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WINTER 2005 ISSUE no. 44

BOSTON CONVENTION 36th National Convention of the American Association for the Advancement of Slavic Studies (AAASS) The 36th National Convention of the AAASS took place at the Marriott Copley Place in downtown Boston, December 4-7, 2004. At this year’s convention members and friends of the Association for Croatian Studies organized or participated in fifteen panels. The panels covered a range of subjects: the Dayton Peace Accords, the Croat-Muslin conflict in Bosnia-Herzegovina, Croatia and European integration, Croatian, Bosnian, and Serbian war literature, Augustin Ujević, Croatian communist newspapers, the Croatian Peasant Party (100th anniversary of its founding), Andrija Kačić Miošić (300th anniversary of his birth), Marin Držić, and musical Pan-Slavism, to name a few.

ASSOCIATION FOR CROATIAN STUDIES The ACS is a professional organization dedicated to the advancement of scholarly studies related to Croatia and the Croatians. The ACS was founded in 1977 and it is affiliated with the American Association for the Advancement of Slavic Studies (AAASS) Officers: President - Ante Cuvalo Vice President - Jasna Meyer Secretary - Ivan Runac Treasurer - Ellen Elias Bursac

IN THIS ISSUE 2004 AAASS Convention………...1 ACS Annual Meeting and Dinner...2 Convention Presentations…………3 New Members…………………….8 The ACS was honored to have a distinguished group of scholars from Croatia which included Srećko Lipovčan, Gabriel Jurišić, Vjera Katalinić, Jure Krišto, and Mario Jareb, as well as Marko Hoare from England. Opening the convention to scholars and researchers from across the globe, especially those from Croatia, has positively affected the quality of the convention. Our sincerest thanks to all the organizers and participants of this year’s convention. Everyone’s time and effort truly made it a success. Abstracts of some of the presentations dealing with Croatian topics can be found inside this issue of the Bulletin. Thank you to those who contributed, for it allows those members and friends of the ACS who were not able to attend to get a glimpse of what they missed.

Members…………………………..9 In Memoriam……………………..9 Slavic Libraries…….……………10 Interliber Book Fair…...…………11 Publications….………………… 12 Membership...…………………...16

Bulletin of the Association for Croatian Studies - Winter 2005 No. 44


ACS ANNUAL MEETING The ACS annual meeting took place on December 5th, 2004, at the home of ACS Treasurer, Dr. Ellen Elias Bursac, in Cambridge Mass. During the meeting members discussed the current condition of the Association and possible panels and projects for the future. Ellen provided a brief report on the Association’s financial standing and announced her intention to step down as Treasurer. A replacement has yet to be elected. In general members concur that the ACS is functioning well and carrying out its mission to promote and support the study of Croatia, its people, history, and culture. To continue doing this it is crucial that all of us pay our dues and, if possible, contribute tax-deductible donations. These funds are used solely to publish the Bulletin and to bring our colleagues from Europe for the AAASS National Convention. For those who are not members, please feel free to join and support our mission. Through the years the ACS has grown to become a relatively large and diverse association of scholars and students. We hope to keep growing and to keep informing. That students and young scholars have joined in the last couple of years is a positive sign. Let us help guarantee that this trend continues by involving our colleagues, young and old, who have not yet joined.

classic, Croatian meal in her comfortable and gorgeous New England home. The reception that followed, supplied with a respectable amount of spirits, was filled with friendly and lively conversation. The ACS is deeply grateful to Ellen for having invited us into her home and for being more than hospitable. Though a handful of ACS members and friends who attended the convention were not able to come to the meeting or dinner, the event was nonetheless well attended. From the US and Canada, Elinor Murray Despalatovic, Marijan Despalatovic, Sarah Kent, Renéo Lukic, JeanFrançois Morel, Jim Sadkovich, Ante Cuvalo, Aida Vidan, Maple Razsa, Dean Vuletic, Ivan Runac, Vjeran Pavlakovic, William Everett, Mirjana Dedaic Nelson, Tatjana Lorkovic, Radovan Matanic, John Kraljic attended, and from Europe the ACS was pleased to have Vjera Katalinić, Mario Jareb, Jure Krišto, Srećko Lipovčan, and Marko Hoare.






C. Carmichael, M. Razsa, M. Hoare, V. Pavlakovic

M. Razsa, V. Katalinić, A. Cuvalo

For all of you who came to the meeting, especially our colleagues from Europe, thank you for your time and contributions; it is greatly appreciated.

The ACS’s annual dinner also took place at Ellen’s home in Cambridge. Ellen was kind enough to serve up an array of hors d’oeuvres and a

R. Matanic, J. Krišto, T. Lorkovic, J. Sadkovich, M. Despalatovic, J-F. Morel

D. Vuletic, M. Dedaic Nelson, J. Kraljic, S. Lipovčan, M. Jareb, E. Despalatovic, W. Everett

The 2005 National Convention for the American Association for the Advancement of Slavic Studies will take place in Salt Lake City, Utah, November 3-6, 2005. AAASS members can take advantage of the group rates at the Grand American Hotel and the Little American Hotel. For more detailed information regarding the convention, hotel reservations, and registration see the AAASS website at

Bulletin of the Association for Croatian Studies - Winter 2005 No. 44


Marko Attila Hoare


“The Bosnian Army and the Croat Defense Council, 1992-1995”

James J. Sadkovich “Croatia’s Road to War in Bosnia-Herzegovina” James J. Sadkovich presented “Croatia’s Road to War in BosniaHerzegovina,” which examines the roots of the conflict in BosniaHerzegovina. Sadkovich lists several conditions which made war likely, among them religious separation, ethnic polarization, mistakes by the international community, biased experts, and aggressive Serbian nationalists. Specific events then triggered the conflict, from the collapse of the League of Communists and the paralysis of the federal government to free elections and the Army’s decision to intervene on the side of the Serbs. The conflict in Croatia showed Serbian forces that they could act with impunity and further strained relations between Croatians and Muslims, who appeared indifferent to Croatia’s plight. The Bosnian Army’s later attacks on Croatian areas in Central Bosnia appear to have been intended to guarantee the Muslims a viable state should the international community press peace plans which divided Bosnia-Herzegovina along ethnic lines. Sadkovich rejects the theory that the war in Bosnia resulted from a conspiracy between Franjo Tuđman and Slobodan Milošević, because the causal link between a meeting in 1991 and events in 1993 and 1995 is weak, given that in the interim the diplomatic climate and military situation had changed dramatically, and Serbian forces had attacked Croatia and killed or expelled thousands of its citizens from their homes. A revised version of the paper, “Reconsidering Bosnia-Herzegovina,” is on-line in Spaces of Identity,

