Engaging to Include Toolkit

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Engaging to Include nclude Toolkit

A non-formal formal education resource pack on inclusion and active citizenship


Written and edited by: Graziano Tullio with the contributions of all the project’s participants.

Publication edited in the framework of the project: “3E to 3I - Exchanging-Empowering-Engaging to Increase-Innovate-Include” Co-funded by: Erasmus plus Programme – KA1 Mobility of learners and staff. Grant Nº: 2014-3-PT02-KA105-002030 Published by: Associação Spin para o Intercâmbio, Formação e Cooperação entre os Povos Rua Rio Tejo, nº 7, 1600-746 Lisboa (Portugal) www.a-spin.pt Cover image: Inês Cunha

All photos are taken by Associação Spin during the project activities.

Contacts: grazianotullio@gmail.com direcao@a-spin.pt Released in January 2016

This publication has been produced with the financial support of the European Union. The contents of this publication are the sole responsibility of the author and of the projects’ partner organizations and can in no way be taken to reflect the views of the European Union.


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INTRODUCTION Youth organizations working on participation and inclusion are looking for more effective initiatives and creative educational tools to attract young people. Youth democratic participation at EU level is still underdeveloped; many youth are unaware of the power they could have to change society, while others are unable to “read” the reality and take part on it. Youth work has less recognition than it should have and in many countries youth organizations are not seen by the traditional political actors as key stakeholder in the social and political arena. Having in mind this scenario, Spin association with its international partners has implemented the project “3Eto3I” aiming at achieving three main objectives:

- to improve the quality of non formal education activities by developing and testing innovative training and learning tools for more effective and inclusive youth initiatives, able to attract and involve young people; - to stimulate the participation of young people in policy-making initiatives promoting inclusive growth by involving them in innovative, peer-to-peer and learner centered pedagogical dynamics enabling them to behave as active and informed citizens;

- to broaden the understanding of youth practices and support the professional development of youth workers by exchanging best practices through a participatory and peer-review approach and by creating a network of youth workers with high training standards. This publication is the result of such a project that has gathered more than 40 youth workers from 10 European countries working together to find new ways to look at the crucial issues of inclusion and active citizenship and to create new tools to tackle such issues with young people. The tool-kit contains the outcomes of this intense participatory learning experience: a set of innovative non formal education activities and training modules, jointly created during the seminar and then assessed during the training course. The result is an useful resource pack for anyone working in training and youth field to promote civic participation and the core European values. We hope that this publication will be valuable to disseminate new knowledge about youth practices and raise the recognition of youth work in Europe. We wish that the outcomes of our project could contribute to get closer to our vision, a vision we share with many other youth organizations working under the Erasmus+ EU Programme: an European Union where young people are empowered and have the space and the capacity to give their contribution for the development of the society.

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THE PROJECT The project consisted of two mobility activities and one final publication.

THE SEMINAR “3E: new training tools on inclusion and active citizenship for youth workers’ empowerment” Lisbon, 9-16 march 2015.

Objectives: The seminar aimed to explore the topics of social inclusion and active citizenship under different points of view and share the know-how of partner organizations in such fields. The seminar had “3E Objectives”: - Exchange experiences, educational resources and best practices; - Empower trainers with new tools and methods for their professional development; - Engage youth organizations in a coordinated effort towards the modernization and recognition of youth work.

Description: The main part of the Seminar was the presentation of best practices of Non Formal Education and of new training tools still needed to be tested and improved. Each presented activity was followed by a peer-review session to assess its effectiveness and attractiveness for young people, to improve the pedagogical dynamic and its technical implementation and to reflect about the challenge faced by the facilitator leading the activity. Participants: 20 experienced youth workers/trainers: key resource persons of their own organizations with strong background in youth policies and inclusion activities and proven experience in leading NFE training course focused on active citizenship. THE TRAINING COURSE “3I: Innovating youth working multiplying inclusion and active citizenship”. Lisbon, 6-14 October 2015.

Objectives: The training aimed to empower young people engaged in youth organizations with new tools and competences to promote inclusive growth and youth participation in democratic life. The training had “3I Objective”: - Increase the quality, the effectiveness and the attractiveness of the youth worker’ activities, - Innovate the inclusion and active citizenship’ initiatives of the youth organization, - Include more young people in the society providing them new tools and a strong motivation to become active and responsible citizens.

Description: The training explored the topics of social inclusion and active citizenship fostering the involvement of young people in their local context. During the training course, the improved versions of the NFE tools presented during the seminar were implemented in order to assess their effectiveness and quality.

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Participants: 20 junior youth workers and volunteers: young people committed towards inclusion and active citizenship having some experience or strong connection with their sending organization in order to act as youth multipliers later on. THE FINAL PUBLICATION The results of both the Seminar and the Training course were gathered in this handbook disseminated and freely available on-line. The handbook promotes youth work and civic participation among young people and contains the NFE dynamics presented during the Seminar and implemented in their new version during the training course. The final publication is, thus, a resource pack containing information and innovative training modules available for future educational activities on inclusion and active citizenship.

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THE PARTNER ORGANIZATIONS  SPIN - Associação Spin para o Intercâmbio, Formação e Cooperação entre os Povos (Lisbon-Portugal) www.a-spin.pt  SYNCRO - Centar za osobni i profesionalni razvoj Syncro - Synergy Croatia (Zagreb - Croatia) www.synergy-croatia.com  Socialna akademija - zavod za izobrazevanje, raziskovanje in kulturo (Ljubljana- Slovenia) www.socialna-akademija.si  CEIPES - Centro Internazionale per la Promozione dell’Educazione e lo Sviluppo (Palermo - Italy) www.ceipes.org  S4YD - Asociatia Support for Youth Development (Cluj-Napoca - Romania) www.s4yd.ro  ECMI- European Centre for Minority Issues (Flensburg-Germany) www.www.ecmi.de  Children and youth center (Dimitrovgrad - Bulgaria) www.dmcdimitrovgrad.com  Asociación Gantalcalá (Dos Hermanas - Spain) www.gantalcala.org  Tmelník (Mělník- Czech Republic) www.tmelnik.cz  Youth In (Malmo - Sweden) www.youthin.org A special thanks to: Ass. Futuro Digitale (Italy) www.futurodigitale.org

Seminar participants

Training course participants

Facilitator: Graziano Tullio

Trainer: Graziano Tullio with the support of: Ines Freixo

Teodora Georgieva (Bulgaria) Tahir Sali (Bulgaria) Mirjana Kovacevic (Croatia) Nicola Rossi (Croatia) Denisa Skrbková (Czech Republic) Barbora Šumšalov (Czech Republic) Oana Buta (Germany/Romania) Zora Popova (Germany/Bulgaria) Marco De Cave (Italy) Sara Bonavitacola (Italy) Alexandra Cazacu (Romania) Daniela Visinica (Romania) Tina Vareško (Slovenia) Simona Osterc (Slovenia) David Castillo (Spain) Lara Alfaro (Spain) Eman Khalif (Sweden) Usman Mughal (Sweden) Fábio Roque (Portugal) Ines Freixo (Portugal)

Elitsa Stoichkova (Bulgaria) Veronika Arnaudova (Bulgaria) Sanela Ravlić (Croatia) Sunčana Doričić (Croatia) Anna Kráčmarová (Czech Republic) Katerina Sindlerova (Czech Republic) Tamari Bulia (German /Georgia) Sonja Wolf (Germany) Tiziano Caudullo (Italy) Valentina Tosatti (Italy) Ana Maria Minciuna (Romania) Florian Fekete (Romania) Eva Knafelc (Slovenia) Meta Možina (Slovenia) Raquel Marijuan (Spain) Alexia Cerezo (Spain) Fatih Güler (Sweden/Hungary) Nathalie Villegas (Sweden) Gonçalo Casimiro (Portugal) Joao Joaquim (Portugal)

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ABOUT THE TOOL-KIT This handbook is specifically developed for participatory, learner-centered non-formal youth setting. It provides dynamic collaborative learning activities and back-up theoretical input that can help trainers and youth workers in carrying out trainings and workshops on inclusion, active citizenship and related topics.

Each activity consists of a general overview, the instructions, suggestions for the debriefing phase, the highlights of the peer review occurred during the project period and the eventual handouts for the participants. It is then followed by a theoretical pill providing extra support to the facilitator when debating with the participants the outcomes of the activity. The non-formal education (NFE) tools presented in this tool-kit are described already taking into account the peer review process occurred. However, the key elements of the peer-review were reported in order to keep track of the development that each activity has experienced and also to help the reader to get a clear and detailed picture of the educational resource he/she may want to use in the future. We hope that by doing this the reader/youth worker will take a greater advantage of each activity. The tool-kit in conceived as a resource pack for a one-week training course: proposing at the beginning introductory games about the learning experience (ex: Change myself!,) then activities presenting the themes (ex: The island), continuing with the ones analyzing in details the issues (ex: Political debate) and closing with activities encouraging the participants to take an active role in the society (ex: Make a mov(i)e). However, every NFE tool in here included works perfectly also independently from the others and may be further modified and adapted practical-wise and/or contents wise according to the target group. After all, as we personally discovered during the 3Ito3E project, what really matters in any NFE dynamic is the debriefing phase where each participant should be engaged in a meaningful self-discovery and selfevaluation process within a comfortable group dynamic. From there comes the insights. We wish you an exciting experience, full of precious insights!

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Table of contents A world cafĂŠ to prepare the ground

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The peer review

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Focus through

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The island

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(Unfair) treasure hunt

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Change myself! Blind squares

Cine-forum night Political debate

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44

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Theatre of the oppressed

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Make a mov(i)e

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Active createllizenship

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More than 40 youth workers coming from 10 European countries took part in this challenge of finding new approaches and methods to tackle the issues of social inclusion and active citizenship. Each of them brought to the project venue not only his/her youth work experience and his/her educational tool, but also values, ideas, perspectives, life experiences as well as his/her own understanding of the project’s key-words (attractiveness, effectiveness, youth work, professionalization, social inclusion, active citizens…). For this reason, the first activity in both the Seminar and the Training course was a World café.

World café is a methodology for leading collaborative dialogue, sharing perspectives and building knowledge using an horizontal approach. It is a structured conversational process intended to link ideas within a larger group to access the "collective intelligence" in the room. During a "World Café" participants move between a series of tables where they continue the discussion in response to a predetermined set of questions focused on a specific theme. Though it comprises a basic model, the World Café can be modified to meet a wide variety of needs. In this project this activity had 3 rounds of 20 minutes each, with a final half-hour plenary meeting to gather the results. In each of the two project’s phases the participants moved around 4 different tables, debating around 4 interconnected issues, particularly relevant for the type of work they were asked to develop throughout the week. Project activity Seminar for Trainers and experienced youth workers

Questions What is Social Inclusion and what is its relation with Active Citizenship? Which are the factors that could increase How the effects of Social inclusion youth participation in democratic life and in could contribute to develop Active active citizenship activities? Citizenship? What is attractiveness? What is effectiveness? How to increase the professionalization How to increase attractiveness and of the youth worker? effectiveness of youth activities developed by youth organizations? Social inclusion, social integration, social cohesion: which are their main elements and on what do they differ? Which one of these should we pursue?

Training course for youth workers Which are the reasons behind the and volunteers scarce participation in the community development and democratic life of young people? How to overcome such factors?

From citizenship to active citizenship: what makes a citizen an active citizen? What could motivate him? What could empower him?

Which are the main obstacles for the achievement of a European society able to guarantee justice, human rights and democracy? On which of the identified obstacles could youth work and young people have a keyrole?

The World Café had the function of creating a common working ground, fostering mutual understanding among participants and creating a shared framework for the project’s activities.

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Moreover, the activity was also a good tool to let the participants get inspired from the others and start thinking about the kind of contribution they could give during the next days. Key outcomes of the world café sessions:    

The term “social inclusion” should be challenged since it gives the notion that there is a majority, the “included group” (the “right” or “good one”) and a minority, the outsiders (the “wrong” or “bad one”. Therefore, the term social inclusion should be changed for “social cohesion”.

Active citizenship and cohesion can only exist if the individuals of a community are connected and work for a common goal. Active citizenship works to increase the elements and the core values needed to have cohesion. On the other side, the effects of social inclusion contribute to increase active citizenship. Social inclusion could be represent as a tree having the following elements:

Media freedom is crucial to enable people becoming active citizens.

A certain degree of economic stability is sort of a pre-condition for advocate social changes; however, the lack of economic stability can also be a trigger for these changes.

Motivation it is a necessary factor for youth participation since social changes often don't have direct and tangible results; rather they are slow and they often have an impact on non-material aspects of life.

The lack trust in youth undermines any attempts to make certain changes in local communities.

Youth workers professionalization could be increased by a structured sharing of best practices since they set positive standards.

Youth workers must stay in network: they need to be connected in order to get new inspiration, to not loose motivation, to compare their approaches, to receive constructive critique and also to feel a bit of a healthy competitions. These peer dynamics have a positive impact also on their professionalism.

A trainer should never stop to be a participant in others trainers’ courses in order to increase his/her skills and develop empathy with the participants’ point of view.

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     

A common ethical code for youth workers, even a not official one, should be developed to better recognize them as professional figures acting within certain standards and values. Local communities should look at the youth workers as a long term investment; therefore, they should provide youth workers with financial support. The difference between attractiveness and effectiveness is that attractiveness refers to the methods, meanwhile effectiveness refers to the goals.

To be attractive, an activity should stimulate interest and curiosity that promises benefits and rewards. In order to be effective the activity should have a well defined goal with a long term impact in development of the participants.

Both the attractiveness and effectiveness of youth activities depends very much on the ability of the trainer/facilitator especially in what concerns the debriefing phase.

Learning about active citizenship should start from an early age in order to take it as a ˝usual behavior˝ and not as specific examples that stand out.

To train school teachers is crucial to make young people more interested and involved in social and political life.

To understand a matter and to become aware of what are the opportunities for its solution are the first steps for any responsible social/political action.

Young people have wrong model in term of politics, this affect their willing to participate in local and national political life.

Cumbersome bureaucratic procedures discourage the active participation of the young people.

Human rights are universal but the laws regulating human rights differs from country to country.

There is an important difference between be active in politics and active in policies: an active citizen could work on policies without necessarily be in involved in the political life reaching possibly even better results.

Historical and cultural differences as well as real and imaginary borders between EU countries make hard the EU work towards social justice and human rights protection.

Youth work can have a leading role to overcome historical and cultural differences as well as real and imaginary borders between EU countries.

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World Café Conversations At a Glance

1. Seat four (five max) people at small Café-style tables or in conversation clusters.

2. Set up progressive (at least three) rounds of conversation, approximately 20 minutes each. 3. Engage questions or issues that genuinely matter to your life, work, or community.

4. Encourage participants to write, doodle and draw key ideas on their tablecloths (and/ or note key ideas on large index cards or placemats in the center of the table).

5. Upon completing the initial round of conversation, you may ask one person to remain at the table as a “table host” for the next round, while the others serve as travellers or “ambassadors of meaning.” The travellers carry key ideas, themes and questions into their new conversations, while the table host welcomes the new set of travellers. 6. By providing opportunities for people to move in several rounds of conversation, ideas, questions, and themes begin to link and connect. At the end of the second or third round, all of the tables or conversation clusters in the room will be cross-pollinated with insights from prior conversations. 7. In the last round of conversation, people can return to their first table to synthesize their discoveries, or they may continue travelling to new tables.

8. You may use the same question for one or more rounds of conversation, or you may pose different questions in each round to build on and help deepen the exploration. 9. After at least three rounds of conversation, initiate a period of sharing discoveries & insights in a whole group conversation. It is in these town meeting-style conversations that patterns can be identified, collective knowledge grows, and possibilities for action emerge.

