about the feasibility of the introduction of an energy labeling system in Honduras. Many people are poor here, for that the scope of this research was the higher part of the real estate market. Still it will be hard to introduce the system. Honduras has no government agency to supervise this and the government has priorities such as feeding people and fighting gangs, instead of saving energy.

32


References Ayers I., Raseman S., Shih A., Evidence from large field experiments that peer comparison feedback can reduce residential energy usage, NBER Working paper 15386 (2009). Brounen D., Kok N., On the economics of energy labels in the housing market, Journal of Environmental Economics and Management 62 (2011), 166-179. Degreedays, Custom degree day data, www.degreedays.net (2012).

DIMA, Precipitation data 1997-2006. - San Pedro Sula : [s.n.], 1997-2006. ENEE – Empresa Nacional de Energia electrica (national electricity company), Energia vendida en los sitemas operados por ENEE, por sectores de consumo (2010). ENEE, Empresa Nacional de Energía Eléctrica. Received information from the economic and the energy saving department, (July 2012). Entrop A.G., Brouwers H.J.H, Reinders A.H.M.E., Evaluation of energy performance indicators and financial aspects of energy saving techniques in residential real estate, Energy and Buildings 42 (2009), 618-629. Gilmer R.W. , Energy labels an economic search, Energy economics (1989), 213-218. Givoni B., Passive low energy cooling of buildings (1994). Google earth Google maps Hensen, J.L.M. ; Weergegevens voor gebouwprestatie simulatie, International buildings performance simulations association, (2001). Interview with Architect Angela Stassano and employees of the architectural bureau of Canales architectos, both situated in San Pedro Sula. Juusela Mia Ala, Heating and Cooling with Focus on Increased Energy Efficiency and Improved Comfort, Guidebook to IEA ECBCS Annex 37, Low Exergy Systems for Heating and Cooling of Buildings (2003). KNMI, WKI_PROF. World Climate Information, Long term averages, (1997). KWA bedrijfsadviseurs, www.kwa.nl (2012). Murphy L., Meijer F., Visscher H., A qualitative evaluation of policy instruments used to improve energy performance of existing private dwellings in the Netherlands, Energy Policy 45 (2012), 459468. Popescu D., Bienert S., Schützenhofer C., Boazu R.. Impact of energy efficiency measures on the economic value of buildings, Applied Energy 89, 454-463 (2012). 33


Sadafi N., Salleh E., Haw L.C., Jaafar Z., Evaluating thermal effects of internal courtyard in a tropical terrace house by computional simulation, Energy and Buildings 42, (2011), 887-893. Servicio Metheorologico Nacional de Honduras, general classification of the Honduran climate, website of the Honduran national weather service, www.smn.gob.hn, (2001). Stassano A., Architectura, Ciudad e industria, Buscano Sostenibilidad y Soberania Urbana (2011). University of Utrecht, faculty of animal veterinary science (2012). http://www.vet.uu.nl/mcd/ZelfstudieHuisvesting/Klimaat/Luchtvochtigheid/index.html. Van der Bent, Herman, The influence of green roofs on the rainwater management system in a urban, tropical and undeveloped environment, (2009). Weatheronline.co.uk, Climate of the world, Holland/The Netherlands. archiexpo, SMEG, the virtual architecture exhibition, achieexpo.com (2012) energysavers.gov ENEE, Commisi贸n Nacional de Energ铆a, tariefas 2009-2013 (2009) michaelbluejay.com Warnerstellian, Energy guide, based on standard U.S. government tests http://www.warnersstellian.com/files/CTB1821ARW-eg.pdf (2001)

34


Appendix A: Empty checklists Checklist for a Ventilated building Architectural specifications Best = 0

Part

Element

Subelement

1 Roof

1.1 Roof type 1.2 Eaves

adapt roof to sun orientation giving shade to south walls giving shade to east and west walls giving shade to south windows giving shade to east and west windows insulation value color reflection value cross ventilation in roof height above the door, standard door is 210 cm

1.3 Material

1.4 Ventilation 1.5 Ceiling

gable roof, longest side facing south totally shaded totally shaded totally shaded totally shaded R-value higher than 2,5 m2K/W light color (white) mirror totally open two meters of more

Worst = 10 flat roof no shade no shade no shade no shade R-value negligible black tar totally closed ceiling height 240 cm

Points Value Score Note (0-10) 0 3 0 0 3 0 0 4 0 0 3 0 0 4 0 0 3 0 0 3 0 0 2 0 0 5 0 0 5 0

Total Roof 2 Windows

0 2.1 Natural illumination 2.2 Ventilation 2.3 Type 2.4 Glass 2.5 Shading

surface amount position amount sliding, half open, total open no glass, mosquito screens giving shade to south windows giving shade to east and west windows

many/big windows, or sunlight intake every room position supports cross ventilation more than one totally openable windows no glass totally shaded totally shaded

no windows no windows no supporting of cross ventilation one or zero fixed windows fixed glass no shade no shade

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

2 2 5 3 4 2 3 4

Total Windows 3 Other

3.2 Shading devices 3.3 Poles

south wall color west and east wall color walls

light light totally shaded house on poles

dark dark no shade house on ground level

0 0 0 0

1 2 4 3

Total other

4 Surroundings

Total surroundings

completely shaded by devices (no green sollutions) no shade by build devices close to the building frontal wind permeability no obstruction fully covered from the outside extra free space unbuild to the edge of the propertyfree space on all sides, above offical minimum wind can not go around the house

0 0 0

4 5 6

350

35%

250

25%

max

100

10%

max

150

15%

max

0 0 0 already by roof --> 0 points 0 0

4.1 Shading 4.2 Ventilation 4.3 Setback

max

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 already by roof --> 0 points 0 already by roof --> 0 points 0