(University of Cambridge)

The roots of the conflict of 1992-94 between the Army of the Republic of Bosnia-Herzegovina (ARBiH) and the Croat Defence Council (HVO) must be sought at three levels: in the character of nationalism and national politics among the Bosnian peoples; in the politics and ambitions of the Tuđman regime in Croatia; and in the character of the Izetbegović regime and its relationship with the Bosnian Croats. The so-called Muslim-Croat conflict was at once the product of a power struggle between Bosnian Croat and Muslim politicians for control of the organs of Bosnian government at the national and local levels, and of Tuđman’s aggressive and expansionist policy vis-à-vis Bosnia-Herzegovina. The ARBiH and the HVO both sprang from the same Tito-era institution: the Territorial Defence. They initially comprised two wings of the Armed Forces of the Republic of Bosnia-Herzegovina, with the shared purpose of resisting Serbian aggression against the common homeland. Yet under the guidance of the Tuđman regime, in accordance with their own Great Croat goals and in opposition to the hegemonic policies of the Izetbegović regime, the leaders of the Croat Democratic Union (HDZ) led the HVO in revolt against the Republic. In waging this revolt, which aimed at the annexation of Western Herzegovina and parts of Central Bosnia to Croatia, the HDZ sacrificed the interests both of the Republic as a whole, and of the Bosnian Croats in towns such as Bosanski Brod and Vareš, which were abandoned to Serb or to Muslim domination. Although the Bosnian Croats had legitimate grievances against the Izetbegović regime, and had the right to resist the oppression

of this regime, yet the HVO revolt against the Bosnian state, in alliance with a neighbouring and invading state (Croatia), exceeded any legitimate right of resistance and constituted an act of treason to which the Bosnian leadership had every right to respond forcefully.

Paula M. Pickering (College of William and Mary)

“Swimming Upstream: Grassroots perspectives in Bosnia on the progress in interethnic relations since Dayton” In this paper, Paula Pickering examined patterns in interethnic relations at the grassroots level in the nine years after the end of the war in Bosnia-Herzegovina. Since the signing of Dayton, grassroots trends in attitudes about, and experiences with, those ethnically different support coexistence. These positive trends have occurred even among groups who have expressed the most ethnocentric attitudes. Pickering used statistical techniques to identify obstacles to reducing ethnocentrism. A problem for reintegration is the lack of mediating organizations, nongovernmental organizations, and mass political parties capable of framing pan-ethnic concerns about the economy in an ethnically neutral, utilitarian way. Furthermore, even at the grassroots level, Bosnia’s three constituent nations express different preferences for models of interethnic relations and of power-sharing for Bosnia.

Srećko Lipovčan (Ivo Pillar Institute of Social Sciences)

“Tin Ujević’s Home and World: New Perspectives on His Work and Life” Croatian literary critics consider the poetical works of Augustin Tin Ujević to be aesthtically the most

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outstanding in Croatian poetry during the 20th century. But Ujević was more than a poet. He was an erudite and distinguished literary critic, journalist, and essayist. He knew many languages and displayed his knowledge of them through excellent translations. Ujević opened the space of Croatian culture to the world. As a youth he was passionately involved in politics, which lead him to experience bitter and life changing disappointments. His poetry often reflected the course of his own life; as Ante Stamać wrote, “the author is so much there in his texts, his ego is so clearly defined and expressed that not even today can his powerful individuality be bypassed; the character of the verses is shot through with the facts of his life even when it is not a diary record.” As a journalist and active politician in a period that was turbulent even by European standards (1912-1913), Ujević was at the head of a small but vociferous group of university students in Croatia. They were disappointed with the established Croatian political parties and the state of affairs in the Habsburg monarchy. The ruling elite of Austrian Germans and Hungarians, though a minority in the empire, held all political power. And behind this monarchy there stood Kaiser Wilhelm II and the German empire with its Drang nach Osten policy. Students saw the only way out, not only through co-operation between the Serbs, Slovenes and Croats, but in the formation of an independent state. The best way, they thought, to realize their vision, Yugoslavia, was to rely on the independent and free (and democratic) Kingdom of Serbia. Deafened by the rhetoric of liberation from Belgrade, which was preparing for the First Balkan War at the time - and keeping both eyes on Croatian territory - they did not notice that Serbia was getting ready for something quite different with its idea of Yugoslavia. 4

In the autumn of 1911, Ujević put down his poetic pen and became a skilled political agitator, for which he was eventually arrested by the police; he wrote bitter and passionate articles against the Habsburgs, which were seized by the censors. The young man become the charismatic leader of the Nationalist Youth. When he was 22, in the autumn of 1913, he traveled via Munich to Paris, but certainly not privately, and not on his own initiative. The material in the archives does not give a clear answer to the question who sent Ujević to Paris and with what concrete task. We should keep in mind that Paris since 1908 had been one of the major centers in the world for the propaganda work of the Kingdom of Serbia. It is certain that in 1914 Ujević had a scholarship from the Serbian government and with some small interruptions, he remained in Paris until May, 1919. The Paris period had a considerable effect on Ujević’s formation as person, poet, and journalist. As poet, masked as politician, he would dream about the sacred task of liberation and unification, but the problem, as usual, was not solved in dreams but behind the scenes, in plots of the ruling Serbian elite and the manoeuvring of the refugee Yugoslav Committee. Ujević was a young man with a classical education, an exceptional sensibility, and natural intelligence. Like many other young man, he had a sincere enthusiasm for the ideals of justice, as well as personal and national liberty. Several times he was to say that it was not his aim to be engaged in politics; rather, he was anxious to achieve higher aims, to see a world with a civilized people and society, and he ardently wished to experience this in his own country. As shown in his poems from that period, he suffered, but defiantly. He would not allow them to break him. Well aware of what was at issue, he

was to write: “We were to have been a single army. But our hearts, my comrades, were divided; you sought profit, and I only beauty.” From 1916 to 1918 he went through a severe internal crisis. The wounds were deep, because they were personal. He thought seriously of suicide. Alone and isolated, he entertained the idea of immigrating to South America. Nevertheless, he remained in Paris, starving and writing. One collection of poems from that period was later printed in Belgrade, but against his will, in two books: Lelek sebra (The Lament of a Serf, 1920) and Kolajna (Necklace, 1926). These books were printed in Serbian and Cyrillic script. Ujević was angry because he himself had used the Croatian standard even when he had in 1912 and 1913 worked for Serbian newspapers. He gives his clearest testimony about having shed his illusions and hopes, and of his deep skepticism in a confessional article called “Outlines of Yugoslavia,” printed on June 15, 1918: "We who at one time were the most fervent in preaching militant unification (…) are today turning our attention to the demand that unification be fertile in its amplitude and fed by life and not the death of various national factors. (…) Yugoslavia will be then but what will be Yugoslavs? Will free and happy people live in an independent state? Will that people be cultured and well-fed and content?" When in May 1919, after having been away for five and a half years, he sailed into Dubrovnik via Marseilles, he at first tried to live in Zagreb. He stayed there for little over half a year, but could not cope. Perhaps this was because the new state already had a pronounced Greater Serbian character, while Zagreb could not forget his advocacy for the idea of “national unity” and his uncritical pro-Serbian views. Leaving