Once you know what you want to achieve and the amount of time you have to work with, you can decide the appropriate number and length of conversation rounds, the most effective use of questions and the most interesting ways to connect and cross-pollinate ideas. The World Café Community Foundation www.theworldcafe.com More info about the World Café method: The World Café Book: Shaping Our Futures Through Conversations that Matter by Juanita Brown and David Isaacs with the World Café Community of Practice. Berrett-Koehler Publishers, 2005.

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World Café Guidelines

1) Set the Context. Pay attention to the reason you are bringing people together, and what you want to achieve. Knowing the purpose and parameters of your meeting enables you to consider and choose the most import important elements to realize your goals: e.g. who should be part of the conversation, what themes or questions will be most pertinent, what sorts of harvest will be more useful, etc…

2) Create Hospitable Space. Café hosts around the world emphasize the power and importance of creating a hospitable space, one that feels safe and inviting. When people feel comfortable to be themselves, they do their most creative thinking, speaking, and listening. In particular, consider how your invitation and your physical se set-up contribute to creating a welcoming atmosphere.

3) Explore Questions that Matter. Knowledge emerges in response to compelling questions. Find questions that are relevant to the real real-life concerns of the group. Powerful questions that “travel well” hel help p attract collective energy, insight, and action as they move throughout a system. Depending on the timeframe available and your objectives, your Café may explore a single question or use a progressively deeper line of inquiry through several conversational rounds. 4) Encourage Everyone’s Contribution. As leaders we are increasingly aware of the importance of participation, but most people don’t only want to participate, they want to actively contribute to making a difference. It is important to encourag encourage everyone in your meeting to contribute their ideas and perspectives, while also allowing anyone who wants to participate by simply listening to do so. 5) Connect Diverse Perspectives. The opportunity to move between tables, meet new people, actively con contribute tribute your thinking, and link the essence of your discoveries to ever ever-widening widening circles of thought is one of the distinguishing characteristics of the Café. As participants carry key ideas or themes to new tables, they exchange perspectives, greatly enriching hing the possibility for surprising new insights. Seven Design Principles, cont.

6) Listen Together for Patterns & Insights. Listening is a gift we give to one another. The quality of our listening is perhaps the most important factor determining the success cess of a Café. Through practicing shared listening and paying attention to themes, patterns and insights, we begin to sense a connection to the larger whole. Encourage people to listen for what is not being spoken along with what is being shared. 7) Share Collective Discoveries. Conversations held at one table reflect a pattern of wholeness that connects with the conversations at the other tables. The last phase of the Café, often called the “harvest”, involves making this pattern of wholeness visible to o everyone in a large group conversation. Invite a few minutes of silent reflection on the patterns, themes and deeper questions experienced in the small group conversations and call them out to share with the larger group. Make sure you have a way to capt capture the harvest - working with a graphic recorder is very helpful. The World Café Community Foundation www.theworldcafe.com

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The peer review constitutes a form of scrutiny operated by members of a profession within the relevant field in order to raise the professional standards of the sector. More in particular, is the evaluation of a work by one or more people having similar competence to the producers of the work.

Within the project “3Ito3I” the peer review was a key element: during the Seminar, the peer review sessions aimed at assessing the effectiveness of the activity presented and at improving the overall educational experience, in order to raise the quality of the tool shared. On that occasion, in fact, each participant presented a NFE tool related to the project’s themes (group working, role play, experiential learning activity, digital or creative workshop etc…) and at the end of the activity everyone involved in it (the participants, the facilitator and the eventual co-trainer or support staff) took some time to reflect on it and produce accurate feedback following the guidelines provided. The main dimensions considered for the review of the activity were: 1) the effectiveness in reaching its objectives; 2) its attractiveness for young people: 3) the knowledge and competences that the activity could enhance in the participants; 4) the facilitation of the session; 5) the involvement of the participants; 6) the factors and the expedients that could improved the activity or its facilitation; 7) the details towards what draw the attention next time the activity will be performed or the lesson learned to take into consideration next time. The comments were wrote on post-its and stuck in different flipcharts on the wall. The final part of session was dedicated to analyze the gathered feedback through a group discussion facilitated by an external facilitator (who didn’t take part in the activity). The outcomes were then systematized in the peer-review sheet (see next page) from where the project’s trainer has started the revision process to design the new version of the activity used during the next training course and now here presented.

The peer review was conceived as a symmetric relationship where each comment and analysis where shared and discussed within a facilitated dynamic, stimulating mutual learning. Under this perspective, the methods has fostered mutual support strengthening the relationship between the youth workers involved in such process. The peer review sessions were also precious self-evaluation opportunities aiming at the professionalization of the youth workers: by reflecting on their facilitation styles, they have increased their skills and became more confidence in leading the activity next time. Thus, in the project “3Ito3E” the peer review process was conceived as an instrument of quality assurance and youth work development.

N.B.: In this toolkit, the NFE tools are described already taking into account the peer review process occurred. However, the publication reports at the end of each activity the key elements of the peer review in order to keep track of the development that each activity has experienced and also to help the reader to get a clear and detailed picture of it.

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Overview: Fast and energetic game to introduce the “learning zone model” and the idea of learning through playing. Time: 20 min.

Material: a bell or a whistle.

Logistical aspects: the activity is held outside meanwhile the reflection should be done in the training room without a break in between. Instructions:

1) The activity starts outside the training room, preferably in a open-air space.

2) Participants stand in two lines, where each participant in the first line is facing another participant in the other line.

3) Tells loudly to participants divided in two lines the first instruction: ˝in a moment I will ring a bell (or the whistle) and you have to turn around, facing back to your partner. You will then have one minute to change 5 things on yourself. After one minute I will ring again the bell and on that moment you have to turn again to face your partner”.

4) Rings the bell and remind one more time to the participants to turn around, making also very clear that is not allowed to look back on the partner during this minute. 5) Participants have now 1 minute to change 5 things on them (cloths, shoes, necklaces...)

6) After one minute, ring the bell and say to everyone to turn around facing their partners.

7) Now they have to find out which are the 5 changes that their pairs have made. Allow 2 minutes to let the pairs guess the change made by their mates in the other line (one minute each). 8) Make everyone silent and ready for the second round. They now have to repeats the exercise, but now the participants have to change 5 NEW things (the previous 5 don’t count). 9) Repeats again for a third round, giving this time 2 minutes to change 10 NEW things on themselves.

10) As soon as the third round is over (after the two minutes to guess the chances in pairs) invite the participants to rapidly come back to the training room all together. N.B.: On the way to the room usually most of the participants fix back the changes, this aspect is at the core of the exercise.

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Debriefing

Ask the participants how come they have changed so fast back to their usual outfit and then use some of the participants' answers to introduce the learning zone model (Comfort Zone, Panic Zone and Learning Zone). Underline the fact that this game is first of all a way to wake up the observation skills, to train the memory, to raise creativity and to better know each other in a more physical way. But then it is a way to reflect on our unconscious behaviors, on what make us comfortable or uncomfortable and under which circumstances the learning process take place. Finally, encourage the participants in “being out of the comfort zone˝ throughout the training course, in order to be open to learn. PEER REVIEW Key feedbacks from the Seminar:        

Really effective also to develop observations skills. Very good exercise to test our personal limits of comfort. It tested my creativity under time pressure and helped me to see how much attention I pay to details. I learned that it is possible to get involved also by simply but fully observing the others I learned to trust in other people by sharing my belongings. It is an attractive game that could be used also for a “get to know each other” session. it could be used as an energizer, it is interactive, fun, funny and relaxing but that it also helps to create focus in the group. The effectiveness depends highly on the reflection phase.

How was the activity improved? 

It was reduced the number of changes per round: during the Seminar nobody was able to make all the changes they were supposed to do and this could discourage participations A limited number of changes make the activity more feasible for the participants, without loose the challenging aspect.

Pay attention!   

Be sure to be clear with the rules at the beginning, because afterwards the laughs and the loudness will impede you to be properly listened. Be sure to have something loud to stop the participants talking all at the same time: a bell, a whistle etc.. The group could take the activity more as an energizer than as an effective activity to introduce a reflection on our comfort zones. An in-depth and elaborate reflection during the debriefing phase is vital to not diminish the learning potential of the activity.

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The comfort zone is the location where are located the skills a person has already acquired. Is where a person usually operate operates, since it consists of the abilities he already has. It is, thus, a secure and unchallenged zone where is quite unlikely to make progress or build skills when moving in there. Rather, considering that it is a space where things are famil familiar, iar, it is a safe place to return to reflect on knowledge and experiences lived in a different zone. On the opposite side, in the Panic Zone the energy is spent to manage or control fear and stress. The overall feeling of the panic zone is frustration and anxiety, therefore is impossible to learn when performing within this zone. It is the Stretching Zone the place where usually happens the personal growth. In here is possible to find a balance between high igh challenges and low level of stress. Comfort Stretch Panic Zone Zone Zone Low challenge

High challenge

Very high challenge

Low stress

Low stress

High stress

 Limited learning

 Effective learning

 Limited learning

Limited thinking

Thinking required

Cognitive overload

Within this model, itt is important to highlight that eevery very individual’s threshold for each zone could be different, and every individual could have different thresholds according to the particular situation he is facing. The three zones are, in fact, constantly changing: while operating in the learning zone, a person gets more comfortable with the current skills and they’ll start to move into the comfort zone. As this happens, tasks that were once a part of the panic zone will ill move into the learning zone. Hence, byy becoming familiar f with what it was learnt in the stretching zone, the comfort zone expands. Thus, it should be never n pushed anyone into the learning zone as it is impossible to know where it starts and ends. Reference: Senninger, T., Abenteuer leiten – in Abenteu Abenteuern lernen, Münster, Ökotopia, 2000.

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Overview: An unusual way of communication to evaluate the focus of the attention and to introduce the concept of social awareness as basic principle of active citizenship. Time: 20 min

Material: a video camera, a laptop, a bell or whistle.

Logistical aspects: the activity is to be held in open-air meanwhile the reflection should be done in he training room without a break in between. Instructions:

1) The activity starts outside the training room, preferably in a open-air space.

2) Participants stand in two lines, where each participant in the first line is facing another participant in the other line. One line is “Line A” and the other “Line is B”. Make sure everyone in Line A face a partner in Line B.

3) Ask to both lines to come closer one to each other until almost touching the participants in the other line. 4) Invite participants in Line A to step back 5 steps. 5) Clarify that the exercise consists of 3 rounds.

6) Round 1: Each participants in Line A have to tell to their pair in Line B a random number from 1 to 100. The participants in Line B have to repeat out loud the number. Keep on doing this with any number come in their mind for approximately one minute, then ring the bell (or whistle) to stop them and make the group silent. 7) In Round 2 the role are switched: tell to the people in Line B to step 5 steps. Each participants in Line B have to tell to their pair in Line A random numbers from 1 to 100. The participants in Line A have to repeat out loud the numbers. After approximately one minute ring the bell (or whistle) to stop them and make the group silent. 8) In Round 3, make both Lines step back 5 steps. This will make them shouting louder.

9) In the new round, participants in Line A say random numbers and colors towards their pairs in Line B, which have to repeat out loud. 10) During this round a staff member should pass right between the two lines, walking confidently, not too slow and not too fast. Another team member should be filming the scene by distance.

11) After the staff member walks through, hold the activity for more20 seconds and then ring the bell to end the activity. Invite the participants to gather in the training room.

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Debriefing

After having collected few general comments on the activity, ask the group if they have seen a ˝team member passing by”. In case someone doesn’t believe that there was actually a person passing just in front of their eyes, the scene recorded with the camera could be screen on a projector. Ask the participants how did it happen that they didn’t notice a person passing right in front of their eyes. Then create the link with the reality by asking if similar things happen often in our daily life: be so busy on our personal business (sometimes trivial business like - metaphorically - random numbers and colors) that we miss to pay attention to what is happening around us.

Make them reflect about what they are usually focus on in their daily life and question them about how much they are aware of what is happening around them. Introduce the concept of active citizenship by pointing out one of its main element: the social awareness; the awareness of what is happening around us and awareness of the people surrounding us. From here, point out the first competences of an active citizen: - Be able to look beyond the personal circle of relationships. - Be able to open the relation from 1-to-1 to 1-to-many. PEER REVIEW Key feedbacks from the Seminar:  Good exercise also to make shy people talking loudly.  It seems a meaningless game until the moment you see the video and realize how powerful could be this exercise.  Instead of numbers and colours, the participants could shout their names, their city or favourite food, so that the game could be used also as a “get to know each other” activity.  I learn that I am too focus on myself and on my voice.  I learned that we believe too much on what we think is the truth. How was the activity improved? 

The debriefing was more focused on the concept of “social awareness” and “openness to the others” in order to more effectively introduce the concept of active citizenship.

Pay attention!  

During the first 2 rounds, the team member that will walk through during the 3rdround should be somewhere on the side, behaving ˝normally˝ ( meaning not trying to hide himself, or not trying to draw any additional attention) otherwise he/she will catch the attention of the participants. The staff member in charge of filming the other staff member passing through, should film (or pretending to film) from the beginning, in order to not draw extra attention during the filming of the 3rdround.

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Social awareness may be defined as the individual’s ability to u understand people, social events and the processes involved in regulating social events. Hence, developing eveloping social awareness involves learning about the d dynamics of social relationships between individuals, groups and communities. Social awareness spans a wide spectrum: beginning with social skills development in early childhood childhoo and encompassing the level of social consciousness that leads to social activism and societal transformation. A socially aware individual values human rights and acknowledges the importance of harmonious social interaction for the developmental progress of human beings.

Many researchers have revealed that the interaction with diverse peers is positively related to social awareness development: - Springer, et al. (1995)) found that students who interacted with ith diverse peers reported more frequent discussion sion of complex social issues, including such things ngs as the economy, peace, human huma rights equality, and justice. - Astin (1993), in a multi-dimensional dimensional study of co college impact, t, found that socializing with someone from a different racial background d caused increases in cultural awareness, commitment to racial understanding, unders and commitment to the environment. - Also later research confirmed firmed the relationship between diversity and racial understanding. These studies indicates that students who interact ct with diverse peers al also demonstrate beliefs efs (importance of speaking up against ainst social injustice and crea creating awareness of how people affect the environment) and values (desire to promote racial tolerance nce and respect) consistent with the development of social s awareness. - A recent study of the University of Mich Michigan and Harvard University on law school students revealed that discussions with students from diverse verse backgrounds significantly influenced their views of the U.S. criminal justice system, as welll as their views regarding civil rights and conditions within various social and economic institutions (Orfield and Whitla, 2001). In conclusion, it is possible to affirm that young people who develop views and dispositions associated with social awarenesss are better prepared to take on social roles as decision-makers makers and agents of social change. References: - Greenspan, Defining childhood social competences, in Advances in special education, vol. 3, Jay Press, 1981 - Astin, A., What Matters in College - Four critical years revisited, Jossey Jossey-Bass, 1993. - Chang, M. J., Astin, A. W., & Kim, D.. Cross Cross-racial interaction tion among undergraduates: Some consequences, causes, and patterns. Research in Higher Education, 45, 529 529-553, 2004. - Orfield, G., Schools more re separate: consequences of a decade of resegregation, Harvard University, 2001. - Orfield, G., Whitla,D., Diversity and legal education: student experiences in leading law schools, in: Orfield, Gary, Ed., Diversity Challenged: Evidence on the Impact of A Affirmative Action. Cambridge, p143-174 174, Harvard Education Publishing Group, 2001.