3.1 Wall

10 points if it is the worst, 0 points if it is the best

0 0 0 0


5 Green solutions

5.1 Green roof 5.2 Green wall 5.3 Green shading 5.4 Green surface

east and west walls south wall trees, pergolas percentage of non-built and non-paved space

whole roof covered whole wall covered whole wall covered whole building shaded â&#x2030;Ľ 90% non-built and non-paved space

no green roof no green wall no green wall building not shaded total parcel built-on and/or paved

0 0 0 0 0

4 3 1 4 3

Total green solutions 6 Appliances

0 0 0 0 0 0

6.1 Cooling equipment

6.2 Water heating 6.3 Lightning

6.4 Gas usage 6.5 Other appliances

air conditioning devices fans heat extractors, roofs and walls central water heating equipment showerhead water heating daytime lights outside lights for safety outside lights for decoration gas use possible for stove, heating water or other appliances jacucci, electrical gate

no air conditioning no fans extractors without power imput no water heating no water heating few lights, high efficient <20 W no lights installed no lights installed

old equipment in 4 or more rooms fans in whole the house no extractors big, old equipment â&#x2030;Ľ 2 electric shower water heaters many lights, low efficent >100W many safety lights many lights

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

20 4 1 4 5 3 3 3

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

2 or more connections for gas usage no other appliances

no gas piping many other appliances

0 0

2 5

0 0

= 10 points energy generation equals consumption

= 0 points no energy generation

Total energy consuming installations 6.6 Energy generating installationssolar panels, solar water heating

0 0

-50

0

Total

0

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

150

15%

max

500

50%

0 Distribution of points is inverse here

Total installations

Roof Windows Other Surroundings Green solutions Appliances Energy generation total appliances Total Label

max

max

50

50%

max 1500 the more points, how higher the energy label

label: A B C D E F G

points: From 0 400 583 767 950 1133 1317

Till 400 583 767 950 1133 1317 1500

best

worst

36


Checklist for an Air Conditioned building Architectural specifications Best = 0

Part

Element

Subelement

1 Roof

1.1 Roof type 1.2 Eaves

adapt roof to sun orientation giving shade to south walls giving shade to east and west walls giving shade to south windows giving shade to east and west windows insulation value color reflection value cross ventilation in roof height above the door, standard door is 210 cm insulation value

1.3 Material

1.4 Ventilation 1.5 Ceiling

gable roof, longest side facing south totally shaded totally shaded totally shaded totally shaded R-value higher than 2,5 m2K/W light color (white) mirror totally open two meters of more R-value higher than 2,5 m2K/W

Worst = 10 flat roof no shade no shade no shade no shade R-value negligible black tar totally closed ceiling height 240 cm R-value negligible

Points Value Score Note (0-10) 0 3 0 0 3 0 0 4 0 0 3 0 0 4 0 0 3 0 0 3 0 0 2 0 0 3 0 0 3 0 0 4 0

Total Roof 2 Windows

0 2.1 Natural illumination 2.2 Ventilation 2.3 Type 2.4 Glass 2.5 Shading

surface amount position amount sliding, half open, total open no glass, mosquito screens insulation value giving shade to south windows giving shade to east and west windows

many/big windows, or sunlight intake every room position supports cross ventilation more than one totally openable windows no glass > 2 layers of glass totally shaded totally shaded

no windows no windows no supporting of cross ventilation one or zero fixed windows fixed glass no glas no shade no shade

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

2 1 2 1 1 2 4 3 4

Total Windows 3 Other

3.2 Shading devices 3.3 Poles

south wall color west and east wall color insulation value walls insulation value

light light R-value higher than 2,5 m2K/W totally shaded house on poles R-value higher than 2,5 m2K/W

dark dark R-value negligible no shade house on ground level R-value negligible

0 0 0 0 0 0

1 2 3 4 3 2

Total other

4 Surroundings

Total surroundings

completely shaded by devices (no green close to the building sollutions) no shade by build devices frontal wind permeability no obstruction fully covered from the outside extra free space unbuild to the edge of the propertyfree space on all sides, above offical minimum wind can not go around the house

0 0 0

4 5 6

350

35%

max

200

20%

0 0 0 0 already by roof --> 0 points 0 0 When the house is not on poles, count 0 points 0

4.1 Shading 4.2 Ventilation 4.3 Setback

max

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 already by roof --> 0 points 0 already by roof --> 0 points 0

3.1 Wall

10 points if it is the worst, 0 points if it is the best

max

150

15%

max

150

15%

0 0 0 0

37


5 Green solutions

5.1 Green roof 5.2 Green wall 5.3 Green shading 5.4 Green surface

east and west walls south wall trees, pergolas percentage of non-built and non-paved space

whole roof covered whole wall covered whole wall covered whole building shaded â&#x2030;Ľ 90% non-built and non-paved space

no green roof no green wall no green wall building not shaded total parcel built-on and/or paved

0 0 0 0 0

4 3 1 4 3

Total green solutions 6 Appliances

0 0 0 0 0 0

6.1 Cooling equipment

6.2 Water heating 6.3 Lightning

6.4 Gas usage 6.5 Other appliances

air conditioning devices fans heat extractors, roofs and walls central water heating equipment showerhead water heating daytime lights outside lights for safety outside lights for decoration gas use possible for stove, heating water or other appliances jacucci, electrical gate

no air conditioning no fans extractors without power imput no water heating no water heating few lights, high efficient <20 W no lights installed no lights installed

old equipment in 4 or more rooms fans in whole the house no extractors big, old equipment â&#x2030;Ľ 2 electric shower water heaters many lights, low efficent >100W many safety lights many lights

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

40 8 2 4 5 3 3 3

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

2 or more connections for gas usage no other appliances

no gas piping many other appliances

0 0

2 5

0 0

= 10 points energy generation equals consumption

= 0 points no energy generation

Total energy consuming installations 6.6 Energy generating installationssolar panels, solar water heating

