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DETROIT AND THE X GAMES: ADVANTAGES AND BENEFITS FOR ESPN BY: PETER McGRATH, M.A., M.U.P.

This report was prepared for the University of Michigan’s School of Kinesiology:

Department of Sport Management

#XG2D


DETROIT AND THE X GAMES: ADVANTAGES AND BENEFITS FOR ESPN BY: PETER McGRATH, M.A., M.U.P. Spring, 2013

#XG2D

Executive Summary As a host city for ESPN’s X Games, Detroit offers a broad range of benefits. In Detroit, ESPN is getting a city with top-notch venues and the flexibility to change add or revise events, an excellent airport and strategic geographic location, and a city with the knowledge and experience to host an excellent event. Although Detroit has all of the necessary components to host an event, Detroit’s bid offers more than venues and airports. Detroit’s unique arts and music scene, its gritty image, and its comeback story give the X Games a brand credibility that few cities can match. In terms of hosting large sporting events, few cities have more experience than Detroit. Across the last decade Detroit hosted Major League Baseball’s World Series, the NCAA’s Final Four, and the National Football League’s Super Bowl. As a host city, Detroit offers local and long-haul automobile access, excellent venues, and an international airport with non-stop service to every major market in North America and numerous cities in Europe and Asia. As a border city, Metro Detroit is able to tap into the Canadian marketplace, giving the X Games in Detroit an international dimension. Metro Detroit is also an excellent sports market for traditional sports—Detroit’s four major league clubs combined are worth over $2.2 billion dollars, and collected a combined $722 million in revenue.1 In the Detroit marketplace, the X Games events including rally car, bmx, motocross, and skateboarding will reach an untapped alternative audience, while still reaching Detroit’s mainstream fans. Finally, Detroit’s gritty image and its vibrant music and arts scene mesh well with the X Games brand, providing a dramatic backdrop for ESPN’s broadcast and a unique experience for attendees. For ESPN, the X Games is more than an event—it is a compelling storyline. The X Games in Detroit will be forever linked to Detroit’s alternative sensibility, its current challenges, and its comeback story—which will build a legacy that benefits all stakeholders.

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#XG2D Detroit at a Glance Demographics and Location Detroit offers many practical advantages for hosting a large event. Detroit is located at the far western edge of the Eastern Time Zone, which allows ESPN to broadcast events live on the East Coast. Demographically, while Michigan has struggled economically in recent years, Metro Detroit remains a major metropolitan area, home to over 5.6 million residents.2 Detroit’s census count is underreported due to Detroit’s location on an international border. If Windsor-Sarnia’s 619,056 residents are counted, the Metro Detroit regional entertainment market includes 6,280,918 residents—all located within an hour and a half’s drive of Downtown Detroit.3 Following the economic downturn of 2008, there are signs that metro Detroit’s economy is recovering. From September 2011 to September 2012, total nonfarm employment in the Detroit-Warren-Livonia MSA increased by 28,600—a 1.6 percent increase. The increase was driven by growth in the professional and business services sector, and particularly strong growth in the Manufacturing sector (a total of 9,800 new jobs). Detroit’s 1.6 percent increase was higher than the national average of 1.4 percent.4 In the macro context, Detroit’s location allows the ESPN to expand its promotional map and leverage the purchasing power of an entire region. Detroit is centrally located within the Great Lakes Mega Region, home to an estimated 55 million people.5 Large Metro areas such as Buffalo, Cincinnati, Cleveland, Columbus, Chicago, Indianapolis, Milwaukee, Pittsburgh, and Toronto are all less than a six hour drive from Detroit. Detroit enjoys excellent highway access— five toll-free, long-haul highways serve the city center and connect the city with the Midwestern heartland. Also, the Detroit region is connected to Canada by three international border crossings. An International Event As the X Games are an international event, Detroit’s location along the border of Canada will allow the X Games to continue this tradition without leaving the United States. Detroit’s border is the key point of access for international trade between the United States and its largest trading partner, Canada. The Detroit and Port Huron border crossings are the first and fourth largest land border crossings by trade value.6 The border is also open for tourism. According to a 2008 study, the Detroit Metro area drew approximately 455,000 day visitors and 288,000 overnight visitors from Canada, and Canadian visitors to Michigan spent approximately $284 million dollars.7 Overall, Detroit’s location allows the X Games to tap into the Canadian marketplace while still maintaining an American presence. Infrastructure Detroit Metro Airport makes Detroit accessible for fans and ESPN staff alike. In the late 1990s, the Wayne County Airport Authority made a commitment to modernize the airport, and over a decade later, the authority’s substantial infrastructure investments continue to pay dividends. The airport’s two main terminals were constructed from the ground up in 2002 and 2008, and the new terminals have earned positive reviews from travelers. In 2010, J.D. Power and associates ranked Detroit Metro Airport highest in customer satisfaction.8 Detroit Metro Airport has six runways, and offers direct flights to over 160 destinations, including the top fifty Census MSAs in the United States. With many direct flights to smaller regions, a non-direct flight to Detroit is generally a 1-stop endeavor. Metro Airport is a hub for Delta Airlines, and the airport ranks as the 17th busiest airport by passenger traffic in the United States.9 Metro Airport also has direct flights to international hubs such as Amsterdam, Beijing, Frankfurt, London, Nagoya, Paris, Sao Paulo, Seoul, Shanghai, and Toronto. While Detroit is the Motor City, contrary to popular belief, travelers to Detroit have many options beyond the car. Amtrak runs three trains daily to and from Chicago, its largest hub, and