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Zagreb he moved to Belgrade. The long-lasting Paris crisis was solved; not only did he abandon any kind of political engagement forever, but he provocatively and demonstratively rejected the settled rules of bourgeois life and behavior. He was to change profoundly not only his life but also the meaning of life. His reaction to the newly created Yugoslav state, which he considered in cultural and social terms to be scandalous, was provocative and bohemian, marked with scandals and outbursts. In the middle of the 1920s he was driven out of Belgrade by the police for having insulted the queen. He was to move around from Sarajevo to Split, eking out a living. Finally, just before World War II, he settled down in Zagreb. In these years, he was to grow into the most powerful poetic personality of the region. But like most writers, then and now, he could not live from pure literature, and had to write newspaper articles. Very convincingly, in the union paper Pravica (The Justice), he demonstrated his deep social involvement and his extraordinary knowledge of the world of labor. During World War II he worked as a news translator in the state news agency. He translated with ease, as his colleagues testified, from a dozen languages. After the revolution of 1945, the impoverished translator, and still more impoverished poet, without even a flat of his own, was pronounced by a people’s court in the people’s socialist state an enemy of the people; he was so out of favor with the new rulers that in a disgracefully rigged trial he was sentenced as a “collaborator of the occupier” and was banned for five years from taking part in any public work. This hatred is hardly comprehensible today, because Ujević never stood out politically, least of all as a collaborator. It is still not clear whether this was personal revenge on the part

of some fellow writer (very likely) and/or an instinctive aversion of the representatives of the new collectivist spirit to Ujević’s marked individuality and independence. But he did work. He was helped by younger colleagues who were then politically influential, people with common sense and personal decency; he set about translating classic works of world literature. In 1950 Jure Kaštelan printed a book called Rukovet: a severe, authoritative selection from Ujević’s poems. This was a historical moment, for Tin was coming back in a big way to the mainstream of his own literature as the father of Croatian modern poetry. Ujević had a few, creatively fertile, years of life left before passing away in 1955; he continued to translate and produced his last collection Žedan kamen na studencu. Forty years after his death, Ante Štamac wrote, “Ujević’s poetic, literary development epitomizes the development of European and Croatian literature. In his work through half a century, Ujević followed all the changes of the poetic and literary standard, starting from Parnassianism, moving on to Symbolism, Expressionism, Futurism, and Unanimism - right down to his philosophical poetry that expresses it community with the philosophy of existence in the middle of our century. In this sense his literary work is a reference work about the spiritual history of Europe in our century.” As a literary translator, Ujević is among the most industrious and most wide-ranging in Croatian culture; he was highly creative and individual in terms of expression. He translated the whole his life; he printed his first translation as a student (1912) and was still translating on his deathbed. Research has shown that his translations come to about 25 volumes, counting an average of 400 pages per volume. In prose and poetry, Ujević translated from nine lan-

guages (Italian, German, French, Russian, Spanish, English, Swedish, Norwegian, and Provencal). The author of a study on Ujević’s translation opus, Nevenka Brozović, after a strict critical analysis, concluded that Ujević holds an essential position in Croatian translations of literature. The evaluation of Ujević’s literary oeuvre, which is one of the most capacious in Croatian literature, is not complete. In addition, his work shows an unusual diversity. His work simultaneously represents the individuality and the openness of Croatian culture, its participation in the universal. Concretely and symbolically, Ujević was to express this by the famous programmatic poem Farewell dedicated to Marko Marulić, “the father of Croatian literature,” and printed for the first time, in old čakavian, in the cult book Croatian Young Lyric Poetry, published by the Association of Croatian Writers in 1914 in Zagreb. Farewell is carved into the pedestal of the Marulić monument in Split, which was done by the world-famous Croatian sculptor Ivan Meštrović. Our contemporaries can be drawn to Tin’s personality because he was able to push conventions aside uncompromisingly and genuinely, living modestly, and “on the edge,” giving a personal example of a life lived for literature. Although in conversation he was often unpleasant, cherishing an exaggerated idea of himself, he was in fact no hypocrite, no drawing-room bohemian. Thus, the young in particular can believe that he really meant it when he wrote in the poem “Blood-brotherhood of Persons in the Universe”

Do not fear! you’re not alone! there are others but you who unknown to you live your life too And everything you were and heard and dreamed with the same fire, beauty, cleanness burns in them.

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Aida Vidan (Harvard University)

“Killing Words: Croatian, Bosnian, and Serbian War Fiction since the 1990s” Aida Vidan’s paper “Killing Words: Croatian, Bosnian, and Serbian War Fiction since the 1990s” investigates works by five authors which were selected first and foremost for the literary techniques they explore in their depictions of war. These five include Nedjeljko Fabrio’s Smrt Vronskog (The Death of Vronskij), Borislav Arapović's Gog i Magog hrvatski (Croatian Gog and Magog), Miljenko Jergović’s Sarajevski Marlboro (The Sarajevo Marlboro), Semezdin Mehmedinović's Sarajevo blues, and Vladimir Arsenijević's Mexico. Vidan’s paper argues that a shift of focus in war fiction of the modern era—from the realm of the subjective and the individual to one of the factual—can also be observed in the writings of the five authors she discusses. War literature, in order to meet the challenges of historiography and claims of objectivity, has had to arm itself with different types of devices and approaches in its treatment of war topics. Prominent among these are genres or styles of writing that have “testimonial power,” such as the memoir, the diary, and the letter. Vidan’s examination of the stylistic devices used by five South Slavic authors demonstrates a common trend towards incorporating factual reality into their war prose, even though the realizations of their intentions manifest themselves in a variety of ways.