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Overview: An activity to explore at personal level the topic of inclusion, effective communication. A challenging game to reflect on our own patterns of behavior and active involvement in the society. A good tool to introduce the topic of Active citizenship. Time: the length of the activity depends on the participants: it can take from 30 minutes to an entire day. However, a limited time of 2 hours could be set. Material: A rope (20 meters long each) for each group. Blindfolds for everyone. Instruction sheet for assistants.

Logistical aspects: The activity it should be held open-air in a quite wide and flat surface, preferably in a space where the interaction with strangers passing by is very limited. Instructions:

1)The whole group of participants get separated in groups of 5, 6 or 7 members(depending on the number of participants attending the course).

2) For every small group of participants there should be one assistant. The assistants have the role of supervising the activity and supporting the group.

3) Each small groups go with its assistant to different places where they have enough space to freely move and where they don’t get disturbed by the other groups.

4) In each group the assistant give to the group member the blindfolds and help them in blindfolding themselves, making sure that on everyone is well tied so that the blindfolds don’t run down to the face during the game. 5) Once everyone is blind folded, the assistant get them together standing in circle and put the rope on the floor in the middle of the circle, without saying a word.

6) The assistant, then, step aside from the group and start to read the instructions. The instructions MUST be read in a very clear, slow and calm way. 7) From now on the assistant make sure the participants are safe while blindfolded.

8) During the game the assistants remain in silent for most of the time. He/she doesn’t give personal opinion, doesn’t laugh, doesn’t make comments. 9) If participants ask something in a vague and imprecise way, the general advice would be to ask back the participants what they mean just be repeating their words. For example: -Is this a good square?-good? -Are we done?-done?

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If the participants ask the assistant something very clear and specific, for ex: “could you to measure the square?”/ “could you read again the instructions of the game?” then the assistant could do that.

10) If participants ask the assistant confirmation about whether they have fulfilled the task, the assistant could bear in mind the penultimate point of the instruction sheet. Therefore, if the participant doesn’t clearly ask for the trainer to come and check, the assistant read again the whole instruction and keep doing his job. 11) Regarding the safety: if participants ask “is there anything on my back? / Am I going to fall on the steps?/ where is the tree?”, the assistant only says: “Don’t worry, I am here to guarantee your safety, in case of need I will help you”.

12) The assistants throughout the game take note of the activity in order to get some interesting input for the debriefing. 13) Time wise, the assistant should let the participants play for two hours. Afterwards, the assistant should call the trainer and let him/her evaluate the situation, also according to what is happening in the other groups. In case one group completes the task in short time, the assistant have to ensure that the members of his/her group remain in their group’s spot, without disturbing the other groups.

14) Throughout the whole activity the trainer oversee all the groups taking notes in silence and discretely giving advice to the assistants, remaining available for any group asking for him/her for the final check.

15) Once the game is over, give a 5 minute break to cheer up the group mood, to collect the emotions or just to spend some time on their own to relax. 16) Get into the training room for a long session of debriefing. Debriefing

Start by giving enough space to participants to express whatever they want, what happened, how they feel or what they got. Then, focus the reflection on the cooperation and group working dimension and, from there, towards the theme of inclusion and exclusion (from the game dynamic, from the society…).

Step back from the group dimension’s analysis to the self-reflection, making clear that the game helps to look closer on how people deal with the emotion and to train how to deal with such emotions. The game, in fact, helps to reflect on how people interact in the social sphere under certain unexpected conditions and helps to train to work with the others under certain unexpected conditions.

Invite the participants to reflect on their patterns of behavior during the activity and ask them to verify if there is any connection between how they behaved during the game and how they usually behave in their day-by-day life. Invite the participants to reflect about: - how good they were in communication during the game; - how much did they support the group to make the square; - if they ever felt excluded by the group dynamic or if they felt they were not properly considering one group member during the game; - how they have dealt with the anger, irritation, stress or frustration they have felt during the game; 30


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- how good they are in working under pressure; - what happen to them when they lose the motivation; - how patience they usually are when working with different people, debating and trying to organize themselves; - how they react to new things and new challenge; - how much they trusted ti their group member during the game; - how much they trust in other people in life.

You can conclude the activity introducing the Jans & de Backer’s “Triangle of Youth Participation” by linking the tree dimensions of the triangle (challenges, connections and capacities) involved in the game with the ones considered the basic condition of youth participation by Jans & de Backer. PEER REVIEW Key feedbacks from the Seminar:               

A great game for self-reflection, communication skills and questioning authority. It helps a lot the participants to understand how they are involved in what is happening around them. The activity is something is very attractive for young people, always looking for new challenges. It could be a bit risky: it could push the participants “over the limit” and make them upset. If the participants don’t succeed in it, the game could risk making lose the motivation to the entire group. Though the activity is very attractive, it could be stressful for the participants and could lead to frustration. I started thinking about what my role in the group usually is. I learned to be more specific when asking questions. I learned about collaborative learning. I learned how to handle pressure. I learn to activate “other senses” in order to achieve common goal. Through this game you can find your role in a group as a leader or as a participant. The main thing I learnt was the patience to have when working with different people debating and trying to organize ourselves. It made me realize how I behave in general and how I react to new things. I got to know people better, how they think and solve problems It is good that the trainers stays aside and leaves the participants to make their own decisions.

How was the activity improved?   

It was changed the focus of the debriefing (during the seminar it was proposed as a way to become aware of the way we ask for things in life). It was extended the time dedicated for the final reflection. The instruction sheet was rewrote adding more details in order to limit the confusion during the game.

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 

The instruction sheet was re-write making more clear the role, the attitude and the limit of the assistants’ role. The instructions sheet was edited in order to be more suitable for bigger group (group made of 6 and 7 participants each): bigger group means to limit the number of the groups and, therefore, the number of the assistants and the space necessary to run the activity.

Pay attention!  

 

 

The instructions have to be read in a very clear way, exercise a bit the reading before the beginning of the activity. Due to specific way of communicating, the trainer and the assistants can be seen as rude or unfriendly to some participants, which can leave a bad aftertaste. Thus, make sure that this activity is used only as part of a longer training and learning experiences with the group so that the opinion about the staff don’t get built only upon their attitude during this specific game. It’s important that the assistants participate in the game before assist other groups. The activity requires very good moderation skills: people could get very frustrated or angry at each other. If the trainer is not enough experienced, better to avoid this activity, otherwise there could be a risk to rise conflict within the group for the rest of the training period and the role of the trainer could not be longer recognized. This activity can trigger emotions such as anger or irritation, so the general tips for the trainer is to reformulate whatever the participants are saying into their learning. The reflection part should be done carefully.

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Blind Squares Instructions  

    

Listen, I will tell you the instructions.

The next assignment is about cooperation and communication. There is a rope in front of you.

With this rope you have to make an exact square All the four sides have to be equal

All the sides have to be at least 5 meters

Inside every corner, there has to stand a group member who is holding the rope

 Precisely in the middle, there have to stand the 5th and the 6th member of your group, one facing each other. In case the group in composed of 7 people: 

Precisely in the middle, there has to stand the 5th member of your group

 The 6th and the 7th member have to stay at 2 meters distance from the 5th member, one facing the 5th member's face and the other facing his back.   

The rope has to stay in one piece You have to use the whole rope

If you take off your blindfold, you have to start all over again

 This process is only ready, when (name of the trainer) tells you that you are ready. o I repeat the instructions... (only 1st time you read that) o

Start the process.. (only 2nd time you read that)

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To work on self awareness is very important w when working on social inclusion for community building lding or when engaged iin some Active Citizenship’s initiatives. Self-awareness awareness is the capacity for introspection and the ability to recognize oneself as an individual separate from the environment and othe other individuals. The more you know about yourself, the better you are at adapting life changes that suit your needs.

When a group of people get et active in the society and start to be engaged in a coordinated action to advocate for some cause, it might happen that something go wrong and the group fail in reaching the final objective. Sometimes the problem is the lack of money to support the initiatives,, other times time are the opposite political conditions, but other times is because of the group itself: the focus on the cause, on the “dream”, on the civic engagement blur the focus on the process the group is creating. In other words, they forget to take care of their inner process, of themselves. Therefore, it might happens that within the group of activists: - the engagement of the fellow activists fade apart and less and less people care about the cause; - the group of activists get in conflict one with each other; - some fellow activists leave the organization and establish their ir own association, being this completely c similar to o the one they have just leaved; - the group is still united and committed by the meeting failed to make the group reach an agreement; - the group of activists fades apart since they are no nott able anymore to work together. Other times it can be noticed the paradox of people working for peace but disrespecting their friends or people going volunteering for the poor children in Africa but leave their old parents alone in a hospice. Some personal contradiction, ontradiction, some aspect of the identity, y, some behavioral pattern could undermine the work done for the society. For all those reasons it could be worth to start working on active citizenship by looking at the personal dimension of the social engagement. One of the ways to look at such perso personal dimension of the social engagement is the Jans & de Backer’s Model “Triangle riangle of Youth Participation”. According to Marc Jans and Kurt de Back, tthere are three distinguished dimensions which enable young people to actively participate in society society.

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It should be achieved a dynamic balance among these three dimensions: challenge, connection and capacity.

An active citizen is Connected to other citizens and needs this feeling of connection with the communities, ideas, movements to know that he/she is not alone and that he/she can count on group or Institution supporting him/her.

An active citizens has some Capacity (knowledge and skills) in order to get involved and it has to be possible for any skills that are lacking to be developed through civic engagement. An active citizen wants to challenge firstly himself and then the social and political structures in place, although remaining within the bounds of democratic processes and not become involved in violent acts. References: De Backer, Kurt and Jans, Marc (2002) Youth (-work) and Social Participation: Elements for a Practical Theory. Brussels: Flemish Youth Council, 2002.

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Overview: A simulation game to introduce the cultural dimension of the social dynamic and the relative concepts of intercultural communication and cultural sensitivity. A game to reflect on the group dynamics, both within the same group and when two o more groups interact, bringing either to exclusion, or inclusion, cohesion and just co-existence.

Time: The length of the activity depends on the participants, it can take from 30 minute to an entire day. However, a limited time of 2 hours could be set. Material: Role cards. The map of the island. A large number of colored balloons, with at least 3 red balloons. 2 condoms. Adhesive tape. A clown style’s red nose. Two boxes with random material including colors, pen, paper, biscuits, dress…

Logistical aspects: The activity should be held open air in a space where it is possible to locate the two groups quite far one to each other. Alternatively, the game could be held in two different rooms connected with corridor.

Preparation: 1) Print out the role cards. 2) Prepare the island’s map according to the location where the activity will take place. Mark the place where the special balloons are located with an “X”. 3) Stick with adhesive tape the colored balloons in each of the tribes’ location - Tribe 1 will get several balloons, mainly red, but they will not have a big variety: some color Tribe 2 has, they don’t. - Tribe 2 will get several balloons of all colors, except red 4) Hide two inflated condoms ( the “special balloons”) in a secret location 5) Cut in few pieces the island’s map and put each piece in few red balloons of Tribe 1. 6) Tie the inflated red balloons with the map inside with a string so that they may be undone and deflated without damaging them 7) Prepare two boxes full of random material in each of the tribes’ spot. Be sure to include a clown style’s red nose of the in the Tribe 1’s Box. Instructions:

1) Explain that the participants will be divided in two tribes and that each of them will go to its own land. 2) Divide the participants in two groups/tribe and accompany them to their tribe spots.

3) Once they reach their spot, give to each tribe the relative role card. Give them also the box with several items they might use, include pen and papers to take note; Do not specify what the item could be used for, they may or may not be needed in the game. 4) Give to each tribe 20 minutes to create their culture and their language as suggested by the role card.

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5) Explain to both tribe that after 20 minutes the trainer will ring the bell as sing to start the simulation.

6) Explain also that the same bell will be used to mark the end of the simulation. When the participants ear the ending bell they have to instantaneously end whatever they are doing and keep silence. 7) After checked that both groups are done with the preparation, ring the bell to start the simulation.

8) At this point the participant will be completely free to run their game. Most probably the first action will be tribe 2 willing to meet tribe 1 to get some balloons to cure their people. 9) When it is considered the right moment to close the simulation, ring the bell and help the participants in getting out from the role with a simple ritual ( by crossing a line, ripping the role cards, saying their name out of loud, group hug etc‌). Debriefing:

Make clear the slight movement that could happen from a simple co-existence to mutual recognition, which then might create either inclusion, integration or cohesion. Explain that there are many different ways to interact in a situation when different cultures meet and this it depends from the level of intercultural sensitivity and of intercultural communication. According to these dimensions, it is possible to explore infinite possibilities of intercultural cooperation.

Yet, make the group reflect about the real weight of the cultural and language barrier by inviting them to reflect on what made difficult to understand, interact and cooperate with the other tribe. Ask: - Was the language the major issue? Do you think would be easy if everyone speak the same language? - Was the culture a major problem? Possibly there are other elements worth to be considered, more related to the way everyone perceive his own role in the society, to the way everyone communicate with their fellow, to the different weight everyone gives to the authorities, to the respect of the rules, to the friendships, to the sense of community and to the limit everyone has of the use of violence‌. Tackle also the issue of the group working and inclusion within the same tribe. Ask: -Were all the people in your tribe included in your action, in your negotiations, in your decisions? - Were all able to take part in the discussion and in the decision making process? - Was the spokesperson legitimated by everyone when he took the decisions? - Did you have any misunderstandings in your tribe during the game? It might come out that the cultural and language differences are lesser relevant issue than the misunderstanding and lack of respect happening within the same tribe. Thus, one learning point could be that to effectively cooperate, having the same language is not enough, and most of the time is not the culture the main problem.

Spend some words about an interesting element of culture: the taboo. In the game they were represented by the untouchable red balloons and the condoms Ask the group: - Do you think we have some taboo in our society nowadays? Which one? - What are their functions? Could they be dangerous? - Could they somehow have a role when dealing with social inclusion?

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PEER REVIEW Key feedbacks from the Seminar:         

The activity raised the awareness about cultural differences and their effect on communication and interaction. the activity is attractive and stimulating, is a good tool to encourage creative thinking in the participants. It was really fun! Useful tool for intercultural learning. Not all the participants were involved, some of them took a passive role soon becoming bored. The participation could be increased by giving specific roles to each person I gain skills in field of communication I learned to think before interact with someone from different culture I have learnt something new about the group work - especially about the leadership.

How was the activity improved?    

 

The role cards were modified by adding more features to the tribes’ culture. It was modified the scenario by giving to both tribe a reason to look for new balloons. In this way, any of the two tribes could make the first move. It was given more relevance and meaning to the special balloons and it was created an extra issue around the special balloons. It was eliminated the neutral territory where the meetings take place, in order to make the game more realistic (there aren’t such place in reality) and to let the participants decide where should they meet. This aspect will be an interesting topic during the debriefing (migration, invasion, boundaries, safe space, “my house”, walls, territory…) It was added the final moment of getting out from the role through a ritual in order to let participants get rid of the role and of the feeling they had during the game. This ritual helps also to avoid keeping on role play-based discussions/jokes during the debriefing phase. The debriefing phase includes an extra part dedicated to the group dynamic within the same tribe in order to reflect also on intra-cultural issues.

Pay attention!   

The activity needs a precise preparation to be done before the beginning of the training session. Make sure you have enough time to prepare everything without be seen by the participants. Before ring the bell to start the game, make sure the tribes have their own language and remind them that they have to use exclusively that language to communicate between them throughout the game Draw the map in a very accurate way in order to not create an extra element of confusion.