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#XG2D Megabus, a no-frills bus service that uses online booking, free wi-fi, and low ticket prices to attract a young, college-aged clientele, offers daily bus service to Detroit.10 For Canadian fans the VIA Rail and Air Canada also offer daily service from Toronto to Windsor—Canada’s main transportation hub. Venues Recently, Detroit has made a commitment to invest in its sports and convention facilities. Venues in Detroit have hosted high profile events such as the Super Bowl and the World Series, and offer an excellent experience for the sports fan. Venue: Ford Field: Opened: 2002 Notable Features: The indoor football stadium adaptively reused an old department store warehouse, which gives the new stadium an authentic historic character. Ford Field is also well known for its use of natural light—large skylights and glass panels allow the sun into the stadium, instead of keeping it out. Previous Events: Super Bowl XL, Wrestlemania, NCAA 2009 Men’s Basketball Final Four and 2010 Men’s Hockey Frozen Four. Venue: Comerica Park Opened: 2000 Notable Features: One of the largest scoreboards in Major League Baseball, an excellent view of the downtown skyline, and a parking lot and concourse that lends itself to hosting outdoor events. Previous Events: M.L.B. 2005 All Star Game, 2006 and 2012 World Series, concerts by Bruce Springsteen, Paul McCartney, Eminem, and the Vans Warped tour. Venue: Cobo Center Opened: 1960, renovated 2012 Notable Features: Over 723,000 sq. ft. of exhibition space, a direct stop on the Detroit People Mover (Detroit’s Downtown circulator monorail), and a newly renovated façade that opens up to the Detroit River. Previous Events: North American International Auto Show, Autorama, fan events for the Super Bowl, World Series, and 2005 M.L.B. All Star Game. Venue: Hart Plaza, Civic Center, Riverfront Opened: 1975 Notable Features: A riverfront park in the heart of downtown Detroit, Hart Plaza has become Detroit’s gathering place for large festivals, parades, and events. The Detroit Riverwalk is a new promenade along the Detroit River. The riverwalk reclaimed the industrial waterfront for Detroit’s public, and is now a place for Detroiters to bike, stroll, or relax. Previous Events: Movement (Detroit’s electronic Music Festival), Detroit Red Wings and Pistons parades, Detroit International Jazz Festival, Red Bull Air Races.

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#XG2D Venue: Downtown Detroit Streetscape Notable features: Downtown Detroit’s street grid is atypical for an American city. Platted after a fire in 1805, the streets were meant to create a radial pattern of grand views and circuses. Today, Downtown Detroit features many wide boulevards, a roundabout, numerous outdoor parks, and a street pattern that is capable of hosting a street or music festival, or many exciting twists and turns for a race course. Previous Events: Detroit Jazz Festival, Detroit Winter Blast, Formula 1 U.S. Grand Prix 19821988. Venue: Belle Isle Opened: 1845 Notable Features: Located in the Detroit River, Belle Isle is a 982 acre island park that features a marina, museum, botanical garden, nature preserve, two beaches, and other amenities. The park is also the home of Detroit’s race track for open wheel racing. Previous Events: Belle Isle has hosted the Detroit Grand Prix since the early 1990s, and is part of the viewing area for Detroit’s annual unlimited hydroplane races—the APBA’s Gold Cup. In the summer of 2013, Belle Isle will host Metallica’s Orion Festival. Contingency Plans: While Detroit’s venues are well suited for the current slate of X Games events, a significant strength of Detroit as a host for the X Games is venue flexibility. Detroit’s combination of venues, from outdoor parks, street courses, and indoor and outdoor stadiums, will allow ESPN to alter its mix of events if market conditions change. Detroit’s location along the Detroit River also opens the door for possible water-borne events based on Belle Isle or along the Downtown Detroit Riverwalk.

