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CkvemanI{]N-cWw ae-bmf kmln-Xy-Øn¬ ]n.-F. skbvXp-ap-l-ΩZv

aXhpw kmln- X yhpw XΩn- e p- ≈ _‘w A-Xoh KmVhpw Ahy-Xn-cn‡-hp-am-Wv. c≠pw akvXn-jvI-tØ°mƒ {]m[m\yw \¬Ip-∂Xv lrZ-bØn-∂m-Wv. Ahym-tJy-b-amb B¥cnIm-\p-`q-Xn-bmWv aX-hn-izm-kn-bpsSbpw kmln-Xy-Im-c-s‚bpw Pohn-Xhym-]m-csØ \nb-{¥n-°p-Ibpw ]hn{X-am-°p-Ibpw sNøp-∂-Xv. Bflo-bamb Cu kpZr-V-_-‘w-sIm-≠mWv aX-aq-ey-߃ am\-h-lr-Z-b-ß-fn-te°v ]I-cp∂ i‡-amb am[y-aa- mbn kmlnXy-Ir-Xn-Iƒ h¿Øn-°p-∂-Xv. temIØn-ep-≠m-bn-´p≈ aX-]-c-amb ]e {KŸ- ß ƒ°pw kmln- X y- ] - c - a mb {]m[m-\y-ap-≈Xpw AXp-sIm-≠-s{X. hnip≤ Jp¿- B \pw, ss__n- f pw, KoXbpw, EtKz-Z-hp-sa√mw Xs∂ I\s∏´ kmlnXo aqey-ap-ff {KŸ-ß-fmbn-´mWv Icp-Xs- ∏-Sp-∂X - v. hnip≤ Jp¿B\v kZr-i-amb Hcp {KŸw cNn-°phm≥ Hcp kmln-XyIm-c\pw km[n-®ncp-∂n-√. hnip-≤-Jp¿-Bs‚ kmln-Xy]-ca- mb t{ijvTX - b - m-WnXv sXfn-bn-°p∂-Xv. a\p-jy-lr-Z-b-ßsf kzm[o-\n°p-Ibpw ]hn-{X-am-°p-Ibpw sNøp-∂Xn-\p≈ kmln-Xy-Øn-s‚bpw `mj-bpsSbpw Ign- h p- I ƒ, B≤ym- fl nI aWv U - e - Ø n¬ {]tbm- P - \ - I - c - a mbn {]tbm- K n- ° - s ∏- ´ - t ∏mƒ kmln- X yØn\pw aX- Ø n\pw {][m- \ - s ∏´

hninjvS IrXn-I-fp-≠-mbn. \√ PohnX-Øn-\p-th-≠n-bp≈ D¬°-Sa- mb A`nhmRvP-bmWv B≤ym-flnI kmln-XyIr- X n- I - f n¬ Hcn- ° epw Ah- k m- \ n°mØ bph- X z- t ØmsS Xfn- c n´p \n¬°p-∂-Xv. hn⁄m-\-Øn\pw shfn®-Øn\pw Aa-cX - z-Øn\pw th≠n-bp≈ Zmlw {]Xn- ^ - e n- ° p∂ D]- \ n- j Xv hmNIw t\m°pI: A\ytXm am:kZvK-abm Xatkm am:tPymXn¿K-abm artXym am: Aar-Xw-K-abm skan‰vIv `mjm tKm{X-ß-fpsS kmlnXy Ncn{Xw BZy¥w ]q¿∆ Ime Ad-_n-I-fpsS kaq-l-Nn-¥sb ]I¿Øn-sb-Sp-Ø-Xn\v bq{^-´okpw ssS{Kokpw AXns\ kw_-‘n® ]T\hpw sXfnhp \¬Ip-∂p. aX-Øns‚ CuSp‰ ktµiw Nn¥-I-∑m-cpS lrZbsØ hio-I-cn-®n-´p-≈Xv AXns‚ kmlnXo aqey-߃sIm-≠m-sW∂v hnIvtSm-dn-b≥ Ime-L-´-Ønse aXmZ¿i JWvU\ aWvU\ - ß - ƒ ]cn-tim[n-®m¬ a\- n-em-Ipw. tImSn-°-W°n\p a\p- j y- c psS hmNm- c - ` mhw Ie¿∂ cq]-߃ IÆm-Sn-bn-se-∂-Xpt]mse EtKz-Z-Øn¬ Z¿in-°mw. \chwi imkv{X ]T-\Ø - n¬ {i≤n-°p-∂h¿°v aX-{K-Ÿ-ß-fn¬\n∂v ]eXpw a\- n-em-°m-\p-≠v. Xt]m-[-\-\mb hmflo-In-bpsS cmam-b-Whpw [¿Ω⁄-\mb hymks‚ `mc-Xhpw aX-km-

