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Taking talk seriously Making the link between oracy and citizenship

Also in this edition: 20 years on from Crick – the view from Ofsted. European young people and citizenship identities. News from Peace First, Young Citizens, resources and more.

Issue No 48 Autumn 2018

Journal of the Association for Citizenship Teaching www.teachingcitizenship.org.uk

Cover photo courtesy of School 21

Youthquake: Young People and the Future of Democracy 2018 Conference Report The ACT National Conference and AGM took place on Saturday 7 July in London. Citizenship education professionals came together to share and learn from each other, discuss the importance of democracy education today and celebrate all that is good about Citizenship education. Resources and films are available on our website https://bit.ly/2E9Xd4v

“The opening panel discussion was brilliant, set the tone for day and an insightful mix of speakers.”

“Being able to attend workshops specific to our needs - means that it was more tailored and interesting.”

“In working for a free and fair society, we should aim for every individual to be aware of the contribution they can make to that society, to have aspirations to achieve and confidence in their skills. Our education provision should be designed to encourage intellectual and practical learning. That learning, and achievement, should be reflected both inside and outside school, and citizenship education is a key vehicle to show how that can be done.”

The Rt Hon Baroness Garden of Frognal, Deputy Speaker in the House of Lords, closed the conference with a rousing speech.

Annual General Meeting 2018 - The AGM provided an opportunity for members to discuss ACT’s work with our Board of Trustees and to review ACT’s annual report and financial statement. Members were also invited to stand for ACT Council. The meeting papers and notes are available on our website. We’re really excited that our conference next year will be Manchester – details coming soon!

Zoe Baker, Member of ACT Council; Ben Kisby, University of Lincoln, Joanne McCartney AM, Deputy London Mayor for Education and Childcare

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Emily Mitchell, ACT Teaching Ambassador for North West; Ben Miskell, Member of ACT Council and ACT Teacher Ambassador for Yorkshire and the Humber; Nicolette Smallshaw, First News

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Contents Contents

Autumn 2013Autumn 2018

Peace Education Taking talk seriously 06 Editorial Peace Education & Citizenship 04 Theme–Editorial 12 LeeAnna Jerome CND’s Liddle introduces the theme 06 It’s timeCitizenship for talk to beSpecial taken seriously 07  Teaching Editorial Earnshaw KarlBeccy Sweeney gives Lee Jerome a vote of thanks 10  they go 08 TheWhen evolution oflow modern peace education... Phil Collins The progenitor of Citizenship? by Charles Harlock 12 Finding their voice: teaching speechmaking in school 12 Peace-building through Peer Mediation Alice Stott SaraCase Hagel & Ellis Brooks create more peaceful schools 23 study 1: Park View School 16 Testimony in the classroom Julie Gibson TomCase Jackson how survivor testimony 24  studyexplains 2: St Ambrose Barlow RC High School enriches the experience of learning about conflict Bec Tulloch 19 The legacy of the A-bomb Features Tatsuya Tateishi on the Hiroshima Peace Museum 25 Editorial 20 Routes Peace Davidto Kerr, Hans Svennevig & Lee Jerome Diane Hawden on the Peace Museum UK 27 #OurVoiceYourChoice 24 21 Coventry: City Sera Shortlandof Peace & Reconciliation Balbir Sohal involves people in action peace–projects 30  Democracy, justiceyoung and responsible Citizenship through youth-led change 24 Inspiring Global Citizens by ‘Connecting Classrooms’ TomCouncil’s Barratt British Andrea Mason links with schools abroad 33  Citizenship means citizenship: Lessons learned from Ofsted’s inspections 26 “Helpless, but not without hope” Scott Harrison Teaching Israel / Palestine by Matt Jeziorski 32for schools 38 Women’s Suffrage: history and citizenship resources 28 Much more than ‘statutory requirement’ Historical Association & ACT Chris Gabbett & Mollie Edwards’ peaceful school 40

Constructing ‘the other’ in order to define one’s identity? Alistair Ross

FeaturesYoung & Research 45 Citizens 31 Creating citizenship Tom Franklin

communities people’sEducation place in society by Ian Davies et al 47 Young Citizenship and Populism 32 StillBen at Kisby War? 49 Pete“What’s the explores point of studying Pattisson Nepal’sCitizenship conflicted,anyway?” post-war education system 36 Curriculum Reflections on the PGCE Review Updateyear Shereen Sherwan Al-Barzangi ACT’s lobbying activities on the new curriculum by Lee Jerome 51

Educating to Create a World for the Future: Hyogo High School in Japan Tsutomu Kubota & Noriko Sakade

Reviews & Regulars Regulars 37 Seen and Heard by Unicef; Truman on Trial by CND 55 Teaching Rest inresources Power reviewed by Lee Jerome and Balbir Sohal 38 ACTually... Sera Shortland there’s more to a curriculum than facts 56 LeeSupporting trans gender-questioning Jerome finds theand draft programmes of students study offensive

Jac Bastian

57 New Audiences: Myths of(0)7985 the Social Media Era Design &Misunderstanding Production Editor : Lionel Openshaw |Seven Telephone +44 979 390 | Web www.openshaw.uk.net Email lionelopenshaw@me.com Lee Jerome 59 on Council PublishedSpotlight by the Association for Citizenship Teaching, 63 Gee Street, London ec1v 3rs Email info@teachingcitizenship.org.uk Hans Svennevig & Helen Blachford | Telephone +44 (0)20 7253 0051 © 2018 Association for Citizenship Teaching (ACT) ISSN 1474-9335 No part of this publication may be reproduced, copied

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or transmitted in any form or by any means without the permission of the publisher. Teaching Citizenship is the official journal of ACT.

Editorial notes Editorial notes

Welcome another conceived jam-packed We have rathertograndly have a diverse range of of thisjournal. editionWe and the previous one articles this term, focused (Issue 36) as our ‘War mostly and Peace’ on the practicalities teaching. collection and our guestofeditor has Our theme has been put together commissioned a fascinating range of SchoolEducation 21, articlesbytocolleagues exploreatPeace which is doing amazing work in and the connection to Citizenship. their own school, and across the for Thanks to Anna Liddle, from cnd, country job through theirdone training andwe the amazing she has and support It’s been here great to see hope you findwork. something that people equally intently inspires you working to act. Clearly the tradideveloping their own tion ofatPeace Education is apractice particuand sharing their knowledge with larly important one whilst we spend colleagues. But beyond the oracy the year ahead talking to young peotheme, there other practical ple about War andareCommemoration, articles about new resources available and Anna has pulled together a good to schools (on the suffragettes, using range of perspectives. media, LGBT+back inclusion) Wethe also welcome someand organisations to supportWe schools old friends to the journal. have promoting active citizenship (Peace the final news update from a major First and Young Citizens). research project from colleagues In addition we have some articles in York, and an update from Pete that enable us to reflect on lessons Pattisson about his experiences in learned fromofJapan (Kobota & the wider world Citizenship. Sakade), from research update into young There is also a timely people’s around Europe from act andlives Democratic Life (Ross) from our own historyand of subject on theand national curriculum inspection (Harrison), as well as the ‘Actually…’ column focuses thoughts about how to teach in the on what’s wrong and what needs context of rising populism (Kisby). to happen next. As we move out of It’s alsophase great toand welcome two new the campaign into the co-editors – David Kerr and Hans interpretation and implementation more from them on phase,Svennevig act will–be very active page 25. producing resources and providing support to members. Please stay in LeeletJerome touch to us know what you want l.jerome@mdx.ac.uk and what you can help with. Most importantly, share your thoughts on any aspect of the new curriculum Design Production Editor:next Grant Lucas that will be a& focus of the Telephone +44 (0)1386 750412 edition of the journal. We will make Email grant@magazineproduction.com space for a range of opinions on what Web www.magazineproduction.com we do with thisbycurriculum Published the Associationnext. for Citizenship Lee Jerome & Gavin Baldwin, Teaching, 50 Featherstone Street, London, EC1Y 8RT Teaching Citizenship Editors info@teachingcitizenship.org.uk EmailEmail l.jerome@qub.ac.uk Telephone +44 (0)20 7566 4133 – or – g.baldwin@mdx.ac.uk The views expressed in signed articles do not necessarily represent those of ACT, and we cannot accept responsibility for any products

or services advertised within the journal. Printed and distributed by Premier Print Group: www.premier printgroup.com.

Teaching Citizenship | 3 www.teachingcitizenship.org.uk / Autumn 2013 / Issue 37 / Teaching Citizenship / 3

Theme Editorial

Lee Jerome is Associate Professor of Education at Middlesex University and co-editor of Teaching Citizenship.

Taking talk seriously: Making the link between oracy and citizenship Lee Jerome In this edition our special theme is about oracy and so we are very pleased that colleagues at School 21 have been able to pull together a range of related articles from teachers and others to explore this important aspect of citizenship education. In particular I would like to thank Beccy Earnshaw who shares her thoughts in the first article ‘It’s time for talk to be taken seriously’. In that article Beccy makes a powerful case for the centrality of oracy to education, and to democracy. She quotes Robin Alexander, who has done a huge amount to promote dialogic teaching: “Political democracies need citizens who can argue reason, challenge, present cases and evaluate them. Democracies decline when citizens listen rather than talk, and when they comply rather than debate.” And this makes the connection that the case for oracy is not just because it’s a useful skill, not just because it promotes higher levels of literacy, or allows the teacher to hear students’ thoughts in

development – it is a much more fundamental aspect of how democracy functions. As Phil Collins reminds us, there are plenty of great orators from whom we can draw inspiration, but that doesn’t mean we all have to practice our Churchillian stance in front of the mirror, or mimic Obama’s style. Rather Collins urges us to learn from the great speeches how important it is to have something to say, and to say it in a way that engages with our audience. Having said talk is vital to our democracy, Collins reminds us that it’s always good to have something to say! And next comes Alice Stott’s extensive article setting out advice and practical strategies for building children’s capacity for speechmaking. Given the excellent work being developed by School 21, this is a really helpful insight into how to build oracy into your school. She completes this articles with stories of success from two other schools developing oracy.

Want to take your career to the next level? Kingston University has over 100 years’ experience of educating educators. Our specialist programmes include the PGCE Citizenship with Social Science. Explore your passion for citizenship education with the Master of Research (Education). The course is ideal for practising teachers: – – – –

Intensive weekend sessions Online learning support One to one tutor contact 10% discount for ACT members

Contact us at educationmasters@kingston.ac.uk kingston.ac.uk

Citizenship Update News Roundup Specialist Leaders of Education programme extended to include Citizenship After some concerted lobbying we’re glad to share the news that experienced colleagues can now apply to the DfE’s SLE scheme with Citizenship as their specialism. You can check details on the DfE website and we urge members to use this route to gain recognition for your expertise – often Citizenship teachers have amazing experience leading whole school and community projects and this is a great way to have that expertise recognised.

NewsWise NewsWise is a free programme for primary schools, launched in September with the aim of creating a generation of news savvy children. The project, created by the Guardian Foundation, National Literacy Trust, the PSHE Association and funded by Google, aims to empower every 9 to 11-year-old in the UK to gain the literacy skills and knowledge they need to navigate the world of news and misinformation. Free lesson plans with over 60 accompanying resources, carefully mapped to the curriculum, are available free for every primary school in the UK here: www. theguardian.com/newswise

ACT’s Teaching Ambassadors We have appointed five ACT Citizenship Teaching Ambassadors who are building regional networks of committed and expert subject leaders. • Scott Amott, East Midlands • Helen Blachford, South East • Bryden Joy, South East • Emily Mitchell, North West • Ben Miskell, Yorkshire and the Humber • Sera Shortland, East Midlands If you are in a region not yet covered by an ambassador – get in touch to share your interest! The ambassadors are already working together to support Citizenship teachers and teaching in their region. The first regional hub meetings are being held on Wednesday 12 December 4.30-5.30pm. For details of how to sign up to your nearest event visit the website: www.teachingcitizenship.org.uk/ regional-citizenship-hubs Liz Moorse & Chris Waller host the first meeting of the Teaching Ambassadors

Final call to complete ACT’s survey We’re collecting information from teachers to build our annual snapshot of the subject – there’s still time to participate: https://bit.ly/2IOnnsm www.teachingcitizenship.org.uk | Autumn 2018 | Issue 48

Diary dates 17 November 2018 Critical media literacy This ACT workshop explores media literacy in the context of teaching topical, controversial and sensitive issues. Ideal for supporting SMSC and FBV whilst maintaining criticality. Book your place on the ACT website. 12 December 2018 Regional Citizenship Hubs – meetings will take place simultaneously in Southsea, Leicester, Sheffield and Altrincham. Book your place on the ACT website. 7 February 2019 News Literacy This training event for primary and secondary teachers is organised by ACT and the Guardian Foundation and will be hosted in the Guardian Education Centre, London. Check the ACT website for details. 15-17 April 2019 PSA Annual Conference This is a great event to take a more academic look at the broader political context in which we are teaching Citizenship. This year’s conference is in Nottingham with the broad theme ‘(Un)sustainable Politics in a Changing World’. https://psa2019.exordo.com/ 14 June 2019 ICEDC conference The International Conference for Education in Democratic Citizenship will host its 13th annual event at UCL Institute of Education in the summer. This is a great event for research active and research engaged colleagues and always attracts a mixed group on national and international scholars, researchers and practitioners. Hold the date – website will go live soon. 17-19 June 2019 PSA International Teaching and Learning Conference This specialist conference focuses on teaching approaches for politics – whilst generally aimed at advanced at university level teaching, there are lots of practical ideas for simulations, debates and other active learning methods. A great excuse to visit Brighton. Details on the PSA website.

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It’s time for talk to be taken seriously: why oracy should be at the heart of every citizenship lesson Beccy Earnshaw In this article colleagues from School 21 share some of the principles they have developed to put oracy at the heart of their school. This introductory article shares some of the thinking that underpins this bold approach to establish a distinctive curriculum and school ethos. Once the connections are made it seems so obvious that one wonders why all schools don’t have oracy at the heart of their curriculum and ethos – in reality it functions at the heart of all interactions in schools, and this case study illustrates the power of bringing this to the fore, rather than leaving it in the background.

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The ability for students to articulate their thoughts and ideas fluently and coherently and the confidence to share them was crucial, they decided to make it the school’s mission to empower students “to create beautiful work that makes a difference to the world


t’s Monday morning. Over the weekend London has faced the second terrorist attack in as many months. Understandably, the students of ‘Seacole Class’ are shaken. Many of them arrive early for school, impatient to talk about, to try and make sense of, what has happened. The morning’s lessons are abandoned, and instead a ‘class meeting’ is convened. The students sit in a circle, patiently offering out their thumbs to indicate they have something to say. The first student begins, ‘I just don’t know why anyone would do this. I feel angry.’ Over the next forty-five minutes, unfolds a truly remarkable discussion. The students, from different backgrounds, representing a number of different religions, proceed to explain how this attack misrepresented Islam, and defied the basic principles of humanity. As the discussion develops, students from different religions identify and explore the values they each share, finally concluding that most of the world’s problems could be solved if only people took the time to talk, and perhaps more importantly, to listen to each other.

Listening to a class of eight and nine year olds discuss such a contentious and delicate issue, with a sensitivity and maturity beyond their years, was a transformational moment. If everybody was able to discuss difficult issues in such a thoughtful and measured way then the world would be a richer, more tolerant, less divided place. As a teacher, it is these moments, when your students join the dots, when everything comes together and they just ‘get’ it, that make teaching worthwhile. However, powerful learning episodes like these do not happen by chance. The discussion described above is an example of what students can achieve when oracy skills are deliberately and explicitly taught and when students have opportunities to use these to explore issues that are meaningful to them. Unlike most school leaders, the founders of School 21, an all-through state comprehensive in Stratford East London, had the opportunity to start their school from scratch; to design into its DNA the pedagogies and approaches they felt would make the biggest impact on student’s success. They chose to put oracy, a focus on speaking skills and spoken language,

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Beccy Earnshaw, Director of Voice 21, with colleagues from School 21. For more information visit: www.school21.org.uk

School 21 Primary paired oracy work

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The expectation that teachers should enhance oracy through their teaching regardless of their subject… is part of School 21’s ethos. But it is perhaps in Citizenship that oracy most naturally and organically flourishes and through oracy that student’s sense of agency can be ignited


at the centre of the school as a core pillar underpinning all aspects of the curriculum, culture and community. The ability for students to articulate their thoughts and ideas fluently and coherently and the confidence to share them was crucial, they decided to make it the School’s mission to empower students “to create beautiful work that makes a difference to the world”. From the beginning, School 21 gave speaking an equal status to reading and writing in school. Oracy is present across all subjects and settings, challenging teachers to get students in class to talk in purposeful and meaningful ways, to model good speaking and listening in their practice, track their pupil’s progress in speaking skills and value and celebrate the spoken word. The aim is for students to find their voice physically and metaphorically. Through this focus on spoken language, children and young people at School 21 learn how to express themselves and communicate clearly. They become able to explain ideas and emotions to other people, not only in a school setting but in their lives outside the classroom too. They develop the skills to listen effectively, discuss and respond with meaning, and debate and disagree agreeably. They gain the confidence, self-belief

and courage to speak in public and share their thoughts, intellect and creativity with the world. Whilst there appears to be a general consensus that speaking skills are important in principle to student’s success beyond school, there are several barriers obstructing oracy in gaining the status it deserves alongside literacy and numeracy at the core of the curriculum. The lack of currency in the qualifications system, the challenges of assessing oracy, and the pressures to meet external accountability targets have meant that the teaching of spoken language falls into the worthy, but peripheral, ‘nice to have’ category. In turn, teacher perceptions of the difficulties in managing behaviour in talk based lessons, misguided school policies on written evidence of learning, teachers’ confidence in modelling good oracy, and a concern that some children are too shy / disruptive / dominant / quiet to respond to oracy teaching in a constructive way, also play a part. As a result, schools devote hundreds of hours of teaching time and teacher expertise to the development of pupils’ writing skills but barely any time is spent developing the vital verbal communications skills we all need to succeed in work, our social life and relationships, and to Teaching Citizenship | 7

Theme It’s time for talk to be taken seriously: why oracy should be at the heart of every citizenship lesson

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The human voice is a key instrument of embodied citizenship. While much has been written about the political voice as a metaphor, too little attention has been paid to the fully vibrating, subjectively invested voice through which citizens first announce their presence and articulate their claims on the world”


contribute to society as active citizens. The expectation that teachers should enhance oracy through their teaching regardless of their subject and that all teaching can be enhanced by oracy regardless of the subject is part of School 21’s ethos. But it is perhaps in Citizenship that oracy most naturally and organically flourishes and through oracy that student’s sense of agency can be ignited. In practice, this means that students are provided with opportunities to develop and revise their understanding through sustained and productive dialogue with their peers. In order to do this successfully and to ensure that talk is both learning-focused and productive, students must also be taught to talk. When engaging in discussion, for example, students must have a system for turn taking, they must ensure that everyone has a chance to contribute and that, when somebody speaks, their ideas are respected. Introducing ‘ground rules for talk’, as advocated by Dawes, Mercer and Weigerif as part of the Thinking Together Project, has been particularly effective at teaching students the conventions of group talk and ensuring that everybody’s voice is valued. To ensure that the contributions students make to group discussions improve their reasoning and develop their understanding, students can be taught a number of ‘talk moves’ or ‘roles’. These encourage students to develop and interact with their own and other’s ideas by, for example, challenging, clarifying or probing a group member’s idea. Students are also taught to build or elaborate on each other’s ideas, rather than merely stating their own thoughts with no relation to what has been said previously. What’s more they are taught when to introduce a new line of enquiry or summarise a discussion and are encouraged to consider how these ‘moves’