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#XG2D Detroit’s Sports Landscape Despite economic turmoil related to the Domestic Auto Industry, Detroit continues to be a robust market for traditional and motor sports. This history bodes well for the X Games, as the event will leverage Detroit’s current base of sports fans, and reach a large but untapped alternative fan base as well. Traditional Sports The Detroit Tigers play in a relatively new stadium (Comerica Park opened in 2000), and have won two pennants within the last seven years. Since the 2006 season, the club has averaged close to 2.8 million fans a year. In last year’s pennant winning season, the Tigers drew 3,028,033 fans—making Detroit a better draw than both Chicago clubs, the New York Mets, the Houston, and Toronto.11 In 2012, the Detroit Tigers also posted a 9.1 local TV rating—the highest in Major league baseball.12 Despite a lack of on-field success, Detroit has stood by the NFL’s Lions. In the winless, history making 2008 season, the Lions still managed to draw 435,979 fans to Ford Field—selling 84.5% of the venue’s seats.13 Moreover, on college football Saturdays, the largest football stadium in the United States, Michigan Stadium, recently set an N.C.A.A. attendance record with over 114,800 fans.14 Michigan Stadium also hosted the largest crowd ever to see a hockey game.15 Both the University of Michigan and Michigan State University are known for their lively basketball crowds on campus, and college basketball events hosted at Ford Field, such as the Basketbowl, have set N.C.A.A. records.16 With a winning team that connected with Detroit’s blue-collar fans, the Detroit Pistons topped the N.B.A. in attendance for four straight years—2003 to 2006.17 On the ice, despite playing in one of the N.H.L.’s oldest arenas, the Detroit Red Wings have been one of the league’s top draws, placing in the top five in league attendance nine out of ten years.18 The Red Wings are also one of the most financially successful teams in the league—rated the sixth most valuable club in the N.H.L. by Forbes Magazine.19 Detroit’s ability to support the traditional sports plays is a positive indicator for the X Games. First, it indicates that sports are a significant draw for Detroit’s entertainment dollars. Aside from casinos and live music, sports are the chief source for entertainment in the Detroit metro area. Second, the move of the Detroit Tigers and the Detroit Lions to Downtown Detroit gave the central city two brand new, world class venues in Ford Field and Comerica Park, and helped change perceptions of the city. Thanks to the new stadiums, Downtown Detroit is now considered the region’s premier sports entertainment district. Moreover, it has given Downtown Detroit the physical infrastructure and human capital to host big-ticket events, and the experience to make sure events run smoothly. In the last decade, Detroit has hosted Wrestlemania, the NCAA Men’s Hockey Frozen Four, the NCAA Men’s Basketball Elite Eight and Final Four, M.L.B.’s All Star Game, and Super Bowl XL in 2006. For Super Bowl XL, after the expected jabs from late night hosts and national sports columnists about Detroit’s weather and gritty reputation, the event itself went smoothly, and received many positive write-ups in national publications.20 Super Bowl XL changed the conversation about Downtown Detroit amongst Detroiters and the national press alike, and proved that Detroit could host a large event as well as any city. Motor Sports Open wheel racing made its Downtown Detroit debut in 1981, when Detroit hosted Formula 1’s US Grand Prix. Detroit’s unrefined track drew the ire of many drivers, but became a favorite of late Formula 1 superstar Ayrton Senna.21 The Brazilian driver took the checkered flag in the last three events. CART took over the race in 1988, and the race moved to Belle Isle in 1992. After a victory in 2000, driver Helio Castroneves, began climbing the fence to get closer to