0 0

-75

0

Total

0

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

150

15%

max

750

100%

0 Distribution of points is inverse here

Total installations

Roof Windows Other Surroundings Green solutions Appliances Energy generation total appliances Total Label

max

max

0

100%

max 1750 the more points, how higher the energy label

label: A B C D E F G

points: From 0 400 625 850 1075 1300 1525

Till 400 625 850 1075 1300 1525 1750

best

worst

38


Appendix B: Label calculation of case buildings Las Casitas, ventilated house Architectural specifications Best = 0

Part

Element

Subelement

1 Roof

1.1 Roof type 1.2 Eaves

adapt roof to sun orientation giving shade to south walls giving shade to east and west walls giving shade to south windows giving shade to east and west windows insulation value color reflection value cross ventilation in roof height above the door, standard door is 210 cm

1.3 Material

1.4 Ventilation 1.5 Ceiling

gable roof, longest side facing south totally shaded totally shaded totally shaded totally shaded R-value higher than 2,5 m2K/W light color (white) mirror totally open two meters of more

Worst = 10 flat roof no shade no shade no shade no shade R-value negligible black tar totally closed ceiling height 240 cm

Points Value Score Note (0-10) 5 3 15 2 3 6 2 4 8 0 3 0 0 4 0 4 3 12 3 3 9 1 2 2 1 5 5 1 5 5

Total Roof 2 Windows

62 2.1 Natural illumination 2.2 Ventilation 2.3 Type 2.4 Glass 2.5 Shading

surface amount position amount sliding, half open, total open no glass, mosquito screens giving shade to south windows giving shade to east and west windows

many/big windows, or sunlight intake every room position supports cross ventilation more than one totally openable windows no glass totally shaded totally shaded

no windows no windows no supporting of cross ventilation one or zero fixed windows fixed glass no shade no shade

2 1 0 0 1 2 0 0

2 2 5 3 4 2 3 4

Total Windows 3 Other

3.2 Shading devices 3.3 Poles

south wall color west and east wall color walls

light light totally shaded house on poles

dark dark no shade house on ground level

0 0 0 0

1 2 4 3

Total other

4 Surroundings

Total surroundings

completely shaded by devices (no green sollutions) no shade by build devices close to the building frontal wind permeability no obstruction fully covered from the outside extra free space unbuild to the edge of the propertyfree space on all sides, above offical minimum wind can not go around the house

4 0 0

4 5 6

350

35%

max

250

25%

100

10%

150

15%

0 0 0 already by roof --> 0 points 0 0

4.1 Shading 4.2 Ventilation 4.3 Setback

max

4 2 0 0 4 4 0 already by roof --> 0 points 0 already by roof --> 0 points 14

3.1 Wall

10 points if it is the worst, 0 points if it is the best

max

16 shade by other --> 0 points 0 0 16

max

39


5.2 Green wall 5.3 Green shading 5.4 Green surface

east and west walls south wall trees, pergolas percentage of non-built and non-paved space

whole wall covered whole wall covered whole building shaded â&#x2030;Ľ 90% non-built and non-paved space

no green wall no green wall building not shaded total parcel built-on and/or paved

10 10 4 3

3 1 4 3

Total green solutions 6 Appliances

30 10 16 9 105

6.1 Cooling equipment

6.2 Water heating 6.3 Lightning

6.4 Gas usage 6.5 Other appliances

air conditioning devices fans heat extractors, roofs and walls central water heating equipment showerhead water heating daytime lights outside lights for safety outside lights for decoration gas use possible for stove, heating water or other appliances jacucci, electrical gate

no air conditioning no fans extractors without power imput no water heating no water heating few lights, high efficient <20 W no lights installed no lights installed

old equipment in 4 or more rooms fans in whole the house no extractors big, old equipment â&#x2030;Ľ 2 electric shower water heaters many lights, low efficent >100W many safety lights many lights

0 10 2 0 10 3 4 3

20 4 1 4 5 3 3 3

0 40 2 0 50 9 12 9

2 or more connections for gas usage no other appliances

no gas piping many other appliances

10 0

2 5

20 0

= 10 points energy generation equals consumption

= 0 points no energy generation

Total energy consuming installations 6.6 Energy generating installationssolar panels, solar water heating

142 0

-50

142

Total

339 A 339 62 14 0 16 105 142 0 142

Max 1500 350 250 100 150 150 500 -500 500

150

15%

max

500

50%

0 Distribution of points is inverse here

Total installations

Label Total Roof Windows Other Surroundings Green solutions Appliances Energy generation total appliances

max

max

50

50%

max 1500 the more points, how higher the energy label

label: A B C D E F G

points: From 0 400 583 767 950 1133 1317

Till 400 583 767 950 1133 1317 1500

best

worst

40


Normal Honduran house, house with Air Conditioning Architectural specifications Best = 0

Part

Element

Subelement

1 Roof

1.1 Roof type 1.2 Eaves

adapt roof to sun orientation giving shade to south walls giving shade to east and west walls giving shade to south windows giving shade to east and west windows insulation value color reflection value cross ventilation in roof height above the door, standard door is 210 cm insulation value

1.3 Material

1.4 Ventilation 1.5 Ceiling

gable roof, longest side facing south totally shaded totally shaded totally shaded totally shaded R-value higher than 2,5 m2K/W light color (white) mirror totally open two meters of more R-value higher than 2,5 m2K/W

Worst = 10 flat roof no shade no shade no shade no shade R-value negligible black tar totally closed ceiling height 240 cm R-value negligible

Points Value Score Note (0-10) 5 3 15 2 3 6 6 4 24 1 3 3 6 4 24 5 3 15 3 3 9 1 2 2 7 3 21 6 3 18 5 4 20

Total Roof 2 Windows

157 2.1 Natural illumination 2.2 Ventilation 2.3 Type 2.4 Glass 2.5 Shading

surface amount position amount sliding, half open, total open no glass, mosquito screens insulation value giving shade to south windows giving shade to east and west windows

many/big windows, or sunlight intake every room position supports cross ventilation more than one totally openable windows no glass > 2 layers of glass totally shaded totally shaded

no windows no windows no supporting of cross ventilation one or zero fixed windows fixed glass no glas no shade no shade