(Professor Stephen Coleman, University of Leeds)

can help further their thinking as a group. The Oracy Framework, developed in conjunction with teachers at School 21 and Cambridge University, provides a lens through which to view the oracy skills required to engage in effective group talk and can be an effective way of framing the teaching of these skills. The four strands of oracy (physical, linguistic, cognitive and social-emotional) encompass a number of important skills for group discussion. The physical strand, which relates to body language and the physicality of voice, compels students to face each other while they are speaking and maintain eye contact as well as consider whether the tone and volume of their voice is appropriate to small group discussion; the linguistic strand relates to both the language and vocabulary that students employ; the cognitive strand links to the content and structure of what is being said, as well as the different roles or contributions outlined above; the social-emotional strand, in a group talk context, relates to the group dynamics and how well students are able to work together, guiding and managing interactions independently. Academically, oracy skills also ensure that group talk develops both students’ thinking and understanding. Meanwhile, developing a shared language for talk in the classroom supports students to make progress in oracy as they are able to identify areas of strength and for development. This approach requires teachers to carefully consider how they can incorporate meaningful opportunities to learn through talk into their lessons. Beyond the classroom, talk is integral to our day to day lives. If you think back on all the times you have spoken already today, you may have chatted with your children or family members at breakfast this morning, offered a greeting to the bus driver on the way into

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If we are going to foster civic engagement in our increasingly fragmented society and spark democratic participation amongst a generation of young people detached from our formal institutions. Then it is time to get talking in class

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work, spoken to a group of colleagues during a meeting, given your food order to a server at lunchtime or conversed with someone on the telephone. What was the purpose of each of these conversations? To build relationships, to entertain or to reach a consensus? Or was it more functional? To share information or to solve a problem? In each of these contexts, I bet you changed your register, tone of voice, even your physical stance depending on the needs of the situation. Every day as adults we are required to talk across a range of contexts for a number of different purposes. We are agile communicators, constantly adapting according to the requirements of the situations in which we find ourselves. Moving seamlessly across these contexts is a skill we take for granted as educated, sociallyaware adults. However, the skills and knowledge required to do this are not self-evident. If the purpose of education is to equip students to succeed in life, then we must ensure we are teaching our students to become proficient communicators, adept at speaking appropriately and skillfully in all of the circumstances outlined above. A school for which oracy is a central tenet will also consider how it can be integrated into all aspects of school life. What message does it send to students and staff about the value of talk if every day for twenty minutes students are required to sit and listen silently during assembly? At School 21, students of all ages develop their understanding of big ideas, such as identity, diversity and citizenship, through structured talk opportunities in assemblies facilitated to enable dialogue and discussion. And, having re-designed assemblies, what about parent’s evening? Traditionally, this takes the form of a dialogue between teacher and

parent during which the learner is absent or remains silent. What if we reimagined parent’s evening? Recent Year 4 ‘learning journey presentations’ in which students told the story of their own learning and were then questioned by parents and teachers were, according to parents, far more insightful than any parent’s evenings they had attended. School should prepare young people to be successful, active members of society who have a voice as well as something to say. Oracy provides pupils with a means of interacting effectively with the world, both listening and responding to the ideas of others but also making their own mark. As Milo, a student in Year 4 explains, “what makes me enjoy talking the most is that everybody listens to you and you’re part of the world, and you feel respected and important.” Issues that we face as a society, and that our students will continue to face beyond the school gates, require adept communication skills. If we are truly committed to empowering every young person regardless of their background, with the belief that their voice has value and the ability to articulate their thoughts so others will listen. If we want independent critical thinkers who can collaborate and co-create across contexts. If we are going to foster civic engagement in our increasingly fragmented society and spark democratic participation amongst a generation of young people detached from our formal institutions. Then it is time to get talking in class. “Political democracies need citizens who can argue reason, challenge, present cases and evaluate them. Democracies decline when citizens listen rather than talk, and when they comply rather than debate” Prof. Robin Alexander Teaching Citizenship | 9


When they go low, we go high: learning from the greatest speeches ever made Phil Collins In this brief article reflecting on some of the great speeches through history Phil Collins shows why a focus on speech-writing and speech-making require so much more than rhetorical skills. His analysis demonstrates that clear thinking and well-informed judgement play as important a role in crafting a great speech – all important to remember when we are preparing young people to argue, advocate, and enquire together.

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Sensing the lack of reaction from the audience, Mahalia Jackson, who regularly attended speeches with Dr King, whispered from behind him on the podium: “Tell them about the dream Martin, tell them about the dream”. The next five minutes wrote Martin Luther King into legend


ook into any anthology of great speeches and you will find the same collection. Elizabeth I, Abraham Lincoln, Winston Churchill, Martin Luther King, John F. Kennedy, these days probably Barack Obama too. What do these great speeches have in common and what can we learn about how to speak well from them all? There are five lessons. But before the lessons start there is an important caveat. Most of the time we are called upon to speak we are not trying to attain greatness. Most presentations are not destined to end up in the anthologies and it you can look a bit preposterous if you try. It is better to respect the setting and the audience that you actually have than it is to sound as if you think you are Demosthenes. The rhetorical term, coined by Cicero, is that you should be decorous. He means that you should speak in the correct way, according to the expectations of your audience. If you are asked to do a 10-minute speech on road accidents and you instead speak for an hour about agricultural developments in Cuba then you are being indecorous. It is possible to be indecorous in style too and even the greats can get this wrong. Winston Churchill gave, to the House of Commons in the summer of 1940, perhaps the finest series

of war speeches in the canon. They are models of compressed meaning and inspiration. But he wasn’t always that good. In 1899, when he was a 24 year-old by-election candidate for the Liberal party in Oldham, Churchill said the following: “never before in the history of Oldham have so many people had so much to eat”. Then, nine years later, when he was a Colonial UnderSecretary in the government Churchill went to open an irrigation scheme in Africa. Standing around a hole in the ground he delivered the following gem: “never before in the history of Africa has so much water been held up by so little masonry”. You can see where he is going with it and what he is trying to do but it is terrible. However, in 1940 we then get the following imperishable and brilliant statement. “Never before in the history of human conflict has so much been owed by so many to so few”. It is true that this third example is better rhythmically than the others and that it works rhetorically. But the reason it is better is more than technique. It is better because it matters more. It is a description of a nation in peril rather than a buffet lunch or a hole in the ground. Lavish words are suddenly more decorous. Churchill is learning here the first lesson of the great speech which is that it has to come at a great moment. You cannot create the moment but you have to be ready when it arrives.

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Philip Collins is a columnist for The Times and an Associate Editor of Prospect magazine. He was Chief Speech Writer to Prime Minister Tony Blair in 10 Downing Street between 2004 and 2007. He is author of ‘When They Go Low, We Go High: Speeches that shape the world – and why we need them’ and ‘The Art of Speeches and Presentations’


As Colonial UnderSecretary in the government Churchill went to open an irrigation scheme in Africa. Standing around a hole in the ground he delivered the following gem: “never before in the history of Africa has so much water been held up by so little masonry”. You can see where he is going with it and what he is trying to do but it is terrible

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Then you must have something to say. You have to have a cause and a passion. Martin Luther King would not be as famous now as he is if he had not had a dream. In point of fact he almost did not have a dream. When he was preparing for the civil rights march on Washington in 1961 Dr King and his team decided that they would on no account do the same riff he had been doing in all the Baptist churches. It was time to retire the routine about the dream and write a proper speech. So that is what they did. They wrote a speech called A Cancelled Check and Dr King duly delivered it on The Mall in Washington DC. It did not go down all that well. Sensing the lack of reaction from the audience, Mahalia Jackson, a soul singer who regularly attended speeches with Dr King, whispered from behind him on the podium: “Tell them about the dream Martin, tell them about the dream”. The next five minutes wrote Martin Luther King into legend. He abandoned his script and delivered rhetorical magic with the refrain “I have a dream…” The biblical language is elevated and resonant and the cadences are poetic but the quality that really marks this passage out for posterity is the cause that it espouses. Dr King’s beautiful image about little black children holding hands with little white children captures in a wordpicture the racial injustice of 1960s America. His riposte is his claim to greatness. He did so in terms of great beauty and fine language is the third component of memorable speech. Good writing is not necessarily flowery. In fact Martin Luther King is unusual among the greatest speakers in being quite ornate. Most of the best speeches - Abraham Lincoln’s 272 words Gettysburg Address is the best example - are rather plain. The effect comes from the skillful arrangement of the language rather than the use of fancy words. There are two tips for writing better that apply to rhetoric. First, get rid of all the words that you use only among your own

group. Second, read more and read writers whose use of language is pleasurable in itself. Read for the music as well as the words. The words do count, though. Or rather, the argument does. In De Oratore, his manual on how to write speeches, Cicero says that the main argument - the Topic - is the crucial thing. Aristotle calls it “the seat of the argument”. You need to know what you are trying to say, in a nutshell. Ideally, your main point should fit into a sentence or, at most, a tweet. The fourth lesson is to spend as long getting the main argument right as you do on writing the speech. It is no coincidence that all the best speeches can be described by their title. That is because the speaker is clear on what he or she is trying to say. “Ask now what your country can do for you….”; “their finest hour”; “tryst with destiny”; “I have the heart and stomach of a King”. These titles give us the argument that the speaker is about to deliver. Which is the fifth and final lesson. It is possible to throw away a fine speech with poor delivery. Stand still, keep your head up high, speak slightly slower than you think you should and also slightly louder and do not apologise. Learn the start of the speech and deliver it verbatim. Learn the end too. It is terrible when a speech ends with a dying fall. Don’t worry about jokes - nobody expects you to be a comedian. Don’t apologise. Your assertions should be bold and clear. If you are not sure about any of them, delete them and say nothing. Above all, remember that if you think you are wonderful you are probably not as good as you think and, if you think you are terrible, you are probably not as bad as you think. Finally do not try to mimic the greats. That is not because you cannot yourself be great - no doubt you can - but because you want to be great on your account not as a cover version of Barack Obama. Or Michelle Obama, for that matter. They both have great style but so do you and, for you, your style is better. Teaching Citizenship | 11


Finding their voice: teaching speechmaking in school Alice Stott Over the next few pages Alice Stott shares some of the principles and practical ideas that have been developed at School 21 to embed oracy at the heart of the school. Many of the ideas will be familiar, but we think most readers will find something new here to enhance their own teaching. What stands out is how well these activities and insights link together to form compelling and challenging experiences for young people. This article illustrates that oracy is powerful because it offers an immediate way to engage with young people’s thinking – the spoken word reveals someone’s thinking and their responsiveness to advice in seconds, and thus potentially speeds up the assessment-feedback-improvement cycle. But oracy is also exciting because it combines so many aspects of learning – a good speech or contribution to a discussion requires students to demonstrate knowledge and understanding, skills to articulate a sound argument, an ability to respond to others and adapt their thinking, and an emotional reading of the room. Over the next few pages the multi-dimensional nature of oracy stands out as making it particularly exciting and powerful as an approach to learning.

12 | Teaching Citizenship


The process of developing an idea into speech enables students to explore what it is they are passionate about and become expert on a topic. It may be a chance for some students to show a side of themselves that is sometimes missed in the hustle and bustle of the normal school day.


n its first year of opening in 2012, as part of its commitment to developing student’s oracy and sense of efficacy, School 21 challenged all students to perform a speech without notes to an audience. The quality, depth and impact of the speeches exceeded the expectations of teachers and ‘Ignite speeches’ as they were titled, became a core part of the school’s oracy curriculum and culture. Since then, the concept has evolved to encompass younger students (Spark speeches), but for both age groups, the core principles remain the same: every child is supported to craft a speech, which they then deliver from memory in front of an audience of their peers, parents and teachers. Speech-writing enables students to engage with a type of talk they may not otherwise encounter during their time at school or beyond the school gates. Speeches are also a type of talk where there are countless incredible, inspiring examples to explore with your students, on virtually every topic and in every style under the sun. This means that by immersing your students in examples of speeches, they can hopefully see that

speech-writing is an art form which is for them, and which is powerful and transformative. The process of developing an idea into speech enables students to explore what it is they are passionate about and become expert on a topic. It may be a chance for some students to show a side of themselves that is sometimes missed in the hustle and bustle of the normal school day. In sharing their thoughts and ideas with others, students are empowered to find their voice. As a result of the experience of performing a speech, your students will also experience what it is like to be listened to. This might be a new experience for some of them: to have everyone in the room watching them and listening for what it is they want to say. This in itself is a valuable experience, and one which builds confidence. For many students, the realisation that people will listen to them, so long as they are brave enough to speak up, is the greatest learning they will take from the process. A key principle of the Spark and Ignite process at School 21 is that every child delivers a speech. Setting the expectation that all children speak sends the message that everyone has something to say and ensures that an education in oracy is not just for a confident, self-selecting few but is

www.teachingcitizenship.org.uk | Autumn 2018 | Issue 48

Alice Stott, Director of Teaching and Learning Voice 21 and Former Head of Oracy at School 21

Oracy Leaders Programme participants

inclusive and for all. This may mean that teaching needs to be adapted and carefully differentiated for some students who may find this more of a challenge; this is part of the process. Including every child in Spark or Ignite creates a rite of passage moment for students at the school. It becomes ‘what we do here’ and in doing so crystallises and celebrates the school’s

culture of talk. It highlights the oracy skills that are being developed in classrooms by lifting them out of the classroom to share with an authentic audience. It brings together students, teachers and the wider school community. It is a celebration of what every child in that cohort has achieved, and there is no harm in creating a party atmosphere to finish off proceedings!

Oracy: The Four Strands Voice 21

Use the oracy framework to understand the physical, linguistic, cognitive, and social and emotional skills that enable successful discussion, inspiring speech and effective communication.

“Get talking in class”

Cognitive Content -

Physical Voice

- Fluency & pace of speaking - Tonal variation - Clarity of pronunciation - Voice projection

Linguistic Vocabulary -

Register Grammar

Body language

Rhetorical techniques



Gesture & posture Facial expression & eye contact

Structure -

Structure & organisation of talk

Appropriate vocabulary choice

Language -


Choice of content to convey meaning & intention Building on the views of others

Rhetorical techniques such as metaphor, humour, irony & mimicry

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Clarifying & summarising -

Seeking information & clarification through questions/ing Summarising

Reasoning -

Giving reasons to support views Critically examining ideas & views expressed

Social & Emotional Working with others -

Guiding or managing interactions Turn-taking

Listening & responding -

Listening actively & responding appropriately

Confidence in speaking -

Self assurance Liveliness & flair

Audience awareness -

Taking account of level of understanding of the audience

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Theme Finding their voice: teaching speechmaking in school

Guide to teaching speechmaking to students 1. What is a speech? Before students embark on their speech-writing journey, they need to have an understanding of what it is they are aiming to produce and what they can achieve by crafting a powerful speech. Sharing examples of speeches which will resonate with your students is a key part of building excitement and creating a purpose for their speechwriting. There is power in sharing your thoughts and ideas with the world, and this is a chance for students to speak up on a topic they care about and be listened to! Immersing students in lots of varied examples of speeches, which cover different issues, periods of time, places and speaker styles, will help to set high expectations and also allow students to consider how they might want to deliver their speech. Try to provide lots of different models for students, which come from a broad range of styles and diverse backgrounds. For some students, a more academic and formal speaking style may feel more natural; for others, this might be a chance for them to use their storytelling skills to tell anecdotes and use humour. There is no one ‘right’ way to deliver a speech, so it is important that your students look at the strengths of different speakers so that they can draw on these ideas later on in the writing process. The best way to do this is to spend some time exploring different speeches and speakers: what did they choose to speak up about? What motivated them? What was most effective about their speech? What impact did they hope to have, and did their speech help to achieve it? You could organise for external speakers to come in and give speeches to the students. Students can then give feedback to the speakers (using criteria from the oracy framework) or to ask questions about the process, e.g. why did you decide to start your speech in that way? What did you want us to be thinking by the end of your speech? Teachers could perform their own speeches 14 | Teaching Citizenship

(without notes!). This can be a great way to model to students specific structures or ideas which you would like them to use in their own speeches later on in the process. It also means that teachers will get a better understanding of the challenge that the students have been set – and will hopefully be able to better empathise with and support students as a result. Encourage teachers to choose topics which they feel passionately about and will be relatable for students. Or you could create a video of iconic speeches, or of familiar faces (staff or students) either giving speeches or talking about the most powerful speech they have ever heard and its impact on them. Looking at exemplar speeches is also a great way to reinforce students understanding of the Oracy Framework and is a chance to identify specific skills from each of the four strands which are most relevant to speech-writing. By analysing several different speeches, you can draw out your success criteria for students’ to work towards in their own speeches. You might want to think about: Strand Physical Linguistic Cognitive Social and emotional

Key questions • How did they use their voice: tone, pace, volume, to support what they were saying? Did you notice their voice change at any points? • (If applicable) How did they use their gestures and facial expressions to support the meaning of what they were saying? • (If applicable) What did you notice about their posture and use of space? • How formally or informally did they speak? Why do you think they spoke in this way? • How did they use language to add power to what they were saying? • How did they develop their ideas over the course of the speech? Did they make their ideas interesting? • Did you notice anything about the start or end of their speech? • How did they try to specifically appeal to their audience? • How did they want their audience to feel, and how did they try to achieve this? • Were they confident, and if so, how did this come across? www.teachingcitizenship.org.uk | Autumn 2018 | Issue 48

David Mumeni, Jay Miller, James Graham and Ronke Adekoluejo join School 21 students on stage at the Great Oracy Exhibition 2018

For younger students: • Kid President • Najae Hackett, and other Jack Petchey Speak Out winners • Prince EA (part speech part rap), these are particularly popular amongst younger students • Malala Yousafzai’s Nobel prize acceptance speech For older students: • Michelle Obama’s speech at the Democratic National Convention in 2016, where she uses her motto ‘when they go low, we go high’ • Oprah Winfrey’s call that ‘time’s up’ at the Golden Globes in 2018 • Najae Hackett, a Jack Petchey Speak Out finalist, delivers a speech on the importance of sleep with humour. The Jack Petchey Speak Out channel provides lots of good examples; Jo Flockton, on being a tall girl, is another gem. • Prince EA (part speech part rap) has produced lots of videos such as ‘Dear Future Generations’ • Emma Gonzalez from Marjory Stoneman High School, Florida gives a speech on gun control: ‘We call BS’ • Barack Obama’s annual White House Correspondents’ dinners provide lots of great examples of humour. • Malala Yousafzai speaks about women and girl’s education to the UN in 2013 www.teachingcitizenship.org.uk | Autumn 2018 | Issue 48

• Emma Watson’s ‘HeForShe’ speech at the UN in 2014 • Sojourner Truth’s ‘Aint I a woman?’ speech (never recorded) talks about black women’s struggle against slavery and sexism. • JK Rowling speaks about the themes of failure and imagination at Harvard Graduates’ Commencement in 2008 Speaking in contrast to writing While watching or listening to speeches with students, it is also worth spending some time thinking about how speeches (or speaking more generally) is different to writing. Spoken English tends to be less formal than written English. Techniques and devices which might feel overblown or clunky in written work can come through; it tends to be easier to be humorous or sarcastic in delivery. Giving a speech is also a chance for students who may not always shine at writing to shine through performance, and to see a clear purpose for writing and re-drafting. Speech-writing brings language to life, as students need to write with an audience in mind and this makes their choices of vocabulary, punctuation and structure all the more important!


Giving a speech is a chance for students who may not always shine at writing to shine through performance, and to see a clear purpose for writing and re-drafting


It is likely that you already know a number of speeches which would make great examples to show your students. Here are some of our favourites (use your judgement about what will appeal to your class and be appropriate for their age):

Teaching Citizenship | 15

Theme Finding their voice: teaching speechmaking in school

Exploring issues and choosing a topic It is useful to outline a range of overview topics for students to explore as possible subjects for their speech. Another strategy is to delve into one topic in depth and for students to cover different aspects of this topic for their speeches. The environment • Global warming • Deforestation Education • Grammar schools • Exams


Once you have chosen the overarching themes or subjects your students will explore, it is important to decide how students will have enough time to To deliver a explore all of these topics, whilst also having time powerful, thought- to explore their chosen topic in more detail. provoking speech, a speaker must be Here are some ideas for how this stage can be passionate about structured: the subject of Carousel: pupils take part in a carousel with their speech different teachers introducing students to different topics or themes. Pupils then choose which topic they would like to explore more based on this introduction. Pupils could then research this independently or break off into different teacher-led groups based on interest to explore a topic further.


To deliver a powerful, thought-provoking speech, a speaker must be passionate about the subject of their speech. In this part of the speech-making process, students should have opportunities to explore issues and discover what is important to them. By immersing them in a range of issues and allowing them time to reflect on which of these really pique their interest, students are likely to choose more far-reaching, complex subjects for their speeches. Once they have chosen an overarching topic for their speech, students should then be supported to hone their idea to ensure that their speech is focused and that their argument is well-formed.