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#XG2D Detroit’s rowdy race fans.22 Nicknamed Spiderman, Castroneves became a fan favorite.23 After a decade of turmoil with the track, the economy, and within open wheel racing due to the IRLCART split, Roger Penske and other stakeholders have placed the Detroit Gran Prix on solid footing.24 Detroit also continues to host and award the oldest active trophy in motorsports—the APBA’s Gold Cup. A Detroit tradition since 1904, the Gold Cup is considered the most prestigious event on the APBA’s calendar. The event, held annually on the Detroit River features unlimited hydroplane boats traveling at speeds over 200 miles per hour. Overall, Detroit’s enthusiasm for motor sports presents an exciting opportunity for the X Games, as there is already a built in market of people who enjoy racing that would be interested in experiencing something different over the X Games three-year tenure. Action Sports Michigan’s motocross community is well established, and the state features 29 tracks that are sanctioned by the American Motorcycle association. One of the tracks, Red Bud in Buchanan, Michigan, hosts a Fourth of July motocross race on the AMA Lucas Oil Pro Motocross championship circuit. The track is known for hosting the circuit’s largest crowds and largest jump—LaRocco’s Leap.25 In Michigan, the action sports community is sometimes a grassroots effort—lacking the funding and polish of traditional sporting events. For example, a group called Detroit Mower Gang was formed as an excuse for men to cut grass in neglected city parks and have some fun while doing it—food, drinks, and hot-rodded lawnmowers are part of the experience. In 2010, the Mower Gang discovered an abandoned outdoor velodrome at Dorrais Park on the city’s northeast side. Working on a volunteer basis and attracting the occasional sponsor, the Mower Gang cleaned up the park for the neighborhood’s children and began staging events. Known as the Thunderdrome, the organization stages minibike and moped races. For a small price of admission, fans can bring their own chairs to the infield, enjoy a beer at the beer tent, and watch a race on a banked, graffiti covered velodrome in Northeast Detroit. The spectator experience is somewhat bizarre, unique, exciting, and a Detroit original. The actions sports community has a growing footprint in Detroit. Two of the region’s skate shops, Modern Skate and Surf and Corky’s, have been in business for more than thirty years. Modern Skate and Surf, along with four other organizations, operate large indoor skate parks that allow Detroit’s action sports community can keep competing in Michigan winter months. Also, cities of various income levels are embracing skateboarding as a positive after school activity. From blue-collar suburbs of Detroit such as East Pointe, to prosperous college towns like Ann Arbor, cities in Michigan are constructing outdoor skateparks—recognition of action sports positive impact on the community, and the popularity of the sport amongst the region’s young people.26 Detroit’s action sports community is also engaged in the community and philanthropy, and a great example of their efforts is Ride It Sculpture Park. The park is the brainchild of Power House Productions, a group of artists committed to revitalizing the disinvested NoHam Neighborhood. The new park is the result of Detroit’s creative class and action sports community working together. Powerhouse Productions partnered with local skate shop Chiipss and Good Wood to auction off 80 skateboard decks that were painted by local artists, raising over $25,000. Following an Emerica’s Wild in the Streets, which was held in Detroit, an after party hosted by Modern Skate and Surf raised additional funds, while another nonprofit, Boards for Bros, distributed 60 free skateboards to neighborhood children. 27 Tony Hawk’s foundation has recently committed to support the park as well.28 Although Power House Productions has additional plans, including an indoor skate ramp inside an abandoned home, the unfinished park has is already a game-changer for the community. In less than one year, Ride It has turned a desolate, vacant lot into a vibrant public place that combines art and action sports. While much of nearby infrastructure is rundown, kids in the

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#XG2D neighborhood finally have something to hang their hats on and be proud of. Ride It Sculpture Park is also breaks down barriers. It draws skaters and riders from the suburbs to the city, creating a unique cross-culture dialogue. Tying it together The X Games in Detroit will have the best of three worlds. Even during an economic downturn in the State of Michigan, Detroiters appetite for sports continued to set attendance records.29 A major center for automotive engineering and manufacturing, Detroit has proven to be a strong market for motorsports.30 Finally, there is a community that is dedicated to action sports that has built itself up through the grassroots. The presence of all three groups in Detroit presents a unique synergy opportunity for marketing. Thanks to the presence of traditional sports, Detroit already has the venues and the avenues to promote the X Games to a wide audience. For a community that already embraces motorsports on the track and on the water, the X Games motocross and Rally events will bring something different to the market. Finally, the X Games will be able to tap into Detroit’s action sports community—a community that may not be interested in traditional sporting events. With these three communities in mind, the size and location of the Detroit market, and the nature of the X Games themselves, the X Games in Detroit should have an easy time attracting fans to attend event.