5 7 7 5 0 4 6 1 6

2 1 2 1 1 2 4 3 4

Total Windows 3 Other

3.2 Shading devices 3.3 Poles

south wall color west and east wall color insulation value walls insulation value

light light R-value higher than 2,5 m2K/W totally shaded house on poles R-value higher than 2,5 m2K/W

dark dark R-value negligible no shade house on ground level R-value negligible

2 2 5 5 10 0

1 2 3 4 3 2

Total other

4 Surroundings

Total surroundings

completely shaded by devices (no green sollutions) no shade by build devices close to the building frontal wind permeability no obstruction fully covered from the outside extra free space unbuild to the edge of the propertyfree space on all sides, above offical minimum wind can not go around the house

6 6 5

4 5 6

350

35%

max

200

20%

2 4 15 20 already by roof --> 0 points 30 0 When the house is not on poles, count 0 points 71

4.1 Shading 4.2 Ventilation 4.3 Setback

max

10 7 14 5 0 8 24 3 already by roof --> 0 points 24 already by roof --> 0 points 95

3.1 Wall

10 points if it is the worst, 0 points if it is the best

max

150

15%

max

150

15%

24 30 30 84

41


5 Green solutions

5.1 Green roof 5.2 Green wall 5.3 Green shading 5.4 Green surface

east and west walls south wall trees, pergolas percentage of non-built and non-paved space

whole roof covered whole wall covered whole wall covered whole building shaded â&#x2030;Ľ 90% non-built and non-paved space

no green roof no green wall no green wall building not shaded total parcel built-on and/or paved

10 10 10 8 4

4 3 1 4 3

Total green solutions 6 Appliances

40 30 10 32 12 124

6.1 Cooling equipment

6.2 Water heating 6.3 Lightning

6.4 Gas usage 6.5 Other appliances

air conditioning devices fans heat extractors, roofs and walls central water heating equipment showerhead water heating daytime lights outside lights for safety outside lights for decoration gas use possible for stove, heating water or other appliances jacucci, electrical gate

no air conditioning no fans extractors without power imput no water heating no water heating few lights, high efficient <20 W no lights installed no lights installed

old equipment in 4 or more rooms fans in whole the house no extractors big, old equipment â&#x2030;Ľ 2 electric shower water heaters many lights, low efficent >100W many safety lights many lights

2 or more connections for gas usage no other appliances

no gas piping many other appliances

= 10 points energy generation equals consumption

= 0 points no energy generation

5 4 10 0 6 6 5 1

40 8 2 4 5 3 3 3

200 32 20 0 30 18 15 3

2 0

2 5

4 0

Total energy consuming installations 6.6 Energy generating installationssolar panels, solar water heating

322 0

-75

max

150

15%

max

750

100%

0 Distribution of points is inverse here

Total installations

322

Total

853

max

322

max

1750

100%

the more

Total Roof Windows Other Surroundings Green solutions Appliances Energy generation total appliances Label

853 157 95 71 84 124 322 0 322

Max 1750 350 200 150 150 150 750 -750 750

label: A B C D E F G

points: From 0 400 625 850 1075 1300 1525

Till 400 625 850 1075 1300 1525 1750

best

worst

D

42


Techos Verdes office, ventilated office Architectural specifications Best = 0

Part

Element

Subelement

1 Roof

1.1 Roof type 1.2 Eaves

adapt roof to sun orientation giving shade to south walls giving shade to east and west walls giving shade to south windows giving shade to east and west windows insulation value color reflection value cross ventilation in roof height above the door, standard door is 210 cm

1.3 Material

1.4 Ventilation 1.5 Ceiling

gable roof, longest side facing south totally shaded totally shaded totally shaded totally shaded R-value higher than 2,5 m2K/W light color (white) mirror totally open two meters of more

Worst = 10 flat roof no shade no shade no shade no shade R-value negligible black tar totally closed ceiling height 240 cm

Points Value Score Note (0-10) 1 3 3 2 3 6 4 4 16 0 3 0 4 4 16 9 3 27 3 3 9 1 2 2 2 5 10 3 5 15

Total Roof 2 Windows

104 2.1 Natural illumination 2.2 Ventilation 2.3 Type 2.4 Glass 2.5 Shading

surface amount position amount sliding, half open, total open no glass, mosquito screens giving shade to south windows giving shade to east and west windows

many/big windows, or sunlight intake every room position supports cross ventilation more than one totally openable windows no glass totally shaded totally shaded

no windows no windows no supporting of cross ventilation one or zero fixed windows fixed glass no shade no shade

2 1 3 0 5 3 0 4

2 2 5 3 4 2 3 4

Total Windows 3 Other

3.2 Shading devices 3.3 Poles

south wall color west and east wall color walls

light light totally shaded house on poles

dark dark no shade house on ground level

0 5 2 10

1 2 4 3

Total other

4 Surroundings

Total surroundings

completely shaded by devices (no green sollutions) no shade by build devices close to the building frontal wind permeability no obstruction fully covered from the outside extra free space unbuild to the edge of the propertyfree space on all sides, above offical minimum wind can not go around the house

3 4 8

4 5 6

350

35%

250

25%

max

100

10%

max

150

15%

max

0 10 8 already by roof --> 0 points 30 48

4.1 Shading 4.2 Ventilation 4.3 Setback

max

4 2 15 0 20 6 0 already by roof --> 0 points 16 already by roof --> 0 points 63

3.1 Wall

10 points if it is the worst, 0 points if it is the best

12 20 48 80

43


5 Green solutions

5.1 Green roof 5.2 Green wall 5.3 Green shading 5.4 Green surface

east and west walls south wall trees, pergolas percentage of non-built and non-paved space

whole roof covered whole wall covered whole wall covered whole building shaded â&#x2030;Ľ 90% non-built and non-paved space

no green roof no green wall no green wall building not shaded total parcel built-on and/or paved