ln-Xy-im--J-bnse [\y-N-j-I-ß-fm-Wv. {_“-sa∂ ]q¿Æ-Xb - psS A\-¥a- mb BZ¿ihpw A\-iz-c-amb GIXz clkyhpw `mc-Xob ]pcm-W-ß-fpsS aX]-c-amb hnNm-c-K-Xnsb Nq≠n-°m-Wn°p- ∂ p. C¥y- b psS I- g n- ™ - I me kmwkvIm-cnI {]Xn-`mkw `mthm-Pz-eambn {]Jym-]\w sNøp∂ EtKz-ZØnse A¥y-kq‡w temI-a-X-ßfpsS Bfl-tPym-Xn- ns\ {]Im-in-∏n°p-∂-Xm-Wv. ""\nß-fpsS Dt±iyw s]mXp-hmbn- c n- ° s´. \nß- f psS lrZ- b - ß ƒ s]mXp-hm-bn-Øo-cs- ´. GXv hn[-Øn-embmepw \nß-sf∂pw kpJ-{]-Za- mb ]ckv]c klm-bØ - n-en-cn-°ptam B hn[Øn¬ \nß-fpsS a\ v s]mXp-hm-bncn-°-s´.'' CtX A¿Y hym]v X n- b p≈ {]m¿Y-\-Iƒ Xs∂ a‰p aX-{K-Ÿ-ßfnepw ImWmw. `mc-Xob kmln-XyØn¬ thcp-d®p \n¬°m≥ aXm-hnjvIc- W kn≤m-¥ß - ƒ°v Ign-bp-∂X - pt]mse as‰√m aq- e y- ß ƒ°pw AXns‚ amXr- ` m- j - b n¬ Dd- ® p\n¬°m≥ Ign-bp-∂p-≠v. blq-Z-a-Xhpw I¨^yq-jn-b-\nk-hpw ss{IkvX-h-a-Xhpw kmln-XyØn¬ sNep-Ønb kzm[o-\X Af∂v Xn´-s∏-Sp-Øm-\m-hm-Ø-Xm-Wv. aX-ßfnse [m¿ΩnI {]m[m-\yX {]N-cn-∏n°p-∂-Xn\v Cw•o-jv, {^©v, em‰n≥