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#XG2D Detroit Culture Beyond the X Games

Detroit’s arts and music scene are vibrant and unique. Young people are pressing forward with new ideas that simply would not happen in the more buttoned down, high cost-of-living cities on the coasts. In effect, Detroiters embrace the city’s dual nature. It is an eclectic mix of grit and charm, creative energy and a blue-collar work ethic, of brand new restaurants sprouting up next to diners and dive bars that have not redecorated since 1955. It is this dual nature that sets Detroit apart from other cities, and provides the X Games with a truly unique branding opportunity. Music

Beyond cars, Detroit is most famous for its music. In the 1960s, Motown Records became the sound of young America, breaking down racial barriers and creating hit records that are now timeless. During the late 1960s, Detroit embraced an aggressive underground rock scene that ran against the tide, producing acts like MC5, Iggy Pop and the Stooges, and Alice Cooper.31 Detroit also provided the inspiration for Marvin Gaye’s groundbreaking album, What’s Going On?, which was recorded at Motown’s Studio B. Metro Detroit’s concert venues are recognized by Pollstar as among the best attended in the United States—the Palace of Auburn Hills and DTE Amphitheatre are routinely ranked among Pollstar’s lists of best attended venues.32 In downtown Detroit, Comerica Park and Ford Field have bolstered a well-developed theatre district, hosting the Rolling Stones, Bruce Springsteen, Eminem and others. Detroit’s strength as a concert market, however, is beyond its ability to book national acts—Detroiters continue to embrace groundbreaking local music. Detroit’s garage rock scene became an international phenomenon in the early 2000s, and continues to produce loud, rude, and aggressive rock and roll.33 Detroit underground music scene is also known for its festivals. In Hamtramck, a small working class city of corner bars and bungalows, the Metrotimes sponsors a four-day music festival using local talent and locally owned venues. The Blowout festival often features over two hundred acts, and will expand to two weekends in 2013.34 Also, since the early 1980s, Detroit is the hometown of many prominent electronic music artists. Launched 2000 and held in Downtown Detroit’s Hart Plaza, the Detroit Electronic Music Festival has become a premier electronic music event, and last year hosted a record paid attendance of 107,343.35 Art

Detroit’s current art scene does not belong to the art museum. It is open to the elements and open to the public. Attracted by low rents in former industrial buildings, Detroit has become a mecca for artists, and Detroit’s homegrown talent has become internationally renowned. Detroit is the home of the aforementioned Power House Productions, and is the home of the Imagination Station. The Imagination Station’s goal was to restore two homes that overlooked Detroit’s most famous (or infamous) urban ruin—the abandoned Michigan Central Train Depot. When one of the homes on 14th Street caught fire and burned beyond repair, the Imagination Station created a rotating public art space.36 Every season different artists take their turn painting or creating something on the site. Detroit is well known for Tyree Guyton’s Heidelberg Project. Nestled into the east side of the city, the Heidelberg Project stands as a poignant commentary on urban decay. In a neighborhood that has experienced a considerable amount of disinvestment, Guyton uses discarded items such as old office phones, stuffed animals, an old bus, and abandoned houses to create an outdoor art experience that is unlike any other. The provocative piece has become famous, a draw for tourists and a subject of study for university scholars.37 It has and drawn the ire of city officials. On two occasions under two different mayors, the city has demolished parts of the project in the name of “blight reduction.”38 Amongst Detroit’s art community, the general consensus is that the criticism hit too close too home—too harsh of a critique for the officials to take.39 Nevertheless, while Mayors have come and gone, Guyton’s project has lived on as a true Detroit icon.

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#XG2D Although Detroit has become a destination for artists looking for inexpensive studio space, Detroit’s Dequindre Cut shows that in Detroit, anything and anyplace can become a work of art. Similar to New York’s Highline, the Dequindre Cut was an abandoned rail line in the heart of the city. Unlike the highline, it is below grade—surrounded by a cement canyon. Once the line became covered with overgrowth, Detroit’s best graffiti artists created some of the best artwork that nobody ever saw.40 In 2005, the overgrowth was removed, and a beautifully landscaped trail was installed. However, the graffiti was left up for everyone to admire. What stands today is one of the most beautiful and striking rails-to-trails projects in the country. Tying it Together Detroit’s music and arts scene offer a brand alignment to the X Games that few cities can match. Imagine skaters doing tricks on half pipes painted by local artists. Imagine concerts and after parties that last into the early morning headlined by Detroit based musicians. For a three-year time span, the X Games in Detroit has the opportunity to meld sports, art, and music into one unforgettable weekend.