10 8 10 3 3

4 3 1 4 3

Total green solutions 6 Appliances

40 24 10 12 9 95

6.1 Cooling equipment

6.2 Water heating 6.3 Lightning

6.4 Gas usage 6.5 Other appliances

air conditioning devices fans heat extractors, roofs and walls central water heating equipment showerhead water heating daytime lights outside lights for safety outside lights for decoration gas use possible for stove, heating water or other appliances jacucci, electrical gate

no air conditioning no fans extractors without power imput no water heating no water heating few lights, high efficient <20 W no lights installed no lights installed

old equipment in 4 or more rooms fans in whole the house no extractors big, old equipment â&#x2030;Ľ 2 electric shower water heaters many lights, low efficent >100W many safety lights many lights

2 or more connections for gas usage no other appliances

no gas piping many other appliances

= 10 points energy generation equals consumption

= 0 points no energy generation

0 7 2 0 0 1 6 0

20 4 1 4 5 3 3 3

0 28 2 0 0 3 18 0

10 0

2 5

20 0

Total energy consuming installations 6.6 Energy generating installationssolar panels, solar water heating

71 0

Total installations

-50

461

Total Roof Windows Other Surroundings Green solutions Appliances Energy generation total appliances Label

461 104 63 48 80 95 71 0 71 B

Max 1500 350 250 100 150 150 500 -500 500

150

15%

max

500

50%

0 Distribution of points is inverse here 71

Total

max

max

50

50%

max 1500 the more points, how higher the energy label

label: A B C D E F G

points: From 0 400 583 767 950 1133 1317

Till 400 583 767 950 1133 1317 1500

best

worst

44


La Tara office, office with Air Conditioning Architectural specifications Best = 0

Part

Element

Subelement

1 Roof

1.1 Roof type 1.2 Eaves

adapt roof to sun orientation giving shade to south walls giving shade to east and west walls giving shade to south windows giving shade to east and west windows insulation value color reflection value cross ventilation in roof height above the door, standard door is 210 cm insulation value

1.3 Material

1.4 Ventilation 1.5 Ceiling

gable roof, longest side facing south totally shaded totally shaded totally shaded totally shaded R-value higher than 2,5 m2K/W light color (white) mirror totally open two meters of more R-value higher than 2,5 m2K/W

Worst = 10 flat roof no shade no shade no shade no shade R-value negligible black tar totally closed ceiling height 240 cm R-value negligible

Points Value Score Note (0-10) 6 3 18 6 3 18 6 4 24 0 3 0 5 4 20 5 3 15 4 3 12 2 2 4 8 3 24 2 3 6 5 4 20

Total Roof 2 Windows

161 2.1 Natural illumination 2.2 Ventilation 2.3 Type 2.4 Glass 2.5 Shading

surface amount position amount sliding, half open, total open no glass, mosquito screens insulation value giving shade to south windows giving shade to east and west windows

many/big windows, or sunlight intake every room position supports cross ventilation more than one totally openable windows no glass > 2 layers of glass totally shaded totally shaded

no windows no windows no supporting of cross ventilation one or zero fixed windows fixed glass no glas no shade no shade

6 8 10 10 10 10 4 2 8

2 1 2 1 1 2 4 3 4

Total Windows 3 Other

3.2 Shading devices 3.3 Poles

south wall color west and east wall color insulation value walls insulation value

light light R-value higher than 2,5 m2K/W totally shaded house on poles R-value higher than 2,5 m2K/W

dark dark R-value negligible no shade house on ground level R-value negligible

3 6 5 10 10 0

1 2 3 4 3 2

Total other

4 Surroundings

Total surroundings

completely shaded by devices (no green sollutions) no shade by build devices close to the building frontal wind permeability no obstruction fully covered from the outside extra free space unbuild to the edge of the propertyfree space on all sides, above offical minimum wind can not go around the house

3 6 8

4 5 6

350

35%

max

200

20%

3 12 15 40 already by roof --> 0 points 30 0 When the house is not on poles, count 0 points 100

4.1 Shading 4.2 Ventilation 4.3 Setback

max

12 8 20 10 10 20 16 6 already by roof --> 0 points 32 already by roof --> 0 points 134

3.1 Wall

10 points if it is the worst, 0 points if it is the best

max

150

15%

max

150

15%

12 30 48 90

45


5 Green solutions

5.1 Green roof 5.2 Green wall 5.3 Green shading 5.4 Green surface

east and west walls south wall trees, pergolas percentage of non-built and non-paved space

whole roof covered whole wall covered whole wall covered whole building shaded â&#x2030;Ľ 90% non-built and non-paved space

no green roof no green wall no green wall building not shaded total parcel built-on and/or paved

10 10 10 8 6

4 3 1 4 3

Total green solutions 6 Appliances

40 30 10 32 18 130

6.1 Cooling equipment

6.2 Water heating 6.3 Lightning

6.4 Gas usage 6.5 Other appliances

air conditioning devices fans heat extractors, roofs and walls central water heating equipment showerhead water heating daytime lights outside lights for safety outside lights for decoration gas use possible for stove, heating water or other appliances jacucci, electrical gate

no air conditioning no fans extractors without power imput no water heating no water heating few lights, high efficient <20 W no lights installed no lights installed

old equipment in 4 or more rooms fans in whole the house no extractors big, old equipment â&#x2030;Ľ 2 electric shower water heaters many lights, low efficent >100W many safety lights many lights

8 0 10 0 0 5 2 1

40 8 2 4 5 3 3 3

320 0 20 0 0 15 6 3

2 or more connections for gas usage no other appliances

no gas piping many other appliances

10 0

2 5

20 0

= 10 points energy generation equals consumption

= 0 points no energy generation

Total energy consuming installations 6.6 Energy generating installationssolar panels, solar water heating

384 0

-75

max

150

15%

max

750

100%

0 Distribution of points is inverse here

Total installations

384

Total

999

max

384

max

1750

100%

the more Total Roof Windows Other Surroundings Green solutions Appliances Energy generation total appliances Label

999 161 134 100 90 130 384 0 384 D

Max 1750 350 200 150 150 150 750 -750 750

label: A B C D E F G

points: From 0 400 625 850 1075 1300 1525

Till 400 625 850 1075 1300 1525 1750

best

worst

46


Appendix C: Checklist for examining an house These are the tables filled in together with the residents. Table 1 goes about the architectural specifications, this part took measuring, asking and observing. Table 2 was simply asking for the energy bill. The third table mend looking at all the equipment in the buildings, and asking how many hours they used them daily. Questions for the occupants: -

What materials are used for the roof/walls/floor? What parts are insulated? How is the roof ventilated? (ventilation in eaves and/or top part of the roof?) Which windows collect sunlight and how long do they collect sunlight?

