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Algarve Tourism Competitiveness Research Fernando Perna, Maria J. Cust贸dio, Pedro M. Gouveia ciitt@ualg.pt

COMPETITIVTUR CONFERENCE: TOURISM COMPETITIVENESS ON MATURE DESTINATIONS: AN EMPIRICAL APPROACH. FARO: OCTOBER, 29, 2010

Supported by:


The Concepts of Competitiveness Authors

Concepts

Ritchie e Crounch, 2003: 2.

“What makes a tourism destination truly competitive is its ability to increase tourism expenditure, to increasingly attract visitors while providing them with satisfying, memorable experiences, and to do so in a profitable way, while enhancing the well-being of destination residents and preserving the natural capital of the destination for future generations”.

Scott and Lodge, 1985 in Ritchie e Crounch: 12.

“Country’s ability to create, produce, distribute, and/or service products in international trade while earning rising returns on its resources (…) this ability is more a question of strategy than natural endownments”.

Dwyer, Forstyth and Rao, 2000: 9.

” Tourism competitiveness is a general concept that encompasses price differentials coupled with exchange rate movements, productivity levels of various components of the tourist industry and qualitative factors affecting the attractiveness or otherwise of destination’s”.

OECD, 2010.

“Competitiveness is a measure of a country's advantage or disadvantage in selling its produts in international markets”

Oxford Dictionary in Ritchie e Crounch, 2003: 12.

“To compete is to strive for superiority in a quality”.

Perna, Custódio and Gouveia (2010)


Competitive Advantage vs. Comparative Advantage

Competitive Advantage

Comparative Advantage

“Resulting from value-added activities by firms and organizations” will relate to “construct” elements like tourism infraestructure, events, government policy (…)”

Would relate to inherited or endowed resources such as climate, scenary, flora, fauna, (…)” Dwywer and Kim, (2003: 372)..

Dwywer and Kim (2003: 372).

• Competitiveness compared to what and whom? • Which attributes should be considered? Overnights, bed places, revenues, prices, quality, image? Which products? Which key-factors? • Competitiveness and Tourism Area Life Cicle, a new relation?

Perna, Custódio and Gouveia (2010)


Key Principals for Destination Competitiveness Poon (1993) in Dwyer and Kim (2003: 375)

Strengthen the distribution channels in the market place

Make tourism a leading sector

Built a dynamic private sector”.

Scource: http://www.algarve-portal.com/

“Put the environment first

?

Hassan (2000) – Comparative advantage – Demand orientation – Industry structure – Environmental commitment

Perna, Custódio and Gouveia (2010)


Model and Indicators for Competitiveness... Categories

Hard Indicators

Soft Indicators

Addapted from Dwyer and Kim (2003)

Addapted from Crouch et al. (2000)

Addapted from Crouch et al. (2000)

“Resources”

Nº of berths (Marinas) Nº of holes (Golf) Nº of Direct Flights Nº of Bed Places * Occupancy Rate*

Climate Urban Cleanliness Image and Quality of Life Service Quality (Satisfaction) Airports Tourism for All Acessibilities

Competitiveness Evaluation “Destination Management”

Tourism Activity Monitoring Marketing Activity Monitoring Promotion Investment vs ROI

Knowledge on Competition products

“Situational Conditions”

Distance to Main Markets Hotels prices Airfares Exchange Rate

Safety

“Demand”

Destination Awarness

“Market”

Overnights stays* Market Share Tourist Expenditure Price Indexs Rate of revisit

Where is the Starting Point?

→ Tourism Area Life Cycle → Carrying Capacity Destination Perception Consumer Preferencies

* Hotels and similar establishements

Perna, Custódio and Gouveia (2010)


Tourism Area Life Cycle: Stage Indicators Algarve

Renovação wt = vt / m

Estagnação Consolidação

Declínio

Desenvolvimento

Envolvimento Exploratória

Data scource: Based on Statistics Portugal and Statistics Spain, 2010

INTERVALO CRÍTICO DE ELEMENTOS DE CAPACIDADE

@ Perna, Custódio and Gouveia (2010)


COMPETITIVTUR: The Variables Markets

Resources (and Products)

Diversity of Markets by origin

Hospitality Sector

Hospitality Market Adjust. (overnights stays vs. beds)

Golfe (holes)

Tourist Average Expenditure by Day

Marinas (berths)

Hospitality Internet Prices

Occupancy Rate

Destination Management / Situational Conditions / Demand Domestic Product (PPS per inhabitant in % of the EU-27 average). Destination Area Life Cicle

Seasonality (overnight stays)

Tourism Density (beds vs. inhabitants)

Demographic Pressure (nights vs. inhabitants)

@ Perna, Cust贸dio and Gouveia (2010)


COMPETIVTUR, Posicionamento Espacial COMPETITIVTUR: The Territories Algarve e Costa Mediterr芒nica de Espanha

Fonte: www.mapas-espana.com

@ Perna, Cust贸dio and Gouveia (2010)


COMPETITIVTUR: CIITT Index 14 Regions Model

Data scource: Based on Statistics Portugal and Statistics Spain, 2010

Provisional Results

@ Perna, Cust贸dio and Gouveia (2010)


COMPETITIVTUR Competitiveness Index

Provisional Results

Algarve

Data scource: Based on Statistics Portugal and Statistics Spain, 2010

ALGARVE: 4,28

@ Perna, Cust贸dio and Gouveia (2010)


COMPETITIVTUR Competitiveness Index

Provisional Results

Algarve Málaga

Data scource: Based on Statistics Portugal and Statistics Spain, 2010

ALGARVE: 4,28 MÁLAGA: 3,95

@ Perna, Custódio and Gouveia (2010)


COMPETITIVTUR Competitiveness Index

Provisional Results

Algarve Balearic Islands

Data scource: Based on Statistics Portugal and Statistics Spain, 2010

ALGARVE: 4,28 BALEARIC: 5,32

@ Perna, Cust贸dio and Gouveia (2010)


COMPETITIVTUR Competitiveness Index

Provisional Results

Algarve Huelva

Data scource: Based on Statistics Portugal and Statistics Spain, 2010

ALGARVE: 4,28 HUELVA: 3,60

@ Perna, Cust贸dio and Gouveia (2010)


COMPETITIVTUR CIITT Index

Provisional Results

Data scource: Based on Statistics Portugal and Statistics Spain, 2010

14 Regions Model

@ Perna, Cust贸dio and Gouveia (2010)


COMPETITIVTUR: Future Developments...

Estabilizar os indicadores hard e soft

Benchmarking: Alargar a rede de regiões envolvidas

Reforçar a componente de preços e gastos Estabelecer a componente de percepção e imagem do destino

Monitorização coerente e estável, em prática durante x anos.

Estabelecer análise à procura sobre canais de comunicação e canais de comercialização.

Grupo “informal” do turismo

Have something (diferent) to sell and let the world know you have that. Prof. Larry Dwyer, Vilamoura Oct.’10

@ Perna, Custódio and Gouveia (2010)


Algarve Tourism Competitiveness Research Fernando Perna, Maria J. Cust贸dio, Pedro M. Gouveia

MUITO OBRIGADO.

Algarve Tourism Competitiveness Research  

Fernando Perna, Maria J. Custodio, Pedro M. Gouveia

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