Mario Jareb (Croatian Institute for History)

“Treatment of the HSS and Dr. Vlado Maček by the UstašaDomobran Movement from 1930 to April 1941”


The Croatian Peasant Party (HSS) dominated the Croatian political scene during the entire interwar period. In the 1920`s Ante Pavelić was a leading politician of the Croatian Party of Rights (HSP). The main characteristic of HSS-HSP relations was their constant conflict, based on the HSP`s rejection of the HSS`s leading role. It is important to note that the HSP insisted on a radical approach towards the solution of the Croatian national question. The Rightists demanded the immediate establishment of an independent Croatia. Stjepan Radić and the HSS were determined to establish a free Croatia as well, but were ready to negotiate and even to cooperate with Serbian parties. That is why some Rightists labeled Radić and the CPP as traitors. The situation radically changed after the Narodna skupština assassination in June 1928. A deep crisis that jeopardized the very existence of the Yugoslav state and other challenges demanded the formation of a united Croatian political block. Such circumstances were favorable for the radicalization of political life. It is not surprising that Pavelić and his followers demanded then the immediate creation of an independent Croatian state. The HSS and its new president were radical in their demands as well. It is interesting to know that even Serbian politicians of the Independent Democratic Party did not oppose such demands from their HSS allies. In August 1928 Pavelić and his ally Ante Trumbić decided to join the Peasant-Democratic Coalition club, in order to cooperate in the creation of an all-Croatian policy. Still, the individuality of the HSP had been preserved and the Rightists maintained their own political activities. It looked like during the summer and fall of 1928 that the united Croatian political front was to be led by Vladko Maček. At that time, as well

as later, the vast majority of Croats considered him to be not only the president of the HSS, but the leader of the entire Croatian nation as well. Pavelić was aware of that fact. Therefore, he preferred to present himself in public as a Croatian national deputy and a representative of the coalition, rather than the HSP leader. The royal dictatorship of King Alexander banned the activities of Croatian political parties and forced a number of Croatian politicians to leave the country. Pavelić himself became a political émigré in January 1929. Although he later claimed that the Ustaša organization had been founded several days before he left Croatia, it is known today that this happened in early 1930. In 1929 and even as late as 1930 and 1931, Pavelić presented himself only as a “Croatian national deputy.” Articles published by him and his followers during that period of time clearly show that they were recognizing Maček as the supreme leader of the entire Croatian nation. They attempted to present their activities as an integral part of the all-Croatian struggle for freedom. After the Ustaša organization and the Croatian Home Defenders (Hrvatski Domobran) organizations in Europe, Argentina, and the USA were established, Pavelić became a leader of the Ustaša-Domobran Movement. The Ustaša-Domobran leaders continued to claim that the purpose of the Movement was to back the allCroatian struggle led by Vladko Maček. Ustaša-Domobran publications treated him not only as the leader of all Croats, but as a martyr for the Croatian cause as well. It seems to be that the UstašaDomoban leadership and publications desired to achieve the main goals. First of all, they attempted to present their activities as an integral part of the all-Croatian struggle for freedom. By celebrating Maček they were hoping to attract more Croats to

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their ranks. Therefore, the UstašaDomobran leaders and publications hailed the supposed peasant and rural character of the entire Croatian nation, and promised that the internal social organization of the future independent Croatia would be based on the virtues of Croatian peasant social organization. This was clearly expressed by points 13 and 15 of the Ustaša-Domobran principles from mid-1933. Point 13 stated that the peasantry was a fundamental source of all life. More than that, the principle also stated that the Croatian peasantry represents the entire Croatian nation. Point 15 stated that the economic strength of the Croatian nation lies within the peasant economic organization, zadruga, and natural wealth of Croatian soil. The pro-Maček activities of Pavelić and his adherents were conducted without the influence of the HSS. Some of members of the HSS, as the case of Juraj Krnjević clearly shows, deliberately avoided establishing any contact with Pavelić and the UstašaDomobran Movement. Therefore, Pavelić’s close cooperation with the HSS’s vice-president August Košutić in 1929 and 1930 can be explained as an exception to the HSS’s ignorance of the UstašaDomobran representatives. The situation radically changed after the assassination in Marseille in October 1934. The new regime in Yugoslavia allowed the public activities of the HSS. At the very end of the same year Maček was released from prison, and soon thereafter he reclaimed his former position as the HSS’s president and all-Croatian national leader. The UstašaDomobran Movement (Dombran organizations in Argentina and in the USA) hailed the fall of the dictatorial regime and Maček’s determination to lead the Croatian struggle for freedom. They wanted to see radical moves that would additionally destabilize Yugoslavia and allow Croats to establish their independent state in

the near future. Maček’s decision to negotiate with the Yugoslav regime and to cooperate with Serbian opposition parties during the May elections in 1935 dissatisfied many of Pavelić’s followers. Tias Mortigjija wrote in 1941 that Maček chose evolution instead of revolution. Maček’s political standpoints caused already at that time some quarrels between him and nationalistic elements. However, in spit of that the vast majority of Croatian nationalists voted for Maček and continued to consider him as the leader of the entire Croatian nation. Still, Maček’s determination to negotiate and his further activities continued to anger nationalists and Pavelić’s followers. Some of them accused Maček and his adherents of treason. Simultaneously, the HSS’s leadership and publications criticized Pavelić and his followers in Croatia for being radical. The fact that Pavelić and a large group of Ustaša émigrés lived in Italy was often used in HSS’s publications to accuse the Ustaša-Domobran Movement of serving foreign interests and ideologies. In spite of that many of the proUstaša elements in Croatia continued to consider Maček as the all-Croatian leader, although they often criticized his policy. It is interesting to note that Ustaša doglavnik Mile Budak attempted to re-establish contacts and cooperation with Maček upon his return from Italy in the summer of 1938. Very soon he realized that Maček’s political goals were so different that no cooperation was possible. Still, elections in December 1938 of the Ustaša-Domobran leadership invited all Croats to vote for Maček. Budak himself publicly announced his support for Maček. By doing so he did not want to support Maček’s policy and political goals, but rather he wanted to prevent Stojadinović’s regime from remaining in power. Actually, Budak presented Maček as the better choice “between two evils.” Oppositional success and