Residents: Part of building Roof

Eaves of the roof

Walls

Floor

What to measure Total surface Material

How to measure

Quantity

Sum of length x width Determine what type of insulation and other materials are used

m2

Ventilation Height of the roof

Asking owners Height above ground level

Ratio* m

Bad/Acceptable/Good

Length of overhang Ventilation installed in eaves

Length of overhang perpendicular to the wall Asking owners

m

Bad/Acceptable/Good

Surface Material Position

Length x width Asking, observing Number of hours the walls are collecting sun

m2

Surface Material

Length x width Asking, observing

m2

Ratio*

Sunhours x m2

Value


Windows*

Height for a house on poles

Height

m

Surface Amount Position

Length x width Number of windows Number of hours the windows are collecting sun -

m2

Mosquito screens

Surroundings Open space Verdure

-

Sunhours x m2 Yes/No

The office is situated on a complex with a number of other offices, there is some space between these buildings. Between the offices are some little green beds, still most of the surroundings are paved.

Can I see your energy bill? What amount of electricity do you use? What do you use for cooking? Gas, electricity or something else? Table 2

Amount per (-) Electricity use per month (kWh) Gas use per month (m3)* Other energy sources *The gas will probably be carried into the house in canisters so I can just ask how many of those the occupants use.

-

How many hours do you use your specific devices daily? (fill in table 1 column â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;Usage per dayâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;)

Device

Number

Capacity (Watt)

Table 3 Usage Electrical Year per day consumption (hours) (kWh)

Model

Airconditioning

48


Fans

Lightning

Refrigerator

24

Freezer

24

Stove

Oven

Microwave

Water heating

Washer

Dryer

Electrical consumption (kWh) = Capacity x Usage / 1000

49


Appendix D: Energy consumption of installations and appliances To examine the energy consumption pattern of a building it is useful to know which appliances and installations are available in a building. To know how much the different appliances use in a month there was a question list about the usage per appliance for the residents (appendix 1). After finding all the consumptions values of the appliances it was possible to calculate the amount of energy consumed by the residents per month (namely: energy consumption = wattage x hours of use). To verify if this calculation is correct it will be compared with the real energy consumption, which can be found on the monthly energy bill. If there are big differences between these two it is clear there is a fault in the calculations. The length of the month is in the calculations 30,42 days (365/12). All the months are equalized to this value. A working week for the two offices is 5,5 days and 9 hours per day. Refrigerators and freezers are calculated for working 24 hours per day and seven days a week.

House one: Casa Grande (bioclimatic) Small Casa Grande In the small Casa Grande live 2 adults and 3 little children. The monthly total amount of energy they use is 425 kWh (Average of Dec and Jan 2011/2012). The house has only a few appliances (figure 1), the only energy used for cooling the house is consumed by the fans and this is only 12% (49 kWh). The shower water heater is the biggest energy consumer and uses 29% (122 kWh) of the total amount of consumed energy. The dryer and washer are together good for 31% (131kWh). The total calculated amount of energy is 410 kWh. This means there is a rest consumption of 15 kWh per month. The total calculation can be found in appendix 2a.

Shower water heating Washer Fans Stove Air Conditioning Other

Dryer Refridgerator/Freezer lightning Microwave Oven

Figure C1 energy consumption small Casa Grande

50


Big Casa Grande In the big Casa Grande life four adults and two children. One of the children is a baby and the parents say this baby counts for an adult with all the dirty clothes and heating bottles. Their monthly amount of energy consumed is 715 kWh (average Jan/May 2012). The residents claim they use in total only 348 kWh. This is not even the half of their real energy consumption (figure 2). Shower water heating Fans Dryer, washer lightning iron Rest consumption

Refridgerator, freezer Stove Microwave Television Toaster,Coffee, Oven

Figure C2 Claimed energy consumption big Casa Grande

In the interview were some doubts about a number of appliances, the use of the shower water heating, dryer and washer. The owner of the house had also no good insight about the use of cooking equipment, lightning and fans because they live with a lot of people in the house, and the owner ( the one who took the interview) is self somewhere else to work. If we will take more realistic values for the usage of appliances, we get a total different picture (figure 3). There is still a big part of other consumption (26%), but this is realistic because they had a lot of small appliances like computers, electric games and small kitchen and bathroom equipment. The cooling of the house with fans uses 8% (57kWh) of the total energy consumption. The shower water heating is the biggest consumer and is good for 21% (152 kWh) of the total consumption. The total calculation can be found in appendix 2b. Shower water heating

Refridgerator, freezer

Fans

Stove

Dryer, washer

Microwave

lightning

Television

iron

Toaster,Coffee, Oven

Rest consumption Figure C3 Recalculated energy consumption Big Casa Grande

House two: Normal Honduran house (air-conditioned) In the Normal Honduran House live 5 adults. Their monthly amount of electricity consumed is 362 kWh (May 2012). The residents claim they use between 560 and 738 kWh. This is the only building examined were gas is consumed. The residents say they use every month one 25 pound cylinder with gas to use their stove, oven and dryer (figure 4). The stove, oven and dryer use almost the same amount of energy: 34% (213.000 kJ) , 33% (207.000 kJ) and 32% (201.000 kJ).