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ROLE CARD – Tribe 1 You live on a island which is also inhabited by another tribe. Your two tribes co-exist side by side but due the difference of language, culture and habits you rarely have contact with each other. Your language Your first task is to invent your language. This will be the language you will use throughout the game; be sure that everyone in the tribe can use it proficiently. Your culture You are a very religious tribe. The highest values for your tribe have the balloons; you put great value on the balloons for religion reasons: it is believed that a great number and a big diversity of balloons bring peace, health and prosperity to your tribe. The balloons are considered sacred and no one is allowed to touch them. If they do they face punishment The only people who may touch the balloons are those who have been trained to perform the “Ritual of walking the circle”. This ritual allow the person to wear the red nose: only by wearing the red nose it is possible to touch the balloons. If someone touches the balloons without the red nose will face the punishment. You may want to invent other aspects of your culture including a name, a way of greeting and rules about social organization (ex: who makes decisions; who speaks for the group etc…)

Considering the importance of the balloon in your culture, you are always looking for new colored balloons which are available in the island in order to keep ensuring the wellbeing of your tribe.

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ROLE CARD – Tribe 2 You live on a island which is also inhabited by another tribe. Your two tribes co-exist side by side but due the difference of language, culture and habits you rarely have contact with each other. Your language Your first task is to invent your language. This will be the language you will use throughout the game; be sure that everyone in the tribe can use it proficiently. Your culture

Your tribe is very sociable and peaceful; when you meet someone you greet by rubbing noses. That is why is for you very important to have clean nose and you consider as very disrespectful if anybody has anything on his nose. You are not a religious tribe. You take care very much one to each other and you always help people of your tribe, whenever it is needed. You usually use balloons for medical purpose, they have helped you each time until now. You may want to invent other aspects of your culture including a name, a way of greeting and rules about social organization (ex: who makes decisions; who speaks for the group etc..) Your current problem At the moment an unknown illness is striking the tribe; your people has already tried all the colored balloons present in your land, but with no success. The old people remember that a similar disease occurred long time ago and that in that circumstances red balloons helped to cure the suffering people.

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(Draw w here the map according to the location where the game will take place)

The map indicates the place where the special balloons with powerful healing properties are located. Such balloons It is believed be able to cu cure re the most rare and dangerous diseases. Considering the magical properties of the special balloons, such balloons have a strategic importance to guarantee the life on this island, therefore, the tribe who gets get the control over such balloons will have also the social and political control over the entire island island.

Intercultural communication takes place when individuals influenced by different cultural communities negotiate shared meanings in int interaction. Traits raits that make for competent intercultural communicators include flexibility and the ability to tolerate high levels of uncertainty, reflectiveness, open-mindedness, mindedness, sensitivity, adaptability, and the ability to engage in divergent and system systems-level thinking. Steps of Intercultural learning: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Acceptance of own culture. Acknowledging the existence of other cultures without judging them. Deeper understanding of own culture culture. Developing an understanding of and respect for other cultures. Put aside side prejudices. Increased cultural adaptation alternatives: ability to deal with cultural rules. Ability to have constructive and interactive relationships with and in other cultural environments.

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The foundation of intercultural communication competence is the capacity to avoid ethnocentrism. The Developmental Model of Intercultural Sensitivity (DMIS) is frequently used in intercultural training and assessment to chart individuals’ progress towards ethno-relativism. The model has six stages: Stages of Intercultural Sensitivity:

1. Denial: does not recognize cultural differences → isolation. 2. Defense: recognize some differences, but seeing them as negative → denigration. 3. Minimization: tolerate the differences, but recognize our culture and values as superior → superiority. 4. Acceptance: aware of the differences but reading the difference through own cultural layer → acknowledgment and respect. 5. Adaptation: ability to evaluate other’s behavior from their frame of reference and to adapt personal behavior to fit the norms of a different culture → inclusion and pluralism. 6. Integration: ability to create a new cultural frame of reference resulting for the interaction between several identity issues → constructive interaction. However, integration should not be seen as the final objective of a multicultural society. The challenge of the XXI century is to create social cohesion within such multicultural society. Social cohesion is a process of building shared values and communities of interpretation, reducing disparities in wealth and income, and generally enabling people to have a sense that they are engaged in a common enterprise, facing shared challenges, and that they are members of the same community.

References: -Ting-Toomey, S. (1999). Communicating across cultures. New York: The Guilford Press. -Gudykunst, W. B. (2005). An anxiety/uncertainty management (AUM) theory of effective communication: Making the mesh of the net finer. In W.R. Gudykunst (Ed.), Theorizing about intercultural communication, 281–322. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. -Maxwell, J. (1996). Social dimensions of economic growth. Eric John Hanson Memorial Lecture Series. University of Alberta, p.13 Council of Europe, All different, all equal . Education pack, 1995.

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Cine-forum night

Exploring the relation between social inclusion and active citizenship. In the application to the training it was included a question about the relation between social inclusion and active citizenship. Many of the participants wrote in there that the relation between the two concepts is fundamental since if someone is not included in the society, if he doesn’t feel that he is part of that community, he/she cannot be an active citizens. Similarly, other participants stated that is necessary to belong in a community in order to have the space to implement Active citizenship initiatives. The correlation was often perceived - in a way or in another - as strong connection in the sense that without one it is not possible to have the other.

For this reason during the training course it was screened a movie about one of the demonstration organized by Martin Luther King in USA to demand the right of vote to the black people which, on that time (1965), were still very much discriminated and excluded by the national democratic system. The movie shows a situation in which marginalized people were organizing a massive event of social active engagement aiming at increase their social and political recognition; so it shows the possibility to be an active citizen without be socially included. Martin Luther King and his fellow were active citizens because they wants to be included.

The debate after the movie highlighted the fact that what for some participants is a premise (social inclusion), for others - like the ones in this movie - is the final goal. Therefore although is clear that there are strong connection within inclusion and participation, in not univocal their correlation.

The debate after the movie pointed out two important elements which could be considered the basis of both inclusion and participation: the commitment and the sense of ownership. Even in case of a missing sense of belonging to a community (due political barrier and social marginalization) it is still possible to develop the sense of ownership of that community. From such sense of ownership stem out the commitment towards the creation of a better community. So it doesn’t matter what others think or do towards the socially excluded groups, if they feel that they are part of that community, they will soon or later develop the willing to make that community a better place for everyone. References: Selma, Directed by Ava Du Vernay, written by Paul Webb, Paramount Pictures, 2012 (Runtime: 2 hr. 7 min.).

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Overview An activity to introduce the concept of social capital and foster social inclusion as a mean for community development. Time: it depends from the space available and the number of clues, but possibly it should take 90 minutes. Material: Piece of paper for the clues. Colored Envelopes. Pen and markers. Keys for the chest. Chest (it can be a shoe box for example), The “treasure” (candy or any other prize).

Logistical aspects: The activity it should be held in the whole training venue and its surroundings. Wi-Fi connection should be guaranteed at least in a portion of the activity area to allow researches on internet during the activity. Preparation

The activity foreseen a careful and detailed preparation to be done good time in advance and out of the view of the participants.

1) Study the location where the activity will take place and design the possible itineraries for the treasure hunt, identifying specific places where to hide the clues.

2) Create the clues related to your facilities: each clue has to be composed of few words that should lead the group to understand where the next clue is located. 3) Divide the participants in teams and associate to each team a colour: the Blue team, the red team, etc..

4) Among all the groups, identify who will be the privileged one, meaning the group that will have some advantages in solving the clues thanks to the particular knowledge its members have: in case of an international training courses gathering participants from different countries, you can choose the language as variable for the clues. 5) Write down the clues using both English and the languages spoken by the members of the privileged group. Example: Privileged team constituted by participants coming from Sweden, Croatia and Spain. Clues (the same for all the groups): 1 - Agua, Niños , Atrás. 2 - Het, Morgon, Arom. 3 - Alice, Snjeguljica, Pranje, Lice. 4 - Neighborhood, Gente, Painting. 5 - Korijandar, Växande, Colors.

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Solutions Clue N.

Language(s) used Spanish

Agua (water), Niños (children), Atrás (Back)

2 3

Swedish

Croatian

Het (hot), Morgon (morning), Arom (scent)

4

English and Spanish

Neighbourhood, Gente (People in Spanish), Painting

1

5

English, Croatian and Swedish

Words uses and their meaning in English

Alice, Snjeguljica (Snow White), Pranje (to wash), Lice (face)

Korijandar (coriander in Croatian), Växande (Growing in Swedish) , Colors

Clue solution

The fountain near the kindergarten situated the backyard The local coffee shop

The mirror of the washbasin

The wall with the graffiti representing the people of the neighbourhood the Vases where the aromatic herb grow

According to this ratio, the privileged team has members that know the languages in which the clues are written, meanwhile the other teams have to firstly find a way to understand what they clue says. This means that the privileged group will be faster in completing the task. 6) Write each clue on a different piece of paper and close each clue in an envelope having the color of the relative team (or simply write on the envelope the color of the team). Do the same for all the teams. 7) Write on each envelope of every team the number of the clue. Since the clues are the same for all the teams, in order to not make teams going in the same direction at the same time, create a different itinerary for each team by changing the order of clues for each group. 8) Insert a key on the last clue envelope of each group.

9) Position each envelope in the relevant spot; expect the first one of each group, that will be handed directly to the teams at the beginning of the game.

10) Prepare the chest with the treasure (it could be a shoes box full of candies) and place it in the training room.

Instructions

1)Present the treasure hunt and show the chest. Explain that the aim of the game is to find the key to open the chest and that the clues to get the key are inside some envelopes spread all around the surroundings. 2)Divide participants in team as previously planned, without revealing anything about the fact that one team will have advantage; try to let perceive that such division is a random choice or find some excuse for such division (countries having the cross in their flag etc…)

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3)Read the rules to the participants: •Don’t touch any envelope that doesn’t have the color of your team; •You have to collect ALL envelops and in the right order from 1 to 5 (so it is not allowed skip a clue). •You can use any means to decipher the clues. •The first group that will come back in the training room with all the envelopes, including the last one with the key, will be entitled to open the chest. 4) Give to each team the first envelop. This is the signal to start the hunt.

5)At the end, before allow to the winner team to open the chest, wait until the last team conclude the hunt and is came back, so that the whole group could enjoy this moment and, possibly, share the treasure. Debriefing

The debate could start by asking the participants what they think about the clues, if they were easy to understand, if they understood what was the criterion, how do they find out their meanings etc.,. From their answer it should came out that one of the team had an easier life because the clues were written in languages known almost exclusively by its members. After having revealed that this was an unfair, or a “not-equal”, treasure hunt, start the debate, asking the participants how they feel about the information that was now revealed. Ask also if they were aware of the privileged or unprivileged situation they had during the hunt.

Introduce the concepts of social capital using the metaphor of the treasure hunt: the connections, the knowledge and the resources that everyone has, can help in solving some issue and contribute to the development of his/her community. In the case of the treasure hunt, the social capital emerged in the form of cultural capital (considering that the variable was the language spoken from people of certain nationalities) where cultural diversity of the team members were the added value. According to the social capital theory, the condition of privilege or unprivileged - during the game and in specific real life situation - is linked to the particular type of network that a group of people is able to resort to in order to overcome an obstacle. In this sense social capital it’s about the ties between people in the community and how people work together to achieve desired community conditions. Such approach make clear the importance of the social cohesion between diverse cultural groups and the inclusion of people having different socio/cultural/economic/l background in order to achieve important social and political objectives. Such reflection on social capital should point out how cultural diversity is a richness that should be used to develop a community and not a factor to deny and fight recurring to discriminative and intolerant actions.

During the final part of the debriefing you could invite the participants to reflect about the actual individualistic society in which the focus is the individual as if he/she is disconnected from others and had the power to do whatever he/she wants regardless of the surroundings social structures. Hence, stimulate a reflection about how much the personal failures or the successes are connected with the surroundings (people and social structures) and about how much anyone is contributing to the failures or the successes of the people around us.

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PEER REVIEW Key feedbacks from the Seminar:       

It’s an attractive activity since is very dynamic and create team spirit. it could be better make the activity a little longer and a bit more difficult. the activity need more preparation in order to be more complex and longer. It is very effective to introduce the concept of social capital. It’s good also to reflect about reflected privilege and unprivileged situation. It made me reflect about the importance of cooperation and communication to achieve a common goal. It would have been more effective to involve the local community, also to better highlight the concept of social capital.

How was the activity improved?    

The clues were modified in order to make the disclosure harder. The Treasure Hunt was extended to the entire neighborhood to become longer and to make also possible to involve the local community (the local library, the cultural center, the coffee shop…). Some of the envelopes were held by the owners of the store/worker in the office to make sure participants would have to communicate with the locals. All the rules were clearly worded and stated in the beginning of the game, making sure everyone understood that all envelops should be gathered.

Pay attention!   

Be careful with translations of the clues; check the translations of the clue with someone who speaks the language since Google translator is not always accurate. The activity should take place in a space big enough to permit the teams to move around without bumping to each other and to limit the probability of an overlapping of teams’ itineraries and clues. Inform the surrounding community about the activities in order to avoid strange looks from strangers passing by and create a welcoming environment around them.

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Social capital is about the value of social networks, bonding similar people and bridging between diverse people, with norms of reciprocity. Although today it would ld be hard to come up with a single definition that satisfied everyone, is it possible to agree on social capital as the links and the shared values and understandings that enable individuals and groups to trust each other and so work together. The concept of social capital has been in use for almost a century. In a 1916’s book that discussed how neighbors could work together to oversee schools, Lyda Hanifan referred to social capital as “those tangible assets [that] count for most in the daily lives of peo people: ple: namely goodwill, fellowship, sympathy, and social intercourse among the individuals and families who make up a social unit”. In recent years, the term entered the popular imagination with the publication in 2000 of Robert Putnam’s bestseller, Bowling Alone: The Collapse and Revival of American Community. Putnam argued that while Americans have become wealthier, their sense of community has withered. As people spend more and more time in the office, commuting to work and watching TV alone, there’s less time for joining community groups and voluntary organizations organizations, and socializing with neighbors,, friends and even family. Social capital has three main categories: - Bonds: Links to people based on a sense of common identity (“people like us”) – such as family, close friends and people who share our culture or ethnicity. - Bridges: Links that stretch beyond a shared sense of identity, for example to distant friends, colleagues and associates. - Linkages: Links to people or groups further up or lower down tthe social ladder.

Social capital allows citizens to resolve collective problems more easily. People often might be better off if they cooperate, with each doing her share. In this sense, social capital greases the wheels that allow communities to advance smoothly; where people are trusting and trustworthy, and where they are subject to repeated interactions with fellow citizens, everyday business and social transactions are less costly. Moreover, social capital widens the awareness about personal believe believes: s: when people lack connection to others they are unable to test the veracity of their own views people. Without the opportunity to participate in casual conversation or in more formal deliberation, people are more likely to be swayed by their worse impulses. Thus, the members of a community, by setting up common structures and use shared resources, they put in place mechanisms of information management, identity building, and social integration able to capitalize their know-how how for the development of thei theirr community and for a broader social change. For these reasons social ocial capital is a concept that iiss attracting interest among politicians and policy makers. makers

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In other and simpler words, social capital has its focus on those social relations that have productive benefits, mainly due its component of trust building which is able to prevent marginalization, one of the main obstacles for community development. References: - Dekker, Paul, and Eric M. Uslaner. 2001. ‘Introduction.’ Pag. 1 - 8 in Social Capital and Participation in Everyday Life, edited by Eric M. Uslaner. London: Routledge. - Putnam, R. D., Bowling Alone. The collapse and revival of American community, New York, Simon and Schuster, 2000. - Field, J., Social Capital, London, Routledge , 2003. - University of Minnesota, Extension Center for Community Vitality, Social Capital and Our Community, Regents of the University of Minnesota, 2009.