Multicultural world • Immigration • Diversity

Governments • Voting • Children’s rights

Animal cruelty • Poaching • P rotecting endangered animals •A  nimals used for entertainment

The media • Advertising • Fake news • Gender image

Independent research: over a series of lessons, provide pupils with a range of different research packs, with links to interesting, age-appropriate blogs, websites or videos. If you have access to iPads it can be useful, especially for younger students, to create a range of QR codes linking to content relevant for each of the topics.

Example of an overarching topic: Idealism and imagination (civic power) Community ‘What are unfair things happening in my community?’

Power and inequality ‘Why do some people have more than others?’

Destruction ‘How are humans harming themselves and the natural environment?’

Conflicts ‘How does conflict impact the world?’

Diversity ‘Why do we judge each other by our differences?’

Representation ‘How are we portrayed and seen?’

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Speakers / assemblies / trip (experience): create experiences for students to inspire the content of their speeches. This could involve taking students to see inspirational speakers or inviting speakers from the local community in to talk to students. Assemblies which explore different issues are another great way to inspire students. Finally, taking students on trips which provide them with an opportunity to explore an issue or topic in more depth are a great way to enthuse students and help them gather information or ideas which can be included in their speeches. Once students have chosen a topic that they are passionate about, they must then hone this topic, so that the subject of their speech is focused and not too broad. Instead of simply writing a speech about ‘animal cruelty’ for example, a student may choose to talk about why ‘Orcas should not be kept in captivity at Seaworld’.

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School 21 student presenting to peers

5 whys In this activity students are grouped in pairs. The first students tells their partner the subject of their speech e.g. ‘air pollution’. Their partner then asks them why they have chosen this subject and the first student explains, for example, ‘I have chosen this because air pollution is dangerous and we must reduce it’. Their partner then asks ‘why?’ again. This continues until the student has asked 5 whys. When this process is complete, the student answering the questions should have a much clearer idea of why they have chosen their topic and why it is particularly important to them, supporting them to refine the subject of their speech, making their argument more focused and specific. Some people...but I think Present pupils with an image or concept e.g. ‘the zoo’ or ‘football’ and ask students to decide what some people think about this, for example, ‘some people think a day out at the zoo is fun.’ Then ask students to flip this perspective and explain what they think, for example, ‘but I think the zoo is a cruel.’ 3. What makes a great speech? Your students’ ideas will have a far greater impact www.teachingcitizenship.org.uk | Autumn 2018 | Issue 48


By teaching your students a range of linguistic devices, you can support them to make sophisticated and individual choices about how they will hook their audience’s attention, and hold on to it over the course of their speech


You can use these activities to support students to hone the subject of their speech: Snowball Students write the overarching subject of their speech in the middle of a piece of paper e.g. football, they then screw the piece of paper into a ball. When the teacher claps or blows a whistle, all students throw their ‘snowballs’ into the air. Students then pick up another student’s ‘snowball’ and unravel it. They then draw a line from the central subject and add another, more specific idea, linked to this subject, for example, ‘footballers are paid too much.’ The process is then repeated again a number of times, with the next students adding more ideas, such as ‘football has become too commercial’.

if they have thought carefully and made considered and deliberate choices about the language that they use in their speech. By teaching your students a range of linguistic devices, you can support them to make sophisticated and individual choices about how they will hook their audience’s attention, and hold on to it over the course of their speech. For some students, having ideas they want to share will come easily, but they may find it a challenge to flesh them out into a coherent and developed speech. Different rhetorical devices can provide a scaffold for students to do this. Linguistic devices There are an infinite number of linguistic devices which can be included in a speech. The challenge for you as a teacher is to decide which you want to teach, and when. Below, we break down some of the devices you might want to teach to support students to write the beginning, middle and end of their speeches. a. The Hook The purpose of the ‘hook’ of a speech is to do just that: to hook the audience’s attention for the rest of the speech. This could be done in a number of ways: • Lists of three • Shocking fact/statistic • An anecdote, or joke • Characterisation • A question e.g. What if ….? • Repetition • Onomatopoeia • Painting a picture in the audience’s mind, e.g. ‘Imagine…’ Hook devices teaching ideas: - Identify the hook used by different speakers. Why is it effective? How could it be adapted for a different topic? - Write a number of different hooks for a topic. Which is particularly powerful? - Play ‘The Random Hook Generator’. Put Teaching Citizenship | 17

Theme Finding their voice: teaching speechmaking in school

Remember all the techniques for creating a hook can also be used all the way through the speech. b. Rhetorical devices for the main body Developing students’ ideas into fleshed out paragraphs can be a challenge. Teaching students different devices gives them a frame to hang their ideas around. Some devices you may want to look at are: • Figurative language: similes, metaphors, imagery • Speaking directly to the audience, e.g. ‘you are all 12 year olds, like me. You, too, will have to wait another six years before its worth even starting to think about how you will vote to decide who should run this country’. • Having a refrain or repeating ideas throughout the speech. • Signposting where the speech is going and how it fits together • Anecdotes • Using evidence, examples, facts and statistics Main body devices teaching ideas: -F  ind an example speech which uses a refrain (Martin Luther King’s ‘I have a dream’ is one example). As students listen to the speech, ask them to clap each time they hear the refrain. How often is it heard, and at what points? Why does the writer use it with such frequency? How does it compare to a different 18 | Teaching Citizenship


Develop with your students a number of signposting phrases. These are really important if the audience is going to feel confident listening to a speech and certain that the speaker is taking them on a journey, knows exactly where they are going and how they are going to get there


lots of possible topics on pieces of paper in one box, and in another box all the different techniques students have learned. Pick one piece of paper out of each box. In teams, students have 30 seconds to come up with the best hook they can, for that topic, using that linguistic device. They can then have a representative from each team deliver their hook, in a manner similar to a dance-off. - Play ‘Hook Bingo’. Collect approximately 12 different example hooks (these could be from videos, examples you have written, or from students’ work). Give students a bingo sheet, or let them write in the hooks they predict will come up. As you read out each hook, students can tick off the techniques they can spot. The first to get a full row wins Bingo. - Use teaching the hook as an opportunity to think about the physical delivery aspect. How can you use your voice and body language at the start of a speech to grab the audience’s attention?

speech which uses a refrain? - To create similes or metaphors for powerful emotions, start by gathering a list of different emotions (anger, joy, grief, contentment, surprise). In small groups, ask students to come up with something from each of the five senses that captures that emotion to them. Try to get them to be as specific as possible. Students can then use these ideas to form their own original similes and metaphors e.g. my anger is like the acrid smell of burnt rubber as car brakes are slammed; it is urgent honking cacophony of horns. At the end, ask students to read out some of their work without saying which emotion it is they are describing, to see if they are effective enough for the class to work out the emotion. - Spend some time getting students to think about their audience. Directly addressing them with ‘you’ is a start, but can they be more specific and clever about how they build a connection with their audience? What might the speaker and audience have in common? What might the audience care about, or have experience of? - Try out different strategies to develop and extend ideas, such as: • Encouraging students to think about different people’s point of view ‘some people think … but what they don’t realise is ….’ How might parents, teachers, younger people, older people etc view things differently and how can you win them around to your point of view? • Making comparisons, e.g. ‘how I feel is similar to how you feel when X, Y, Z.’ or, ‘This is the complete opposite to X, because …’ • Use stories or anecdotes to develop ideas and make them real and relatable. - S hare with students some good examples of anecdotes. Oprah’s time up speech uses a story about her watching the Golden Globes as a child; Obama uses an amazing anecdote over the course of his campaign about where the chant ‘fired up? Ready to go’ came from and he tells it in a speech in New Hampshire in 2016. Why are anecdotes powerful? How can they be written for maximum impact? Bobette Buster, author of ‘Do Story’ writes about creating ‘gleaming details’ which stand out in your mind when you remember the story – how can your students create their own gleaming details? - Develop with your students a number of signposting phrases. These are really

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c. Endings The ending of a speech is as important as the opening. It is what the audience will leave thinking about and so should crystallise the main messages of the speech and make it memorable. There are a number of ways students can achieve a punchy ending: • A call to action; get your audience to go and do something! • Summarise what you have said. • Return to how you started your speech. i.e. talk about the same idea you used in your hook. • Repeat your refrain. • Write a sentence that builds to a clap. • End on a rhyme. Teaching ideas for endings: - Look at some different endings to speeches: Barack Obama’s mic drop versus Theresa May’s www.teachingcitizenship.org.uk | Autumn 2018 | Issue 48

Student debating in School 21


The ending of a speech is as important as the opening. It is what the audience will leave thinking about and so should crystallise the main messages of the speech and make it memorable


important if the audience is going to feel confident listening to a speech and certain that the speaker is taking them on a journey, knows exactly where they are going and how they are going to get there. This sense of confidence in the speaker can make the difference between a speech you can relax into and enjoy listening to, and one where you feel lost and confused. You could explore this by using the analogy of a map, and getting students to identify key moments in their speech where they need to sign the way in order to bring their listeners on the journey with them. Some possible signposting phrases are below, but bear in mind that students will likely seem more natural if they write their own: • ‘I’m going to talk about three big ideas today, which are X, Y and Z’. • ‘This is the first point I want to make …’ • ‘The next thing I want to say is …’ ‘My next point, and this links directly to what I have just been saying, is …’ • ‘You might be wondering how this links to the rest of what I have said, but give me a minute to explain’ • ‘Now I’m moving on to the second part of my speech, which is about …’ • ‘This is my third point, which is all about …’ • ‘This is the final idea I want to leave you with …’ • ‘I’m coming to the end of my speech, but before I finish I would like to say …’

at the 2016 Conservative Party conference. What does each speaker want to achieve? What is the message they want to send (both literally, and in terms of about the kind of person they are?). - Ask students to decide what they want their audience to be thinking at the end of their speech e.g. ‘I need to use less plastic and recycle more’ or ‘I had no idea that X even existed!’ or ‘I had no idea that So-and-so does such an interesting thing outside of school’ or ‘From now on, I will speak up when I see something that is unfair’. Use this as the starting point for students to think about how they want to end their speech. - The ending of politicians’ speeches are often good examples for ‘clap lines’ – lines which have been written to build up momentum and encourage the audience to clap as they reach their peak. Have a go at trying to write a clap line. At first it might be easier to try it with a silly topic like why everyone should eat fish and chips every day! Teaching Citizenship | 19

Theme Finding their voice: teaching speechmaking in school

their own is by ‘boxing up’ an exemplar speech. This involves breaking the speech down into its component parts and analysing the content and structure of each section. This tends to be more effective if you are analysing a speech you have written yourself, so you can be sure it follows the desired structure.

4. How can I transform my ideas into a speech? Taking an idea and transforming it into a speech can be a difficult process for students. To ensure students are able to do this successfully, it is important to provide them with a clear structure for their speech. For younger students taking part in ‘Spark’, this could be one clear structure that is used and adapted by all students. Older students taking part in ‘Ignite’ could be provided with a bank of exemplar structures to choose from. Once students have written a first draft of their speech, they should have opportunities to critique and redraft their speech before they begin learning and practicing the performance elements of speech-making.

Example structures: 1. Hook – Diagnosis – Vision – Plan: the speaker highlights a problem and explains what has caused it, they then present their vision for the future and their plan to get there. 2. Cyclical: a cyclical structure begins and ends with the same idea. For example, starting with an anecdote and returning to this at the end of the speech. 3. Layered: the speaker introduces one point at a time, using facts, opinions and quotes to develop and strengthen each point. 4. Zoom in – Zoom out: the speaker zooms in on one particular element of a story or topic, perhaps to highlight the human aspect of an issue, before zooming out to look at the bigger picture. b. Writing a speech It is important to consider how you will structure the writing process. For younger students it is worth breaking down a speech into its component parts and focusing in on a different element each day. For older children, or if there is less time set aside in the curriculum, writing the speech could be set for homework, as long as there are regular check-ins and mini deadlines throughout the process. A particularly effective way to support students to understand the structure of a speech and to plan 20 | Teaching Citizenship


Once your students have written a speech they are proud of, it is time to focus on the performative elements of speech making


a. Choosing a structure Here are a range of structures which students can use as a basis for their speech. For younger students, it is useful to select one clear structure, such as ‘Hook – Diagnosis – Vision – Plan’, which is particularly accessible.

c. Critiquing and redrafting Once students have written a first-draft of their speech it is important that they have opportunities to critique and redraft the content of their speeches. As well as considering the speech as a whole, it is also worth breaking it down into its component parts and supporting students to redraft and critique each section. When doing this, it is important that students are aware of the purpose of each section of the speech, for example, the opening or hook should draw the listener in. 5. How can I take my ideas from page to stage? Once your students have written a speech they are proud of, it is time to focus on the performative elements of speech making. For many students, this will be the most nerve wracking element of the speech making process so it is worth leaving plenty of time for this stage before the final event to ensure that your students are adequately prepared. This part of the speech-making process focuses primarily on the physical and social-emotional strands of the Oracy Framework. The physical strand encompasses their use of voice, for example, the pitch, tone and volume of a student’s voice, as well as other aspects of their delivery, for example, their stage presence, and how they use gestures and movement to support the delivery of their speech. The social-emotional strand focuses on how a student has an impact on their audience, as well as their confidence and flair when performing. Teaching students how to deliver a great speech Often teaching the performance aspects of a speech is a conscious raising exercise, pointing out to students that certain things are important to consider when performing their speech to an audience. Drawing out the following features is a good place to start: • Pace: the combination of fast, slow and medium speed adds interest to a speech, making it easier to listen to. Generally, a faster speaking speed signals urgency, excitement, passion or raw emotion. Speaking at a faster www.teachingcitizenship.org.uk | Autumn 2018 | Issue 48

Memorising their speech It is important that students know their speech by heart, not necessarily word for word, but that they can deliver the main ideas confidently and coherently. To support this you can help students to: Condense • Story map: draw a ‘story map’ of the speech, representing key information with pictures in the correct order. Use the story map to practice delivering the speech until it is no longer needed. • Create cue cards: break down the sections of the speech into key words or sentences and write these onto cue cards. Use them to practice delivering the speech until they are not needed anymore. • Create a point per finger: break down the speech www.teachingcitizenship.org.uk | Autumn 2018 | Issue 48

School 21 student exhibiting his work at the termly school Exhibition

into five main points, one per finger, and use this to work through the speech.


It is important that students know their speech by heart, not necessarily word for word, but that they can deliver the main ideas confidently and coherently


speed allows you to ‘set up’ your audience for slower moments, when you get to a big idea you want the audience to ponder or when you want to paint a sombre or painful emotion or give a call to action. • Pause: leaving a ‘power pause’, coupled with a slow and steady scan of the audience, is an excellent way to get your audience to contemplate a key issue or idea. Figuring out how long to leave a pause, just enough that your audience feel a little uncomfortable but not fidgety, is an art form! • Gestures: including powerful or pertinent gestures at appropriate moments during a speech helps emphasise key ideas. • Tone: the tone of voice a speechmaker uses when delivering a speech and how they change this over the course of a speech is very important. • Facial expressions and body language: how does a speechmaker manipulate their body language and facial expressions to convey a certain mood in a speech? • Props: a prop can be a powerful addition to a speech, helping illustrate a key idea. Moreover, a prop, such as a chair, which a student can grip, is a great way to help student who may be nervous standing in front of an audience without such an aid. • Use of space: it is worth considering how a speaker uses the space around them. Do they stand still? Do they pace? Do they move to another area of the stage when delivering a certain element of their speech?

Rehearse • Practice with a friend as a prompter, giving the student nudges if they forget what they are saying. • Divide the space they will be speaking in (e.g. using a chair or using masking tape to draw a cross on the floor). Students work out which parts of the space they will be in for each section of their speech and use the space as a way to jog their memory. • Record themselves saying their speech and listen back to it. • Asking parents or other people at home to listen to them practice and give them feedback. • Ask a friend to keep a fillers tally of ‘Ums’ ‘Ers’ and pauses. See if they can reduce the number of fillers each time - and whether they can say it with fewer fillers than their friend can say theirs! Teaching Citizenship | 21

Theme Finding their voice: teaching speechmaking in school

Critiquing and redrafting Throughout this stage of the process, it is important to allow students plenty of opportunities to perform their speeches to their peers, collecting praise and constructive feedback. By watching others perform their speeches students will also begin to get a better idea of which devices are particularly effective and incorporate these into their own speeches. It is useful to provide students with sentence stems to support them to critique each other’s speeches. These could be really specific, honing in on particular aspects of delivering a great speech, or more general, such as: What worked well I enjoyed this speech because of the way… A moment in the speech that stood out for me was… It was effective when you used (technique) because… I noticed… Even better if To improve this performance I recommend… because Perhaps next time could you find a way of… I wanted to see more of… because… Preparing for the big day The most important thing before the big day is to ensure that students have had plenty of time to practise their speeches in a variety of different contexts. 22 | Teaching Citizenship


Leaving a ‘power pause’, coupled with a slow and steady scan of the audience, is an excellent way to get your audience to contemplate a key issue or idea. Figuring out how long to leave a pause, just enough that your audience feel a little uncomfortable but not fidgety, is an art form!


Re-order • Once students feel they are getting confident memorising their speech, test them! Can they say it backwards? • Get students to shuffle their cue cards and practice putting them back into the right order so that they are really confident with the structure of their speech.