{]t_m[\w hmcnI hm¿jn-I-∏-Xn∏v 1972


`mj-I-fn¬ kmlnXykrjvSn-I-fp-≠mbn. aX ]›m-Øe - Ø - n¬ hf¿∂p-h∂ kmlnXy krjvSn-Iƒ a\p-jy-h¿KØns‚ [m¿ΩnI {]h¿Ø-\-߃°v {]tNm- Z - \ - t a- I n. sl¿_¿´v s a¬, UotK, tSmƒtÃm- b n, {IntÃm- ^ v , tKbvsY XpS-ßn-bh - s- c√mw aX-Ønse aqey-߃ hne-bn-cp-Øn, a\p-jysc \∑-bpsS `mK-tØ°v B\-bn-®-h-cmWv. ]yqcn-‰m-\n-k-hpw, ^yqU-en-khpw tkmjy-en-khpw kntbm-Wn-khpw aX]-c-amb kwhm-Z-km-ln-Xy-Øn-eq-sSbmWv P\-ßsf BI¿jn-®X - v. bp‡nk- l - P - a mb \ncq- ] Ww \S- Ø nb {]ikvX Nn¥-I-∑mcpw kmln-Xy-Imc-∑mcpw aX-{]-am-W-ßsf kzX-kn-≤amb `mh-\-sIm-≠-e-¶-cn-®-h-cm-Wv. Ad-_n- km-lnXyw A\-¥-amb Hcp IS¬t]se sshhn[y hkvXp-°fpsS `WvUm-c-ambn ÿnXn-sN-øp-∂p. -F´mw \q‰m≠v apX¬ 13-˛mw \q‰m-≠ph-sc-bp≈ Ad_n kmlnXy Ncn-{XØn¬ aX-Ir-Xn-Iƒ°p≈ ÿm\w anI-®-Xm-Wv. Imhy-ß-fmbn {]Xn-]m-Zn°-s∏-´n-´p≈ {]hm-NI Ncn{Xw FÆa- ‰ - X - s {X. kpta- c p- ° - s f- t ∏mse {]IrXn hkvXp-°sf Bcm[n-®n-cp∂ Ad-_n-I-fpsS ]q¿∆-Ime kmwkvImc-sØ-∏‰n ]T\w \S-Ønb Kth-jI - ¿ lqZv \_n-bpsS ImeØv ba-\n-emWv A£-ch - n-Zy hc-samgn cq]-Øn¬ D¬`hn-®s- X∂v ka¿∞n-°p-∂p.- X-Z\ - ¥ - cw cq]-t`Zw h∂ akv\-Zv, Pkw, Iq^n F∂o A£c-am-e-I-fpsS kmln-Xy-Ncn{Xw aX-]-c-amb kmln-Xy-N-cn-{XØns‚ `mK-am-Wv. Iq^n en]n k{ºZmbw Bhn-jvI-cn® tijw C∂sØ Ad_n en]n cq]w hsc-bp≈ Ncn{Xw ]cn- t im- [ n- ® m¬ hnip- ≤ - J p¿- B ≥ Ign™ \q‰m-≠p-I-fn¬ hniz-{]-kn-≤amb ]e kmln- X y- I m- c - ∑ m¿°pw {]tNm-Z\w \¬In-b-Xmbn ImWm-hp∂-Xm-Wv. kmc-k-kw-kvIm-c-Øns‚ hnim- e - a mb ]mX- b n- e qsS \S- ∂ pt]m∂ Ad- _ n- k m- l nXyw {]hm- N Is‚ Ime-L´- Ø - n-se-Øn-bt- ∏mƒ Hcp kph¿Æ bpKw Xs∂ DZvLm-S\w sNbv X p. \nco- £ - W w, A\p- ` hw F∂nhsb IW- ° n- s e- S p- Ø p- s Im≠p≈ hnPvRm-\-Øns‚ kzoImcy k{º-Zm-bsØ hpip-≤-Jp¿-B≥ FSpØp-ImWn°p-∂p. ⁄m\ kºm-Z\w Hcp \n¿_‘ I¿Ω-ambn Xs∂ hnti-