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Overview: A Simulation about the democratic decision making process to understand the different actors involved, the different types of participation and the complexity of the social inclusion issues. Time: 3 hours

Material: Role cards. A box or a hat for the lucky draw. Instruction sheets for each role. Wall clock. Pen and paper for each participant. Flipchart, marker, adhesive tape and other stationery items (not necessary for the development of the simulation, but likely to be used by the participants to create banners for demonstration etc…). Logistical aspects: a training room equipped with tables and chairs and a wall clock to keep the time. Instructions::

1) Give and introductory explanation of the structure, the content and the aim of the simulation: “The government wants to put in its agenda for the next months the issue of social inclusion, but it doesn’t have a clear idea on what exactly focus its attention. Therefore it runs consultation with the public opinion meanwhile the party could suggest their own topics. Once the issue is spotted and a precise question is conceived, starts a debate between the government, the political parties and the public. Finally the Government takes the decision”. 2) Give them the overview of the exact structure of the simulation with its different phases and the time allocated for each slot of the simulation (see handouts).

3) Pass through the participants with a box containing the role cards and assign roles through a lucky draw. With respect to the number of 20 participants, the following stakeholder have been envisaged to take part in the simulation:  Government (3 people)  Party 1 (4 people)  Party 2 (4 people)  Public (9 people) – 1 representative for each of the following ‘interest groups’: 1. Business 2. Media 3. NGO 4. International community 5. Local authority 6. Unemployed middle-age 7. Ethnic Minority 8. Immigrant 9. University Student

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4) Invite everyone to take their position in the room as it follows: 2 tables for the parties – facing each other 1 table for the government – to chair the debate 9 chairs for the public facing the debate scene as an audience of the spectacle

5) Say to them that in a minute they will receive a detailed instruction sheet for each stakeholder and, holding one of those in your hand, explain how to read the sheet (the division in 3 columns, the blank space they will find on it etc..). 6) Give to them the detailed instruction sheet of their role and give them 5 min to read it. They are not supposed to share their instruction sheet since everyone should be aware only of their particular role and goals (which differs from one role to another).

7) Make clear since now that the decision of the government it will be based exclusively on the arguments proposed by the other stakeholders. The same applies to the public, which could support one or another party only based on the argumentation proposed by them, considering how favorable are for the role everyone has. Thus, no predetermined positions based on personal beliefs of the participants. For example: “If a party didn’t use a valid argument or you don’t understand what they are talking about, you should not support them even though as a matter of principle you could support their position”. 8) Make clear that the issues tackled by the simulation should be considered through the perspective of the allocated roles. In case of a group of participants coming from different countries, invite them to consider the issues tackled and the role allocated from his/her own country perspective, but without stereotypes and bias.

9) Take a couple of minutes to recap all and to make sure everyone understand what to do. Invite to clarify doubts and to ask question in this moment since once the simulation starts there will be no space to do that and any misunderstanding could undermine the whole game.

10) Present your assistant acting as timekeeper that will oversee the respect of the time limit allocated t any speech. The specific instructions with respect to the timing are indicated in the instruction sheet of each role, so that the participants know what they are expected to do at each moment throughout the simulation and how much time they have. 11) the Trainer give sign to start the simulation and from now on will act as facilitator of the process, limiting his intervention at the maximum. The facilitator aims at ensuring that the schedule of the consultation and of the debates is respected and that the rules of the games are followed. There should be no interference with regard to the content of the debate. 12) At the end of the simulation, once the government take its decision, close the game and make a formal ritual to get the participants out of their roles (take out the special badges, to cross a line drawn on the floor etc…).

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Debriefing

Dedicate the first part of the debriefing to make clear certain aspect of the game and their link to the reality:  The number of participants per team aimed to correspond to the proportional distribution of the social roles in reality: only few people in the government (3), some more in the parties (4 each) and the greatest majority in the public (9 people). 

 

The 2 parties have been pre-set as opposing to each other regardless of the question put forward. They have not been identified as left and right because, as it can be observed today, there is no anymore clear ideological distinction among parties but just a need to represent opponent sides in order to gain public consensus and make the other side loosing consensus.

Parties need to defend an opinion that they not necessarily support, as in reality when a politician has to follow the line of the party even though he doesn’t agree on that and he can’t show such disagreement publically. The International Community representative was the only participant allowed to interfere directly in the decision making process by sitting (uninvited) at the table of the government and giving their opinion or directions. This shows the issue of sovereignty of the State in reality and to what extent the international community is allowed to interfere.

Then you might go further analyzing other elements about the democratic system and the personal involvement in the democratic system: 

Coming back to the parties, pre-determining left & right would have biased the participants to think about ready-made arguments, while in this situation they had to brainstorm about their own position on the basis of the input provided by the participants and on the basis of the research they have made.

The same about the other actors: all roles were only outlined as a societal function – e.g. ‘government’, ‘party member’, ‘business representative’ – but no instructions were given to the participants about what exactly the profile of each character needs to do and how to behave. This allowed characters to develop naturally, with no pre-assessed position ad free from stereotypes. In this context the arguments are fundamental to create an opinion about the debated issue. This represents an ideal model of democratic participation based on critical thinking…very hard to find in reality, but for this reason important to promote also through this game.

The fact of not give pre-made profile for each role and the fact that within the same team (government, party 1 and 2) were not allocated precise roles (prime minister, party spokesperson etc…) allow the game to developed naturally according to the individual input of participants. For example, participants had the chance to naturally evolve as party leaders or become the prime minister (or just be considered such from the other stakeholders). Other will just remain silent: passiveness, shyness or poor language skills prevent participant from expressing their views and being heard, as in real life. This aspect points out another dimension of the relation between social inclusion and active citizenship.

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Going forward on this direction, the participants, by fully involving themselves in a role without a pre-determined role profiling go through a process of self-discovery. Ask them: - How was to play your role, were you comfortable in it? - Did you consider your character was enough active? - What the reasons behind? - Which are the consequences of your action or inaction? From here it is possible to makes clear how personal involvement affect the democratic processes

Make the group reflect also about the relation public-parties and public-government. - During the preparation of the arguments for the debate, the parties were allowed to used the public support, but only if the member of the public comes to their table. Ask to the parties’ members if they have managed to (or had at least interest in) attract the public for the consultation. Ask to the public if they have approached the parties to support them in the preparation of the debate. - During the slot when the government was making the decision, the public and the parties were allowed to try to influence the decision making process through any alternative methods they could think of. Ask the public how they have interacted with the government during the final decision making phase and how much they have collaborated with the parties to jointly lobby the government. Then compare the different attitudes the public eventually had towards the parties and the government, in the game and in reality. Certainly you can reflect on how the social inclusion topic was tackled during the debate highlighting the different positions and solution provided by each stakeholder and pointing out the key argumentations that made the Government take the final decision.

You can conclude by reflecting upon the concept of participation and by showing different types of participation with the help of few models. PEER REVIEW Key feedbacks from the Seminar:       

The involvement of the participants could be increased through clear instructions and more time for preparation. It should be accounted that when agitated, participants need more time than initially planned, so that the overall time could increase with about 30% to 50% than initially estimated it is not enough to inform the participants about the total time and the time left, to have visible clocks on the wall could help a lot both the participants and the facilitator. The facilitator could be also be a Role within the Simulation (the President, a journalist etc..). Themes and debate questions can vary according to the particular training goals and the target group (incl. profile and age of the participants). Roles and questions can be pre-assigned to simplify the simulation or in connection to the specific aims of the activity. The activity put the participants in a situation in which they have to work and make decisions under pressure, as in reality. 56


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    

Very attractive, catchy and highly stimulating. I learned that in a debate the knowledge that one is pre-equipped with is not enough to make your point. I realized the importance of the good argumentation and of the good presentation skills. Good tool also for self-reflection since some participants realized that their passiveness or shyness (as in real life) prevent them from expressing their views and being heard. Every opinion counts: by participating I can really have an impact on decision making.

How was the activity improved?     

 

More time and extra focus was allocated to explain the game and “prepare the ground”;the rules were presented in advance and explained in details to let the participants familiarize themselves with the instruction and the overall scenario. The instruction sheets of each role were modified by adding more details and some informal content to make clear some important aspects. To the instruction sheets were added colors, one for each role to better indentify the instructions relevant for each participant. More time was allocated to each slot. Having more time available, the activity could include an extra time for preparation, from 30 minutes to 2 hours. During the preparation time the teams can collect information on the topic put forward for the debate (statistics, facts, historical evidences, research findings, political/civil society positions and arguments) in order to build better the pro/against argumentation, or their positions as members of the general public. E.g. the business representative could look for arguments why employers or business people support or are against social inclusion and to decide which of those they will base their position upon. The preparation time is essential if a totally new topic is introduced to the participants. Hence, the activity will have a stronger knowledge-gaining component. In the debriefing phase was added an extra focus on the relation public-parties and public government The debriefing phase included the presentation of the several model of participation which could be applied to the simulation.

Pay attention!    

The simulation requires clear beginning and clear end to allow participants to enter the characters and to ‘exit’ them. Moderation time needs also to be calculated outside the time schedule of each slot, this increase the duration of the activity of around 30 minutes. Ideally, there should be 2 people facilitating the activity: one, monitoring time, and the other monitoring the content and facilitating the processes. The facilitator needs to have experience and be able to control a complicated and multilayered process.

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OVERALL SCHEDULE BRAINSTORMING AND CONSULTATION Public get consulted before form the parties and then by the Government in two different time slot ANNOUNCEMENT OF THE QUESTION Government announces the question for the debate Position statement PARTY 1 Position statement PARTY 2

DEBATE Between Party 1 an Party 2 Public can choose to support a party or remain neutral PUBLIC INPUT Public make a statement to support or disagree and/or pose a question to the party. DECISION MAKING Government makes the decision Parties and Politics may influence it REACTION TO THE DECISION

26 min. 6 min.

24 min. 27 min. 15 min 13 min. 111 min. TOTAL

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ROLES GOVERNMENT

GOVERNMENT

PARTY 1

PARTY 2 Whatever the debate is about, you are AGAINST the PARTY 1

PARTY 1

PARTY 2 Whatever the debate is about, you are AGAINST the PARTY 1

GOVERNMENT

PARTY 1

PARTY 1

PARTY 2 Whatever the debate is about, you are AGAINST the PARTY 1

ARTY 2 Whatever the debate is about, you are AGAINST the PARTY 1

PUBLIC: MEDIA Your position/statements must reflect the perspective of the media professionals (TV, radio, journalists)

PUBLIC: NGO You are a representative of NGO-sector and must defend their views

PUBLIC: INTERNATIONAL COMMUNITY You represent the IC and should aim at convincing everybody to obey your demands

PUBLIC: LOCAL AUTHORITY You defend the interests of the local administration (town councils, mayors, local offices)

PUBLIC: UNEMPLOYED MIDDLE-AGE Your position must reflect the perspective of a middle-age unemployed person in your country

PUBLIC: ETHNIC MINORITY You defend the interests of the` Minorities present in your country

PUBLIC: UNIVERSITY STUDENT Your position must reflect the perspective of an university student

PUBLIC: IMMIGRANT You defend the interests of the Immigrant communities in your country

PUBLIC: BUSINESSMAN You must defend the interests of the business sector (bank, investors, corporations‌)

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BRAINSTORMING AND CONSULTATIONS 10 min

GOVERNMENT

Government brainstorm on Social inclusion topic/question to put forward for a debate

Please come up with 2-3 key topics/questions that you consider of primary importance and that represent the greatest concern for the Government. NB: Topics! Not solution and not proposals of law.

2 Parties brainstorm on Social inclusion topic/question and then run public consultations

Public think about some issues related to social inclusion that might be relevant for them, afterwards consultation with the political party 10 min Government runs public consultations to help make a decision on which question to put for a debate

You can ask questions in order to find out whether your 2-3 topics are relevant to the public opinion and how to make the question precise AND/OR you can ask the public to come out with other topics you may have not considered earlier. BUT you must not disclose your preferences and key topics that you are considering!

Parties formulate their agenda and platforms of alliance Public get consulted by the Government 6 min

Parties present their agenda Government formulates the question Public listen the parties’ speeches

You have to formulate the debate question within the 6 min of parties presentation. You could take into account the public opinion BUT you can also completely disregard it!!!

ANNOUNCEMENT OF THE QUESTION FOR THE DEBATE

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2 min. 4 min. (2x2min)

Government announces the question for the debate Parties listen

Speak out your question in a very clear and concise way!

Public listen

Position statement PARTY 1 (2min) Position statement PARTY 2 (2min) Government listen Public listen

DEBATE (24 minutes) 4 min.

Parties prepare for the debate on the indicated question

Public can choose to support a party OR they can remain neutral Party members takes turns as scheduled 2 min 2 min 3 min 3 min 3 min 3 min 2 min 2 min

Opening statement PARTY 1 Opening statement PARTY 2 Argument PARTY 1 Argument PARTY 2 Argument PARTY 1 Argument PARTY 2 Closing statement PARTY 1 Closing statement PARTY 2

During the whole debate Government listens. Public listen

You may want to take note of the arguments in order to use them to support your final decision speech.

PUBLIC INPUT (27 min)

3 min Business (employers) 3 min NGO 3 min Media 3 min International community 3 min Local authority (mayor) 3 min Regular middle-class housewife 3 min Ethnic Minority 3 min University Student 3 min Immigrant The Government listen. DECISION MAKING 3 min

Government can put forward final questions to the Parties

Each participant will have 3 minutes to make a statement to support or disagree with the expressed ideas AND/OR to pose a question to any of the party-members.

You may want to take note of the arguments in order to use them to support your final decision speech Short Q&A session: You have the chance to clarify something with the parties in order to make a decision. OR you can decide not to ask any clarifying questions. In this case you can skip this step.

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8 min

Government makes a decision

Party Lobbying

Public Lobbying 4 min

Government announces decision and legitimizes it

REACTION TO THE DECISION 3 min Final comments PARTY 1 3 min

3 min

The decision MUST BE BASED ONLY on the arguments presented during the consultations and debates. Government must refer to those arguments (to quote them!). Or, Government can also make a decision disregarding the debates and the public opinion BUT you still have to present it as a legitimate decision based on what you have listen and understood! :-P

Government needs to present supportive arguments OR to convince everybody that the decision is legitimate!

Final comments PARTY 2 Final comments PUBLIC

The Government don’t take part in this Interaction, only listen. You can just conclude the debate with a final remark in a very formal and institutional way

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BRAINSTORMING AND CONSULTATIONS 10 min

PARTY 1

Government brainstorm on Social inclusion topic/question to put forward for a debate

2 Parties brainstorm on Social inclusion topic/question and then run public consultations

Public think about some issues related to social inclusion that might be relevant for them, afterwards consultation with the political party 10 min

Government runs public consultations to help them make a decision what question to put for a debate

Parties formulate their agenda and platforms of alliance

Public get consulted by the Government 6 min

Parties present their agenda

Please come up with 2-3 key topics/questions that you consider of primary importance.

Afterwards, consultation with the public. In this phase you can choose your strategy: either ask their contribution to gather new input you might have not considered so far, OR to start introduce your topic/questions to them in order to set yourself the agenda of the public opinion. In any of the two cases, you must NOT disclose your preferences about the topic/question.

You may want to discuss the input gathered from the public consultation to see if you could count with the support of some of the sector of the society. Finally you have to decide the topic you think the Government should work on during the next months (the agenda). You may stick on the topic/question you already had or stand for one of the proposals that emerged from the public during the consultation. N.B.: it’s about the topic to discuss (the agenda) and NOT your position on that! Party 1 present its proposal of agenda - 3 min Party 2 present its proposal of agenda - 3 min

Government formulates the question Public listen the parties’ speeches

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ANNOUNCEMENT OF THE QUESTION FOR THE DEBATE 2 min.