Here are some tips to ensure that your students are adequately prepared: • Set up a system to monitor the pupils are practising their speeches 5/6 times a day (a tally chart in their books etc.) • Encourage them to practice on the way to school; in the shower; at break time; come in early to practice • End of every lesson / assembly cheerleading have you practised 5 / 10 times a day? • Encourage them to involve their family to help them practice. Keep putting reminders in the newsletter • Put posters around the school reminding them to practice with motivational messages On the day of the speeches, make sure that you have an audience – this can be their peers, other year groups in school, parents and members of the community. It is also helpful to have a space where students who feel unable to address a large crowd can go to present their speech to a smaller group. Crucially, whilst everyone tends to get very excited about the performance, it is important to remember it is the process that has got students to this point that is most important. What do students say about speechmaking? “I felt really proud of not only myself but the whole group as well. We all supported each other and proved to other people we can inspire change” (KS3 student) “The experience was one I never forget and after performing I feel more confident and passionate about changing the world” (KS3 student) “I felt nervous but excited at the same time” (KS3 student)

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Julie Gibson, Head of Oracy at Park View School (Chester-le-Street)

Case Study 1 Park View School


Some have produced exceptional, polished performances, but we have also had students who have managed to go from being terrified at the beginning of the year to getting up in front of their peers and delivering their own talks something they never thought possible

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Having the opportunity to make a speech demonstrates to the students that they have something worth saying and that their voices matter. It demonstrates that their opinions count and that by speaking out on issues that concern them, they can make a difference. Allowing the students the opportunity to choose what they want to talk about means they are genuinely interested in researching and producing the best talk possible because they are invested wanting to make their speech a success. Before we embark on speechmaking we teach lessons to develop the students’ awareness of the four strands of Oracy. Our units on Being Me and Prometheus encourage them to develop their confidence in generating ideas and planning as well as using the linguistic and physical elements of Oracy to impact on their audiences. We then start the process by instigating group discussions on the kinds of topics / issues that are current and that they are interested in. We encourage them to research using the news - in print, online and by watching on TV - and ask them to come to the lesson prepared to talk about topics that they think are important and that they want to speak up about. These discussions generate some interesting talk about the world around them bringing a much needed awareness of life outside of their communities and school, allowing them to appreciate sometimes local, national or international issues. It has also encouraged some of our new Syrian students to get involved in discussing with their class mates,

Maddie Finley delivers her part in a Year 7 Oracy assembly

being exposed to a new language and even developing the confidence to stand up and say a few sentences and words, demonstrating to them that what they say matters and that we value the contribution of everyone in our learning community. Having introduced speechmaking in Year 7, students are now keen to have new and different platforms to share their views. We have now developed our approach to Oracy into year 8 and the students have maintained that momentum. They have just completed work on Fair Trade campaigns in school and delivered campaigning speeches to visitors and will be doing another speech this term entitled ‘Be the change you want to see’. Introducing speechmaking in this way, has given the students a real purpose and audience for their talk. All students have benefitted. Some have produced exceptional, polished performances, but we have also had students who have managed to go from being terrified at the beginning of the year to getting up in front of their peers and delivering their own talks - something they never thought possible. Teaching Citizenship | 23

Theme Finding their voice: teaching speechmaking in school

Case Study 2 Bec Tulloch, Curriculum Leader – Drama, Oracy & Literacy St Ambrose Barlow RC High School (Salford)

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The best thing about the process is that the students don’t need to be congratulated – they know they have achieved. Their sense of their own accomplishments, large and small, was truly life affirming


We started focusing on oracy in the school after students’ spoken communication in lessons was identified as a weakness in a whole school review. We had a culture of good, quiet learning which dominated lessons where teachers stood at the front and managed the learning through quiet, controlled tasks. This fitted with a picture of dependent learners who were shy of taking a leading role in their own learning. Students relied on their teachers spoon feeding them and struggled with challenge. We recognised as a school that the new curriculum was going to challenge them beyond this. We wanted to develop the way in which talk was used in classes giving staff a structure on which they could develop their practice. It became a whole school priority for a year (through the support of an EEF pilot run by Voice21). We structured whole school CPD at the start of each term and added to this through weekly Teaching and Learning notes via our staff bulletin. Year 7 received one 45 minute oracy lesson a week and we developed our approach to assemblies through our oracy expectation: loud enough to be heard and clear enough to be understood. The speechmaking programme (which we called Embrace) made up the final term of the oracy curriculum for year 7. To teach speechmaking, we spent half a term working preparing students through the stages of writing and crafting a speech: initial ideas for topics, diversifying the idea creatively, exploring the possibilities offered cognitively and linguistically. We then developed this through a 10 step rehearsal process during the second half term and pop up lessons on their

Embrace work across the curriculum. We tried to give each area of the curriculum a subject specific rehearsal strategy: for example the art department coloured the students’ speeches in with them to demark the vocal tone variety that they were aiming for. We identified a week at the end of the summer term where every student would perform their speech supported by the other members of their class as well as their parents/carers. On the day, we had 210 students who were giving their speeches across three venues in the school: our hall, a double sized classroom and the nurture room. The students were off timetable for the morning to rehearse and then they performed across three time slots in the afternoons with parents invited. We also ran two evening show cases for parents who were unable to attend in the day and for other professionals who were interested. The outcomes were spectacular: all of our students rose to the challenge of the moment. By day two none of the three strong teaching team wore mascara as there were many tears of joy. We achieved an 80% parental attendance figure which matches or exceeds most of our parents’ evenings. The feedback from participants and audience members was all positive: it was a total triumph. The best thing about the process is that the students don’t need to be congratulated – they know they have achieved. Their sense of their own accomplishments, large and small, was truly life affirming. Their support of each other and the positive support they gave each other was humbling: this event builds stronger individuals in a stronger community. The skills that they develop are vital to their future. We were delighted and amazed by all they achieved – it has massively altered my perceptions of what is possible for a Year 7 class and as we also got staff to write and deliver speeches it has actually taught us as professionals a great deal too!

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David Kerr, Consultant Director of Education at Young Citizens and Head of ITT, University of Reading; Hans Svennevig, Academic Leader Professional Studies at University Centre Croydon; and Lee Jerome, Associate Professor of Education, Middlesex University are all ACT Council members and (now) co-editors of Teaching Citizenship.

Introducing your new DHL editorial team – connecting and growing! ee has been doing a sterling job editing Teaching Citizenship in a solo capacity for the last few issues. However, Hans and David thought of the parable of ‘many hands make light work’ and offered services to co-edit with Lee, which were gratefully accepted. We are hoping it’s a case of ‘many hands’ and not ‘too many cooks’ but you can decide as time and issues go by. Or perhaps the analogy of three amigos/musketeers/stooges* (*delete as you see fit) is more apt! So this is the first issue of Teaching Citizenship that we introduce the ‘DHL’ experience, no not the world delivery company - though their slogan of ‘connecting people’ and focus on ‘connect and grow’ are pertinent here - but the David, Hans and Lee co-editing, delivery experience. We believe we make a strong, balanced team. David has been involved with Citizenship since the Crick Report and continues to champion the cause and was a co-editor, with Tony Breslin (of the Citizenship Foundation), of the first few issues of Teaching Citizenship. So it’s a return to familiar territory for David, if somewhat older and wiser. Meanwhile, Hans guest co-edited Issue 43, Teaching Controversial Issues with David and thoroughly enjoyed the experience. He is also steeped in Citizenship having trained as one of the first subject specialists at the University of Leicester in 2002 and worked in a variety of citizenship roles. He leads teacher training at Croydon College while managing Law, Business, Criminology, Psychology and Social Justice Degree programmes as well as citizenship initiatives at the college. A man of many talents. Lee has been immersed in Citizenship since his days working at the Institute for Citizenship, in initial teacher training at London Met and in his current role as Associate Professor of Education at the University of Middlesex. We have a combined experience that straddles practice, research and policy, the last 20 years and all aspects and phases of citizenship education. www.teachingcitizenship.org.uk | Autumn 2018 | Issue 48

In this issue The main focus in on the key theme of Oracy and Citizenship. We’ve always thought oracy was a missing dimension in schools alongside literacy, numeracy and key skills that all children and young people should develop for an effective life in the 21st century. Beyond that we have a fine array of articles and reviews that highlight the depth and breadth of the topics connected to Citizenship as well as the people and organisations who contribute to this area. They include teachers, academics, trainee teachers and those in NGOs in the UK and beyond. To start off, Sera Shortland, one of our new regional Citizenship Ambassadors, has written an introduction to and exploration of the citizenship film #OurVoiceYourChoice made by her students at Hamilton Academy. The film was launched at our National Conference ‘Youthquake: young people and the future of democracy’ held at London City Hall in July and can be found on YouTube. Sera explores the inspiration behind the film, and how as with all outstanding and creative active citizenship projects the students led the way. This is aptly followed by a piece by Tom Barratt from Peace First on the power and potential of Citizenship through youthled change across the world. Scott Harrison is well positioned, as the former HMI specialist adviser for Citizenship, to reflect on 20 Years on from the Crick Report from an Ofsted perspective reminding us that citizenship provision still ‘requires improvement’. There is also a short round up of the lively and successful ACT 2018 National Conference held at the London Assembly in July. Alistair Ross then follows with an update on key findings from his on-going research project where he has interviewed groups of young people across Europe on their citizenship identities, beliefs and experiences. It reminds us of the many influences that impact on young people’s conceptions of citizenship both in and beyond schools. Tom Franklin, the new Chief Executive, then talks about the rebranding of the Citizenship Foundation (CF) as Young Citizens (YC) and then explores the essence of what the organisation stands for and the programmes it currently runs. Ben Kisby follows Teaching Citizenship | 25

Editorial Introducing your new DHL editorial team – connecting and growing!

up his ACT summer conference seminar on contemporary trends in politics by talking about the rise of populism and the implications for Citizenship in schools. His article underlines the strong links between citizenship education and the political sciences. Sheeren Sherwan next takes us in a different direction with her reflections as a new NQT on her Citizenship PGCE year last year. She reminds us of the highs and lows that those new to the teaching profession can have during initial training and transition to NQT. Finally, Tsutomu Kubota and Noriko Sakade from Japan tell us about how they approach Global Citizenship Education in their school with students age 16-18 and make a call to those in the UK interested in school linking with them. Next come the reviews. Sera Shortland discusses using Rest in Power: The Enduring Life of Trayvon Martin to provide context to debates around the #BlackLivesMatter movement and the recent Nike 2018 Just Do It advertisement campaign. Jac Bastian from Diversity Role Models looks at the NEU’s four page guide to Supporting trans and gender-questioning students. Lee Jerome then explores everything from the ‘prosumer’, ‘click bait’ and ‘glocalisation’ to robot created news as he delves into ‘Misunderstanding New Audiences: Seven Myths of the Social Media Era’. We finish with the Spotlight on ACT Council series, with Helen Blachford Chair of Council sharing her own journey with ACT and the rewards of the experience. Do get in touch if you wish to apply to join ACT Council. Future issues – your ideas and contributions All three of us as co-editors are very clear that Teaching 26 | Teaching Citizenship

Citizenship is a journal for you, the readers. Therefore we are very interested in increasing the participation of you – the readers – in writing pieces for the journal. This can be everything from reviews to wider snapshots of citizenship expertise on particular subjects. We are also keen for members to contribute to a wider social media strategy for ACT, including online blogs and website materials that complement the journal. With this in mind we are re-launching our review section and we encourage you to review and share resources that have inspired your citizenship teaching and learning. We would like to hear from you about any resource; a book, song, film, clip, painting, website, organisation, place to visit or anything else that you feel is relevant and purposeful for the citizenship audience. Maybe you want to review something that has been lauded but is simply not useful or accurate – whatever it is if you would like to be considered for the next journal please send your reviews to Hans at info@teachingcitizenship.org.uk We are already planning and developing content for the next edition of the Journal, which will have a focus on Digital Citizenship and Social Action (and planning the one after). Get in touch if you have any ideas, contributions, reviews, or experiences to share – and don’t worry if you are new to writing – we can help, that’s why there are now three editors. As we said at the start the aim is that ‘many hands make light work’ so let’s make it happen together in the true spirit of Citizenship. David Kerr, Hans Svennevig and Lee Jerome – the new DHL co-editor delivery team! www.teachingcitizenship.org.uk | Autumn 2018 | Issue 48

Feature Sera Shortland, ACT Citizenship Teaching Ambassador and Council Member

#OurVoiceYourChoice Sera Shortland At the recent ACT National Conference the #OurVoiceYourChoice video of young people talking about the value and importance of Citizenship education was launched. In this article Sera Shortland explains how the students of Hamilton Academy, Leicester investigated conceptions of democracy in the UK, invited The Rt Hon. the Lord Blunkett to visit their school and were so inspired they made a film.

Every day, in schools up and down the country, young people are realising the vision that Sir Bernard Crick held for citizenship education. The Citizenship pedagogy is very powerful and at its heart, it is about empowering voice and political action. Students spend time in classrooms learning about complex political issues, they learn very specialist knowledge but it is through the delivery of the subject, through engagement with critical debate and being given the space and opportunities to practice skills of advocacy, that knowledge comes alive. I am reminded of one student, Rebecca who at 14 in a political speaking debate competition quoted a prime minister using the word “inculcated”, not only did we run for our dictionary, but an MP in the room raised one eyebrow and delivered a knowing smile. This is what our students have made Citizenship about, the ability not only to understand, but to challenge, to make people think, and to deliver their ideas eloquently. Citizenship provides a real vehicle for students www.teachingcitizenship.org.uk | Autumn 2018 | Issue 48


Citizenship provides a real vehicle for students to tell their own stories and the video that was entirely written by students at Hamilton Academy in Leicester is the product of those stories and experiences of having ‘lived’ citizenship


“Only when we work together to defend the rights of others are we acting as citizens… In a sentence, citizenship has meant since the time of the Greeks and the Romans, people acting publicly and effectively to demonstrate common values and achieve common purposes.” (Sir Bernard Crick).

to tell their own stories and the video that was entirely written by students at Hamilton Academy in Leicester is the product of those stories and experiences of having ‘lived’ citizenship. The #OurVoiceYourChoice video developed from a year 11s investigation into conceptions of democracy in the UK and what it meant to them in terms of their own participation. As a PGCE citizenship student in 2003, I recalled a speech given by David Blunkett in 2001 and felt it incredibly inspiring so I read parts of it to the students. “Like much in life, democracy has to be learned and practised…we cannot sit back expecting our democracy to take care of itself and take no action ourselves. We are democracy. No longer should we assume that events happening on the other side of the world don’t matter to us, or that we can succeed on our own”. Students listening to these extracts sat in silence until they were asked about their thoughts. A stream of comments ensued, one student remarking; “We have to work together, don’t we, even if we don’t like what someone else has to say, we still have to find compromise, because that way everyone, no matter who they are can find their own place in the world. You do need to learn about how politics works though because we are the future of politics, you cannot support each other if you don’t know how to.” That moment exemplifies what teaching is for me. The issues and topics we cover Teaching Citizenship | 27

Feature #OurVoiceYourChoice

Still image from the film

through citizenship impact directly the lives of our students and they want and need to talk about them. After explaining that Lord Blunkett actually helped to bring in citizenship education in schools they were relentless in their demanding that we invite him in. We were incredibly excited when he agreed to visit our Students suggested school and talk to the students about citizenship several ideas education and the role of the House of Lords. before voting Of course, students also wanted to express (using the principle exactly what they felt about the current state of proportional of citizenship education in schools and how it representation has affected them. They set to preparing their rather than first speeches and making plans for the session, past the post!) for including emailing ex-students to participate. #OurVoiceYourChoice. We packed a library full of as many students Students felt this as possible to listen to Lord Blunkett. Students mirrored true delivered their speeches and then he took to the democracy in terms floor. In the whole 45 minutes of his speech you of having freedom of could have heard a pin drop. Students were so speech but that they moved by not only meeting a Lord, but realising must rely on others in that this one was in fact a human being and positions of power to had a sense of humour, telling many stories that effect the change they they could learn from and enjoy. Lord Blunkett would like to see inspired them, not only through what he had to say about his role in the House of Lords and being on the Citizenship and Civic Engagement Committee, but through his genuine interest in what they had to say and the empowerment that students felt when delivering speeches, to a real member of the House of Lords. In the library that day, students experienced something so meaningful that they were inspired to make a film for Lord Blunkett to show him just what citizenship has meant to them and that they had understood their potential role in effecting change. With the support from our principal, students

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set about planning for the film. For any active citizenship project undertaken, planning and timing need great attention. The advice from the briefing sessions produced by ACT on active citizenship is very useful and can be used as a guideline to help focus action. Using a template made from the briefing, students first set about answering key questions such as: How will this film address a real need or issue? Is it realistic and has it got achievable outcomes that the students are committed to? Is it student led? Does it have adequate resources and support? The students researched the current state of citizenship education, reading and picking out arguments from a meeting held between the Citizenship and Civic Engagement Committee and others, including the Rt Hon Nick Gibb MP, Minister of State for School Standards. Students became even more driven to produce a film that could be used in defence of citizenship education and that could be made for Lord Blunkett in time for the House of Lords committee report to the government. When asked how they wanted the audience to feel when they watched the film, one student said; “I want people to cry, to feel that what we are saying we mean, if they cry then they get how we feel, we will have connected with people through our own words, perhaps then they will fight for citizenship like us”. Having taught citizenship for almost 15 years, I have seen how students are inspired by this subject, it has changed lives, whether through helping to develop more confidence at public speaking, or in students joining the UK Youth

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Hamilton Academy students meeting Baroness Garden of Frognall at the ACT conference

Parliament or going on to read Law and Politics at University. Citizenship can and does go some way to counter inequality within communities, It raises aspirations as it provides opportunities for students to communicate with people that they might otherwise never meet, judges, MPs, Lords, local councillors, charities and social justice organisations. Students get to practise more formal methods of communication, indeed effective communication skills will be demanded of them throughout their working lives. When scripting the film, students were determined to use their own words, most of which came from the speeches delivered to Lord Blunkett. It became clear that professional input was needed ensuring a good quality production. Through learning about campaigning students were well equipped for the task of fundraising. Having researched local film makers, emailing many, including the media departments at our local universities we found Nick Hamer, a documentary filmmaker, director, cameraman and editor based in Leicester. Working with students, Nick created their vision, including encouraging them to think of their social media presence by developing a hashtag. Students suggested several ideas before voting (using the principle of proportional representation rather than first past the post!) for #OurVoiceYourChoice. Students felt this mirrored true democracy in terms of having freedom of speech but that they must rely on others in positions of power to effect the change they would like to see. Seven drafts of their script were made before students were happy, they were very quick to dismiss or accept suggestions and the process built www.teachingcitizenship.org.uk | Autumn 2018 | Issue 48

their skills of negotiation. It was a joy to watch students argue for and explain why certain lines were needed; they became resolute in the message they wanted. The day of filming arrived, the hottest Saturday in April and the cameras, principal and a very worried teacher (me) arrived at 7am, hoping that students would turn up. We did not need to worry; over 50 current and past students (some of whom did not even take citizenship) came along to deliver the line that they had chosen to deliver. It was one student’s birthday; several had very real anxiety attacks about being in front of the camera, but through sheer determination and a very patient crew, students stayed until 5pm to complete filming. It was incredible and we should have known then that the film would be a success. We witnessed an authentic and meaningful story unfold on the screens. The emails and comments received from people who have watched are a testament to the students hard work : “Loved the video, a real ‘21st Century Poem”, “I have to say that I was really moved by it and it gave me great hope for the future of our young people, our communities and our democracy”. Young people are amazing; they have so much to say and are keenly interested in the world around them, as educators we have to give them both the time and place to do more. Students want everyone to hear them when they say in the film, “Our future is in your hands”. Citizenship is a vital part of our curriculum and it is up to all of us to fight for it to ensure that we take care of our democracy. The students really hope you enjoy their film which can be found through the hashtag #OurVoiceYourChoice or on the ACT website. Teaching Citizenship | 29


Democracy, justice and responsible action – Citizenship through youth-led change Tom Barratt One of the distinctive elements of Citizenship in England’s curriculum has been the commitment to active citizenship, and this has formed one of the most exciting elements of school provision over the past 20 years. In this aspect of their work teachers have been supported by a range of charities and support networks, offering expertise and practical help. In this article Tom Barratt outlines an exciting new network, offering support, advice and money to help young people turn their ideas into reality.