Stojadinović’s fall in early 1939 raised some hopes among nationalists that Maček and the HSS would firmly demand the establishment of a free Croatian state. Expectations for the future were high. This is why the news about negotiations with the new Yugoslav Prime Minister, Dragiša Cvetković, were accepted with caution and doubts. Pro-Ustaša elements and illegal Ustaša publications were expressing their disappointment with the negotiations. They were especially dissatisfied with the proposed territorial solutions, for they left large portions of “Historical Croatia” (the term used by Croatian nationalist during the 1930s) were left outside of Croatian borders. Nationalists and Pavelić’s followers received the Croatian-Serbian agreement of August 1939 with anger and dissatisfaction. Ustaša-Domobran publications in Croatia, Argentina, and the USA viewed Maček’s agreement as high treason. Citing the fact that Maček’s father was a Slovene, Ustaša-Domobran propaganda started to deny his Croatian identity; he was often presented as “Kranjac” and a Serbian servant who sold Croatian interests to Belgrade in order to gain a high position for him and his associates. The public pro-Ustaša and illegal Ustaša activities intensified after the Banat of Croatia was established in August 1939. Although the Kingdom of Yugoslavia was still in existence, the Banat’s authorities, Maček and the HSS, became the main targets of Ustaša accusations and attacks. As “traitor,” Ustaša-Domobran publications described them as more dangerous to Croatian national interests than the Yugoslav regime and Serbian political forces. Naturally, the HSS could not tolerate such Ustaša behavior. Therefore, Banat authorities started in the fall of 1939 taking measures that were intended to put Ustaša activities to an

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end. It is a fact that during 1940 and early 1941 the Banat authorities successfully fought against public proUstaša activities and illegal Ustaša organization. They banned a number of pro-Ustaša publications, including the leading pro-Ustaša weekly Hrvatski narod in February 1940. Public pro-Ustaša activities were finally brought to an end in early 1941, and the very existence of illegal Ustaša organization was in jeopardy. Only the war and collapse of Yugoslavia allowed the Ustaša to revive their activities in late March and April 1941.

John Peter Kraljic “The Evolution of Croatian Communist Newspapers in the United States and Canada” The Croatian community in North America has the distinction of having had its own Communist press from 1918 until 1991. At times, the Croatian Communist Party paper became a daily and reached a circulation of up to 15,000. The press’ publishing activities included printing books by prominent Croatian Communists, such as Stjepan Cvijić as well as August Cesarec’s Španjolski susreti. The Croatian Communist press in the United States traces its origins to Radnička straža (1907-18) succeeded by Novi misao and Znanje. The paper went through successive name changes in the coming decades: Radnik, Glas Radnika, Radnički glasnik and, in 1940, Narodni glasnik under which name it appeared until its demise in 1973. In Canada the Croatian Communist press appeared much later, due to the delayed emigration of Croats to Canada in large numbers. Nezaposleni radnik appeared in 1929 followed by Borba in mid-1931. The Canadian paper also went through a number of name changes which reflected the 8

changing nature of the “Party line:” Slobodna misao, Jedinstvo, Naše novine, and Horizont which ended publication in 1991. The Croatian Communist press especially had troubles in its early years due to a dearth of cadres who could write Croatian well. Long-time Narodni glasnik editor Leo Fisher, for example, had been a Croatian Jew whose mother tongue had been German. Other prominent editors for the papers discussed included Francis Preveden (later a non-Communist and author of an English-language work on Croatian history), Vladmir Bornemissa, Teodor Cvetkov, Frank Borich and Anthony Minerich (both leading Communist union officials), Stjepan Lojen (later affiliated with Matica iseljenika Hrvatske), and Edo Jardas (later a member of the CPY Central Committee). _____________________________

NEW MEMBERS David Beausoleil Born in 1973 of French Canadian parents in Montreal, Canada, David Beausoleil grew up in London, England. In 1995 he obtained a B.A. in Translation (French-English) from the University of Montreal. The same year he set off to Paris, France, where he studied at the Institut national des langues et civilizations orientales, and obtained an M.A. in Croatian Studies in 2001. At this Parisian university he also earned a two-year degree in Slovenian Studies. David Beausoleil also holds an M.A. in History from the Sorbonne. His research has focused on Yugoslavism, in particular cultural Yugoslavism, Ivan Meštović, and the Yugoslav Committee in Paris and London (1914-1918). He is currently working towards a PhD in History on Croatian-Slovenian relations from 1867-1918. With a group of French scholars and journalists, he heads Regard sur l’Est, a journal and news

site on Central and East European affairs ( He also works as a freelance translator, translating mainly from Croatian and Slovenian to French and English.

Borna Fuerst-Bjelis Borna Fuerst-Bjelis is an associate professor at the Department of Geography, Faculty of Science, University of Zagreb, Croatia. In 1996 she earned her Ph.D. in Geosciences at the University of Zagreb. She teaches the courses “Historical Geography” at the postgraduate level at the University of Zagreb and “The Adriatic in the Mediterranean Context” at the doctoral level at the University of Zadar. Borna Fuerst-Bjelis was born in Rijeka, Croatia on 26 December 1960. She is married to Aleksa Bjelis, a university professor and a vice-rector of the University of Zagreb. They have two children, Bruno and Barbara. Her main scientific interests include historical geography and environmental history, notably environmental change in the Dinaric karst and the methodology of historicalgeographical research. She has been a collaborator and coordinator of several national and international scientific projects. Her tutoring work in the e-School of Geography (http:// has popularized geographical research among high school and college students. She was appointed a member of the editorial board of the Croatian Lexicographical Institute in 1985 and held this position until 1989 when she joined the University of Zagreb. She is the head of the Division for Regional and Teaching Geography, the assistant-head for International Cooperation, and a member of the Council for Regional Development and Local Communities at the University of Zagreb. She is the author of around 30 scien-

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tific and professional articles and coauthor of three books. In her leisure time Borna Fuerst Bjelis enjoys music, mostly baroque and piano-jazz, and likes to travel.

Bergita Bugarija Bergita Bugarija graduated in 2003 from the University of Zagreb where she obtained degrees in History and Croatian Culture. Presently she lives in Pittsburgh where she markets and promotes children’s and university level books printed in Croatia, as well as student guides, which are especially useful to those who plan to study or conduct research in Croatia. Bergita also organizes promotional events in the greater Pittsburg area for Croatian writers active in American literary circles and for anyone interested in promoting Croatian culture. Email:

Ivan Susak Ivan Susak is an M.A. student in Security Policy Studies at George Washington University’s Elliott School of International Affairs. He is also a research associate with the Lexington Institute working on issues relating to military transformation and Homeland Security. Before beginning his M.A. work, he spent two years as a linguist for the U.S. Army’s Stabilization Force Mission in Bosnia-Herzegovina. He has a B.S. in Political Science from Arizona State University with a minor in History.