Government announces the question for the debate Parties listen Public listen

4 min. (2x2min)

Position statement PARTY 1 (2min) Position statement PARTY 2 (2min) Government listens Public listen

DEBATE (24 minutes) 4 min.

Parties prepare for the debate on the indicated question

Public can choose to support a party OR they can remain neutral Party members takes turns as scheduled: 2 min

Opening statement PARTY 1

2 min

Opening statement PARTY 2

3 min

Argument PARTY 1

3 min

Argument PARTY 1

3 min

Argument PARTY 2

2 min

Closing statement PARTY 1

2 min

Closing statement PARTY 2

3 min

Argument PARTY 2

During the whole debate Government listens Public listen

Intro to the position of the party on the issue

Intro to the position of the party on the issue

You can receive support from the public: you are allowed to used the public support ONLY if the member of the public comes to your table (they could come to you, but you CAN’T go to them).

Intro to the issue according to the Party 1 position and public inputs (eventually) gathered. Intro to the issue according to the Party 2 position and public inputs (eventually) gathered. Argumentation OR Counter-argument (reply other party) and question to the opponents Answering the question OR argumentation OR counter-argument (reply other party) and question to the opponents Answering the question OR argumentation OR counter-argument (reply other party) and question to the opponents Answering the question OR argumentation OR counter-argument (reply other party) and question to the opponents Wrapping-up, trying to convince the PUBLIC and GOVERNMENT that your party position is the right one Wrapping-up, trying to convince the PUBLIC and GOVERNMENT that your party position is the right one

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PUBLIC INPUT (27 min) 3 min 3 min 3 min 3 min 3 min 3 min 3 min 3 min 3 min

Business (employers) NGO Media International community Local authority (mayor) Regular middle-class housewife Ethnic Minority University Student Immigrant

The Government listen.

Public have 3 minutes to make a statement to support or disagree with the ideas expressed during the debate AND/OR to pose a question to any of the party members. NB! The answer of the party member can take place ONLY within the allocated 3 min.. Therefore in case the You want to reply to a question, consider to manage properly your time.

DECISION MAKING 3 min

Government can put forward final questions to the Parties Government makes a decision

8 min

Lobbying Lobbying

Government announces decision and legitimizes it REACTION TO THE DECISION 3 min Final comments PARTY 1 4 min

3 min

Final comments PARTY 2

9 min Final comments PUBLIC (1 min x 9) 1 minute each The Government listen.

You are allowed to be creative if you think that there are ways to lobby for your interests before the government come out with its decision: protests, attempts to influence decision, supportive actions‌ You CAN’T directly interact with them (ex: NO sitting on the table of the government and interrupting their conversation)

Are you happy with the decision? Were your interests defended? Have the consultation and the debate impacted the decision of the government? What would you do next? Would you do anything now?

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BRAINSTORMING AND CONSULTATIONS 10 min

PARTY 2

Government brainstorm on Social inclusion topic/question to put forward for a debate

2 Parties brainstorm on Social inclusion topic/question and then run public consultations

Public think about some issues related to social inclusion that might be relevant for them, afterwards consultation with the political party 10 min

Government runs public consultations to help them make a decision what question to put for a debate

Parties formulate their agenda and platforms of alliance

Public get consulted by the Government 6 min

Parties present their agenda

Please come up with 2-3 key topics/questions that you consider of primary importance.

Afterwards, consultation with the public. In this phase you can choose your strategy: either ask their contribution to gather new input you might have not considered so far, OR to start introduce your topic/questions to them in order to set yourself the agenda of the public opinion. In any of the two cases, you must NOT disclose your preferences about the topic/question.

You may want to discuss the input gathered from the public consultation to see if you could count with the support of some of the sector of the society. Finally you have to decide the topic you think the Government should work on during the next months (the agenda). You may stick on the topic/question you already had or stand for one of the proposals that emerged from the public during the consultation. N.B.: it’s about the topic to discuss (the agenda) and NOT your position on that! Party 1 present its proposal of agenda - 3 min Party 2 present its proposal of agenda - 3 min

Government formulates the question Public listen the parties’ speeches

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ANNOUNCEMENT OF THE QUESTION FOR THE DEBATE 2 min.

Government announces the question for the debate Parties listen Public listen

4 min. (2x2min)

Position statement PARTY 1 (2min) Positions tatement PARTY 2 (2min) Government listen Public listen

DEBATE (24 minutes) 4 min.

Parties prepare for the debate on the indicated question

Public can choose to support a party OR they can remain neutral Party members takes turns as scheduled: 2 min

Opening statement PARTY 1

2 min

Opening statement PARTY 2

3 min

Argument PARTY 1

3 min

Argument PARTY 1

3 min

Argument PARTY 2

2 min

Closing statement PARTY 1

2 min

Closing statement PARTY 2

3 min

Argument PARTY 2

During the whole debate Government listens.

Intro to the position of the party on the issue Intro to the position of the party on the issue (which has to be in contrast to the PARTY 1)

You can receive support from the public: you are allowed to used the public support ONLY if the member of the public comes to your table (they could come to you, but you CAN’T go to them).

Intro to the issue according to the Party 1 position and public inputs (eventually) gathered. Intro to the issue according to the Party 2 position and public inputs (eventually) gathered. Argumentation OR Counter-argument (reply other party) and question to the opponents Answering the question OR argumentation OR counter-argument (reply other party) and question to the opponents Answering the question OR argumentation OR counter-argument (reply other party) and question to the opponents Answering the question OR argumentation OR counter-argument (reply other party) and question to the opponents Wrapping-up, trying to convince the PUBLIC and GOVERNMENT that your party position is the right one Wrapping-up, trying to convince the PUBLIC and GOVERNMENT that your party position is the right one

Public listen

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PUBLIC INPUT (27 min) 3 min 3 min 3 min 3 min 3 min 3 min 3 min 3 min 3 min

Business (employers) NGO Media International community Local authority (mayor) Regular middle-class housewife Ethnic Minority University Student Immigrant

The Government listen.

Public have 3 minutes to make a statement to support or disagree with the ideas expressed during the debate AND/OR to pose a question to any of the partymembers. NB! The answer of the party member can take place ONLY within the allocated 3 min... Therefore in case You want to reply to a question, consider to manage properly your time.

DECISION MAKING 3 min

Government can put forward final questions to the Parties Government makes a decision

8 min

Party Lobbying

Public Lobbying Government announces decision and legitimizes it REACTION TO THE DECISION 3 min Final comments PARTY 1

You are allowed to be creative if you think that there are ways to lobby for your interests before the government come out with its decision: protests, attempts to influence decision, supportive actions‌ You CAN’T directly interact with them (ex: NO sitting on the table of the government and interrupting their conversation)

4 min

3 min

Final comments PARTY 2

9 min Final comments PUBLIC (1 min x 9) 1 minute each The Government listens.

Are you happy with the decision? Were your interests defended? Have the consultation and the debate impacted the decision of the government? What would you do next? Would you do anything now?

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BRAINSTORMING AND CONSULTATIONS 10 min

PUBLIC

Government brainstorm on Social inclusion topic/question to put forward for a debate 2 Parties brainstorm on Social inclusion topic/question and then run public consultations

Public think about some issues related to social inclusion that might be relevant for them, afterwards consultation with the political party 10 min

Government runs public consultations to help them make a decision what question to put for a debate Parties formulate their agenda and platforms of alliance Public get consulted by the Government

6 min

Think about challenges, advantages and problems you might personally suffer. You might be approached by one or more political parties to get consulted.

You might be approached by one or more member of the Government to get consulted.

Parties present their agenda Government formulates the question Public listen

ANNOUNCEMENT OF THE QUESTION FOR THE DEBATE 2 min.

Government announces the question for the debate Parties listen Public listen

4 min. (2x2min)

Position statement PARTY 1 (2min) Position statement PARTY 2 (2min) Government listen Public listen

DEBATE (24 minutes) 4 min.

Parties prepare for the debate on the indicated question Public can choose to support a party OR they can remain neutral

You can choose a party that represents your interests/views and provide them with support during the preparation for the debate OR you can remain neutral. 69


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Party members takes turns as scheduled: 2 min 2 min 3 min 3 min 3 min 3 min 2 min 2 min

Opening statement PARTY 1 Opening statement PARTY 2 Argument PARTY 1 Argument PARTY 2 Argument PARTY 1 Argument PARTY 2 Closing statement PARTY 1 Closing statement PARTY 2

During the whole debate Government listen Public listen PUBLIC INPUT (27 min) 3 min 3 min 3 min 3 min 3 min 3 min 3 min 3 min 3 min

Business (employers) NGO Media International community Local authority (mayor) Regular middle-class housewife Ethnic Minority University Student Immigrant

The Government listens.

You may want take notes for the next phase You have 3 minutes to make a statement to support or disagree with the ideas expressed during the debate AND/OR to pose a question to any of the party-members. NB! The answer of the party member can take place ONLY within the allocated 3 minutes. Therefore in case the you want to say something + make a question, consider to manage properly your time considering also the question you will get to your answer.

DECISION MAKING 3 min

Government can put forward final questions to the Parties Government makes a decision

8 min

Parties Lobbying

Public Lobbying Government announces decision and legitimizes it REACTION TO THE DECISION 3 min Final comments PARTY 1 4 min

3 min

3 min

Final comments PARTY 2 Final comments PUBLIC

The Government listens.

You are allowed to be creative if you think that there are ways to lobby for your interests before the government come out with its decision: protests, attempts to influence decision, supportive actions‌ N.B: Violent or disrespectful actions are prohibited: NO sitting on the table of the government and interrupting their conversation.

Are you happy with the decision? Were your interests defended? Have the consultation and the debate impacted the decision of the government? What would you do next? Would you do anything now?

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PUBLIC: INTERNATIONAL COMMUNITY

BRAINSTORMING AND CONSULTATIONS 10 min

Government brainstorm on Social inclusion topic/question to put forward for a debate 2 Parties brainstorm on Social inclusion topic/question and then run public consultations

Public think about some issues related to social inclusion that might be relevant for them, afterwards consultation with the political party 10 min

Government runs public consultations to help them make a decision what question to put for a debate Parties formulate their agenda and platforms of alliance Public get consulted by the Government

6 min

Think about challenges, advantages and problems you might personally suffer. You might be approached by one or more political parties to get consulted.

Parties present their agenda

You might be approached by one or more member of the Government to get consulted.

Government formulates the question Public listen

ANNOUNCEMENT OF THE QUESTION FOR THE DEBATE 2 min.

Government announces the question for the debate Parties listen Public listen

4 min. (2x2min)

Position statement PARTY 1 (2min) Position statement PARTY 2 (2min) Government listens Public listen

DEBATE (24 minutes) 4 min.

Parties prepare for the debate on the indicated question Public can choose to support a party OR they can remain neutral

You can choose a party that represents your interests/views and provide them with support during the preparation for the debate OR you can remain neutral.

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Party members takes turns as scheduled: 2 min Opening statement PARTY 1 2 min Opening statement PARTY 2 3 min Argument PARTY 1 3 min Argument PARTY 2 3 min Argument PARTY 1 3 min Argument PARTY 2 2 min Closing statement PARTY 1 2 min Closing statement PARTY 2

During the whole debate Government listens Public listen PUBLIC INPUT (27 min) 3 min 3 min 3 min 3 min 3 min 3 min 3 min 3 min 3 min

Business (employers) NGO Media International community Local authority (mayor) Regular middle-class housewife Ethnic Minority University Student Immigrant

The Government listens.

You may want take notes for the next phase You have 3 minutes to make a statement to support or disagree with the ideas expressed during the debate AND/OR to pose a question to any of the party-members. NB! The answer of the party member can take place ONLY within the allocated 3 minutes. Therefore in case the you want to say something + make a question, consider to manage properly your time considering also the question you will get to your answer.

DECISION MAKING 3 min

Government can put forward final questions to the Parties Government makes a decision

8 min

Parties Lobbying

International Community Lobbying

Government announces decision and legitimizes it REACTION TO THE DECISION 3 min Final comments PARTY 1 4 min

3 min

3 min

Final comments PARTY 2 Final comments PUBLIC

The Government listens.

You are allowed to influence decision of the government; you can interfere directly in the decision making process by sitting (uninvited)at the table of the government and giving their opinion or directions.

Are you happy with the decision? Were your interests defended? Have the consultation and the debate impacted the decision of the government? What would you do next? Would you do anything now?

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Models of participation 1) The Ladder of participation

The Ladder of participation model (adapted from Sherr Sherryy Arnstein’s “Ladder of Citizen Participation” and Roger Hart’s “Children’s ladder of participation”)defines 10 degrees of involvement. Each of the degrees corresponds to one rung of a ladder: the more the ladder goes up, the more the participation is effective and truly participative.

10 Co-initiating initiating:: ideas are developed and projects are initiated and directed by the whole community.

9 Shared decisions making making: actions are initiated by someone and others are invited to share the decision making power and responsibilities as equal partners.

8 Delegation:: Values and initiatives are shared but the implementation is delegated only to a little amount of persons 7 Consulted and informed informed: provide advice and suggestions, informed how these suggestions will ccontribute to the final decisions or results.

6 Assigned but informed: invited to take some specific roles without take any important decision, but aware of what influence they have in reality. 5 Tokenism: have some roles but no influence on any decisions. decisio Symbolic participation (only perceived). No choice about what they are allowed to do.

4 Consultation Consultation: Two-ways ways unbalanced communication. Open to feedback, but not entitled to take decision. 3 Information: One-way way communication. No feedback, “dressing “dress ritual”.

2 Decoration: People understand the purpose, but no meaningful role except from being present

1 Manipulation: people used as tool to achieve personal goals (create support to win election) no proper understanding of the real purpose of the their involvement References: Arnstein, S.R.,, A Ladder of Citizen Participation, Journal of the American Planning Association, Vol. 35, No. 4, July 1969, pp. 216-224. Hart, R., Children’s participation from tokenism to citizenship, UNICEF Innocenti resea research rch centre, 1992.

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2) The Spectrum of Public Participation

The spectrum was designed by the International Association for Public Participation to assist with the selection of the level of participation that defines the public’s role in any public participation process. The spectrum shows that differing levels of participation are legitimate and depend on the goals, timeframes, resources, and levels of concern in the decision to be made. The spectrum is essentially a matrix identifying the various levels of public participation. The levels of participation in the spectrum/matrix include inform, consult, involve, collaborate and empower. Each level of public participation is chosen based on the specific goal of the project and the promise being made to the public.

Reference: International Association of Public Participation [IAP2]. (2007). IAP2 Spectrum of Public Participation. Retrieved from http://c.ymcdn.com/sites/www.iap2.org/resource/resmgr/imported/IAP2%20Spectrum_vertical.pdf

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3) The Wheel of Participation

Scott Davidson developed the wheel of participation for and with the South Larnarkshire Council to define and encourage levels of citizen participation for community planning and development. The Wheel of Participation helps to minimise ambiguity associated with consultation, including reliance on inappropriate techniques and unclear objectives.

Reference: Scott Davidson, Spinning the wheel of empowerment, in: Planning. Vol. 1262, April 1998, pp14-15.

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Overview: A session dedicated to the theatre of oppressed methodology experimenting with several exercises and a few of the branches of the theatre of the oppressed. A tools to analyze discrimination and social exclusion and give those who are normally not in contact with the problem the chance to experience and feel it in a deeper way. A series of exercises to understand the dynamics of oppression in society and to mutually find ways to fight against oppressing structures through an active engagement in society. Time: 4 hours.

Material: Printed copies of info sheet and the worksheet. A photo camera. A chair. A staple. Few boxes (depending of the number of groups) full of objects and cloths that can be used for the theatre scene. Logistical aspects: The training room should be big enough to permit groupsto work independently without disturbing one another. A open-air space next to the training room would be an asset especially for the first part of the session.