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#XG2D Detroit Hustles Harder

Detroit’s reputation is not always positive, and there is no need to sugarcoat Detroit’s problems. Years of urban decay and the restructuring of the domestic auto industry have not been kind to the city. There are too many abandoned homes, too much vacant land, too many people out of work, too many families living in poverty, etc. This list could go on and on, and living in Detroit is not always easy. Despite its problems, Detroit’s gritty but resilient reputation has given the city a positive brand name, and the corporate world has taken notice. Chrysler’s Imported from Detroit ad campaign caused a national sensation when instead of trying to hide the car company’s Detroit roots, it embraced them.41 For two years, the Shinola Company a company has leveraged its Detroit location into a brand name—a brand name powerful enough to profitably manufacture products such as watches and bicycles here in the United States.42 In the restaurant business, city residents, suburbanites, and tourists flock to a barbeque joint that sits across the street from the Michigan Central Depot, a hulking, haunted looking abandoned train station that is Detroit’s most infamous urban ruin. Slow’s Barbeque is now nationally famous and one of the city’s busiest restaurants, and has spurred the development of new restaurants along Michigan Avenue.43 In addition to the X Games taking advantage of the Detroit brand name, major corporations are updating their philanthropic and community outreach policies in an effort to achieve the Triple Bottom Line—earning a profit, taking care of the planet, and investing in people, both within the company and the community.44 Businesses are seeking a new framework that builds “the relationship between business and society that does not treat corporate success and social welfare as a zero sum game.”45 Out of this paradigm shift, companies have adopted Corporate Social Responsibility policies—recognizing the benefits of giving back to society for society’s sake, and the benefits giving back can provide to the company. Arguably the most famous example is IBM’s Corporate Service Corps, or CSC, an international service program that allowed IBM employees to work in teams, applying their skills and expertise to solving problems in developing countries. 46 In addition to the philanthropic component, IBM’s management viewed the program as a way to develop leadership skills for high potential employees, increase the corporation’s reputation and visibility, and gain a glimpse into the inner workings of developing markets.47 Since its 2009, IBM’s CSC program has been a resounding success, achieving its business goals, and also differentiating IBM in the marketplace—IBM’s CSC program is the subject of numerous positive articles, and an integral component of the company’s recruiting efforts.48 The X Games in Detroit would allow ESPN to achieve a similar goal. While Detroit has the infrastructure and the fanbase to support the X Games, given the current state of Detroit, the X Games in Detroit is more than an event—it is a compelling story. The X Games will bring an economic boost to a region that is still trying to find its way in the post-industrial economy. Any legacy project, such as a free bicycle program, a mechanic training program, or a skate park sponsored by a shoe company will address acute needs in Detroit’s neighborhoods. In no uncertain terms, the X Games means more to Detroit than it does to other cities, and bringing the X Games to the city will be a positive investment in the city’s people, a positive investment in the city’s built environment, and consequently, a positive investment in ESPN’s, the X Games, and its sponsor’s name and reputation. Detroit gives ESPN the triple bottom line, which will pay dividends, before, during, and after the competition. In effect, ESPN can do well by doing good.

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NOTES

#XG2D

1 For these calculations, 2011-2012 valuations and revenue figures for each of Detroit’s sports teams, the N.F.L.’s Detroit Lions, the N.H.L.’s Detroit Red Wings, the N.B.A.’s Detroit Pistons, and M.L.B.’s Detroit Tigers were provided by Forbes Magazine. 2 This was calculated using the U.S. Census Bureau’s Detroit CSA, made up of Genesee, Lapeer, Livingston, Macomb, Monroe, Oakland, St. Clair, Washtenaw, and Wayne Counties. Lucas County, in northeast Ohio, was also included in the calculation. While part of a separate Census Classification, Lucas County is just over an hour’s drive away from Detroit. 3 4

Canadian numbers provided by Statistics Canada, 2011 Census.

Bureau of Labor Statistics, “Detroit Area Employment—September 2012,” November 1, 2012.