jn-∏n-°-s∏-´n-´p≈ Ckvemw aX-{]-hmNIw kmln-Xy-Øn¬ ambmØ _p≤nap-{Z-bmWv ]Xn-∏n-®n-´p-≈-Xv. A∫m-knbm Jeo-^-bm-bn-cp∂ A¬ a≥kq¿ kmlnXy kºp-jvSa- mb Hcp Ime-L´w Xs∂ krjvSn® hniz{]-kn-≤-\m-Wv. bq¢n-Uns‚ KWn-X-imkv{X-hpw, tSmf-an-bpsS `qan-im-kv{Xhpw tlma-dns‚ Cen-bUpw A°m-esØ ]cn- ` m- j - I - f n¬s]- S p- ∂ p. Jeo^ A¬am-aq-\m-sW-¶n¬ Acn-tÃm-´n¬, tπt‰m, tSmf- a n, t{I‰v k v , Kme≥, bq¢nUv F∂o {]Xn-`m-k-º-∂-cpsS kmln-Xy-aq-ey-{]-[m-\-ß-fmb F√m IrXn-Ifpw Ad-_n-`m-j-bn-te°v ]cn`m-js- ∏-Sp-Øp-hm≥ {]tNm-Z\w \¬In. A¿d-io-Zn-øm, Aam-\n-øm, X¬Im-\nøm, JmØp-\n-øm, dme-_n-øm, \mk-cnøm, kem-lnøm XpS-ßnb Iem-im-eI-fn¬ kmlnXyw sFOnI hnj-bambn ]cn-KW - n-°s- ∏-´p. ""{KŸ-ßf - psS temIw'' krjvSn® sIbn-tdm-hnse ss_Øp¬ lnIvaØpw, jndm-knse ""hko-\Ø - p¬ JpØp_pw'' ]WvUn-X∑msc cwK-Øn-d-°n-bn-cp∂ hn⁄m\ kt¶-X-ß-fm-bn-cp-∂p. imkv{X imJI-fn-se-∂t- ]mse kmlnXy t]mj-WØn¬ 8˛mw \q‰m- ≠ p- a p- X ¬ 13- ˛ mw \q‰m≠p hsc Ckvemw sNep-Øn-bncp-∂{X kzm[o-\X temI-Nc- n-{X-Øn¬ as‰mcp km{am-Pyhpw sNep-Øn-bn-√. {]hm-N-Is\ kw_-‘n-°p∂ Ggm-bnc-tØmfw IrXn-Iƒ hnhn[ `mj-I-fnep-≠m-bXv A°m-e-Øm-Wv. Imew ]n∂n-´t- ∏mƒ `c-Wm-[n-Im-cn-Iƒ kpJtem-ep-]-∑m-cm-bn-Øo-cp-Ibpw tIhew ]mc-ºcy ]Z-hn-bn¬ Ibdn cmPy-`c- W - ta‰v A[x]X-\Ø - ns‚ h‡m-°f - mbn amdp-Ibpw sNbvXp. kz¥w aX-hymJym- \ - ß ƒ°qSn \S- Ø n- Ø p- S ßnbt∏mƒ, aX alXzw Dƒs°m≈p∂ lrZ-b-߃°v hnI-kn-°m≥ Ign-hn-√m-Xm-bn. 13-˛mw \q‰m-≠n\p tijap≈ kv s ]bn- \ n- s ‚bpw a[y- ] uckvXy cmPy-ß-fp-sSbpw Hgp-°ns‚ KXn- t \m- ° n- b m- e Xv hy‡- a m- I pw. Ccp≠ \q‰m-≠p-I-fn-eqsS Cg-™p-\oßnb P\-X-sb∂v B Ime-ß-fnse `c-Wm-[n-Im-cn-Isf B¿tWmƒUvtSmb≥_n hnti-jn-∏n-°p-∂p. kmaqly kwhn-[m-\Ø - nse F√m ]mI-∏n-gI - fpw apkvenw P\-Xsb Gsd-°psd hgn-sXfn®psh∂ [mcW apg-p-h≥ sX‰mbn