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Young people all around the world are leading their own social change projects – tackling injustices that they care about, in ways that feel right to them


Young people can change the world for the better – not someday, but right now. Not only that but whilst doing so, they will acquire the skills and knowledge they need to play a full and active part in society: in essence, to become good citizens. Young people are our greatest untapped resource for social change. They have a unique experience of the world, including many of our human-made problems: intolerance, extremism, discrimination, exclusion. They develop insights into these problems and yet they are rarely asked for their opinion on how to tackle them. It’s rarer still that their ideas for change are taken seriously or even invested in. Despite this, young people all around the world are leading their own social change projects – tackling injustices that they care about, in ways that feel right to them. Whilst doing so, these young people are developing an understanding of how society works, how decisions are made and how people and institutions are held to account. In essence, they are learning the principles of Citizenship. Peace First is an international not-for-profit organisation that supports young people to lead their own social change projects. We do this by providing the tools, support and resources that young people need to (1) identify a community problem that they care about; (2) conduct their own research to understand the root causes of the problem (3) design their own solution; (4) share

their insights and innovations with a collaborative, digital community of young people and caring adults; and (5) implement their ideas in their own communities. We provide a toolkit of group-based activities to help young people navigate through these phases, we have peer and adult mentors to provide support, guidance and encouragement and we invest in their ideas – all teams are given up to £250 to implement their project plans. All of this takes place on our digital platform (www.peacefirst. org) the world’s largest marketplace of youth-led social change initiatives. Below are examples of young people leading change in their community and how, in doing so, they are acquiring an understanding of themes, skills and process that underpin England’s Citizenship curriculum. While the examples are international, they demonstrate how empowering young people to lead change can equip them with a first-hand experience of democracy, justice, rights and responsibility. Youth Rally to End Gun Violence: Youthled response to Parkland shooting (USA) Hannah, 18, was a student at a Florida school at the time of last year’s Parkland shooting where 17 people were tragically killed. In the aftermath of the shooting, Hannah and her friends vowed to help put an end to what they called ‘the era of mass shootings’. Their response was to set up the Youth

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Tom Barratt, Peace First

Peace Jamboree: Youth-led peace and civic engagement event (Nepal) Nepal suffered years of civil unrest during its transition from monarchy to federal democratic republic. Protests were violent and often involved young people. A legacy of this is a divided society and a generation of young people with little interest or trust in politics. Sushmina, 23, and her friends believed that


Throughout the project, the team had to learn about their social and community context, the different forces influencing people’s decisions and how to be sensitive to people’s emotional needs. The team also learned about the roles of public institutions and voluntary groups and the rights and responsibilities of individuals


Rally to End Gun Violence - a one-day event to stand in solidarity with survivors, mobilise young voters for change and put pressure on politicians to enact gun reform. The team visited local schools to promote the event but also to consult with other students on what their demands should be. They built a Facebook page, distributed press releases and connected with similarly-minded organisations. Peace First was able to provide them with guidance, support and connection to other groups who were planning similar events on the Peace First platform. We also provided them with funding for promotion and event expenses. About 150 people attended the rally and it was broadcast on several local news stations. The project team went on to help organise Orlando’s March For Our Lives event, which saw about 10,000 attendees, and they are now part of a peace network consisting of 12 schools, with a website, executive board and a weekly newsletter. Throughout the development of the Rally and ever since, Hannah and her project team members have had to acquire a good understanding the issue of gun control - who makes gun control laws, who influences them and how those decision makers are held to account. They’ve had to learn about how to manage budgets and how to manage risk – all of which are key elements of citizenship education.

improving young people’s awareness of the country’s political system was an important way to increasing participation. They wanted to help bring the country together and encourage more young people to engage in the new democratic process so they created the Peace Jamboree – a project to improve understanding of the importance of being an active participant in democratic governance, through the medium of sports. The team visited Saptari, an area in the Southern Plains of Napal that was particularly affected by conflict, and they delivered a two day miniOlympics for peace and civic engagement. They visited schools to promote the event and then hosted a series of tournaments, including football (for both boys and girls), sack race and tug of war to help develop a sense of solidarity among the participants. They also gave talks on civic engagement and how young people can become active participants in the country’s political system. Peace First provided them with a toolkit of resources to help them understand the root causes of the issue they wanted to address and to develop an appropriate, proportionate response. We also provided the funding needed to visit the region and deliver the event. Over 100 young people attended the first day of the event and the team were really encouraged to see most of them returning for the second day. The project team have since developed a ‘Civic Engagement for Dummies’ booklet which includes information about the country’s political structure, electoral system, fundamental rights and distribution of state power The team had to work with local schools, NGOs and community leaders, they had to understand their country’s political system of democratic governance, including the role of citizens and they had to solve many problems as the project rolled out – again, all important aspects of citizenship education. Children’s Right to Education (Tanzania) Many young people who live in Tanzania’s Nyarungusu refugee camp are taken out of

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Feature Democracy, justice and responsible action – Citizenship through youth-led change

32 | Teaching Citizenship


The context in all of these examples is clearly different to the UK but the principle remains – youthled change is a fantastic way to prepare young people to play a full and active part in society


school to help their family generate additional income. This issue disproportionately affects young girls (20% of girls attend school versus 80% of boys), many of whom are forced into the sex trade. Luc, 18, and his friends wanted to help tackle this injustice so they set up the Youth Advocacy Team (YAT) with a mission to address parents’ lack of knowledge of children’s rights to education and to promote the value of young girls to future generations. The Team facilitated lively discussions on education rights and parents’ needs with children, parents and local leaders; they visited homes of children who had been forced to leave school and they provided training on children’s rights. The group consulted victims, parents, school administrators, international voluntary organisations, local leaders and student groups to try and understand the issue from different perspectives. Peace First supported them throughout the project process – helping them to understand the issue from a compassionate perspective, to identify

who they needed to involve and how to do it safely. We also provided them with funding they needed to promote their service and host events. 35 out of the 40 young people (25 girls and 10 boys) who took part in the project (and had dropped out of school) were enrolled for the school year 2018/19, which started this September but the project had a much broader impact – positively influencing parents’, community leaders’ and school leaders’ understanding of children’s education rights. Throughout the project, the team had to learn about their social and community context, the different forces influencing people’s decisions and how to be sensitive to people’s emotional needs. The team also learned about the roles of public institutions and voluntary groups and the rights and responsibilities of individuals – all important themes in the Citizenship curriculum. The context in all of these examples is clearly different to the UK but the principle remains – youth-led change is a fantastic way to prepare young people to play a full and active part in society. By empowering them to lead change in their community they can develop a keen awareness of democracy, government, law, rights and responsible action. They can explore political and social issues, research and interrogate evidence and debate viewpoints. The exciting news for UK-based teachers of Citizenship is that Peace First’s Youth Challenge programme will soon be available for you and your students. We have delivered a pilot in coalition with UK-based youth charities and are getting ready for full scale UK rollout at the beginning of 2019. We have a range of resources to help you support your students in leading their own social change projects, we have a digital community of other young changemakers and we have funding to support their projects. If you’d like to know more about Peace First and how we can support your work, please contact Tom Barratt: TBarratt@peacefirst.org

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Scott Harrison, Act Chair of Trustees and HMI specialist adviser for citizenship, 1998-2009

Citizenship means citizenship Lessons learned from Ofsted’s inspections of National Curriculum citizenship, 1998-2003 - a personal view. Scott Harrison In 2018 we are celebrating, and reflecting on, the 20th anniversary of the Crick Report, which ushered in the introduction of Citizenship to the curriculum in England. In the last edition we shared insights from colleagues who had been involved in the committee and implementing its recommendations, and in this article Scott Harrison reflects on his experience as the lead inspector for Ofsted during the initial implementation period. It is interesting to reflect on how big a challenge it was to introduce a brand new subject to an established curriculum. And, as Ofsted prepares to take a fresh look at the curriculum, it is useful to reflect on the crucial role the inspectorate played, both in setting expectations and monitoring progress towards those expectations.

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Was it naïve to think that, given a clear rationale, the status of a subject in the National Curriculum, the rolling out of an ambitious teacher training programme, and inspection by Ofsted, that citizenship would quickly become established?


Summer Term 2018 sees encouraging activity from the House of Lords and the real possibility of a reboot of citizenship. The case for citizenship is now greater even than in 1998; the question is how to make the implementation of citizenship in schools more effective so that the ambitions of Sir Bernard Crick’s working group are realised. The implication here is, of course, that something went wrong. Was it naïve to think that, given a clear rationale, the status of a subject in the National Curriculum, the rolling out of an ambitious teacher training programme, and inspection by Ofsted, that citizenship would quickly become established? Maybe so. This article presents a personal view, but relates to Ofsted’s role in preparing to inspect and report on citizenship. In 1998 I was Ofsted’s specialist advisor for history and was nominated to be an observer on the Citizenship Advisory group. The importance of Ofsted to the citizenship project was apparent from the outset, and was confirmed by multiple references in the Advisory Group report1. The question was, how to respond? One view from Ofsted’s leadership was that time should be allowed to let citizenship develop and to build expertise before including it in the inspection process. Another was that Ofsted should

begin a monitoring and development programme immediately. A perceived danger in this - as everwould be that Ofsted was seen to be influencing outcomes rather than just inspecting them. Even so, the case for immediate action won. In preparation for preliminary inspections, a series of training activities took place, including an unusual event at Ofsted headquarters. This involved a group of senior HMI taking part in a spontaneous role play. Each was assigned a role as a senior or middle leader in a school and the meeting had one agenda item: to consider how the school would respond to the introduction of the new subject of citizenship. After an introduction from the newly appointed head of citizenship, perceptive and sometimes combative discussion ensued, no doubt exercising arguments that were being replicated in many schools across England. Schools were given two years’ notice of the introduction of citizenship, and Ofsted used that time to prepare its own training materials for inspectors and to establish subject criteria in parallel with those for other subjects. Holly Lodge School in Walsall agreed to be used to film some lessons that could be used for evaluation. Given that there were no citizenship lessons as such, staff in other subjects volunteered to plan lessons with Teaching Citizenship | 33

Feature Citizenship means citizenship

34 | Teaching Citizenship


Both during the planning phase and since September 2002 there has been a tension between, on the one hand, the new status of citizenship as a National Curriculum subject and, on the other, the notion that citizenship is a ‘light touch subject’. (Ofsted, 2003)


strong citizenship elements – an English lesson focused on refugees and a science lesson on an ethical dilemma, for example. These showed the willingness of participants to have a go, but also some of the dangers inherent in a purely crosscurricular approach. At the same time, drawing on inspection reports from 2001/02 and with the help of local authority contacts, schools were identified to provide evidence for Ofsted’s first citizenship report: National Curriculum Citizenship, planning and implementation 2002/032. The inspections took place in the first term after the new National Curriculum came into effect. The introduction set the tone: ‘..it was encouraging to find examples of good practice and plans with considerable potential. However, the inspection also revealed significant issues which need to be addressed if there is to be successful development of citizenship, and a shared understanding in schools and among other parties, including inspectors, of what citizenship involves.’ In over half of this small sample of schools, management of the introduction of citizenship was judged unsatisfactory ‘mainly because the full implications of citizenship as a National Curriculum subject were not understood or, in a small number of cases, because they were not accepted’. Most commonly, schools had set citizenship within an existing PSHE programmes, an arrangement that was ‘proving unsatisfactory’. With regard to training, the report found that most schools had provided key staff with training opportunities, but these had ‘little effect’. ‘In addition, some training appears to have been ill-informed’. The following is the Commentary that accompanies the report, quoted in full.

‘Both during the planning phase and since September 2002 there has been a tension between, on the one hand, the new status of citizenship as a National Curriculum subject and, on the other, the notion that citizenship is a ‘light touch subject’. This tension was not about whether or not the introduction of citizenship in schools is a ‘good thing’: largely, there has been a consensus that it is, which has been reflected in cross–party support from Members of Parliament, and in schools and the wider community. Rather, the issue was about the place of citizenship in the curriculum and where the time was to come from. This problem of curriculum time had occupied the Advisory Group on citizenship and, at one stage, threatened the unanimity of its final report. However, this remained an open question and it was left to each school to consider its individual circumstances. A second, but related issue arose from the ambiguity of the title ‘citizenship’. Many good schools took pride in their ethos and in general aspects of their curricula that promoted good citizenship. Some of these schools failed to make a distinction between this general provision and the requirements of National Curriculum citizenship. Together, the idea of a ‘light touch’ and the presence of some citizenship elements may have promoted a degree of complacency, resulting in a low-key response to the citizenship initiative. Given that most schools in the survey were selected because of positive information about the early stages of their planning, it is disappointing to find that some have not sufficiently understood the National Curriculum in citizenship, or incorporated citizenship development into policy and planning. For most of these schools, greater clarity will bring changes in the medium term. In all schools, the debate about what National Curriculum citizenship involves and its contribution to their pupils’ education needs to continue, and for some this will be a long-term project.’

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www.teachingcitizenship.org.uk | Autumn 2018 | Issue 48

‘A history department offered work on the suffragettes as an example of teaching about democracy. This represents a misunderstanding of National Curriculum citizenship. It is true that the study of suffragettes involves specific concepts and terminology that form a very useful starting point for addressing citizenship. However, unless that study leads on to some work of substance on democracy, voting rights today, equal opportunities and other issues, the contribution to citizenship is limited at best and often only implicit.’


If citizenship is to work it needs core provision taught by specialists and a National Curriculum model, which emphasises enquiry and communication, participation and responsible action as well as knowledge and understanding. (David Bell, HMCI, 2005)


In the detail, the report was critical of schools where ‘fundamental questions about the nature and purpose of citizenship have not been given due consideration’. A key stumbling block was the notion that the school was doing citizenship already – ‘as manifested in the ethos of the school or as a tangible entity in PSHE courses’. PSHE was and remains a problem in terms of the definition and scope of citizenship provision. The 2003 report noted that in some of the schools, ‘from the early stages of planning, citizenship and PSHE have been seen as an entity…with some programmes labelled as ‘citizenship’ including sex and drug education, careers, personal finance and work experience’. The report also noted that citizenship units concentrated significant blocks of content into a single period within a six-week module, for example. Moreover, the report commented that National Curriculum citizenship did not sit comfortably in PSHE programmes that were predominantly discussion-based. The report also noted some hostility at middle-leadership level, with the introduction of citizenship seen as a threat to curriculum time. This was undoubtedly true for some leaders of geography, history, and religious education. Subject audits carried out in schools showed that in these and other subject departments, citizenship was ‘claimed’ because of implicit content links. In history, for example, teaching about the English Civil War was often seen as citizenship education. Again, part of the problem was a matter of definition. The 2003 report gives this example which shows that Ofsted adopted a hard line on the need for current relevance, and one which received some criticism.

As Ofsted’s subject adviser for both history and citizenship I was conscious of the need to provide objective evidence and well-considered judgements in the interests of children’s education in both subjects. Since I first taught history in 1972, the subject had been transformed on the basis of fundamental changes to the curriculum and pedagogy, many of which related to the development of the Schools History Project. While I was at Ofsted, history was usually judged the best taught subject. Even so, wearing my citizenship hat, I found considerable frustration that teachers missed the opportunity to establish the current relevance of what they were teaching, the ‘so what?’ factor. Putting it bluntly, having cut off Charles I’s head, how do we explain the role of monarchy today? There were also tensions in defining the relationship between citizenship and geography. I recall a discussion with a head of geography following a lesson on migration. He believed the lesson to be outstanding in linking geography to citizenship; my view was that, while the content had potential, the citizenship dimension was missing because the lesson did not tease out the political implications or the actions that could be taken to address the issues pupils were studying. Teaching Citizenship | 35

Feature Citizenship means citizenship

A further problem of definition lay in the identity and relationship between the strands of citizenship, with some schools failing to realise that participation and responsible action should be in citizenship contexts, not PE. This misunderstanding was not confined to schools, as reported in Ofsted’s guidance to inspectors, ‘Update 43, 20033.

Of course, the fundamental question for schools was about the time needed for a new subject. The Advisory Group’s report said that citizenship ‘learning outcomes should be based on what should take no more than five per cent of curriculum time across the key stages’. But how this was to be achieved was left entirely to schools. The 2003 report commented ‘If schools do not timetable citizenship as a subject, for example, creating additional time, redistributing time available to establish a new subject slot, or suspending the timetable periodically, then the time for citizenship will have to be established from within the time allocated to other subjects. If most subjects are expected to play a part, they will need to consider what existing content might be reduced, re-designed or omitted 36 | Teaching Citizenship


The main lesson that has been learned is that clarity of definition and purpose is vital; citizenship carries very different meanings to different people, and it should not be assumed that citizenship means citizenship.


‘Some inspectors have been crediting work as citizenship when it is not part of the National Curriculum programme of study. For example, work in other subjects on developing enquiry and communication or on participation has been accepted as citizenship. Collaborative work in PE may be done well and be of considerable value to pupils, but it is not participation in relation to one of the knowledge topics in the first strand of the citizenship National Curriculum.’

from their programme. The report continued, ‘In several schools, the hard messages of these alternatives had not been received’. Indeed, there was an esteemed body of opinion that remained unpersuaded that citizenship should be given any curriculum time. For example, Marianne Talbot, who had been a member of the Advisory group, wrote an article for the Daily Telegraph (26 March 2003) asking ‘Citizenship: can it really be taught’. While continuing to believe that the motives for the introduction of citizenship education were sound, Marianne continued: ‘I always had reservations about citizenship being made a subject, on a par with science, history or music. It seemed to me then, and it still does, that the promotion of good citizenship should be a whole-school issue, something for which the headteacher and governors are properly responsible, something that emerges from the ethos of the school, rather than something taught within a timetabled period by specialist teachers.’ The need for ‘specialist teachers’ is implicit in the 2003 report, but at that time they were few and far between. What is clear from the report is that the approach to teaching in many schools reflected the indecisiveness of leaders’ curriculum choices. Weaknesses included lack of depth and focus, inadequate preparation and, as the pupils in some schools said, teaching that was ‘dull and poorly informed, lacking relevance and involvement’. This is in contrast to some very good teaching that showed the particular characteristics of citizenship specialists.

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The introduction of citizenship challenges some assumptions about the status quo because it is intended to empower pupils. The trick is to harness that power in a democratic school where the pupils recognise their ownership and the opportunities presented to them. For some schools, this is a long journey. They need to go back to their aims and values to ask what their education is about. An important part of any answer should be citizenship5.

‘Teachers were confident of the material and enthusiastic in its delivery. They were well aware of the difficulties that could emerge from controversial issues, but saw that impartiality is essential and that when pupils raise sensitive matters these can be used as hooks for further exploration.’ So what was the difference between the minority of schools that responded quickly and effectively to the introduction of citizenship and those whose response was more muted? With hindsight, the early reports concentrate on difficulties and ambiguities found in schools without directly addressing the governors and headteachers responsible for key strategic decisions. The importance of senior leadership of citizenship was accented in HMCI’s 2005 Annual Report, which addressed the ‘reluctance, resistance, scepticism’ of leaders towards citizenship and those ‘who do not see it as a priority for their school’4. In his Roscoe Lecture in 2005 David Bell, the then Her Majesty’s Chief Inspector of Schools nailed down the key issue: If citizenship is to work it needs core provision taught by specialists and a National Curriculum model, which emphasises enquiry and communication, participation and responsible action as well as knowledge and understanding but at the same time guarantees that a tangible and challenging citizenship programme exists. He went further, citing the principles and indicators arising from the Council of Europe’s research into Education for Democratic Citizenship. Aiming his comments directly at school leaders, he said: www.teachingcitizenship.org.uk | Autumn 2018 | Issue 48

So to 2018 and the potential for a relaunch of citizenship. The great advantage over 2002 is that there is now the experience of success in those schools which have developed visionary and ambitious programmes of citizenship education. However, there remain many where citizenship has never been a tangible entity in their curriculum, and some that tried but fell back because the ingredients, such as specialist teaching, were not in place, or because citizenship was deprioritised in the light of other pressures. Evidence from Ofsted’s evaluations suggests that, if the question were to be put, the overall verdict on citizenship provision in schools over the last two decades must be that it ‘requires improvement’. The main lesson that has been learned is that clarity of definition and purpose is vital; citizenship carries very different meanings to different people, and it should not be assumed that citizenship means citizenship. Education for citizenship and the teaching of democracy in schools, DfEE 1988. National Curriculum Citizenship, planning and implementation, Ofsted 2002/03. 3 Update 43, Ofsted, 2003. 4 The Annual Report of Her Majesty’s Chief Inspector of Schools, 2004/05; Citizenship in Secondary Schools. 5 At the outset, Ofsted provided regular detailed reports on provision in schools and also reports on post-16 and initial teacher education. From 2005, reports were based on surveys from a sample of schools, around 100 over a three year period. These yielded reports in 2006 (‘Towards Consensus?’), 2010 (‘Citizenship Established?’) and 2013 (‘Citizenship consolidated?’) Since the last of these reports, Ofsted’s subject survey programme has ceased, so that its only evidence of provision arises incidentally from the programme of section 5 and section 8 inspections of schools. 1 2

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Women’s Suffrage: history and citizenship resources for schools

Coming soon: inspire your students and engage them with their own democratic future through this free resource containing historical and contemporary case studies of suffrage and equality campaigners. Database ‘It brought the story of the suffrage movement to life because the students were finding out about real women, including women who lived in their town.’ Search through records of almost 3,000 individuals from around the UK who fought for women to get the vote. The data has been collected from the 1866 Women’s Suffrage Petition and the 1914 Home Office Amnesty (an index of suffragette arrests from 1906 to 1914) and contains additional research and links to online sources.

Case studies ‘The case studies of contemporary change makers provide pupils with a fascinating insight into how people campaign to improve society and continue the work towards equality.’ Worked-up historical and contemporary case studies give pupils an insight into the lives of ordinary people involved in the ongoing work towards equality and creating a better society for all. Individuals have been selected to reflect the diversity of those involved in and their campaigning approaches along with their backgrounds and stories.

38 | Teaching Citizenship 6 Teaching History 172

September 2018

www.teachingcitizenship.org.uk | Autumn 2018 | Issue 48 The Historical Association

Enquiries and teaching ideas ‘It generated a lot of discussion from all ability groups, and made us think about the stories we think we know and how they are presented to us.’ A selection of historical and citizenship enquiries allows teachers the flexibility to cover different key questions with mixed-ability classes, looking at the suffrage movement through concepts such as cause and consequence, significance and interpretations. They will explore ideas of suffrage, equality and democracy through the stories of change makers and learn how citizens today can be active in campaigning for equality and change. Questions include: How did women win the vote? What were the suffrage campaigners fighting for? Why do historians have different views of the suffrage movement? Is there inequality today and how can we change things? What makes a change maker successful? How can we take action?

Plus... Video to illustrate how pupils can use structured interviews to illicit understanding and learn from change makers. Podcasts with academic historians to improve teacher and student subject knowledge of the history of democracy, women and politics from the seventeenth century. Films for history and citizenship, including historical footage, interviews and discussions on acceptable simplification.