5 The Great Lakes Megaregion is defined by the Regional Planning Association as “The Midwest - Including parts of Minnesota, Iowa, Missouri, Wisconsin, Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Ohio, Kentucky, and Pennsylvania.” Retrieved from http://www.america2050.org/great_lakes.html. 6 Michael H. Belzer, Marc Alan Howlett, “Transforming Michigan into a Global Freight Gateway: Michigan to Halifax to the World,” Working Paper No. 2. Halifax, Nova Scotia: Centre for International Trade and Transportation, Dalhousie University 7 2009.

Southeastern Michigan Council of Governments (SEMCOG), “Economic Impact of the Border,” Fall,

9

Federal Aviation Administraiton, “Calandar Year 2011 Primary Reports,” September 27, 2012.

11

Attendance figures provided by ESPN.

13

Attendance figures provided by ESPN.

8 J.D. Power and Associates, “Although Technology May Help Improve the Airport Experience, the Basics Have the Greatest Impact on Passenger Satisfaction,” February 10, 2010. Retrieved from http://www.faa.gov/airports/planning_capacity/passenger_allcargo_stats/passenger/media/cy11_primary_enplanements.pdf.

10 A report by Lauren A. Fischer and Joseph P. Schwieterman, Ph.D. of the Chaddick Institute for Metropolitan Development indicates that 48 percent of passengers on curbside buses are in the 18-25 age group, while riders aged 18-35 are 73% of curbside bus passengers, indicating a different clientele from traditional bus carriers, such as Greyhound. Lauren A. Fischer and Joseph P. Schwieterman, Ph.D., “Who Rides Curbside Buses? A Passengers Survey of Discount Curbside Bus Services in Six Eastern and Midwestern Cities,” Chaddick Institute for Metropolitan Development, DePaul University, Chicago, IL. August 1, 2011. 12 John Ourand and David Broughton, “Multiple story lines help lift Tigers to top of local TV ratings list,” Sports Business Daily, October 1, 2012. 14 The official record is best attended College or Professional Gridiron Football Game, University of Michigan vs. Notre Dame, September 10, 2011, Michigan Stadium, Ann Arbor, MI. Attendance: 114,804. The game was the first night game in Michigan Stadium history.

15 The official record is best attended Outdoor Hockey Game: “The Big Chill at the Big House,” University of Michigan vs. Michigan State University, December 11, 2010, Michigan Stadium, Ann Arbor, MI. Attendance: 104,173. 16 The official record is best attended NCAA Men’s Basketball Game: The “Basketbowl,” Michigan State University vs. University of Kentucky, December 13, 2003, Ford Field, Detroit, MI.

APPENDIX A

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NOTES 17 18

#XG2D

Attendance figures provided by ESPN. Ibid.

19 Forbes Magazine values the Detroit Redwings at $346 million, sixth highest in the National Hockey League, retrieved from http://www.forbes.com/pictures/mlm45eghlh/6-detroit-red-wings/. 20

Mike Downey, “The Lowdown on Motown: Bad Rap a Joke,” Chicago Tribune, January 26, 2006;

22

Bruce Martin, “Castroneves the original fence climbing train blazer,”ESPN, August, 31, 2007.

21 Roger Hart, Postcards from Detroit: Remembering Formula 1 in the Motor City, (Phoenix, AZ: David Bull Publishers, 2006). 23

Ibid.

24 Brant James, “Few root for Detroit More than Racing icon Roger Penske,” Autoweek, June 1, 2012. 25 Track Info: Red Bud: Lucas Oil Pro Motocross. Retrieved from http://www.allisports.com/motocross/ event/redbud/info/event-info. 26 Sara Kandel, “Pickleball court, skate park are big hits at Kennedy Park,” C & G Newspapers, September 28, 2011; Ryan J. Stanton, :Ann Arbor Skatepark construction to start in spring with design now approved,” annarbor.com, January 8, 2013. Retrieved from http://www.annarbor.com/news/ann-arbor-skatepark-construction-to-start-in-spring-with-design-now-approved/. 27 Jared Purcell, “Ride it Sculpture Park makes the most of neglected space in Detroit Neighborhood,” mlive.com, August 7, 2012. Retrieved from http://www.mlive.com/news/detroit/index.ssf/2012/08/ride_it_ sculpture_park_makes_t.html. 28 Tony Briscoe, “Tony Hawk foundation gives Detroit skate park $30,000 for upgrades,” Detroit News, March 31, 2013.