KWn-°c- pXv . aX-{]-Nm-cW - Ø - n\v Xømdm-hp-∂-h¿, Ckvemans‚ kph¿WIm-eØv, Ad_n IqSmsX H∂n-e[ - nIw `mj-Iƒ ]Tn-®n-cp∂p. {]ikvX `mjI-fnse thZ-ßfpw kmlnXy krjvSnIfpw ka{K ]T-\-Øn-\mbn D]-tbm-Ks∏- S p- Ø n- b n- c p- ∂ p. XI¿∂ kmºØnI LS-\b - psS Iogn¬ Pohn-t°≠n h∂ aX-{]-t_m-[-I-cpsS temIw ]eXp-sIm≠pw CSp-ßn-b-XmbnØo¿∂p. kº-∂-h¿K-Øns‚ B⁄°v hnt[b- a mbn ]e hymJym- \ - ß fpw \StØ≠n h∂ \n¿`mKyw Ah- c n¬ Nnesc ]nSn-Iq-Sn. \jvS ku`m-KyØns‚ IY- I fpw A¥¿ap- J - a mb GIm-`n-{]m-b-ßfpw a‰pw kmln-Xy-IrXn-Iƒ ]cn-Nb - s- ∏-Sp-∂X - n¬\n∂v Ahcn¬ ]e-tcbpw XS-™p. amXr-`m-jbn¬ aX- { ]- N - c Ww \n¿h- l n- ° m≥ Xøm-dm-Ip-tºmƒ B `mj-bnse F√m kpµc hi- ß fpw ]cn- N - b - s ∏- ´ n- c n°Ww, aX-aq-ey-߃ kºp-jvS-amb kmlnXy-Øn-emWv ]I¿∂p-sh-°p-∂sX-¶n¬ AXv CuSp≈ kmwkvImc kº-Øp-Iq-Sn-bm-Ipw. ae-bmf kmln-Xy-Øn\v I\s∏´ Hcp- B[ym-flnI imJ-bp-s≠¶nepw AXn¬ CkvemanI IrXn-IfpsS kw`m-h-\-Iƒ A{X A`n-am-\-Ic-am-sW∂v tXm∂p-∂n-√. hnip≤Jp¿B\v kºq¿W-amb Hcp ]cn-`m-j-bp≠m-bXv ASp-Ø-Im-eØv am{X-amWv. CXv t]mse Xs∂ lZokv kmlnXyhpw ae-bm-f-Øn-te°v `mjm-¥cw sNø-s∏-´p-Xp-S-ßn-bn-t´-bp-≈q. {]mtZinI `mj-tbm-Sp≈ ]q¿∆n-I-∑m-cpsS Ah-⁄m-\n¿`-c-amb kao-]-\-am-Wv, ae-bm-f-Øn¬ CkvemanI kmln-XyØns‚ A`n-hr-≤n°v hnLv\w krjvSn®-Xv. a‰p aX-hn-izm-kn-Iƒ {]mtZ-inI `mjbpw kmln-Xyhpw Iog-S° - p-Ibpw Xß-fpsS kn≤m-¥-߃ {]N-cn-∏n-°pIbpw sNbvX-t∏mƒ apkvenwIƒ Hcp {]tXyI en]nbpw `mjbpw \n¿an-®-v Hcp k¶p-NnX hrØ-Øn¬ HØp-IqSn. hnI-ea- mb `mjbn-ep≈ t_m[-\ß - ƒ apkv e nwIsf A]- l m- k y- c m- ° nØo¿Øp. B \ne°v C∂v am‰-ap-≠mbn-Øp-Sß - n-bn-´p-s≠-∂Xv Bim-hl - a- mWv. ae-bmf kmln-Xy-Øn¬ CkvemanIm-i-b-ßsf `mh kpµ-c-ambn BteJ\w sNøm≥ apkvenwIƒ Xmev]cyw ImWn- ° m- X n- c p- ∂ - t ∏mƒ alm- I hn