Vedran Joseph Nazor Vedran Joseph Nazor, an investments professional in New York City, is a graduate of Drexel University with a B.S. in Business Administration (1977), a member of the Croatian Academy of America since 1984, Executive Council member since 1988, Vice President from 1991 until 1999, when he became the Academy’s tenth President. He is

also active in numerous CroatianAmerican organizations and charities. Mr. Nazor was born in Zagreb and immigrated to Philadelphia, USA, in 1968. He has been a resident of New York since 1983. _____________________________

MEMBERS James J. Sadkovich On Saturday April 23, 2005, Dr. James J. Sadkovich delivered a lecture in Chicago at the St. Jerome Croatian Church Hall. The Croatian Cultural Society “Napredak” sponsored the lecture. James J. Sadkovich discussed the questions of why Croatia and Croatians have such a poor image in the United States in a talk entitled, “Is Image Everything? American Stereotypes of Croatia and Croatians.” Dr. Sadkovich argues that the available literature in English depicts Croatia as a country with a “Nazi” past, and that this shaped the perception of politicians, journalists, academics, and the general public over the last sixty years. As a result, when Yugoslavia began to unravel, many blamed Franjo Tuđman and Croatian nationalism, as well as Slobodan Milošević, for its demise and the wars that accompanied it. Serbian spokesmen were better placed to get their version of events to the media and the public in the early 1990s, because they controlled the Yugoslav diplomatic corps and they could cite a massive literature on Serbia and Yugoslavia. Croatians were not as well placed for a variety of reasons, including the stereotype already embedded in the English literature of a people whose leaders had been reactionary even since Ban Josip Jelačić had suppressed the Hungarian Revolution in 1848, and a paucity of sources in English about Croatia. They were also hampered by the impression that most Croatian

emigrants were Ustaša. Dr. Sadkovich suggests that the only remedy for Croatia’s image is to encourage more research and writing on the country and help students, scholars, and average Americans to get to know contemporary Croatia and its history. He believes that as Croatia moves closer to EU membership and more people visit the country, the stereotype will gradually disappear.


IN MEMORIAM Dr. Stanislava Rotkovic Stanislava Rotkovic, a long time member of the ACS, died on December 20, 2004, in Edison, New Jersey, at the age of eighty. Her funeral mass was held at St. John’s Church in Fairview, New Jersey on December 9. She was cremated and her remains were sent to Zagreb. Stanislava Rotkovic was a medical doctor and benefactor to many Croatian American charities and organizations. She was a life-long contributing member of the Croatian American Academy and served on its Executive Council. She donated to the Croatian Scholarship Fund, New York’s Croatian Cultural Society “Napredak,” and New York’s Croatian Relief Services. Our sincerest condolences to the Rotkovic family and her friends.

Dr. George Stambuk George Stambuk, a retired professor of International Relations at George Washington University and member of the Croatian Academy of America, died on December 2, 2004, in Alexandria, Virginia. Born in Zagreb, Croatia, he received his bachelor’s degree in 1939 and a law degree in 1943 from the University of Zagreb. After fleeing the country during World War II, he eventually settled in Indiana where he continued

Bulletin of the Association for Croatian Studies - Winter 2005 No. 44


his education. In 1956 he received an M.A. and in 1961 a PhD. in Political Science from Indiana University. Shortly afterward he arrived at George Washington University where he stayed until retiring in 1991. Dr. Stambuk wrote many articles on international politics and two books: American Military Forces Abroad: Their Impact on the Western State System (1963) and Eastern European Government and Politics (1966) with Vaclav Benes and Andrew Gyorgy. Dr. Stambuk is survived by his second wife, Gudi Stambuk, four stepchildren, and nine grandchildren. Our most heartfelt condolences to his wife, family, and friends.

phone: (510) 643-1343 fax: (510) 643-6650 email: (Allan Urbanic)

European Reading Room, Library of Congress, 101 Independence Avenue, SE, Washington, DC 20540-4830 USA


Colombia University Libraries

phone: (202) 707-4515 fax: (202) 707-8482 email:

SLAVIC LIBRARIES For our members and friends, especially those in Croatia, who are looking to solicit their publications or the publications of their home institutions, institutes, or societies, below is a list of Slavic libraries in the United States to which to you can send publication information and direct your inquiries. To help guarantee the production of quality scholarship, it is crucial that authors and publishers alike make concerted efforts to disseminate their work to the countries premier research libraries. For a complete guide to Slavic libraries in the United States and Canada, please see Allan Urbanic’s and Beth Feinberg’s A Guide to Slavic Collections in the United States and Canada, Haworth Press, 2005. University of California, Berkeley The Library, Rm. 438, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-6000 USA 10 Slavic/

University of Chicago, The Joseph Regenstein Library 1100 East 57th Street, Chicago, IL 60637 USA phone: (773) 702-8456 fax: (773) 702-6623 email: (June Pachuta Farris)

Harvard University Slavic Division, Widener Library, Rm R, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138 USA phone: (617) 495-2458, 495-4082 fax: (617) 495-0403 email: collections/slavic.html

The Library of Congress

535 W. 116th St., New York, NY 10027 USA

phone: (212) 854-4701 fax: (212) 854-3834 email:

University of Michigan

University of Illinois at UrbanaChampaign Slavic and East European Library, University Library, 1408 West Gregory Drive, Urbana-Champaign, IL 61801 USA phone: (217) 333-1349 fax: (217) 333-2214 email:

Indiana University Jordan and 10th Streets, Bloomington, IN 47405 USA phone: (812) 855-9413 fax: (812) 855-8068 email: (Murlin Croucher) pageId=334

Slavic and East European Division, Area Programs 111G Hatcher Graduate Library North, 920 North University Avenue, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1205 USA phone: (734) 936-2348 fax: (734) 763-6743 email: (Janet Crayne)

New York Public Library Slavic & Baltic Division, The Research Libraries, Humanities and Social Sciences Library Fifth Avenue & 42nd Street, Rooms 216-217, New York, NY 10018-2788 USA phone: (212) 930-0714 fax: (212) 930-0693 slav.balt.html

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Ohio State University 312 William Oxely Library, 1858 Neil Avenue Mall, Columbus, OH 43210-1286 phone: (614) 292-8959 fax: (614) 292-1918 email: (Miroljub Ruzic)

Stanford University Green Library, Stanford, CA 94305-6004 USA phone: (650) 725-1052 fax: (650) 725-1068 email: (Karen Rondestvedt) slavic/

University of Wisconsin – Madison Memorial Library, 728 State Street, Madison, WI 53706 USA phone: (608) 262-3193 fax: (608) 265-2754 email:

Yale University


Social Sciences

27th International Fair of Books and Teaching Appliances Zagreb, Croatia In terms of the size of the exhibition space, the number of publishers, and the quality of publications, Interliber is the largest and most successful book fair in the Republic of Croatia. The November 2004 Fair attracted 223 exhibitors of which 166 were from Croatia and 57 from abroad. The Zagreb Fair and the Croatian Academy of Sciences and Arts awarded the 15th Interliber “Josip Juraj Strossmayer” prize for the best scientific works and the most successful publishing in the previous year. The prize is given to encourage scientific creativity in the fields of social science, the humanities, medical, natural, technical and information technological sciences, and for quality publishing undertaken the previous year. Winner of the Most Successful Work in the Humanities

Plovidbeno pravo Republike Hrvatske, Ivo Grabovac, Split: Književni krug, 2003 Technical Sciences

Termodinamika I-II, Antun Galović, Fakultet strojarstva i brodogradnje Sveučilišta u Zagrebu, 2003

Natural Sciences

Slavic and East European Collections, Yale University Library, P.O. Box 208240, 130 Wall Street, New Haven, CT 06520-8240 USA phone: (203) 432-1861 fax: (203) 432-7231 email: (Tatjana Lorkovic)

Historia Salonitana, Olga Perić, Mirjana Matijević Sokol, and Radoslav Katičić Split: Književni krug, 2003

Sistematska mineralogija – mineralogija silikata, Dragutin Slovenec and Vladimir Bermanec, Zagreb: Denona, 2003

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————PUBLICATIONS RECEIVED———— Vedran Prelogović, “The SocioSpatial Structure of a City: the Example of Zagreb/Sociajlno-prostorna struktura grada: primjer Zagreb” Martina Jakovčić and Dubravka Spevec, “Trgovacki centri u Zagrebu/ Shopping Centres in Zagreb” Ivan Zupanc, “Demogeografski razvoj Istre od 1945. do 2001./ Population Development of Istria in the Period 1945-2001”

Hrvatski geografski glasnik/ Croatian Geographical Bulletin, Vol. 65, No. 1, 2003 Hrvatski geografski glasnik/ Croatian Geographical Bulletin, Vol. 65, No. 2, 2003 Miroslav Sić, “Regional Disparities in Croatia/Regionalni dispariteti u Hrvatskoj” Ivo Nejašmić, “Značajke biološkog (demografskog) sastava stanovničtva Hrvatske/Characteristics of Biological (Demographic) Population Structure in Croatia”

Rade Knežević, “Uvjeti otjecanja i režim tekućica u porječju Mirne/ Water Flow Conditions and Stream Flow Regime in the Catchment Area of Mirna River”

Dalibor Čepulo, “Continuities and Discontinuities: The Constitutional and Political Development of Bosnia and Herzegovina to 1990.”

TO ORDER: Hrvatski geografski glasnik Marulićev trg 19, PP 595 10000 Zagreb, Croatia phone: 385-1-489-5402 email: ________________________________

Povjesni Prilozi/Historical Contributions, year 23, 1-230, 2004 Gordan Ravančić, “Prilog proučavanju Crne smrti u dalmatinskom gradu (1348-1353) raspon izvorne građe i stanje istraženosti na primjerima Dubrovnika, Splita, i Zadra”

Časopis za suvremenu povijest, Haški sud za bivšu Jugoslaviju/ ICTY and Historians, Vol. 36, No. 1, 2004 Uvodnik, “Povjesničari na Haškom sudu za bivšu Jugoslaviju u potrazi za povijesnom istinom”

Hrvatski geografski glasnik/ Croatian Geographical Bulletin Vol. 66, No. 1, 2004

Ksenija Turković, “Povjesničari u potrazi za istinom o sukobina na prostoru bivše Jugoslavije u svojsvtu vještaka pred ICTY-em”

Sanja Klempic, “Split as an Inmigration Centre/Split kao imigracijsko središte”

Robert Donia, “Vještački nalaz”


Mladen Ančić, “Društvo, etnicitet i politika u Bosni i Hercegovini”

Petar Kurečić, “Novi svjetski geopolitički poredak: teorijske odrednice/New World Geopolitical Order: Theoretical Determinants”

Ksenija Bašić, “Zagreb: Population Change 1991-2001/Kretanje stanovništva Zagreb 1991-2001” Mladen Matica, “Novije gospodarske promjene u Koprivničkoj Podravini i Kalničkom prigorju/Recent Economic Changes in Koprivnièka Podravina and Kalnièko Prigorje”

Davor Marijan, “Vještački nalaz: o ratnim vezama Hrvatske i Bosne i Hercegovine (1991-1995)”

Mark Almond, “Vještački nalaz”

Zrinka Pešorda Varadić, “Kruna, kralj i Grad: odnos Dubrovnika prema ugarskoj kruni i vladaru na početku protodvorskog pokreta” Eugenia Anichenko, “Pro Honore et Commercio Nostris: Some Aspects of Venetian Maritime Commerce Illustrated by the Late Fifteenth Century by the Late Fifteenth Manuscript” Lovorka Čoralić, “Fante della Guistizia Vecchia: splićanin Juraj Ivanov—jedan istaknuti hrvatski iseljenik u Mlecima” Zlatko Kudelić, “Izvješće zagrebačkog biskupa Petra Petretića o Svidničkoj biskupiji caru Leopoldu I iz 1667 godine” Antal Molnar, “Kašićev prijevod Biblije, isusovački red i Sveta

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Stolica (O propalom pokušaju izdanja jedne knjige)” Ivana Jukić, “Istražni postupak zagrebačkog biskupa Emerika Esterhazyja godine 1708. - poimanje suvremenika biskupovoj osobnosti i slika stanje biskupije” Csaba G. Kiss, “Slike nacije u himnama Srednje Europe” Goran Arčabić, “Put zemljomjera Šimraka u Gornju Italiju - prilog poznavanju povijest Hrvatskoslavonskoga gospodarskoga društva sredinom 19. stoljeća”

If the purpose of MOST/THE BRIDGE is to introduce valuable achievements of Croatian authors to the world, it also aims to present the wider range of our literary life, meaning the entire chain of participants in the process: literary and publishing associations, the successful work of publishers and bookstores, extending beyond the Republic of Croatia to the world at large. Our publisher is the Croatian Writers’ Association, but our journal is an International one, as the subtitle of the journal clearly states. Authors and their valuable literary work will continue to be at the center of our attention, as well as the efforts of publishers, and all those who encourage and discourage the book and the literary world.

should be made to the Croatian Writers’ Association foreign currency account with Zagrebačka banka: 2500-3207714. Your subscription guarantees regular and uninterrupted publishing of our one of a kind journal. ________________________________