Writing team Academic researcher: Tara Morton History: Rachel Foster, Claire Holliss, Corinne Goullee, Matthew Stanford, Mary Feerick, Alf Wilkinson Citizenship: Liz Moorse, Val Pumfrey, Ryan Mason, Zoe Bowden Supported by the Government Equalities Office, Cabinet Office and Department for Education

Register now to receive fortnightly case studies highlighting key campaigners at:

www.suffrageresources.org.uk www.teachingcitizenship.org.uk | Autumn 2018 | Issue 48 Teaching History 172

Teaching Citizenship | 39 September 2018

The Historical Association



Constructing ‘the other’ in order to define one’s identity? Alistair Ross In this article Alistair Ross shares some of the findings from a large scale research project he has conducted across Europe. In particular he focuses on a key issue arising from his conversations with young people – is it possible to conceive of oneself as upholding certain values and rights without simultaneously imagining ‘others’ who do not espouse the same values? For teachers promoting democratic values, do we see such a process as the development of political awareness, or should we be wary of any process that excludes the ‘other’ as fundamentally alien to us in some ways. The discussions related in this article reveal how complex it is to promote democratic values, toleration and inclusion.

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It’s possible to define oneself in terms of the values that one holds, and this can be quite admirable… But does this at the same time require such a person… to construct an ‘other’, the people who do not uphold these values?


This article poses a potential dilemma for citizenship educators. It’s possible to define oneself in terms of the values that one holds, and this can be quite admirable: for example, as a person who wants to uphold human rights and to work for social justice. But does this at the same time require such a person – may be a young idealist in a citizenship education class – to construct an ‘other’, the people who do not uphold these values? How is this compatible with constructions of inclusion? This dilemma was prompted by one of the findings of a research project I’ve recently completed - a personal post-retirement activity that I embarked on in 2010. I visited over a hundred different towns, cities and villages in 29 European countries*, and in each engaged in discussions with small groups of 11 to 19 year old young people, talking with some two thousand of them in 340 conversations. This took place over 2010 to 2106, and the nature of what they talked about inevitably reflected the context that was then current, in that particular location – and it was very noticeable how much they used local and recent events to illustrate their arguments and beliefs – but makes broad generalisations difficult. But I was working with the understanding that most people will not necessarily have firm and fixed senses of identity: the ways in which a person chooses to describe their identities will depend on the context in

which they are engaged. Questionnaires that ask a person to select the predetermined category that represents them fail to capture anything but the most simple of identities, and are unable to capture the contingent, multiple or the overlapping. I need here to explain my methodology in conducting these discussions, to show how this particular dilemma about values and othering arose. My discussions were deliberately constructed to appear to lack focus, to let the group members feel that they were in control of the pace and direction of the conversation, but my open-ended questions, although very often made in response to what had been said by a group member, did have the intention of getting these young people to talk about their sense of attachment to their locality, country and other locations that could be seen as political identities. My apparent lack of structure was designed to not seem to be an interrogation, but to capture and use the narratives the young people themselves used – thus my initial use of the words ‘your country’, letting them (perhaps) introduce terms such as ‘state’ and ‘nation’, and only then inquiring into what they meant, for examples, for contexts. Fairly early in each discussion I asked if there were aspects of their country’s society that they were pleased about, perhaps even proud of. This in itself often moved discussion swiftly forward

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Alistair Ross, Jean Monnet professor of European Citizenship Education, Emeritus Professor London Metropolitan University

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Many began by describing Europe, or the European Union, in instrumental terms… As deliberations progressed, many groups began to add further characteristics about values, and about differences to other parts of the world.


to my next topic, which was to ask about things that they were less pleased about, that they might like to change, about which there was generally much more to be said. We’d talk further about whether there were diverse views about the issues they raised in the country, and whether these were expressed by particular groups: it was quite often that they saw some older people as more conservative or racist, for example. We talked about their sense of affiliation with the country they were in, or other countries with which they might have heritage links (about 23% of the young people I talked with). Occasionally, there was stereotyping of ‘other’ groups, though this was not the norm. In one example, a group of young women in the Czech small city of Ostrava produced a series of well-worn tropes about the local Roma community. I wouldn’t mind them here if they didn’t cause that much trouble. (Eliška, 13) [or] if they didn’t move here in such great numbers. (Rostislava, 12) Some countries may not want them and so they move … and instead of behaving normally they just make more trouble … they often steal, they damage civic property. (Eliška) They are different from us, and they are vulgar! People should adjust to the majority they live with - the Roma people are very different … (Zora, 14) And in the Belgian small town of Torhout, there was pronounced othering of Muslims. Aart (a 16 year old young man) started: ‘immigrants come to Belgium with a mindset that ‘Belgium has to change for me’ – and it’s not the way it goes. They learn some of the culture, but they don’t like the culture, so they try to change Belgium.’ Pim (16, male) made it clear that they were talking about Muslims: ‘They want to build their mosque on our grounds - we have a normal Christian church, and they want to build their own mosque in the middle of the city.’ I challenged them: had not Belgium built churches in the colonies? Pim

responded ‘Belgium occupied the colonies, so they had the right to do what they want – but now they come to our country, but we are still above them, I think – so we have a little bit more to say than they do.’ But this was generally an exception: most young people seemed to be trying not to create stereotyped others. Sometimes Europe was mentioned as one of their affiliations. After about half an hour, I would raise Europe: ‘as well as feeling the way you do about this/these countries, do you sometimes feel that you are also, in some way also, also European?’ This usually set off a discussion on what ‘Europe’ might mean, and whether there were distinctive characteristics of Europe or Europeans. Views varied, but many began by describing Europe, or the European Union, in instrumental terms – for example, Danilo (a 14 year old young man in the Swiss small town of Holmbrechtikon) began by describing the European Union as simply ‘different countries that agree on certain issues, in commerce and business.’ Later on in the discussion, he modified this: ‘in Europe there’s freedom of opinion. .. every country that wants to join should comply with the rules and laws of the European Union,’ and then, a few minutes later, ‘now that I think about it, human rights are more important.’ As deliberations progressed, many groups began to add further characteristics about values, and about differences to other parts of the world. Not infrequently, contrasts were drawn between European values and those of the United States. These discussions all took place before March 2015, that is well before Trump had emerged as the Republican candidate. America was seen as having different values: around capital punishment, social security, racism, and climate change, as well as very different customs. Thus in Akueyri, a small town in the north of Iceland, a 17 year old young woman, Katrín, said ‘capital punishment is a civic rights issue - people who do really bad things should be kept in prison Teaching Citizenship | 41

Feature Constructing ‘the other’ in order to define one’s identity?

for life, but they shouldn’t be killed – I don’t like that about America, and that’s what I like about Europe, the death sentence isn’t allowed.’ The same issue was raised in Italy in the central large town of Frascati by Coralie, a 14 year old young woman: ‘there’s no capital punishment – in the US they are killed. In Europe, they are kept in prison for a lot of time. For me, they have the right to live, one of the most important rights.’ America was seen as a violent society: in Luxembourg, Rose (17 years old) said ‘it seems normal that everyone in America has a gun, and that they have the right to shoot.’ European societies were seen as socially responsible, compared to the United States. Also in Luxembourg, Lou (female, 17) said of the USA ‘in Luxembourg, it’s normal that we have social security … to us, it seems idiotic. They are against social security - it’s normal to us, to them it’s absurd.’ In the German large city of Hannover, Jule (female, 13) said ‘things which aren’t allowed in Europe are allowed in the United States – there you don’t have to be medically insured,’ and Anke (15, female) referred to European ‘unemployment benefit – in the USA they don’t have this security.’ In Dortmund, another large city in Germany, 42 | Teaching Citizenship


America was seen as having different values: around capital punishment, social security, racism, and climate change, as well as very different customs


Young girl wearing sunglasses, image from European Parliament, EYE 2014.

Rahel (17, female) spoke of ‘our social insurance system, our medical insurance systems, and I think that’s a big difference to the USA.’ Racial discrimination was seen as another aspect of America: the Black Lives Matter campaign was starting when I spoke with Roldão (17, male, Moldovan) in Faro, Portugal: ‘Europe is better in terms of human rights, because there is a lot of racism in the USA against black people - here, there is racism too – but not that much.’ In Segovia, Benita (13, female) said she was ‘proud to be in the European Community, because compared to the rest of the world we are one of the most advanced continents – in America there is a lot of discrimination because of the different colour of the skin – here in Europe there is not so much – in America some police killed a black boy.’ In the Austrian small city of Linz, Elkin (17, female, of Turkish descent, and who had narrated examples of Austrian racism towards her mother) said ‘Compared to other countries like Turkey or America in Austria you can see the equality between the sexes, and there isn’t as much racism as in the other countries – which is really good, because you hear about America, how Black people are getting shot for being black, it’s kind of unreal, you see people here are so nice to each other most of the time.’ There were also concerns about the environment that made the United States different. In the Danish small city of Odense, Flemming (17, male) said ‘there’s a lot of people in Europe who feel that we have to take responsibility, while the US doesn’t - global warming and stuff like that, Europe has rules and laws about CO2 , Europe has more feeling of responsibility to the world than most other countries.’ In Wien, the Austrian capital, Cordula (19, female) referred to ‘how American animals are treated - it’s very bad, it’s better here.

www.teachingcitizenship.org.uk | Autumn 2018 | Issue 48

Map showing countries visited for data collection

www.teachingcitizenship.org.uk | Autumn 2018 | Issue 48


I think even though not all of us here are of the same origins, we can share an identity as Europeans – it’s not really a culture, but – I think we share values that are so normal to us that we don’t really see it. (Pascaline, Lille)


That’s why I don’t want this TTIP thing, with food from America.’ The stress on human rights as a European value did not preclude criticisms of some European states – and again, as in the example of Danilo in Switzerland, as the discussion progressed the emphasis on rights was often intensified. In the French small city of Lille, Laurence (16, female) began by defining Europe as having a ‘shared economic policy more than a social one – to speak for myself, we don’t feel European because of the social laws that have been passed, but it’s a good thing for the economies.’ But a little later in the discussion, Pascaline (15, female) said ‘I think even though not all of us here are of the same origins, we can share an identity as Europeans – it’s not really a culture, but – I think we share values that are so normal to us that we don’t really see it.’ This prompted Laurence to observe that ‘Viktor Orbán in Hungary tried to reintroduce the death sentence, and because of Europe he couldn’t – he just abandoned the project – so I think that’s a nice aspect of Europe, that he had to abandon it.’ Blaise (15, male) then added ‘I totally agree with Laurence – in the middle of the 2000s in Austria when Jorg Haider, the far right leader, was elected some Europeans tried to install some sanctions and penalties when he took away some rights of homosexuals an unmarried couples, but the European Union was there to restrain him – it’s like a dog leash.’ Other countries were ‘othered’ by this perception of a Europe characterised by rights, particularly Russia. Again, this could be seen as a perception that developed over the course of a discussion. In Brussels, this can be seen in the development of Loes’s (17, female) arguments. She began by saying ‘I also don’t feel European – I guess that we have advantages in that it is easier to travel, and I like

that.’ After a while, she conceded ‘… so it is easier, and everything is more open,’ and a little later said ‘I think that Europe has this common goal … to make Europe a better place, make sure that everyone has equal rights. I don’t think that we are there yet.’ At this point, another member of the group observed that President Putin did not appear to be very democratic. Loes exploded at this: ‘Not very democratic? I think Putin is not democratic at all – the complete opposite. It’s the complete opposite of what we want to do with the European Union – if we let him have more power in the European Union, then that’s the end, all people who are not straight will be prosecuted, a lot of people who aren’t in the right place, in his opinion, will just be moved, it would tear the European Union apart.’ While I never prompted questions about the United States, I did quite often ask about Russia. Towards the end of my time, I would ask a rare more direct question. ‘You’re a member of the European Union [or seeking to join, in the countries not yet members]. What would you say if – say Russia – asked to join? Would you think this a good, thing, a bad thing, or wouldn’t it matter?’ In Slagelse, a large town in Denmark, this led to an outburst from Nelly (15, female) that was similar to that of Loes. ‘If Russia was allowed to join the European Union I would be outraged … they don’t have the right to be homosexual – they can be arrested for it, actually. It’s not in the laws of all [European Union] countries yet … I’m particularly interested, I spend a lot of time researching it. It is very important that a country in the European Union has human rights, the basic rights to be yourself… Pussy Riot are one of my idols … because they go against the church and the politicians who are corrupt.’ This sort of reaction was not confined to Teaching Citizenship | 43

Feature Constructing ‘the other’ in order to define one’s identity?

44 | Teaching Citizenship


It is hard to see how one can champion a rights-based set of identities in a way that does not, at the same time, create an ‘other’ of those societies that do not follow the same values. Does this matter? How ‘inclusive’ should we be?


Western Europe. In the Romanian large city of Iaşi, there was a long discussion between a group of 16 year olds about why Romania couldn’t be seen as a European country. Cristian, a young man, was adamant: ‘No, I don’t think so. We can’t compare ourselves to European countries like Germany, England … we aren’t in the same bracket.’ The rest of the group agreed: one young man, Beryx, said ‘I’ve never felt that I’m European … and if I felt it, I never got help from anybody - nothing changed [when] we integrated into the European Union … it’s exactly the same.’ But when I asked about possible Russian membership of the European Union, Cristian was instantly opposed to the idea: ‘I think they can’t [join]. Because if we look at the history, they always were different. Being such a big country - sort of hungry for more land, for more power - they wouldn’t cooperate well with the European Union. They … I don’t see them as people who can obey rules very easily, and have common sense.’ Everyone in the group agreed, and I asked Cristian that when he said Russia was ‘different’, from whom did he mean? Cristian: ‘I think from Europe. Because we try to be sort of politically correct here, and they don’t really - they have a sort of - history, a habit, of exploiting underdeveloped countries, and a more recent habit of doing it.’ But, I said, you are now talking about ‘we Europeans’? He laughed at himself: ‘Argh! Yes, yes, I know … as a mentality, as a country, I think of us being exactly in the middle - I think we incline to be more European-ish than Russian. We, we evolved towards the European, I think.’ Thinking of the contrast with Russia had emphasised to him his sense of sharing European norms. These examples, I suggest, prompt some interesting questions. It is interesting how, for many of these young Europeans, the concept of Europe develops over the course of these generally non-directed free-wheeling discussions and deliberations. It was striking how often Europe was initially described in functional and instrumentalist terms, in what seemed to me to be often the language of the didactic text book. Yet over the course of an hour, as ideas were

batted to and fro – and not my ideas, or at my prompting – the construction of ‘Europe’ began to focus on broad human rights. But this was achieved at the expense of contrasting it with other countries where they felt such rights were lacking, or were markedly less well observed than in Europe – in the United States, in Russia, in Belarus. ‘Othering’ was generally not about stereotypical views of the Roma and of Muslims, but of those with value systems that challenged their view of rights. Yet I suggest most teachers would want their students to espouse such rights, and to challenge lack of such rights. And the young people themselves largely (but with a minority opposing) wanted to actively challenge the denial or lack of these rights – social rights, the rights of the LBGT communities, the rights of migrants, refugees and Black people, and to criticise countries and states that denied these. It is hard to see how one can champion a rightsbased set of identities in a way that does not, at the same time, create an ‘other’ of those societies that do not follow the same values. Does this matter? How ‘inclusive’ should we be? And, for educators, perhaps the deeper lesson of these discussions may be that it required long and deliberative discussions, in which young people felt confident that the agenda was following their concerns and needs, for these issues to develop and emerge. The longer they talked and discussed between themselves, the more nuanced and refined their ideas became. * These countries were Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus (north and south), Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Hungary, Iceland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Macedonia, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and Turkey. I have not (yet) gathered data from the UK and Ireland, or Greece and some of the western Balkan states. Finding Political Identities: Young People in a Changing Europe by Alistair Ross was published earlier this year by Palgrave Macmillan.

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Feature Tom Franklin, Chief Executive Young Citizens

Young Citizens Tom Franklin The Citizenship Foundation has become Young Citizens. We asked Tom, the Chief Executive, to update readers on the changes and outline some of the charity’s main programmes and activities for schools.


Our work at Young Citizens is to help teachers swim against the tide: to do everything we can to make it easier for both schools and youth organisations to give young people those unforgettable citizenship experiences that will literally change course of their citizenship lives

www.teachingcitizenship.org.uk | Autumn 2018 | Issue 48


Whenever I hold meetings with groups of people to discuss something about citizenship education, I often start by asking everyone a simple question. I ask them to share an experience of citizenship education that they remember from when they were at school. The answers people give vary tremendously – depending on age and types of school they went to. Invariably, though, the most impactful experiences come from those who recall an opportunity to actually put into practice being an active citizen when they were at school. These people often say how those experiences were catalysts setting off chain reactions - as they learnt ever more about democratic society, developed their own values and beliefs, and grew in confidence that they could make a difference. I was thinking about this as I heard about the campaign run this year by Year 6 pupils of South Hetton Primary School in County Durham. They have recently completed their involvement in Young Citizens’ Make a Difference Challenge programme, running a campaign against period poverty. They worked together to choose the issue to campaign on, research it, and develop their ideas into a campaign. They set up donation points at local venues and collected donations of sanitary products, then created ‘pant packs’ to give to their local food bank. Just as importantly, they also raised awareness of the problems of period poverty, and worked with their local MP to have the issue raised in Parliament, including at Prime Ministers Questions. The pupils had the support of their teachers, of course, to help them develop their knowledge and skills and give them encouragement. However, crucially, the pupils themselves were in charge – setting the agenda and making their own decisions. As I heard about what they had done, I imagined how in 20 years’ time, if they were asked the above question, they might very well recall this experience as an important moment in their development as active citizens.