51


Stove Oven Dryer

Figure C4 Gas consumption Normal Honduran House

The people in this house probably exaggerate their energy consumption. In the interview were some doubts, especially about the shower heating and the air conditioning use. To get to more realistic values these two energy consumers are once again looked at. If the value of daily usage of the air condition from 3 to 1,5 hours the air-conditioning energy consumption will drop from 224 kWh to 112 kWh. If the value of the average shower time will be lowered from 10 till 5 minutes, the shower energy consumption will drop from 176 to 88 kWh per month. The total energy consumption will be 347 kWh. This means there is still 15 kWh for rest consumption (figure 5). The air conditioning is the biggest energy consumer, together with the fans is the total amount of energy used for cooling 38% (136 kWh). Shower water heating uses 24% (88kWh). The total calculation can be found in appendix 2c. Air Conditioning

Shower water heating

Refridgerator/Freezer

Fans

Water cooler

lightning

Washer

Microwave

rest consumption Figure C5 Energy consumption Normal Honduran House

Office one: Techos Verdes office (bioclimatic) In the office of Techos Verdes worked in the month May four people. The monthly total amount of energy they use is 243 kWh (May 2012). The office has only a few appliances; computers, 3 fans and a refrigerator (figure 6). The only energy used for cooling the office is consumed by the fans and this is 20% (50 kWh). The computers are together the biggest energy consumers and uses 40% (97 kWh) of the total amount of consumed energy. Furthermore goes 18% (44 kWh) of the energy to lightning, this is because every night, the whole night four lights are burning. In the day time the lights are always off because there is plenty of light coming in to trough the big windows. The total calculated amount of energy is 228 kWh. This means there is a rest consumption of 15 kWh per month. The total calculation can be found in appendix 2d.

52


Computers/laptops

Fans

lightning

Refridgerator/Freezer

Microwave

Coffee

Printer

rest consumption

Figure C6 Energy consumption Techos Verdes office

Office two: La Tara office (air-conditioned) In the office of La Tara are four people working. The average monthly total amount of energy they use is 772 kWh (Dec 2011/April 2012). The office has only a few appliances; computers, an air conditioning device, a fan which they never use, a refrigerator and some small appliances (figure 7). The only energy used for cooling the office is consumed by one air conditioning device. This device uses 70% (537 kWh) of the total amount of consumed energy. The computers, lights and refrigerator use together 28% (222 kWh). The lights are on whole day because there is only one real window. The rest consumption is calculated at 6 kWh. The total calculation can be found in appendix 2e. Air Conditioning Computer lightning Refridgerator/Freezer Microwave Radio Printer rest consumption

Figure C7 Energy consumption La Tara office

53


Sub Conclusion For this research are five buildings examined, three households and two offices. Two bioclimatic houses without ventilation, a normal house with air conditioning, one bioclimatic office and a fully air conditioned office. The houses contained all the normal equipment such as a refrigerator, oven, stove, electric shower and washing equipment. The bioclimatic houses use only fans to cool their rooms, the normal Honduran house uses fans and two air conditioning devices to do the job. Both offices contain computers, a printer and a refrigerator. In the house with air conditioning was the air conditioning the biggest energy consumer. The next biggest energy consumer was the electric shower water heater. In small and big Casa Grande was this by far the biggest consumer with respectively 29% and 21% of total energy consumption. The Techos Verdes office (with air conditioning) uses 70% of his total energy consumption on cooling the room with the air conditioning device. Most of the other energy goes to the computers and the lights. The La Tara office (without air conditioning) uses 20% of its energy on cooling. This means the office with air conditioning uses more than ten times as much energy on cooling as the Techos Verdes office. In table 1 are shown the most important numbers of this chapter.

Building

Total energy consumption

Residents/ personnel

Appliances used for cooling

Small Casa Grande Big Casa Grande

425 kWh

Normal Honduran House Techos Verdes office La Tara office

362 kWh 620.000 kJ

2 adults 3 children 4 adults 1 child 1 baby 5 adults

715 kWh

243 kWh

4 fulltime jobs

772 kWh

4 fulltime jobs

fans

Energy consumption used for cooling (kWh) 49

Cooling energy percentage of total (%) 12

fans

57

8

Air conditioning and fans fans

136

38

50

20

Air conditioning

537

70

Table C9 Resume chapter â&#x20AC;&#x2122;energy consumption of installations and appliancesâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;, printed in bold are the buildings with air conditioning.

54


Appendix D1: Small Las Casita Electricity use per month (kWh) Gas use per month (m3)* Other energy sources

Amount per (-) 441 kWh for 32 days/408 kWh for 29 days average for 30,4 days = 419/428 = 424,5 kWh -

Residents: two adults and tree little children Device Number Capacity Usage (Watt) per day (hours) Air0 conditioning Fans Got 6 100Watt 4h use only 4 Lightning 2 20 Watt 4h

Refrigerator

8 1 Combi with freezer at top

Freezer Stove

Oven Microwave

40 Watt 30 Watt

850W/h

Small one

800W

Water heating

4000W

Clothes washer

3x week

Clothes dryer

No info,

3x week, less when sunny

2h 2h 24

24 Half capacity 2 hours a day 0h 15 min 2 Adults 2x, 3 kids 1x, Total 1h 400W/h 1,5 h per turn 2000W, 0,5h per turn

Electrical Model consumption (kWh)

Monthly: 48,6 kWh Monthly: 4,8 kWh 19 kWh 1,8 kWh 600 kWh/year = 50 kWh per month

Kitchen lights

25,8 kWh / month

Whirlpool, super capacity 465 (archiexpo, 2012)

0 Monthly: 6 kWh 121,6 kWh per month

Below stove, never in use

7,8 kWh

Whirlpool heavy duty, Twin Twin

2,5 times/ week = 76 kWh

1995-2000 small

2 lights per fan bathroom Whirlpool Model: ET4WSKXKQ00 05-02

Whirlpool, 220-230 V. 5500W, 30A, 4 mm2

Electrical consumption (kWh) = Capacity x Usage / 1000

55


Appendix D2: Big Las casita Electricity use per month (kWh) Gas use per month (m3)* Other energy sources