Matko Marušić, Do Angels Cry? Tales of the War. Croatia 19911995. Illustrations by Vasko Lipovac. Zagreb: Medicinska naklada, 2002: pp. 134

Jure Krišto, Hrvatski katolički pokret (1903-1945), Zagreb: Glas Koncila, Hrvatski institut za povijest, 2004: pp. 279 Mirna Šitum, Oranges and Dead Fish, Zagreb: Medicinska naklada, 2004: pp. 107

TO ORDER: Hrvatski institut za povijest Optatička 10 10000 Zagreb, Croatia ________________________________

MOST/THE BRIDGE The Croatian Journal of International Literary Relations

TO ORDER: Editorial Board: Srećko Lipovčan (Editor in chief), Davor Šalat (Executive editor), Nevenka Žvan (Secretary), Zlatko Rebernjak (Design) TO ORDER:

Medicinska Naklada Vlaska 69 10000 Zagreb, Croatia ________________________________

MOST/THE BRIDGE Croatian Journal of International Literary Relations Trg bana Josipa Jelačića 7/1 10000 Zagreb, Croatia phone: 385-1-4816 931 fax: 385-1-4816 959 email: The journal is published quarterly. Annual subscription of 25 EUR (for European countries) or 45 USD (for non-European countries). Issue rate of 13 EUR and 20 USD. All payments

Janko (Jack) Duer, Open Windows (A collection of poems),

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Shohola, PA: International Life Publishing, 1992: pp. 80 Janko Deur, Priče iz Amerike (Short Stories), Tomislavgrad: Naša ognjišta: pp. 243

Franjo Marić, Hrvati-Katolici u Bosni i Hercegovini izmedju 1463 i 1995 godine prema crkvenim dokumentima, Zagreb: Katehetski salezijanski centar, 1998: pp. 992

Franjo Šanjek, Bosansko-Humski krstjani u povijesnim vrelima (1315 st.), Zagreb: Barbat, 2003: pp. 397

Janko Duer, Refleksije u znatiželjnom oku, Biograd: Adria and Vinkovci: Riječ, 2004: pp. 103 TO ORDER: Janko Deur 367-79th St. Brooklyn, NY 11228 ________________________________

Srećko Džaja, Konfesionalnost i nacionalnost Bosne i Hercegovine. Predemancipacijsko razdoblje 1463-1804. Translated from the German by Ladislav Fišić. Corrected and Expanded edition. Mostar: ZIRAL, 1999: pp. 336

Rukopisi znanstvene knjižnice Dubrovnik - Catalogus condicum manuscriptorum qui in bibliotheca Rhacusina liberalium atrium asservantur. Prepared by Davor Ljubimir. Dubrovnik: Dubrovačke knjižnice Dubrovnik, 1997: pp. 275

Mladen Ančić, Tko je pogriješio u Bosni, Osijek, Zagreb, Split: Pan Liber, 1999: pp. 126

Jure Krišto, Knjiga na knjigu I. Lovrenovića o (Bosanskim) Hrvatima, Zagreb: Alfej, 2003: pp. 103 Marko Hoare, How Bosnia Armed, London: Saqi Books, 2004: pp. 172

Tomislav Išek, Mjesto i uloga HNK NAPREDAK u kulturnom životu Hrvata Bosne i Hecegovine (1902-1918), Sarajevo: HNK Napredak i Institut za istoriju, 2002: pp 236 ___________________________


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Vladimir Orsag, Balkan Conspiracy, Charnwood, Australia: Ginninderra Press, 2002: pp. 328 Taking you into the dangerous cloak and dagger world of international conflict, espionage and assassination, The Balkans Conspiracy draws the veil from the mysterious background of Josip Broz - Marshal Tito - and explores how, with the encouragement of the Western world, he reversed the balance of power in the Balkans. '...should be compulsory reading for those who need to grasp more fully the meaning of the disruption of the Austro-Hungarian empire, the impact of totalitarianism and two world wars and the resulting contribution of Central Europeans to multicultural America and Australia.' - Rev. John J. Eddy, SJ, BA, erstwhile Senior Fellow in History, Australian National University; Professor of History, Georgetown University, Washington DC. TO ORDER, contact Stephen Matthews,

___________________________ From long-time ACS member

Anthony M. Mlikotin, Lone Journey Toward Wisdom with Kierkegaard, Thoreau, Schopenhauer, Nietzche, Merton, New York: New Dimension Press, 2004:

pp.254 In his book the author wrestles with the giants of human thought with whom he journeyed throughout his life. In the company of Schopenhauer, Thoreau, Nietzsche, Kierkegaard and Merton he has developed resistance to a sense of the futility of existence. Basically an optimist and an ardent believer, the author was forced by life's circumstances to travel through many dark valleys wherein the right path was not always visible. Although often lost in dark forests, he fought bravely to reach the light at the end of the road. Mlikotin's struggle is to form a perfect personality in a world which is inimical to all idealistic endeavors Buffeted by misinterpreted notions of natural and social sciences, modern men and women believe in solutions outside of themselves. Mlikotin believes they have sold their souls to a dark unknown. Men and women can find a meaning in their destinies if they succeed in regaining confidence in the sanctity of their inwardness. No outside world can help a disoriented mind. For most of his contemporaries, the author believes, death comes before physical extinction. One must love life more than the meaning of it, as Mlikotin echoes Dostoevsky's dictum. Disenchanted with all institutionalized wisdom, Mlikotin pens himself as "an independent thinker and a free-lance writer." He served forty years in the colony of academic life, and at the end of it was even given the status of professor emeritus. He

is more than willing to give credit to all worthy colleagues who labored in academia for the benefit of young people. He is horrified at those who used academia for political or business purposes. Let to them be applied Dante's verse. "Do not think about them but go your way." ___________________________

Kršni zavičaj Zbornik, Vol. 37, Humac: Franjevački samostan Humac, 2004 TO ORDER: Kršni zavičaj. Humac Trg Sv. Ante 1, 88320 Ljubuški BiH email: ________________________________

Hrvatski iseljenički zbornik, Zagreb: Hrvatska matica iseljenika, 2004

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The number to the right of your name on the address label indicates the year when you last paid your membership dues.

If you haven’t paid, please do.

If your not a member of the ACS, join our group of professionals who are either of Croatian background or are American scholars doing research in the field of Croatian Studies. You do not have to be in Slavic Studies to join. All you need is interest in Croatia and the Croatians.

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Bulletin of the Association for Croatian Studies - Winter 2005 No. 44

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ACS Bulletin 44

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ACS Bulletin 44