{]t_m[\w hmcnI hm¿jn-I-∏-Xn∏v 1972


h≈-tØm-fns\t∏mep-≈h - ¿ Ah-cpsS ]cn-an-Xa- mb ]cn-⁄m-\Ø - ns‚ ]cn-[nbn¬ \n∂p-sIm≠v Nne \J Nn{X߃ hc®p-sh-°p-I-bp-≠m-bn. Imhy{]-tNm-Zn-X-amb B {]h¿Ø-\-߃ Hcp ]cn[n hsc Bkzm-Zy-hp-am-Wv. ]s£, apkv e nw kap- Z m- b - Ø ns‚ D÷o-h\w Dƒs°m-≈p∂ anj-\dn kv ] ncnt‰m- S p- I q- S nb kmlnXy {]h¿Ø\w Hcp Ime-L´- Ø - n¬ Gsd°psd \S-∂n-´n-s√∂p ]d-bp-∂n-√. Ad_n-˛a- e - b - mf taJ-eb - n¬ hym]-Ia- mbn, Ign™ GXm\pw \q‰m-≠p-If - n¬ {]Ncn® ck-\n-jy-µn-I-fmb kmln-Xy-IrXn-Iƒ am\-kn-tIm-√m-kØ - n\v t{]cW \¬In-bn-´p-≠v. hoc-I-Y-Ifpw hocm-]Zm\ h¿Æ- \ - I fpw bpt≤- X n- l m- k ßfpw AXn¬ kp- e `- a mWv . Hcp hn`mKw P\-X°v AXv DtØ-P\w \¬In-bn-´p-≠v. Cu \q‰m-≠ns‚ BZy-L´- Ø - n¬ kmaq-lnI tkh-\m-¿Yw cq]-h-evI-cn°-s∏´, aDu-\Ø - p¬ Ckvemw k`-t]mep≈ Nne {]ÿm- \ - ß fpw AXv kw_-‘n® {]h¿Ø\ coXn-Ifpw aebmf `mj-bn-eqsS ]pdØp h∂-t∏mƒ Nne Ne- \ - ß - s f√mw Zriy- a m- b n. AXn\v apºpw ]nºpw \S-∂n-´p≈ aX]-c-amb ⁄m\ hn⁄m\ {]N-cW kt¶-X-߃ A¬]m¬]w anj-\dn kv ] ncn- t ‰msS {]h¿Øn- ® n- c p- ∂ p. ""Jn_ve X¿°w'' t]mep-≈h - , XnI®pw aX-hn-⁄m\ aWvU-e-Øn¬ A°mesØ kmaq-ly-ÿn-Xn-b\ - p-kc- n®v P\Øn¬ Cf°w krjvSn® kwhm-Z-ßfm-bn-cp-∂p. {]i-kvX-cmb aX-]-WvUnX-∑m-cpsS ^XvhIfpw hymJym-\ßfpw apkvenw kap-Zm-b-Øn-t‚-Xmb anj-\dn kmln-Xy-Øn-epƒs∏-Sp-∂p. 1884-˛t- \m-SS- p-Øp≈ ImeØv Bcw-`n® "ae_mcn' F∂ ]{Xw Cu cwKØv Ne-\-ap-≠m-°n-bn-´p-≠v. ]gb sIm®nbnepw Xncp-hn-Xmw-Iq-dnepw aX-]c- a- mb anj-\dn {]N-c-W-Øn¬ DPz-e-amb cWm-chw krjvSn-®Xv k\m-hp√ a‡n Xß-fm-Wv. a‡n X߃, ktlm-Zc aX-ß-fp-ambn Ckveman-Im-i-b-ß-sf Xmc-Xa- y-]T- \w \SØn hna¿i\ hocytØmsS eLp-te-J-I-sf-gp-Xp-Ibpw {]kw-Kn-°p-I-bpw- sNbvX Hcp ]cnjvI¿Øm-hm-bn-cp-∂p. At±-l-Øns‚ ""]m¿°-enØm t]m¿°fw'' , ""a‡n a\xt¢iw'' XpS-ßnb \nc-h[n eLp-

te-J-Iƒ sImSp-¶m-‰n\p Xpeyw P\ß-fn¬ Hcp ]pXnb i‡n ]I¿∂psIm-Sp-Øp. ""Pt\m-]-Imcn'' F∂ ]{XØn¬ At±lw A°m-e-sØ-gp-Xnb teJ-\-ßfpw AXn\v klm-b-I-am-bnØo¿∂p. a‡n Xß- f psS `mj, JVvK Xpeyw B™phoip-∂ ssienbpƒs°m-≈p-∂-Xm-bn-cp-∂p. C{X-bpw aq¿®-tb-dnb coXn-bn¬ JWvU\-]chpw aWvU-\-]-c-hp-ambn Fgp-Xm≥ km[n- ® n- ´ p≈ Hcp teJ- I s\ CkvemanI anj-\dn kmln-Xy-Øn¬ ae-bmf `mj-bn-eqsS ]cn-N-b-s∏-Sm≥ {]bm-k-am-Wv. Fgp-Xp-∂-Xn-s\-°mƒ Zo]vXn-a-Ømb coXn-bn¬ {]kw-Kn-°p∂-Xnepw At±lw {]K-¤-\m-bn-cp-∂p. a‡n Xß-fpsS Nn¥m-co-Xn-bn¬\n∂v Iptd-°qSn hyXy-kvX-amb ]cn-jvIcW kz`m- h - t ØmsS h°w A_vZp¬Jm-Z¿au-e-hnbpw Iptd-°qSn ap≥\n-c-bn¬\n∂v Fgp-Xm≥ XpS-ßn. apkvenw, A¬ Ckvemw, Zo]n-I F∂o ]{X- ß ƒ AXn- ∂ pZm- l - c - W - a m- W v . kml-kn-I-\mb Hcp t]mcm-fn-bpsS at\m- s s[- c y- t ØmsS auehn hn⁄m\ aWv U - e - Ø n¬ hf- s c°mew A\n-tj-[y-\mb ]uc-\m-bn-cp∂p. ]n∂o-Sp≈ Ime-L´- ß - f - n¬ A`ykvX-hn-Zy-cmb bphm-°-fpsS apt∂-‰Øns‚ Ime-L-´-am-Wv. tZiob ka-c߃, Jnem- ^ Øv {]t£m- ` - W w, CJv_m-ens‚ Imhy-{]-tNm-Z\ - w, Aeo ktlm-Zc- ∑ - m-cpsS t\Xr-Xzw, auem\m Bkm-Zns‚ ]ptcm-Ka- \ - m-flI - a- mb aXho-£Ww Ch-sb√mw tIc-f-Ønse D¬]- X n- j v W p- ° - f mb Hcp henb hn`mKw apkvenwIsf BI¿jn-®p. Ign™ c≠p hymg-h-´-°m-e-Øn-\nS°v hf-sc-tbsd ]{X-߃ P\n-°pIbpw acn-°p-I-bpw-sN-bvXp. CuSp≈ GXm\pw {KŸß-fpsS ]cn-`m-j, `mjbn¬ hcn-Ibpw sNbvXp. ]s£, i‡amb `mj-bn¬ anj-\dn kv]ncn-t‰msS aX-km-lnXyw C\nbpw hf-tc-≠n-bn-cn°p-∂p. Pam-AsØ Ckveman-bpw \ZphsØ apPm-ln-Zo\pw Al-Ω-Znøm hn`m-Khpw ka-kvXbpw Ah-cp-tS-Xmb ho£-W-ß-fn¬ aX-km-lnXy {]NmcWw \S-Øp-∂p-≠v. ]s£, temI-ho£Ww Dƒs°m- ≈ p∂ kmln- X yw i‡-amb `mj-bn¬ th≠{X hf¿∂n´p-s≠∂p ]d-bm≥ km[n-°-bn-s√¶nepw Pam- A sØ Ckv e man- b psS