Amount per (-) 2000L per month average = 715 kWh (Enee,2009) -

Residents: 4 adults, 2 children (1baby who uses a lot) Device Number Capacity Usage Electrical Year (Watt) per day consumption (hours) (kWh) Airconditioning Fans 7 in the 4 fans 60 W / 56,6 kWh house, 2 used for 9 fan = 27 under hours a hours the day house Lightning 4 20W 8h 19,4 kWh Bedroo 22 W 3h 24 kWh m 12 24 lights 0h total Outside 0h 2 kWh light Refrigerator 24 50 kW/ May month 2002 Freezer In top of 24 fridge Stove 1 850 Watt 3 hours 77,6 kW a day Oven Only once a month used 4 kW Microwave 1 900W 1h a day 27,4 kW Water 1 5000W 1h a day 152 kW heating Washer 8 loads 8x week 400W/h 20,8 kWh a week 1,5 h per turn Dryer 8 loads 8x week, 2000W/ 34,7 kWh a week h, 0,5h per turn Toaster 5 kWh Coffee 5 kWh Television 2 100 W 6 h/ day 36,4 kWh ironing 1000 kWh 4h/ 17 kWh week

Model

Used occasionally Model ET4WSKXK000

Sunbeam, microwave

Whirlpool heavy duty, Twin Twin 1995-2000 small

56


Appendix D3: Normal Honduran House

Electricity use per month (kWh) Gas use

Other energy sources

Residents: 5 adults Device Number

Airconditioning

Main AC device:

Window AC

Amount per (-) 357 kWh for 30 days in May. Full month: 362 kWh 1 x 25 pound cylinder gas per month, the dryer, oven and the stove use gas. 602.500 BTU = 635.300 kJ -

Capacity (Watt) indoor 36 W, outdoor max 3600, average 1240 W 1,18 kW Max = 3,55 kW 100W

Usage per day (hours) 1,5

Electrical consumption (kWh) 58 kWh

Model

1,5

54 kWh

Panasonic V 220, Hz 60

2h

4 x 2 x 100 = 1,2 kW per day. Monthly 24,3 kWh 0,6 daily, Monthly 18 kWh 0,12 daily, monthly 3,65 kWh 480 kWh/year = 40 kWh/ month

Fans

6 but use only 4

Lightning

10

20 W

3h

3

20 W

2h

Refrigerator

24 h

Freezer

24 h

Stove

1h

Oven

0,5 h

Microwave

0,25 h

Is included in the refrigerator 7000 kJ or 6700 BTU per hour (uses gas) Monthly 212.800 kJ 13600 kJ or 13000 BTU per hour (uses gas) Monthly 206.720 kJ 1,5 kW, Monthly consumption:

Lamps inside, mostly under fans Lamps outside, near the car

Model CTB1821AR Magic chef 115 v, 60hz (Warnerstellian, 2001)

57


Water heating

2

Washer

2kWh per load 22.000 BTU/h = 23.196 kJ 1

Dryer

Water cooler

5 persons x2 showers a day 2 loads a week 2 loads a week

5 min/ shower = 50 min/day

550 W

2h

1h

11,4 kWh 88 kWh

17,4 kWh per month 201.474 kJ (uses gas)

Whirlpool LXR7244JT1 9,8 A; 120 V; 60 Hz Maytag, intellidry regular, permanent press Neptune, 22.000 BTU/h (6,4 kW). Model MDG3000AWW

33 kWh

Appendix D4: Office Techos Verdes

Electricity use per month (kWh) Gas use per month (m3)* Other energy sources

Amount per (-) 30 days, 240 kWh  243 kWh per month -

Employees: 4 fulltime jobs Device Number Capacity (Watt)

Airconditioning Fans Lightning

Refrigerator

Freezer Stove Oven

Usage per day (hours)

Electrical Year consumption (kWh), 5,5 days of working

10 h 10 hours a month At night 14 h + Sundays 10 h 1h 24 h

50,3 kWh 6 kWh per month 37,5 kWh

Model

3 1 T8 light 4 outside

70 Watt 60 Watt

Toilet Combi with freezer

20 Watt Yearly energy use 310 kWh

-

20 Watt

0,5 kWh Monthly 25,8 kWh

Model nr: RM4589SS-2 Avantiproducts.com

24

58


Microwave

1

Water heating Washer Dryer Computers

-

laptops Printer Coffee

2 1

2

800 Watt

15 min a day

4,8 kWh

200 Watt (PC + screen) 40 Watt 100 Watt

9h

85,6 kWh

6h 15 min

11,5 kWh 0,6 kWh 5 kWh

Appendix D5: Office La Tara

Electricity use per month (kWh) Gas use per month (m3)* Other energy sources

Amount per (-) Dec: 31 days, 890 kWh; April: 28 days, 618 kWh. Average per month: 671 and 873 = 772 kWh -

Employees: 4 fulltime jobs Device Number Capacity (Watt)

Airconditioning

1

Fans Lightning

0 5 x T8 light kitchen light 1

Refrigerator Freezer Stove Oven Microwave Water heating Washer

0 0 0 1 small device 0

Usage per day (hours)

Rated cooling input 2,5 kW

9h

60 Watt

9h

20 Watt

2h

83 Watt input

24

600W

15 min

Electrical Year consumption (kWh) (5,5 days working) 537 kWh per month

64 kWh per month 1 kWh per month 61 kWh per month

022012

Model

Max input power 3,8 kW

86 litre

3,6 kWh per month

0 59


Dryer Computer

0 5

Radio Printer

1 1

200 Watt (PC + screen) 10 W 100 W

4/5 x 5 h 96 kWh per month 9h 15 min

2,1 kWh 0,6 kWh

60

Introducing a comparison tool for energy consumption of houses in Honduras  

Introducing a comparison tool for energy consumption of houses in Honduras

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