For me, this sums up the essence of what we do at Young Citizens. You may be thinking that you haven’t heard of us before? Well, earlier this year, just before our 30th birthday year begins, we took the decision to change our name from the Citizenship Foundation. We wanted to make it clearer what we were about. Our purpose is to help young people become young citizens active, engaged and motivated - who are able and willing to make positive contributions to their communities. The need for citizenship education for all young people has never been greater, at a time when so much about our democratic society is under threat in a way few of us envisaged even a short while ago. Yet the changes to our education system over the past decade have invariably made it much harder for schools to provide the high quality citizenship education which we believe to be a right and necessity for all primary and secondary pupils. So our work at Young Citizens is to help teachers swim against this tide: to do everything we can to make it easier for both schools and youth organisations to give young people those unforgettable citizenship experiences that will literally change course of their citizenship lives. Our aim over the next decade is to help many more schools, thus helping many more children and young people to claim their stake in society. In this way, we can defy the drift of education policy towards an evernarrower, increasingly-academic, learn-to-thetest curriculum, and instead help prepare young people for their civic life. Young Citizens’ experiential programmes for schools and youth groups are varied. They include: Make a Difference Challenge – as mentioned above – aimed at primary schools, and helping teachers to enable classes of pupils to run their own social action campaigns, increasing their sense of agency that they, too, can ‘make a difference’. Teaching Citizenship | 45

Feature Young Citizens

Mock Trials – our long-running national competitions in which secondary school pupils take over court rooms across the UK and hold ‘trials’ of cases drawn up by barristers, in front of real judges - developing their understanding of the law and skills such as advocacy. We also aim to make teachers’ lives easier by providing them with high quality teaching materials and tools, focused on topical issues – recognising that many of those who teach citizenship have not had the training they would like. Current examples include: Brexit – a series of lesson plans looking at citizens’ rights and well as workshops to help students get under the skin of Brexit issues and better understand the pros and cons and implications. Migration – lessons, workshops and videos to help young people understand this hugely topical issue, as well as develop their own views about where they stand. Social media and the law – helping young people navigate their way around the rights and responsibilities associated with online activity. Enabling them to understand the rules around responsibility for what we post, and the impact that social media can have on individuals and society. SMSC Quality Mark – helping schools to review their Social, Moral, Spiritual and Cultural education, and to make improvements using a whole school approach. Finally, we run our Experts in Schools programme, whereby we link up different types of professionals with schools to work with pupils on citizenship issues. We’ve lawyers volunteering 46 | Teaching Citizenship


As well as providing the handson support for schools and youth organisations, we’ll never stop campaigning for a rounded curriculum which gives space to developing the civic side of young people


Democracy Ambassadors – a new programme for 13-16 year olds through youth groups, to train young people in democracy – how it works, and how to get involved - and then to support them to work with their peers to encourage active engagement.

to help them understand how the law affects their daily life; economists helping young people understand how the economy works; people in the media industry working with pupils on distinguishing fake from real news; and we also have university politics students volunteering in classrooms to help young people get a better grasp on how politics works. The House of Lords Select Committee on Citizenship and Civic Engagement this year published its report, The Ties that Bind, which argued for a statutory right for all school pupils to receive high quality citizenship education. At Young Citizens, we argue that no young person should leave school without having had the opportunities to develop their knowledge, skills and confidence to be active citizens. That’s why we are proud to also work alongside the Association of Citizenship Teaching and others to campaign to promote the wider purpose of education, beyond a narrow focus on employability. There are few things that are more frustrating than when we hear from teachers that, although they know how beneficial programmes like ours are for their pupils, they can no longer take part because there’s now so little space in their curriculum for experiential learning. So as well as providing the hands-on support for schools and youth organisations, we’ll never stop campaigning for a rounded curriculum which gives space to developing the civic side of young people. As we near our 30th birthday, with our new name and ambitious goals, our focus on high quality citizenship education for young people remains what drives us. We won’t be satisfied until, in asking people to reflect on their citizenship education at school, everyone will be able to recall an experience as powerful as those pupils from South Hetton Primary School will be able to. Every young person has the right to be an active young citizen. To find out more about the different programmes mentioned in this article, go to www.youngcitizens.org

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Ben Kisby is a Senior Lecturer in the School of Social and Political Sciences at the University of Lincoln. He can be contacted at bkisby@lincoln.ac.uk

Citizenship Education and Populism Ben Kisby At the 2018 ACT summer conference Ben Kisby and colleagues from the Political Studies Association hosted a seminar to discuss some of the contemporary trends in politics with which Citizenship teachers have to engage. Here Ben shares some thoughts about the rise of populism and the implications for Citizenship in schools.

www.teachingcitizenship.org.uk | Autumn 2018 | Issue 48


Populism juxtaposes ‘the people’ against ‘the elite’… with ‘the people’ viewed as a force for moral good and ‘the elite’ regarded as morally corrupt, placing their or others’ needs and interests above those of ‘the people’


Populism has been on the rise in recent years as mainstream political leaders across a range of different countries seem increasingly disconnected from ordinary citizens, many of whom evidently don’t like the direction their leaders are taking them in. What is driving this disconnect? This is a huge question and no doubt the answer will be different in different places. But whether it is citizens feeling left behind by globalisation or technological change or worried about austerity or immigration or greater ethnic, religious or cultural diversity, many have a sense that their concerns are being ignored – and they are looking for political leaders who they feel will speak for them. What is ‘populism’? The word doesn’t have a single, accepted definition but is widely used to refer to an ideology that juxtaposes ‘the people’, the majority in society, against ‘the elite’, a narrow section of society comprising a relatively small number of individuals, with ‘the people’ viewed as a force for moral good and ‘the elite’, often the ‘establishment’ of one kind or another, regarded as morally corrupt, placing their or others’ needs and interests above those of ‘the people’. It is a relation of antagonism. It is a form of anti-politics or, at least, anti-mainstream politics. Hence the success enjoyed by a number of politicians in different countries who are able to present themselves as non-politicians or, at least, as different from ordinary or normal politicians. Populism can be combined with a range of other ideologies across the political spectrum and so there can be far-left populists and far-right populists and populists at different points in between.

Over the past few years we have seen left-wing populism in Greece, Spain and elsewhere. Bernie Sanders’ relative success in the US, where he did much better than many commentators had anticipated in his bid to become the Democrats’ Presidential candidate, can be attributed, in part, to his populist appeal. Sanders was an outsider, deeply critical of the Democratic party just as Donald Trump was of the Republican party. In France, Emmanuel Macron became the French President having created a new centrist political party, En Marche! and standing against candidates of the established parties. Perhaps the best known contemporary examples of populism that immediately spring to many people’s minds are Brexit and the election of Trump as US President. Trump is a populist right-winger and support for the UK withdrawal from the EU tends to be seen as a victory for the political right, although, of course, many on the political left have a history of Euro-scepticism, including the current (and, in some respects, rather populist) leader of the Labour party, Jeremy Corbyn. What are those of us with a desire to promote citizenship education to make of the rise of populism? If it manifests itself in a political form we may not personally like, perhaps it is unsurprising if we recoil in horror. Yet, as educators keen to see citizens engaging in forms of political activity and civic engagement, I would suggest that we don’t want to join with those who would simply dismiss the views of others with whom they disagree. Populism brings forward issues that significant numbers of people are concerned about and which may be being ignored by governments. Politicians need to address citizens’ concerns, Teaching Citizenship | 47

Feature Citizenship Education and Populism

which may, of course, be perfectly legitimate, such as worries about unemployment and economic insecurity. On the other hand, what citizenship educators want to see is not only an engaged but an informed citizenry. This requires a focus on the development of what the 1998 Crick report called ‘political literacy’, whereby citizens are provided with the knowledge and skills they need to participate in the democratic life of their polities. An understanding of political institutions and processes and the ability to engage critically with political ideas and messages, whether coming from politicians, the media or elsewhere, is essential for the development of active citizenship. In an age of social media and fake news this is of vital importance. The new populists tend to be social media savvy, but like past populists they may offer a simple diagnosis of problems, real or imagined, they may be uninterested in compromise, 48 | Teaching Citizenship


Informed, active citizens… are able to work with other like-minded individuals and groups to standup to populism when it takes an ugly form and they are able to explain to supporters of populists the problems with the ideas that populist leaders and parties are putting forward


Populism and anti-populism on the streets

and the sometimes complex, messy business of politics. Moreover, populism, of a radical form, often involves a simplistic positing of ‘the people’, as if this is a homogenous group with identical interests and perspectives. It may involve scapegoating individuals or groups. Populist political leaders, such as Trump, may play on citizens’ fears about terrorism or asylum seekers and attack the press and the judiciary in the name of ‘the people’. Critics of populism are often labelled as elitists by populists and regarded as part of the problem. But it is not elitist to want citizens to be able to critically engage with political ideas. It is not elitist to stand up for facts and evidence and truth in the face of emotional appeals, misleading information and outright lies or to challenge extreme nationalist or racist or sexist discourse or to speak out in favour of human rights and equality. These are all prerequisites for a wellfunctioning liberal democracy. Democracies need active and informed citizens, willing and able to play a part in the democratic process so as to safeguard and bolster democratic principles. Citizenship education, properly conceived and delivered, seeks to address issues of general concern through collective action. It is concerned to connect citizens to the political system and help them make sense of a complex political world, thereby strengthening democracy. It involves inculcating the values of liberty and democracy, which means rejecting simple majoritarianism where it threatens individual rights and supporting media freedom, the maintenance of the rule of law and the independence of the judiciary. Informed, active citizens know how to engage with populism without granting a false legitimacy to extremist ideas. They are able to work with other like-minded individuals and groups to stand-up to populism when it takes an ugly form and they are able to explain to supporters of populists the problems with the ideas that populist leaders and parties are putting forward. They are able to see through populist fantasies of introducing policies that will unproblematically benefit everyone in society – ‘the people’. Citizenship educators want citizens to be able and willing to challenge not just mainstream politicians but also populist demagogues and parties when they advance bad ideas.

www.teachingcitizenship.org.uk | Autumn 2018 | Issue 48

Feature Shereen Sherwan Al-Barzangi, Kingston University PGCE alumni, Teacher of Humanities at The Moat School

“What’s the point of studying Citizenship anyway?” Reflections on the PGCE year Shereen Sherwan Al-Barzangi At the start of her first year as a newly qualified teacher, we asked Shereen Sherwan Al-Barzangi to reflect on her Citizenship PGCE year. She shares some of the highs and lows of her school experience, and also highlights some of the issues that young people and teachers alike are grappling with in the current education system. Thinking critically about policy, and clearly about what one values, are as important for frustrated staff as they are for students who find school doesn’t always address the things they care about.

www.teachingcitizenship.org.uk | Autumn 2018 | Issue 48


My year 10 students were able to highlight many of the key factors on why subjects such as Citizenship were not ‘taken seriously’ – this ultimately gave me an insight into how students felt about school and the importance of having a subject such as Citizenship in the curriculum


“What’s the point of studying Citizenship anyway? We can’t change anything.” That was the most common phrase I heard during my placements. As a Politics graduate, I anticipated some difficulties during the PGCE year; however, I did not expect to face one in convincing my students of the importance of issues such as Brexit and formulating their own views through discussion. What I also hadn’t realised when I entered one of my placement schools in south west of London, was that in a school which wasn’t particularly ethnically diverse, the misconceptions about key issues in our modern society were too common for my liking. One particular subject that sparked fury in one of my Citizenship classes concerned ‘refugees’ - I soon sensed the general attitude of the students at the school. Some students were quite confused by the term ‘refugee’, the context behind what was occurring around the world with regards to refugees fleeing their homes, especially in Syria; some students weren’t even aware of the UK’s involvement in the current Syrian crisis. Further to this, when students heard words such as ‘migration’ or ‘immigrant’ they instinctively associated it with negative ideas. While I wasn’t too surprised by this, it was when I spoke with a Spanish colleague, who voiced that she was an economic immigrant

to her students, which left her students in sheer shock, that I became an advocate of addressing misconceptions. As teachers our role is to break the dishonest narratives created by the media, which contribute to xenophobic opinions being developed. It is fundamental that we teach students that using words such as ‘immigrant’ as an insult is immoral and that there are distinctive types of migration, which have existed for decades, including during the Second World War. To be perfectly frank - many of the students, if not all of them were not to blame, they were desperate to know what was going on in Syria but simply did not have the comprehension beyond what was shown to them by the media. Our students need a platform to engage in thoughtful debate and examine controversial claims which would ultimately allow them to become active citizens and together be able to participate in the shaping of their future society. It wasn’t that they needed a voice, as a student expressed in the recent 2018 ACT conference, because they had one, but rather an opportunity to voice their thoughts about the world around them. As a new Citizenship teacher, the expectations for my subject felt clear at the start - I would embody the subject in a manner which would allow young people to be Teaching Citizenship | 49

Feature “What’s the point of studying Citizenship anyway?” Reflections on the PGCE year

Colleagues at the ACT conference

politically literate because that is what I felt passionate about. I hoped that the subject of Citizenship would be given some prominence in the ethos of the schools I worked at, due to the lack of understanding of what the subject matter in Citizenship entailed. The most frustrating questions I was asked by staff was why I was teaching Citizenship and whether it was the same as PSHE. While I value PSHE and consider it to be important for students’ well-being - especially when focusing on topics such as: Mental health, the rise of online identities and the deep understanding of child exploitation - predominantly because young people are exposed to information on the Internet at such a young age. Citizenship is not PSHE because Citizenship is about being an active citizen in society. In both of my placements, GCSE Citizenship was not offered, which left many students questioning the ‘point’ of the class, especially when they could be using that period to study for the subjects that they were going to be examined on. Unfortunately, the vigorous examinations in core subjects meant that students often displayed lethargic attitudes in class when they knew they weren’t going to be marked. Interestingly, I decided to question my year 10 class about this during a class debate and many of my students took this as a chance to express their frustration at the education system and the excessive pressure on ensuring they have met their targets. Although I was saddened by their views, particularly because students did not feel valued in their educational environment, which should be designed to allow students to learn, rather than disengaging them; students were not ever given a platform to articulate their thoughts on what changes they would like to see in education policy. Studying the PGCE at Kingston University London meant that I was able to explore issues like education policy further in the academic module of Perspectives 50 | Teaching Citizenship

on Policy, Practice and Professionalism module studied during the year. It also introduced me to research by Stephen Balls on testing and performativity, which questions the effectiveness of standardised testing and examines how schools (managers, teachers and students) feel under pressure to meet ‘targets’. My year 10 students were able to highlight many of the key factors on why subjects such as Citizenship were not ‘taken seriously’ – this ultimately gave me an insight into how students felt about school and the importance of having a subject such as Citizenship in the curriculum. A subject, which I believe will develop invaluable skills that will be embodied into a student’s character. Additionally, while I still feel strongly about having GCSE Citizenship in place, I have come to terms with the reality that not all schools will feel that this is compulsory. However, given all schools are required to teach Citizenship (in whatever shape or form it comes), I think it is important for teachers to appreciate that students (whether or not they collect a brown envelope with their Citizenship grade on results day) can learn things in a Citizenship teacher’s classroom that will truly have an impact on the way they view the world around them. I found that in my experience of teaching Citizenship - when students became accustomed to discussing relevant contemporary subjects, which involve the differences in the diversity of our world, awareness of injustices and inequalities, as well as the promotion of progress in a global culture of human rights in both local communities and on a wider world level; students will respect the subject. As teachers, whether we are Citizenship specialists or not, we must acknowledge the significance of Citizenship in the curriculum and we must continue the on-going struggle of allowing our students some autonomy in their learning in a subject like Citizenship. www.teachingcitizenship.org.uk | Autumn 2018 | Issue 48


Tsutomu Kubota and Noriko Sakade Tsutomu Kubota is a teacher and deputy head of SGH Programme, in the Hyogo Prefectural High School, Japan. Readers wishing to know more or to explore links with his school can contact him at: Email address: macallan5@yahoo.co.jp Noriko Sakade is a lecturer, at the Institute of International Education in London, UK.

Educating to Create a World for the Future: a Unique Approach to Global Citizenship Education - Research-based learning at Hyogo High School in Japan Tsutomu Kubota and Noriko Sakade In this case study of practice from Japan, Tsutomu and Noriko share some interesting examples of the kinds of pressing social issues being dealt with in their school. Tsutomu has developed a coherent structure for building progression across the age range 16-18, and this article is, in part, an invitation to readers to get in touch and explore school linking opportunities.

‘The Super Global High Schools Project’ and Global Citizenship Education The Japanese government has made it possible for some schools to develop their global citizenship education. Hyogo High School has been designated as a Super Global High School (SGH) under the theme of ‘Educating to create a world for the future’. The following is an extract from the official statement which describes in general terms www.teachingcitizenship.org.uk | Autumn 2018 | Issue 48


The Super Global High School Program aims to foster globalized leaders who will be able to play active roles on the international stage


Introduction Hyogo High School offers classes, in collaboration with local residents, public bodies and universities, in which students work together with different generations to consider possible solutions to the real problems in society and then to act in an informed and responsible manner. These classes are unique to Hyogo High School and emerge from the school’s special status as a ‘super global high school’. The aim of these classes is to nurture the students’ sense of shared responsibility for shaping society and to develop the necessary skills for active engagement. The graduates who took these classes were asked to complete questionnaires in order to find out the effect these classes have had on them.

the nature and purpose of the SGH initiative: The Super Global High School Program aims to foster globalized leaders who will be able to play active roles on the international stage through education at high schools that contribute to this mission. Students will achieve goals such as awareness and deep knowledge of social issues, communication ability and problem-solving skills. High schools designated as Super Global High Schools design a profile for the type of globalized leader they envision. They conduct multidisciplinary, comprehensive and exploratory studies on social and business issues at the global level, in collaboration with domestic and overseas universities that promote globalization as well as corporations and international organizations. This program requires high school students to conduct fieldwork both domestically and internationally on a research topic as part of their learning, in order to broaden their views and pursue their goals. The designated schools are expected to design a profile of their ideal leader, set specific research topics and education content in consideration of their regional characteristics and features of the schools. (see http://www.sghc.jp/en/) Teaching Citizenship | 51

Feature Educating to Create a World for the Future: a Unique Approach to Global Citizenship Education Research-based learning at Hyogo High School in Japan

Hyogo High School is a state high school, with a total of 960 students, aged 16 to 18, located in the Nagata district of Kobe city, Japan. In Hyogo High School the SGH Project aims to develop four particular abilities (see Figure 1) in 80 students in each year of the school. Figure 1: Four abilities (1) Ability to build trusting relationships and to plan and take action (2) Ability to approach issues logically (3) Ability to consider issues from various viewpoints with an open-mind (4) Ability to plan one’s career

Photo 2: Drawing fish on a blue sheet on unused land

In order to nurture these four abilities, Hyogo High School offers the following subjects, as shown in Figure 2 below.

What is Research Basic? Students in the first year of this programme take 3 classes (Research Basic A, B and C) and then in their second year they take ‘Research Advanced’. In Research Basic A (RBA), students consider current social issues in Japan. This includes lectures on such issues as long working hours and death from overwork. The lectures are given by organisations and lawyers who work on these social issues. There are also workshops led by Ministry of Finance staff on the subject of social security with particular consideration of the declining birth rate and aging population (see Photo 1). By listening to the experts who deal with these issues in the field, the students are able to gain knowledge through

Photo 1: Simulation exercise for national budget with Ministry of Finance staff

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By listening to the experts who deal with these issues in the field, the students are able to gain knowledge through primary sources, not only from textbooks


Figure 2: Course structure 1st Year: Research Basic (A, B, C) + Science Research 2nd Year: Research Advanced (I) + Global Issues or Science of Nature 3rd Year: Research Advanced (II) + Essay Writing

primary sources, not only from textbooks. RBA helps to prepare the students for the following Research Basic B (RBB) so that this class will not end up serving as just volunteer work. In RBB, the students carry out research on how current issues in Japan affect their local communities. The students then implement some activities with local residents for possible solutions. For example, in order to address the issue of increasing unused land due to population decline, some students held a workshop for local children to explore the possibilities of creating a new place for arts on unused land (see Photo 2). Other students created the ‘Insta-spot’ where local children’s handprints were collected as art designs to promote interaction between local elderly residents and local children in an area with an ageing population (see Photo 3). Other activities included the production of a video to spread positive and warm aspects of their community where the population is decreasing (see Photo 4). In RBB, the students gain first-hand experience so that they can see how the knowledge they gained from the topics they studied in RBA is manifested in their local communities. Through their involvement in planning and organising these activities in the local community, the students can also gain a deeper understanding of the issues. Working with local residents who are directly involved in these issues also gives the students the opportunity to reflect on the nature of society and how they live their lives. In Research Basic C (RBC), each student, based on the learning from RBA and RBB, selects his/her own topic, such as educational or environmental issues or local issues, and writes about it in English. Then the students exchange presentations with international students and together have discussions. Since these international students are not native English speakers, our students can use simple English in those discussions and enjoy daily conversations with the international students. Furthermore, our students have the added benefit

www.teachingcitizenship.org.uk | Autumn 2018 | Issue 48


of being able to learn from the different viewpoints of the international students and thus develop more flexible thinking (see Photo 5). In year 2 of their SGH work, the positive impact of Research Basic (RB) becomes evident as they work on the module ‘Research Advanced’. Students choose between Global Issues and Science of Nature and work on their own chosen research topic with experts in the particular field such as university lecturers. The students have a clear sense of purpose and engage in enthusiastic discussions with the experts. Hyogo High School students have undertaken active collaborative projects in the UK (York and London) and also in Vietnam. The importance of working with different generations Education in Japan has been focusing on knowledge. However, our school believes that it is also important for students to learn from working directly with different generations, rather than only gaining knowledge from textbooks. In Kobe, there was a powerful earthquake in 1995. As a result, this region has been facing issues since 1995 which the nation as a whole is only now facing some 20 years later. For example, population outflow, ageing population and decrease in population as well as consequential declining local industry. The significance of the students’ local community involvement and reflection on their learning is that they are addressing issues which other regions may face in the future. In the Nagata district of Kobe city, there are

Photo 4: Local residents take part in the video

www.teachingcitizenship.org.uk | Autumn 2018 | Issue 48


Photo 3: The local children were asked to write their dreams on their handprints

Working with local residents who are directly involved in these issues also gives the students the opportunity to reflect on the nature of society and how they live their lives

many public bodies and organisations whose work involves local issues. Through working with these citizens, the students also have the opportunity to think about what it means to contribute to society. This also benefits the local community since adults are encouraged by the involvement of the students. As a result, our school has entered into a partnership agreement with the Nagata district council to maintain this positive learning environment. The impact of Research Basic (RB) on the students The impact on the students of learning from RB has been positive. In 2017, questionnaires were sent out to graduates who had taken RB in order to ask about the skills acquired from their overall studies at the school. There were 45 responses and the results are summarised in Figure 3 below.