Preparation: Before the beginning of the session, find 5 volunteers among the group of participants to try out the performance of the news paper theatre’s scene as in point 3) of the instruction. Instructions:

The session consist of a series of activities.

1) The basic elements. The session begins with few exercises aimed at activating the five senses and engendering an atmosphere of fun and creativity. The same exercises are a way to introduce and experiment few of the basic elements of the theatre of the oppressed  Creativity.  Personal engagement and mutual support.  Relation and carefulness.  Readiness to react.  Understanding of power and Oppressor/oppressed dynamics.

However, those 5 elements could also be seen as 5 basic elements of social inclusion and the active citizenship. The following exercises will make clear this double value of the 5 elements.

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1A) Creativity. Everyone sitting down in circle passing one to each other a little object (a post-it, a staples etc..). Each one has to use the object in a different way using imagination and creativity. The exercise has to be done in silence. The debriefing of the exercise should point out the necessity of the creativity and to imagine different and alternatives ways to use of the available resource to create something new..on stage and to support a cause. 1B) Personal engagement and mutual support. Stage a chair in the centre of the room. Any person could stand up and do something with the chair (just sitting, use a little house, as washbasin etc...) . The person remain on stage until another person stand up go next to him and lightly touch his/her shoulder. This is the sign to make the previous person leave the scene and allow the new person play with the chair in a new way. A person remain on stage doing something with the chair (always the same movement, it should not change the way how he play with the chair) until someone spontaneously decide to stand up and replace him. There is no a precise order and there is no obligation for everyone to go on stage. The activity ends when a person remain more than 3 minutes on stage without anyone replacing him (but no one has to know this rule, except the facilitator). The debriefing of the exercise should make the participants reflect on the importance of the personal engagement (to stand up spontaneously and get the scene) not only to play, but also to support the previous one, which after a while of staying on stage alone will probably feel uncomfortable in doing his odd movement in front of a silent audience starring at him. The debriefing phase could be closed by recalling situation in which people who starts alone to fight for a cause gained afterwards the support of many people who consistently contribute for the success if the initiatives. 1C) Readiness to react. Divide the group in two lines of people, one facing the other at a distance of two meters. In the first round the first person on the right belonging to Line 1 do whatever he wants or say whatever he wants towards the person he is facing on Line 2, for a few seconds. The person on Line 2 has to promptly react in any way he retains to be the best way to react. Then come the time for the second person on the right belonging to Line 1 until the last one of the Line. In the second round the two lines switch the roles: the first person on the right belonging to Line 2 do whatever he likes and the person in front of him has to react. The participants could have a personal contact but without harm the other person. The debriefing of the exercise should point out the necessity of always be ready to react to whatever may happen or may be told, on stage and during a participatory initiatives.

1D) Relation and carefulness. Divide the group into pairs, where one is A and the other is B. A will “hypnotize” B with his hands: A will move both his hands in the same direction and B must keep his face just a few inches from A’s hands at all times, always an equal distance. A should try to manipulate B into all sorts of positions and move B throughout the whole available space by jointly moving his hands (thus, or ex: it is not allowed to A to raise one hand and put down the other one, otherwise B doesn’t know which hand has to follow). The exercise goes on for around 5 minute.

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The debriefing should point out how different levels of responsibility and carefulness towards the other could influence the relation in each pair. The debriefing phase could be closed by highlighting the importance of the trust in the others the respect the personal limit when leading the others. 1E) Understanding of power and Oppressor/oppressed dynamics. Ask to one participant to go on stage and represent with a statue the concept of power or a powerful person. Ask the group if anyone is able to make a statue more powerful of the one already on stage in order to oppress him. Invite the person who think can do that to go on stage and represent his idea also position himself in a way that makes clear that he is powerful of the one already on stage. Continue that until there are person who think can make a statue able to dominate with its power the previous ones. The debriefing should be about the concept of power and how everyone understand this and about the concept of Oppressor/oppressed and he everyone feels when involved in such dynamic.

2) The introduction to the Theatre of the Oppressed (TO) Do a short introduction of the TO and of Augusto Boal’s life, talk about the reality on which it was developed making reference to the particular situation of social injustice and exclusion in which it was developed and towards which TO was putting its effort to make a change (see handouts). Explain also that the same Boal is not just the father of TO, but also political activist, highlighting one more link between social inclusion and active citizenship. Explain participants that the TO has several practices and methods: Newspaper Theatre, Image Theatre, Forum Theatre and Invisible Theatre are the most common ones (you can show the “TO tree� available the handout). Make clear that during this session it will be explored only the first two since the other two need a more long preparation, an in-depth knowledge of the method and professional figures (like the jokers) which cannot be improvised. 3) The newspaper theatre. The group of 5 volunteers make the pre-arranged performance about a news (real one taken from a newspaper). It might be a funny one as the one proposed here (see handouts). The rest of the group, which now act as the public, will need to guess what they are representing with the support of the facilitator (only if needed). Once they have guessed, the facilitator will read aloud the piece of news performed (see Handout) on which a funny piece of news was selected. A the end the facilitator will explain the exercise just ended introducing the newspaper theatre as a way used in the past to make the people know about news that the establishment and the state-owned media were not broadcasting (differently from the funny news here suggested). 3A) The facilitator invites the group to try out this methodology. Create groups of 4-5 people inviting them to think about a recent news they all think was important but that was not properly mainstreamed by the media. Then they should represent in the form of the newspaper theatre. One person of the group will act as facilitator helping the public to guess the news. At the end, the whole group could talk about the news represented: why they choose that news, if the other knew about it, why they think such news was not that much broadcasted my the media etc...

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4) The Image theatre. Divide participants in groups (4 to 6 people). Deliver participants the info sheet “Diversity, Oppression and Social justice” and the relative worksheet. Give them 5 minutes to read the info sheet (without pay attention to the following worksheet at the moment) and then ask if everything is clear, if they agree with the clarification and classification provided about the key concepts and if they have some comment. Afterwards, invite the groups to focus their attention to the worksheet. Give them 20 minutes to work on the first theoretical exercise and then other 15 minutes for the second practical exercise. Provide to the groups a big box full of object and cloths they could use to prepare their statue. When the time is over, gather all the groups in the training room ready to perform their statue. The first group performs their sculpture and remains like this for a couple of minutes. A photo of the sculpture is taken. Meanwhile the facilitator invites the rest of the participants not involved in the sculpture to reflect about it. They, as public, will be now invited to try to solve the issue, to reduce/remove the oppression. One by one they will be allowed to stand up and change one of the parts of the sculpture (ex. remove an item, include a new object, change the position of the figures, move the parts of the body of a figure, etc). The participants/public (the spect-actors) are will interact with the sculpture until eventually create a new sculpture, with a new meaning. Once participants are satisfied with the final version of the sculpture, a photo is taken (to compare it with the initial one). Then, the facilitator will ask first the public which was the situation of oppression represented, which were the changes included and why. Subsequently, the facilitator will ask the team involved on the sculpture which was the situation performed, if they agree with the changes made and how did they feel during all the process of change. During this reflection, the facilitator should guide the group to discover their feelings, opinions and points of view about the situation performed, its evolution and the solution proposed. Finally come back to the reality and ask what must be done to provide opportunities for the one oppressed and correct the social injustices represented. Repeat the whole process with all the other groups. Debriefing Since the debriefing occurred at the end of each activity, the closing of the whole session could be around the fact that the TO, by making visible the dynamics and the processes associated with the pattern of oppression, it can be helpful in building the capacity to face such oppression and promote social justice. PEER REVIEW Key feedback from the Seminar:  discussions were very rich in spite of the short time given to them  I felt identified with the performances  I have empathized with the role that some of the other participants had.  It was really enjoyable and really attractive both young people and and for professional youth workers  I understood better the concepts of “oppressor” and “oppressed”.  This methodology permits to go deeper in the concept and reflect about our own society.  Prepare in advance the short performance of the newspaper theatre 80


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  

Be stricter on time management in order to provide groups a concrete time to prepare their performances. The participants enjoyed the activity and showed a good motivation, though some lack of participation was observed due to the fast development of the performance and the shyness of some participants. In the future, it must be strongly highlighted that their active participation is needed. It works better when the groups of participants already know each other well.

How was the activity improved?   

It was introduced the 1 phase about the basic elements in order to get confidence with the themes and with the theatre setting. It was dedicated the session only to experiment the newspaper and image theatre since the work on the forum theatre is a longer and deeper one, which need a dedicated session: a small session with no time to pay attention to all the details could undermine the effectiveness of the tool and the quality of the analysis upon the oppression. It was replaced the info sheet for the preparation of the image theatre with a more focus one, able to ignite a more in-depth reflection and, consequently, to perform a less obvious and superficial Situation of oppression.

Pay Attention!     

The activity must be taken in a serious way and the facilitator must avoid funny comments or jokes about the situations performance since TO could touch deep feelings or previous life experiences of the participants. In case that one participant can feel not comfortable with a situation performed (because he/she lived it before) they have to be able to leave the room at any moment. Do not provide participants too many instructions until each activity takes place. For example, let the groups create and perform the sculpture and only then explain that they will have the possibility to change it. The facilitator must avoid any action which could manipulate or influence the audience. The audience should never be confronted with the facilitator own personal interpretation of the news or of the sculptures. During the phase of the sculpture bear in mind that it is more important to achieve a good debate than a good solution for the oppression showed by the statue.

Newspaper theatre - Article

The poop of a cow in a football pitch can make you win a car. Amoeiro is a small village in the North of Spain with a modest football team: Amoeiro Football Club. In order to get funding to maintain its activities, the team organizes every year a lottery in an original way: participants need to guess on which part of their football pitch a cow will poop. The pitch is previously divided in small squares numbered from 1 to 6.000. Those interested on taking part on the game, bet on which square the cow will poop. The winner gets a car.

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Diversity, Oppression and Social justice

The term Diversity captures the diffe differences rences among social groups, but not the ways in which these differences are shaped by systemss of domination, subordination and inequality.

The term Social Injustice captures the emphasis upon social structures and practices by which one social group, whether her knowingly or unconsciously, exploits other social groups for its advantage. The term Social Oppression captures a social condition that establishes and maintains forms of advantage and disadvantage based on real or presumed social group memberships. Some relevant social identity categories are:: Sex, Race, Class, Religion, Ability/Disability, Age, Gender, Sexual, Orientation, Ethnicity, Language, Nationality.

In many social systems, accrued power is used to oppress oppress,, homogenize, and assimilate expressions expressi of difference that do not fit with the dominant perspective or ideology. This pattern causes harm, limits the potential of individuals in the system and, consequently, diminishes the participation of certain groups in the society.

The figure below illustrates the common pattern and progression by which certain differences accrue power in social systems. In this progression, power is used to reinforce the status quo and the preferences, norms, and structures that confer privilege and power (as repres represented ented by the orange feedback loop). In this type of system, differences are minimized and oppressed. The he patterns illuminated by this progression can be helpful in understanding p power and privilege dynamic. However, wever, it is important to remember that this representation representation, like ke any conceptual framework, framework is a simplified interpretation of complex system dynamics.

Social oppression operates on individual, inst institutional and societal/cultural levels and could have 5 main “faces�: Exploitation, Marginalization, Powerl Powerlessness, essness, Cultural imperialism, Violence & the normalization of violence. Levels of the Manifestations of Oppression (intentional and unintentional): Individual: attitudes and behaviors (acts of violence, prejudice, ignorance, hatred). Institutional: policy, y, practice, norms. Cultural: assumptions, norms and practice.

Social justice requires not the elimination of differences, but the eliminati elimination of domination, subordination and inequality. References: Adams, M., Bell, L.A., & Griffin, P., Teaching for Diversity and Social Justice (Second Edition). New York: Routledge, 2007. Kolan, M., Sullivan TwoTrees, K., Privilege as Practice: A Framework for Engaging with Sustainability, Diversity, Privilege and Power, Journal of Sustainability Education, Vol. 7, D December 2014.

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Diversity, Oppression and Social justice - Worksheet

1) give examples of each of the “5 faces of oppression� Individual dual Institutional Exploitation

Cultural

Marginalization Powerlessness

Cultural imperialism Violence & the normalization of violence

2) Focus you attention to one of the examples of oppression you have reported in the matrix above and think about a situation of exclusion and social injustice that need a social change. Represent the oppression by creating a human sculpture sculpture. The human sculpture should be silent and without any movement. It has to include all the members of your group group.

Theatre of the Oppressed is a theoretical framework and set of techniques developed by Brazilian director, ector, artist and activist Augusto Boal.

The Theater of the Oppressed was created in the early 1970s in Latin America as participatory theatre that fosters democratic and cooperative forms of interaction among people. Theater is emphasized not as a spectacle cle but rather as a language accessible to all. More specifically, it is a rehearsal theatre designed for people who want to learn ways of fighting back against oppression in their daily lives. TO is, in fact, is a way to perform real life experiences on which a situation of social oppression takes place.

This particular type of interactive theater is rooted in the pedagogical and political principles of the popular education method developed by Brazilian educator Paulo Freire (the Pedagogy of the Oppr Oppressed,1968): 1) to see the situation lived by the participants; 2) to analyze the root causes of the situation, including both internal and external sources of oppression; 3) explore group solutions to these problems; 4) to act to change the situation following ollowing the precepts of social justice.

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Augusto Boal began his experimentations in participatory theater in the 1950s and 60s while he was artistic director for the Arena Theater in Rio de Janeiro. He went beyond the stage and organized performances with the Arena troupe in the streets, factories, unions, churches where they could reach the people of the favelas or slums of Rio. In 1971, Boal’s work drew the attention of the military dictatorship and he was arrested and tortured. After four months he was released and sent into exile. He continued his work in Argentina, developing his theatre aimed at getting around the repressive political climate. At the beginning of the eighties the political situation in Brazil became more liberal and Boal settled back to his homeland. In 1992 Boal decided to stand as parliamentary candidate with the proposal of democratizing politics through theatre. Theatre of the Oppressed, in fact, engages people in a process of discovery, critical reflection, dialogue and liberation from oppression. Thus, it is considered a valid means to promote social and political change.

There are several series of techniques, tools and expressions of Theatre of the Oppressed: (see the figure) and all are based upon the concept of “spect-actors� meaning that the people involved can be both actors and spectators without a precise line of division. I this way the participants can explore, show, analyse and transform the reality in which they are living. This is possible because the method works in two directions: on one side it allows those suffering an oppression to have and external contribution (from the audience becoming actors) that could help in creating new strategies to face their problem of oppression and to take decisions in a different way (not using their usual behavioral patterns that were not helping so far). On the other side, it allows those not been oppressed to put themselves in the shoes of those who are, in order to increase their empathy, to learn about their reality and, by doing so, to understand better their behavior when acting in the society.

References: Freire, P., Pedagogy of the Oppressed, 30th Anniversary ed., Bloomsbury Academic, New York, 2000. Boal, A., Theater of the Oppressed, Theatre Communications Group, New York, 1993. "What is Theatre of the Oppressed?". Tree of the Theatre of the Oppressed. The Forum Project. Retrieved on www.theforumproject.org.

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Overview: A series of writing and storytelling exercises to enhance empathy and personal reflection. A creative way to build connections between personal stories in order to promote inclusion and participation in public life. An opportunity to get inspired and provide inspiration to the other about new ways to create a better world. Time: 4 hours.

Material: A4 colored printed picture of different kind of people (enough to make participants choose among a good number of them). Laptop and project for the power point. Pen and papers for all.

Logistical aspects: a regular training room would be fine. Chairs with tablet arms would be the best option to allow a comfortable writing position. The final activity could be realized in a more informal and cozy environment (room with fireplace, living room etc..). Instructions:

The session consist of a series of activities.