kmln-Xy-hn-`mKw anj-\dn kv]ncn‰n¬Xs∂ Ah-cp-tS-Xmb ]¶v hln-°p∂p-s≠∂v ]d-bmsX \n¿hm-l-an-√. s]mXp kmlnXy taJ-eb - n¬ apkvenw Ihn-Ifpw teJ-I-∑mcpw IYm-Ir-Øp°fpw D≠m-Ip-∂-Xn\v Imem-hÿ {]Xn-Iq-e-a-√. ]s£, aX-km-lnXy imJ-bn¬ aX-Øns‚ A¥- Øsb am\n-®p-sIm≠v {]uV-amb kmln-Xy\n¿am- W - Ø n\v A{X- b - [ nIw t]¿ apt∂m´phcp-∂n-√. CXn\v Hcp hyXnbm\w ae-bmf `mj-bn¬ Bh-iy-amWv. ae-bm-fØ - nse CkvemanI kmlnXysØ kw_--‘n®v Hcp Xnkokv ka¿∏n- ° p- ∂ - X n\v Hcp Kth- j W hnZym¿∞n apt∂m´p h∂-t∏m-gmWv `mj-bnse \ΩpsS aX-km-ln-Xy-k-ºØns‚ A]-cym-]vXX a\- n-em-b-Xv. ""N{µnI'' , ""{]t_m-[\'' hpw \ap°p≈ as‰√m {]kn-≤o-I-c-W-ßfpw sNøp∂ tkh\w IW-°n-se-Sp-ØpsIm-≠p-Xs∂ Cu {]iv\-sØ-∏‰n Dds° Nn¥n- t °- ≠ n- b n- c n- ° p- ∂ p. im‡nI {]tNm-Zn-X-amb hnNm-c-[mcsb {]Xn-\n-[m\w sNøp∂ aX-kmlnXyw hf¿∂p hcp- ∂ - X p- s Im≠v am{Xta Cu A]q¿WX \nI-Ø-s∏Sp-I-bp-≈q.

{]t_m[\w hmcnI hm¿jn-I-∏-Xn∏v 1972

islamic litreture and malayalam  

{]t_m[\w hmcnI hm¿jn- I- ∏- Xn∏v 1972 ]n.- F. skbv Xp- ap- l- ΩZv {]t_m[\w hmcnI hm¿jn- I- ∏- Xn∏v 1972 {]t_m[\w hmcnI hm¿jn- I- ∏- Xn∏v 197...

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