29 The Detroit Metro Area has set the following attendance records: Best attended College or Professional Gridiron Football Game, University of Michigan vs. Notre Dame, September 10, 2011, Michigan Stadium, Ann Arbor, MI. Attendance: 114,804; Best attended Outdoor Hockey Game: “The Big Chill at the Big House,” University of Michigan vs. Michigan State University, December 11, 2010, Michigan Stadium, Ann Arbor, MI. Attendance: 104,173; Best attended NCAA Men’s Ice Hockey National Championship, Boston College vs. University of Wisconsin, April 10, 2010, Ford Field, Detroit, MI. Attendance: 37,592. Best Attended NCAA Men’s Basketball Game: The “Basketbowl,” Michigan State University vs. University of Kentucky, December 13, 2003, Ford Field, Detroit, MI. 30

“Successful Return of Belle Isle Grand Prix,” Detroit Business, June, 2012.

31 David Carson, Grit, noise, and revolution: the birth of detroit rock n’ roll, (Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 2006).

32 DTE Energy Theatre was named the top amphitheater venue worldwide by Pollstar in terms of Ticket sales from 2007 to 2011. See Palace Sports and Entertainment, DTE Energy Music Theatre Honors and Awards. For the year 2011, despite only having one permanent professional sports tenant, and crosstown competition for concerts from Joe Louis Arena, the Palace of Auburn Hills was ranked 23rd in the world amongst arena venues for total ticket sales for the year 2011. See Pollstar, “2011 Year End Worldwide Ticket Sales: Top 200 Arena Venuse.” 33 It Came From Detroit. DVD. Directed by James Petix and Sarah Babila. 2009: 34

Adam Graham, “Blowout blows up with extra weekend, city,” Detroit News, April 24, 2013.

APPENDIX A

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NOTES

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35 Nathan Skid, “Reflections on Movement: The kids are all right (mostly)—and so was Detroit, Crain’s Detroit Business, May 29, 2012. 36 com/

For more on the imagination station and their work, see their website: http://www.facethestation.

38

Walters, 68.

40 2009.

Donna Terek, “Dequindre Cut revealed as a gallery of graffiti masterworks,” The Detroit News, July 19,

37 Wendy Walters, “Turning the Neighborhood Inside Out: Imagining a New Detroit in Tyree Guyton’s Heidelberg Project”. The Drama Review 45 (4): (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2001) 64-93. 39

Ibid.

41 Larry P. Vellequette, “Chrysler brand boss Chehab: ‘Imported from Detroit campaign will grow,” Crain’s Detroit Business, March 21, 2013.

42 Kyle Vanhemert, “How an Upstart Company in Detroit is Building An American Heritage Brand,” Fast Company, November 7, 2012. Retrieved from http://www.fastcodesign.com/1671171/how-an-upstart-company-in-detroit-is-building-an-american-heritage-brand#1 43

Melena Ryzik, “Detroit’s Renewal, Slow Cooked,” The New York Times, October 19, 2010.

44 For more information on the Triple Bottom Line, see John Elkington, “Towards the Sustainable Corporation: Win-Win-Win Business Strategies for Sustainable Development,” California Management Review 36, no. 2 (1994): 90–100; or Timothy Slaper and Tanya Hall, “The Triple Bottom Line: What is it and How Does It Work?,” The Indiana Business Review 86, no. 1 (Spring 2011): 4-8.

45 Michael Porter and Mark R. Kramer, “Strategy and Society: The Link Between Competitive Advantage and Corporate Social Responsibility,” Harvard Business Review. 84 no. 12 (December 2006): 79. 46 Christopher Marquis and Rosabeth Moss Kanter, “IBM: The Corporate Service Corps,” Harvard Business School Case 9-409-106, July 12, 2010. 47

Ibid.

48 Adam Gordon, “How to Win Friends and Train Leaders in Global Markets? Just Follow IBM.” Forbes, December 14, 2011.

APPENDIX A

13


#XG2D

About the Author: Peter McGrath was born and raised in the Metro-Detroit area, and is a recent graduate of the University of Michigan’s Taubman College of Architecture and Urban Planning. He also holds degrees from Wayne State University and John Carroll University. Aknowledgements: The Author would like to thank: David Bieri, Ph.D., Michael Cantor, Kevin Krease, Garret Koehler, Ian Studders, Taylor Traub, and Michael Westling for their input, ideas, and feedback. A special thank you is owed to Mark Rosentraub, Ph.D., from the University of Michigan, who graciously agreed to assist with this project.

APPENDIX B

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Detroit and the X Games