1)Intro to creative writing and storytelling Present the session as composed from different exercise of Creative writing and storytelling. Start by introducing how the writing and all the related techniques could be seen as powerful tools to develop empathy, tolerance and, thus, inclusion. They are also valid tool for self-development and for community building, thus, for active citizenship. You can use the power point slides here provided (see handouts).

2) Storytelling The last PPT slide helps to introduce the first activity. Invite participants to think about a story that was meaningful to them and which is still inspiring/influencing/changing them throughout the years. It could be a story which have impacted their lives and/or on their personality. Ask the participants to give their story a title and write it down on a post-it. They will then attach the POST-IT to the part of their body which was somehow involved in the story (ex: (on the lips if it was about a kiss) or which could metaphorically represent the story ( on a leg if was about a trekking experience) Invite participants to stand up freely mingle with the others in the room for some 10 minutes listening other stories and telling their own, once or more time, depending of the group interaction, interest of the other people etc..) At the end, participants may share their feelings about this exercise, if it was helpful for them to recall such a story, if they enjoyed listening other people’s stories, if they spent more time telling their story or listening the others’, and if they think they know the person they have talked to better. 3) Free writing Explain that this is a technique that stimulates creativity, that allows one to unleash their imagination and to focus more on the subconscious flow of ideas.

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Instruct the participants to take pen and paper and inform them that for 8 minutes they have to write continuously about “freedom”. They should never stop writing, not even for a second. If someone doesn’t know what to write, he/she should write why that is so or simply write down that he/she doesn’t have anything in mind. Keep writing even when it does not make sense any more. They can’t edit or erase what they have already wrote. Writing in 1stor 3rd person, in mother tongue or in English, it doesn’t matter. The exercise is to be done in silence. At the end, participants could share their feeling about this exercise, read what they wrote, comment if came out something strange or something that they were not expecting. 4) Character building Each participant chose and pick up a photo of a person form a set of images distributed on the ground (you cans use the images in the handout or any others). They then have to build their character: they have to come up with information about him/he (name, age, profession, if they have or not a family, where he/she is currently living, their country of origin… as many details as possible. They should avoid judgments (don’t think about whether he/she is a good person or not, if he love the place he live etc..): in this phase we are not looking for a story. Summarize all the personal information in bullet points on the back side of the picture. Give 5 minutes to complete this task. Then, they can go deeper writing down something more personal and value-based about him: What is his main fear? What is his dream? Does he is discriminated? By whom? Does he have many prejudice or stereotypes? If yes, towards whom? With whom he usually interacts the most in his day-by-day? Which role the character has in society. Does he has power or not? Does he is a responsible citizen or not? Will he ever considering running for political elections? Is he willing to help others as volunteer or by having a role in a community building activity? Which kind of people your character may influence in the society? Invite the participants to write all these on the back of the image. If someone needs more space, they can use an extra paper. Allow 15 minutes for this exercise. At the end of the exercise, ask how much they feel their “character”; how was the entire process of character development; which images and experiences from their real life they have brought in there; if they had the tendency to create a positive or negative character, a privileged or a marginalized one; how much the photo was influencing their process of character building, if they subconsciously applied some stereotypes in their character according to the photo. 5) Collective writing Create group of 3-4 people and make them share the result of the previous exercise for 15 minutes. They should now write a collective story including all the characters they have just created. Ask them how they think all those characters would interact one with each other; if they will get along well or someone will create some issue within the group; if they will have a balanced or unbalance relation within the group.

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Invite the each little group to create a inspirational story of inclusion and cohesion of people having different background, different culture, life and personal stories. Allow 30 minutes for this phase. 6) Intercultural inspirational storytelling Gather all the participants in plenary and make them share their group stories in a comfortable and cozy environment. At the end, ask them if it was hard to pay attention to other people’s stories and why was so, stressing the concept that a good storyteller is first of all a good story listener. If the course is residential, this last part could be done as an evening event, sitting on sofas in a living room, or in another similar informal setting. Debriefing:

Some moments of reflections occurred at the end of each activity; however, the closing of the whole session could reveal how this creative writing and storytelling session is related to the acquisition of relevant skills to work on inclusion and active citizenship (see Focus on). On this regard, make clear how whole idea of the session was based on the transformation of single stories to a collective one, which is, after all, the final objective of the global effort for inclusion and democratic participation. PEER REVIEW Key feedback from the Seminar:           

The activity was enjoyable even though it has a lot to do with thinking and static procedures. The activity was too long and it negatively affected the attractiveness of it: by reducing the amount of work and by shortening the exercises the session could be more suitable for a younger target group. The activity may be attractive only for a specific type of public, while kids and less ‘brainy’ people wouldn’t enjoy it. Time given by the facilitator was not enough to develop creativity and to make one express himherself. It seemed to me that, suddenly, the only purpose I had was to constrain creativity into time, leaving the concept of empathy a bit behind (facilitator). I never heard of creative writing techniques nor about storytelling philosophy I have increased my awareness about my writing skills I never realized before how I can easily react to creativity-requiring situations; The activity was very helpful to remind me how much I enjoyed writing; I should do it more. I learned how to better focus on emotions I realized how it can be difficult to express one’s emotions in words in a short time and how it can be difficult to exactly communicate what you want and what I feel.

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How was the activity improved?     

It was reduced the number of activities and simplified few of them. It was modified and shortened the power point presentation. Both in the introduction and in the closing it was added more focus on the relation between the writing /storytelling competences and the efforts toward inclusion and participation. It was added a little debriefing moment at the end of each activity in order to monitor the group process and to make always visible the link between the activity and the objectives of the session. Such moments were important to not lose the attention and the interest of the group throughout the long but structured creative journey. In order to make the activity more attractive to younger people, the characters of the step 5 could be chosen among famous people or character from fairy tales. This expedient could help in making funnier the final phase.

Pay Attention!    

Make some short break between the more creatively demanding activity to balance the workload (for ex: between step 3 and 4, and between 5 and 6) It might be difficult to keep the time schedule and encourage the free creative process of the participant at the same time. To stop the activity due the time limit when the participants are still focused on their creative processes could block their process, limiting the effect of the exercise. On the other hand, being very flexible time wise could extend too much the activity with the risk to “lose” either the less engaged participants either the faster ones since, after having finished their task, get bored due the longer period of inactivity they have to undergo. Dedicate enough space for the reflection and evaluation after each activity in order to make participants grasp the link between the activities and the training topics.

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Working on inclusion means working ing on stories. It means to be interested in other people’s stories and to create connection with yours own for the development of new stories. Storytelling can be a valid tool for social inclusion since it develops mutual understandings of ideas and practices due to its process of co-creation creation of meaning. Active citizenship is also about being ing able to tell a story: when participating in a democratic process, in order to be successful, it is not enough to present data and fact facts,, but it is necessary to transmit emotions, because only by touching the emotio emotions is it possible to make people believe that a different world is possible.. An active citizen should believe, in fact, that imaginary and real world worlds are not that separate;; his role is to make others believe the same.

Creative writing helps in transform transforming ing in words what we have in mind, creating stories able to engage people. Thus, creative writing can inspire social change and advocate compassionate transformation. transformation A training session aimed at increasing the capacity to express feeling, ideas, stories and emotions, is a session that is creating new patterns for inclusion and active citizenship.

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Overview: A digital workshop to view the topic of social inclusion from a different prospective by creating a video aimed at raising social awareness. A practical way to make young people think, research and cooperate to elaborate a social message that can be easily shared. Time: 5 hours

Material: Video projector. For each working group. Video camera (can be also mobile phone, photo camera). Computer with basic video editing program (example: Windows Moviemaker). Paper and pens.

Logistical aspects: Besides a training room, the space should be big enough to allow working groups to develop their multimedia products without disturbing each other (especially considering the sound). Alternatively, one could use a few little spaces or corners of the training facilities, one for each working group. Instructions:

1) Start with a short introduction about the topic that will be the main theme of the video the participants will have to realize. In this case the topic was “social inclusion” and it could be focused on the particular location (country/city/neighborhood) in which the session take place. You can start with a short brainstorming session, collecting all the responses on a flipcharts. 2) Have a little introduction about film language and film process (you can use the power-point presentation and links to the film example in the handouts). 3) Divided the participants into groups of 4-5 people.

4) Invite the group to spend the first 30 minutes finding a common issue inside the general theme, to do some research and to look for a precise message they want to spread to the world through the short movie they will make. Finally, they should write a very basic script (having already participated at the session “Active createllizenship” could be helpful at this stage). 5) The groups will have 2 hours to make a video based on the script they made and with the basic knowledge gained about film-making. If the topic is “social inclusion in + […the specific location where the training is taking place…]”, the participants could shoot the video in the streets nearby, interacting with the locals. 6) After 2 hours, gather everyone in plenary. Check how the process is going; verify if there is any doubt and that all the groups are satisfied with their work so far.

7) Provide basic knowledge of movie editing using the basic free software Windows Moviemaker (see the link in the handout). 8) The groups have 90 minutes to edit their video material.

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9) The final products are screened in plenary, followed by a facilitated discussion: after each short movie, collect feedback and impressions from the public (the other groups of participants) and ask the group who created the video how close the feedback of the public is to the intention/message they wanted to convey through the movie. Debriefing Besides the discussion about the final products, dedicate some time to analyze the cooperative process within each group. However, the main focus of the debate should be about what they realized and learned about the topic they just converted into a short-film. You can then create a link between their learning points on the social issue tackled and the concept of social video making seen as tool to transform their learning point into action. PEER REVIEW Key feedbacks from the Seminar:        

An effective activity that can be used for different target groups. it’s a good tool to show the ideas of the participants and spread the word. The final product of the group work it is interesting not only for the group who make it, but also for the people seeing it. It can help a lot the visibility of the project and its promotion. There was not enough time to complete the tasks or to get proper instructions how to cope with different stages of movie making. I learnt how to build a story Through the process of the movie making I got some new knowledge about the neighborhood I realized some challenges of teamwork

How was the activity improved?  

It was extended the time for each step. It was dedicate greater space in the debriefing phase to present social video making.

Pay Attention!   

Make sure in advance that your equipment works well in order to not lose to fix it. You should have enough time (at least 4 hours) with lesser time the activity it is not worth. Make sure there are enough working spaces for all the groups to edit, so they are not disturbing one another.

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1.example: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6aHHTyB7fCI A good example of video that kids (aged 11 - 14 years) can do from the beginning till the end in only few hours. There is a simple story: a conflict and a solution at the end. There are only a few people acting (those can be participants), as this is possible to do in a group of 4-5 people. In the video there are different types of shots (that participants learnt from the power point presentation). The editing is simple but functional. 2. example: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mtksQZxG2Ho&index=1&list=PL3zMbt1myYpn0C79mJ2_ps0lSubjgSab 0 A video done by students (19 - 23 years old). It shows a simple story and basic but nicely done camera work. It is an example of what it is possible to do with beginners during a 3 months course.

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3.example: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SbHVWuCZzxg&list=PL3zMbt1myYpntD3R1ab https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SbHVWuCZzxg&list=PL3zMbt1myYpntD3R1ab-aCLUnIwy0mvbV&index=1 A good example of a video that can be done in one day with young peopl people (24-16 16 year old) having already a little experience. It is also a good example of what a bigger group of people can do. In this video it is possible to see how well things were planned ahead, how specific shots were used to represent characters one afterr another and how important and functional music can be.  Youtube explanation of how to use WMM: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7GREeD2icUo

Movies can touch our hearts, invoke oke our vision and change our view of the world. They take us to another world. They open our mind and create new opportunities (Martin Scorsese).

In a knowledge-suffused, suffused, globalised world, equip young people must be encouraged to read and understand mediaa content effectively, so that they can harness these skills to spread important messages and participate in social issues. The emergence of new media technologies and media convergence in the current age has made information more accessible and transpar transparent; ent; it is therefore crucial for adolescents to use such opportunities to act as empowered citizens, capable of using such channels to create new knowledge and new ways to challenge the status quo. As a creative hands-on approach, in fact, video making allow all young people to explore, construct and discover social issues without boundaries and restriction, bridging the gap between values and reality.

Video making offers particular assets on this regard: 1) by providing both graphical and audio audio-based representations, tations, it addresses multiple senses, increasing in this way the chances of the message to reach young people with their various learning styles and different capabilities of processing information (Koc, 2011); 2)it is capable of visually representing iintricate ntricate content so that that viewers can notice and concentrate on moments that they think are important and relevant (Wang and Hartley, 2003); 3) it shares ideas in a "constructivist" form of learning (Jonassen, 1999) 1999); 4) it captures the genuine thought thoughts or feelings on a particular subject, giving iving the possibility to express more honestly than on paper; 5) considering that creative tasks tend to take longer to complete complete, it leads to a more reflective process since participants must take time to think about what they intend to produce and how to achieve it. This time encourages a sub-conscious conscious processing of the research issues and responses to it; 6) it comports with basic community development principles of building individual and collective capital.

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Steps of social video making Create the group Identify the problem Generate video possibilities Select the final idea Develop the message Shoot the video Edit the video Screen the video Disseminate the video Use the video

Impact on participants and community Bonding Critical thinking on social issues Divergent process based on previous learning and life experiences Convergent process towards a new learning point Strategic planning Creative thinking Skills development Community development through participatory analysis and reelaboration of the message. Advocacy opportunities for social change Active participation in the society

Therefore, thanks to social video making, the role of young people has switched from passive content consumers to active producers, endowing them with a greater capacity to understand complex issues and, hence, to adopt a more active attitude and concerned stance towards key social issues.

It is then possible to say that social media shapes youth participation in politics and social issues. In a survey for the MacArthur Foundation Research Network on Participatory Politics, 41% of youths aged 15 to 25 reported they had participated in a new political group online, written or disseminated a blog about a political issue or forwarded a political video to their social network. Unlike traditional political activity, participatory politics are interactive, peer-based and not guided by traditional institutions like political parties or newspaper editors. This survey also found that young people who frequently engage in nonpolitical communities driven by their interests are five times as likely to engage in participatory politics as young people who are less frequently engaged. Hence, online communities seem to foster social capital and spur civic engagement, just as in-person gatherings such as town hall meetings did for previous generations.

In a tightly connected digital world, where young people have access to unlimited information and can contribute to solve problems amplifying their voices, digital citizenship is a required element of citizenship readiness. 

Check the successful story of the activist Sofia Thenmozhi Ashraf, whose rap video Kodaikanal won’t has catch the attention of millions of people in 2015, making the giant Unilver pays for mercury poisoning in Kodaikanal (India). https://www.facebook.com/ajplusenglish/videos/696857897122387/?fref=nf

References: - Koc, M., Let's make a movie: Investigating pre-service teachers' reflections on using video-recorded role playing cases in Turkey, Journal of Teacher and Teacher Education 27: 95–106, 2011. - Wang, J., K. Hartley, Video technology as a support for teacher education reform, Journal of Technology and Teacher Education 11(1): 105– 138, 2003. - Jonassen, D. H.,. Designing constructivist learning environments. In Instructional-design theories and models: A new paradigm of instructional theory, 215–239., Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 1999. - Ik Ying, N., Balraj Baboo,S., Creative pedagogies and video making. A study on Malaysian adolescents' participation in environmental issues, Kajian Malaysia, Vol. 33, No. 1, 2015, 43–66 , Penerbit Universiti Sains Malaysia, 2015. - Kahne, J., Middaugh, E., Digital Media Shapes Youth Participation in Politics, Kappen, 94:3, 2012.

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Democracy is not just a question of having a vote. It consists of strengthening each citizen’s possibility and capacity to participat participate in the deliberations involved in life in society. F. Cardoso