Figure 3: Skills gained from overall studies at the high school

(1)-1 Interacting with different generations (1)-2 C  onsidering issues which have no clear right answers (2)-1 Thinking logically (2)-2 Expressing methodically (3)-1Considering issues from various viewpoints (4)-1 T aking action on own initiative (4)-2 E xploring issues and thinking for oneself

Gained greatly

Gained to some degree

Did not gain much

Did not gain at all









46 51

52 38

2 11

0 0













Figures are rounded percentage scores More than 90% of the graduates answered that they gained all four abilities. In particular, many of them chose 1 (Gained greatly) for (1)-1 (Interacting with different generations) and (4)-1 (Taking action on own initiative). When the graduates were asked which aspect of their overall studies helped them to develop these skills, 50% of them answered that it was the learning from RB. Of the four abilities (in Figure 1), the students’ remarks in class and their written assignments also Teaching Citizenship | 53

Feature Educating to Create a World for the Future:

demonstrate the development of their abilities in (1), (2) and (3) in Figure 3. It is also noticeable that there is a significant difference in ability (4) in Figure 1 between the students who took RB and those who did not take it. Through interacting with diverse citizens, the students become better able to understand various issues and develop their sense of shared responsibility for a globalizing world.

Photo 5: Discussions with international students

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In general education settings in Japan, teachers think about ‘how to teach the right answer’. However, teachers on RB stay by the students’ side and think hard about how to nurture the students to become adults


The role of teachers in RB RB in the school can be best understood by analogy with a sport. So Research Basic A (RBA) would be for understanding the rules and strategies of the particular sport. Research Basic B (RBB) would be a practice match in that sport and Research Basic C (RBC) would be a reflection on the match. First of all, the role of the teachers in RB is coaching. This is mainly ‘questioning’ the students by the teachers. For example, in RBB the teachers ask the students ‘What is the purpose of your research and activity?’ or ‘Are your research methods and activity appropriate?’ This ‘questioning’ approach is used because RBB not only involves working on an issue but also stresses the importance of the process of the student thinking how the particular issue in the local community can be improved. In general education settings in Japan, teachers think about ‘how to teach the right answer’. However, teachers on RB stay by the students’ side and think hard about how to nurture the students to become adults. This is very difficult not only for the RB teachers but also for the RB students who are more accustomed to being taught the right answer in general education settings. Another important role of the RB teachers is coordinator. For example in RBA, people who work in different areas on local, national and international levels are invited to the school as visiting lecturers. The work of RB teachers includes considering who is to be invited according to the needs of the students and how to structure lessons

prior to the lectures. These roles are not easy for teachers in Japan who regard their work as teaching the content of textbooks. This is particularly the case for high school teachers as they focus on their own specialised subjects and are not used to linking or cooperating with other fields. This is a major problem and there is the need to reassess the role of teachers, such as through training. Conclusion and recommendations In Japan, a new subject called ‘Kōkyō’ (meaning Public) is going to be introduced at all high schools in 2020 as a result of the revision of the government curriculum guidelines. The aim of this subject is to get students to participate proactively in shaping society. In the future, Hyogo High School is hoping to network with educators from both inside and outside Japan who practice a similar educational approach. Furthermore, the school wishes to develop classes to give students the opportunity to learn about and work towards the UN Sustainable Development Goals. In this way the form of global citizenship education that is being developed by Hyogo High School may be genuinely progressive (and not narrowly for something such as international business education). One of the drawbacks with this approach is that the RB puts a further burden on students who are already very busy with their general studies. In particular, students who have been used to education which focuses on factual knowledge and understanding find it stressful when working with their classmates and with local residents. Therefore, when the students start at the school, some guidance and orientation (including some recreation) are essential. Ways of improving RB include a teacher training system for instruction methods and for the collection of case studies of the school’s approach. While maintaining expertise that has been developed by the teachers so far, as previously described, it is hoped to build on the current approach in the school which is relevant to society. The teachers of Hyogo High School are keen to make contact with global citizenship education teachers from other countries. Contact details are given at the end of this article. Reference Super Global High School (2018) http://www.sghc.jp/en/ www.teachingcitizenship.org.uk | Autumn 2018 | Issue 48

Review By Sera Shortland, ACT Citizenship Teaching Ambassador

Rest in Power Sera Shortland explores the new Nike 2018 advertisement campaign while using Fulton and Martin’s book Rest in Power: The Enduring Life of Trayvon Martin to provide context.

www.teachingcitizenship.org.uk | Autumn 2018 | Issue 48


Many would argue that the amount of time talking about Kaepernick’s choice of protest received more attention than the enduring injustice faced by many black Americans behind it


Rest in Power: The Enduring Life of Trayvon Martin is a heart-rending narrative from the mother of Trayvon, who was shot in the chest by a neighbourhood watch security officer whilst Trayvon was on the phone to his girlfriend. The security officer was not arrested until six weeks later and was found not guilty when he eventually faced trial. The killing led to civil unrest and was instrumental in instigating the #BlackLivesMatter movement. The words chosen by Trayvon’s mother to tell her son’s story are poignant. Read out loud they silenced an otherwise boisterous class. This powerful and emotive book provided some of the context for a debating session about Colin Kaepernick as the face of Nike’s 2018 ‘Just Do It’ campaign. A news item that some might have missed in 2016 concerned San Francisco 49ers quarterback Colin Kaepernick refusing to stand for the playing of the American national anthem stating: “I am not going to stand up to show pride in a flag for a country that oppresses black people and people of colour”. He was referring to the disproportionate amount of young black men in the USA being killed by police that are either never brought to trial, or consistently found ‘not guilty’. His action sparked a larger conversation regarding sports activism and patriotism, inspiring a wave of athletes from across the sports spectrum joining him in protest. Donald Trump further fuelled the debate calling for all sports people who ‘disrespect’ the American flag, to be sacked. Many would argue that the amount of time talking about Kaepernick’s choice of protest received more attention than the enduring injustice faced by many black Americans behind it. Debates on whether Nike was right to use

Kaepernick within its new campaign, took place with both year 9 and 10 citizenship groups and sessions were linked to GCSE Theme A (Living together in the UK) and D (Power and influence) of the Edexcel specification. The facts and legal argument contained within Rest in Power provided many discussion points, which we used when comparing to the UK justice system. Students were drawing parallels to Stephen Lawrence and the McPherson report, the role of the media and human rights abuses with mature insight and argument. Some of the questions that arose during our debate included: •W  as Kaepernick wrong to protest? • Is he defending the rights laid out in the constitution and his right to freedom of expression? •D  oes he feel included in society and a part of the country? •H  ow effective was his protest? Is there a better way to protest? •H  ow could this example be used as argument for or against community cohesion? • Is he offending Americans and attacking the one thing that holds the country together? •H  as anything changed since Martin Luther King? •S  hould Donald Trump interfere? •W  hat could reduce the high rate of violent deaths of black people in America? • Is Nike jumping on the band wagon? Is Nike supporting social justice or making profits? • Is it immoral for multinational companies to use issues for their own gain? I thoroughly recommend Rest in Power to help students explore current and complex themes related to the #BlackLivesMatter movement in an engaging and relevant way. Teaching Citizenship | 55

Review Slug Jac Bastian, Head of Education, Diversity Role Models

Supporting trans and gender-questioning students Jac reviews the National Education Union’s Supporting trans and gender-questioning students guide. The guide can be found at: https://neu.org.uk/sites/neu.org.uk/files/Trans%20advice_0.pdf

56 | Teaching Citizenship


The guide is intended as a starting point for educators seeking to understand transgender identities and to think about their role in supporting young people


This guide reminds us of the legal and moral importance of ensuring students can express and affirm their gender identity and their right to confidentiality. When we know that 45% of transgender young people have attempted to take their own lives this is critical . As the transgender community gains greater visibility and young people gain confidence in openly discussing their gender identity we have seen a sharp rise in the number of young people seeking support with their gender identity . Through my work with Diversity Role Models supporting schools and colleges to be LGBT+ inclusive, I hear more and more educators rightly asking how they can best support the transgender and gender-questioning students in their care. As the government consult on changes to the Gender Recognition Act the National Education Union has produced this short, accessible and timely guide to help schools and colleges support trans students. The guide is intended as a starting point for educators seeking to understand transgender identities and to think about their role in supporting young people. In four pages it is impossible to cover the topic in any great detail. However, the guidance manages to outline some of the basics of transgender identities, addresses common misconceptions and answers some of the most pressing questions staff will have while signposting to more detailed guidance. The guidance opens with a concise introduction to the term transgender (or trans) as an umbrella term for a person whose gender identity is different from the sex they were assigned at birth. Care is taken to ensure non-binary gender identities, that is people who do not fall into the binary categories of

man/women or male/female, are included as well as separating sexual orientation from gender identity. In accessible language we are clearly introduced to some of the basics, such as the difference between medical and social transition, and the guiding principle of this resource: the pupil centred approach. Indeed, the whole guide could be neatly summarised in this sentence from the introduction: “Every person’s transition is unique and different and will involve different things”. This does not stop the guide discussing practical things schools and colleges could do to ensure young people are free to express their true gender identities. There is a helpful section on how to approach initial conversations with young people and their family and practical advice on non-gendered uniform lists and inclusive provision of toilets/changing areas. The value of referring to students by their correct and current name, which may be different from the name they were given at birth (often referred to as the ‘dead-name’) and correct pronouns is explained clearly as this is often missed even by well-meaning staff members. Our experience working with teachers suggests many staff will have further questions on such issues. The guide gives effective signposts to more detailed resources, such as the recently updated Trans Inclusion Schools Toolkit, and organisations that can provide additional support. All of the advice given is neatly set within a context of taking a whole school approach to LGBT+ inclusion and developing a positive ethos that challenges prejudice and gender stereotyping. This timely introduction is a valuable starting point for staff thinking about how their educational institution can support trans and genderquestioning students.

www.teachingcitizenship.org.uk | Autumn 2018 | Issue 48

Review Lee Jerome, Associate Professor of Education, Middlesex University

Misunderstanding New Audiences: Seven Myths of the Social Media Era Lee Jerome Associate Professor of Education, Middelsex University reviews Eire Elvestad & Angela Phillips (2018) Misunderstanding New Audiences: Seven Myths of the Social Media Era. Abingdon: Routledge.

www.teachingcitizenship.org.uk | Autumn 2018 | Issue 48

in countries where there is a free market in media news; audiences tend to become more polarised, and less informed. This chapter reviews the rise of Fox News, which has been associated with the hardening of rightRegardless of wing views and a reduction in tolerance of the ‘possibilities’ alternatives. that excite optimists, Myth 2: The role of the journalist is merging there are some with the role of the audience. consistent truths There is much excited talk about the citizenabout media journalist as a media ‘prosumer’ – simultaneously ownership, bias a consumer and producer of media. Normal and control citizens can witness events, record them that we need to immediately and share them directly via social understand” media, by-passing censorship and editorial controls. However, despite the access we all have to adopt this role, through our mobile technologies and social media publishing (blogging, vlogging, Facebook posting etc.) there is little take-up. Evidence suggests a 909-1 audience split, with 90% of internet users remaining passive ‘lurkers’ on-line, 9% engaging a little (with an occasional comment) and most of the action, in terms of content generation, coming from fewer than 1% of users. Most of this is actually reproducing or re-presenting output from mainstream media.



In the era of ‘fake news’ and moral panic about social media’s manipulative potential it is important for Citizenship teachers to take a clear-headed approach to teaching about media literacy. But, whilst there is a tendency among many to see this as another set of soft skills, there is also a challenge to our subject knowledge as the media landscape is changing fast. At one time news bias was as simple as choosing which national newspaper to read, and being aware of its party political allegiance, but now we are in an era of mass social media communication when most news is free, and news, comment and entertainment seem inextricably mixed up, in a bid for our attention. The realisation that I simply did not know enough about this media landscape led me to pick up this new book by Elvestad and Phillips and it was a riveting read, that really helped me to think more clearly about this area. The book is based around seven myths, and the authors pull together the relevant research evidence to consider the truthfulness of each claim, and to highlight where we need to be more critical. Their central message is that we need to be informed and critical about the way the media works and to avoid looking at new technologies through rose-tinted spectacles. Regardless of the ‘possibilities’ that excite optimists, there are some consistent truths about media ownership, bias and control that we need to understand. In this short summary I will just list the myths, and give a glimpse into their discussion of the evidence: Myth 1: News personalisation will improve plurality, diversity and democracy. The research shows clearly that levels of political knowledge are greatest where there is a strong public service broadcaster, whilst

Myth 3: Algorithms secure the wisdom of crowds. In theory, the cream rises to the top, as social media enables our friends and confidantes to recommend and value high quality news. In reality, the need to generate income, through clicks, has meant content providers adopt any means necessary to entice us to click through a link. Sadly, this really does favour the shocking, outlandish Teaching Citizenship | 57

Review Slug Lee Jerome, Associate Professor of Education, Middlesex University

and frankly unbelievable content. In their search for the cash-cow ‘viral’ story, media companies can rely on breaking news and stories of the weird and wonderful, but in fact two thirds of viral stories are actually based on generating outrage and indignation. As these stories are shared, they create ‘reinforcing spirals’ and as the feedback loop captures what stories are proving popular, media providers stoke the flames by providing more and more similar content. Simply put, more competition leads to more similar content. Myth 4: The internet has produced a global village. Media choice actually creates a process of ‘glocalisation’ in which people are more likely to access very local news, or local interpretations of national and international news. Whilst we have become familiar with the idea that the internet brings the world to our attention, counterintuitively, the ability to select our news, and tailor it to our interests, reduces the capacity of the media to draw us into a shared sense what is happening in the world.

Myth 6: The internet and social media have replaced edited news due to loss of trust. In fact the research evidence indicates that citizens tend to retain very high levels of trust in mainstream media, where there is a strong public service broadcaster, and regulation curbing excesses. In the UK we have a rather hybrid system, with the BBC commanding high levels of trust, and a highly partisan press and commercial sector, which is popular but not particularly trusted. This places us half way between the de-regulated USA and the more regulated European systems. 58 | Teaching Citizenship


Living and teaching in the UK, I realised that my whole view of media freedom is influenced by what I have come to see as the ‘norm’, and this book helps to put that experience into context, and to realise what is distinctive about our system


Myth 5: Real social solidarity on-line has replaced the imagined solidarity of mass media news. Shared exposure to local media promotes bonding in local communities and democratic engagement. Research shows young people exposed to reliable local media tend to discuss local issues, and develop connections beyond their own social group. However, the shift of advertising budgets from print to online platforms undermines the capacity for a local press to perform this function.

Myth 7: There is a generation of digital natives. The authors argue this is a dangerous idea, just because it assumes all young people are similar in their engagement with news and media, and also because it might lead adults to make incorrect assumptions about people’s capacity. In fact there is some research evidence to suggest young people continue to rely on trusted adults (such as teachers) to help them access and interpret the news. This summary only gives a flavour of the argument they develop, what I cannot do in a short review is share the evidence they use to develop their critique. What stood out for me were the wealth of resources they used, and the international nature of that research base. Living and teaching in the UK, I realised that my whole view of media freedom is influenced by what I have come to see as the ‘norm’, and this book helps to put that experience into context, and to realise what is distinctive about our system. The second way in which this book was helpful was in filling in some detail about just how the whole business model of on-line news media has developed. The book adds some specifics to the general idea of ‘click-bait’ and spells out what this means for companies intent on following a trend by generating new content to meet our demand, and how this leads from vacuous representation of news; to deliberate re-framing to tweak moral outrage for new audiences, for example robot-written stories tend to be seen as more reliable than journalist-written material, even though they just reproduce existing material (p.133); to downright fabrication, for example, just one investigation traced back 140 fake websites to a single town in Macedonia (p.65). As the money from advertisers seeps from local press to on-line provision, we lose the most trusted and diverse sources of news, and get more unreliable and untrusted websites telling us what they think we need to know in order to secure a click or a response. It is not particularly cheery, and it is not particularly edifying, but it is very important to know, so I would highly recommend it as preparatory reading for anyone about to embark on teaching about the media or critical media literacy.

www.teachingcitizenship.org.uk | Autumn 2018 | Issue 48

Spotlight on ACT Council Helen Blachford, Chair of ACT Council In this edition Helen Blachford, Chair of ACT Council and Head of Humanities at Priory School, Southsea shares with us how being a member of ACT council has inspired her, some of the work she has been able to develop for others and leads this Editor to determine another spotlight on her role may be required later in the series…


It’s been a privilege to be part of this dynamic group of Citizenship professionals ever since. My only regret is I didn’t join council earlier

www.teachingcitizenship.org.uk | Autumn 2018 | Issue 48


Being a Citizenship teacher can be a lonely place – often you are the only specialist in a school or college and it can sometimes feel like a battle to keep a high profile for the subject you love when it seems to just be you fighting the good fight! It was for this reason I initially joined ACT – that and being fortunate enough to meet Chris Waller, now ACT’s Director of Education, at a conference in Hampshire. I soon realised that I was far from being alone – I just needed to know where to look for support and like minded Citizenship enthusiasts! Having attended an ACT Conference and been reinvigorated I was keen to become more involved – so when it was announced that they were looking for new members for ACT Council I jumped at the chance and I attended my first meeting in Autumn of 2013, and it’s been a privilege to be part of this dynamic group of Citizenship professionals ever since. My only regret is I didn’t join council earlier! I have been a Curriculum Leader for Citizenship for 14 years now – in 2 different secondary schools in Hampshire. ACT has played a key role in giving me the support to develop my Citizenship curriculum in school and develop my own practice within Citizenship education. I wanted to be able to offer that support to others and being part of ACT Council has enabled me to do just that. ACT Council represents the membership of ACT, shapes the work that ACT undertakes and takes a lead on planning the ACT Annual Conference. As a practitioner I feel I am in a position to bring an understanding of the current challenges being faced by Citizenship teachers demonstrating how ACT can best respond to them. Often members of ACT Council will work with ACT staff to shape these responses. For example, a recent headache for many has been the change to GCSEs; Council wanted to help teachers

to have a space to work together and as a result I have facilitated two very successful TeachMeets in London which focused on the new Citizenship Studies GCSEs – we offered practitioners an opportunity to meet with others delivering the same exam board, a place to share resources for lessons/ revision and support on marking the new style exam questions. Other members of Council have, and continue to, run similar events around the country to meet the needs identified by members. As a member of ACT Council I have had the opportunity to take part in a number of exciting projects – with the aim of providing high quality Citizenship resources for teachers. This gives me a chance to produce resources which I can use as part of my own Citizenship curriculum but also allows me to support others at a national level. For example, I have produced a series of lessons as part of ACT’s Building Resilience project and also the Robert F. Kennedy Speak Truth to Power Human Rights Curriculum pilot – you can find these, and many more, resources on ACT’s website. I’m extending this aspect of my work with ACT as I was invited to become one of a number of regional teaching ambassadors – a role designed to build a strong regional network of committed and expert subject leaders who can work together to support Citizenship teachers and teaching locally and one which I am excited to take on! I could continue at length about how I have benefitted personally and professionally from becoming a member of Council but I can feel the glare of the Editor – so I’ll end by saying that if you want to help shape the work of ACT and be part of an enthusiastic group of Citizenship professionals who will inspire you in ways you didn’t think possible then please consider joining us!

Teaching Citizenship | 59

ive Citizenship Awards First News and the Association for Citizenship Teaching (ACT) have come together to create the First News ACTive Citizenship Award Scheme for Schools, to celebrate and acknowledge positive changes children are making in their communities.

The Awards








GET INVOLVED IN THE ACTIVE CITIZENSHIP AWARD SCHEME To find out more, and to download the First News ACTive Citizenship Pupil Toolkit and Teacher Curriculum Guidance, visit



Profile for Association for Citizenship Teaching

Teaching Citizenship journal/ Issue 48 / Autumn 2018  

Issue 48 looks at 'Taking talk seriously; Making the link between oracy and citizenship.'

Teaching Citizenship journal/ Issue 48 / Autumn 2018  

Issue 48 looks at 'Taking talk seriously; Making the link between oracy and citizenship.'