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ImgvN∏mSv l

]n.sI apl-ΩZv Ip™n

hn`-P\w˛kXyhpw anYybpw (C¥ym hn`-P-\-Øn-te°v \bn® cmjv{Sob Imc-W߃ hne-bn-cp-Øp-I-bmWv Ncn-{X-]-fin-X≥ IqSnbmb teJ-I≥) C¥y-bpsS hn`-P\w Hgn-hm-°m-am-bn-cp∂ Zpc-¥-ambn Nn{Xo-I-cn® auem\m A_p¬Iemw Bkm-Zv, At±-lØns‚ Bfl-IY - mwiw Dƒs°m-≈p∂ C¥y kzmX{¥yw t\Sp∂p(India Wins Freedom) F∂ IrXn-bn¬ ]fin‰v Ph-l¿- e - m¬ s\lvdp-hns\ {]Xn-\m-bI ÿm\Øv ImWn°m≥ ]tcm-£-am-sb-¶nepw ]mSp-s]-´n-´p-≠v. 1946 Pqsse 10˛\v s\lvdp \S-Ønb ]{X-k-tΩ-f-\-amWv, cmPyw hn`Pn-°p-Ib - √ - msX as‰mcp KXn-bp-an-s√∂ \ne-]m-sS-Sp-°m≥ tIm¨{K-€n-s\bpw apkvenw-eo-Kn-s\bpw \n¿_-‘n-°p∂ ÿnXn-hn-ti-jØn\p XpS°w Ipdn-®-sX-∂mWv AkmZns‚ Btcm-]-Ww. Iym_n-\‰v anj≥ ]≤-Xnsb ]q¿Wambpw AwKo-I-cn-°p-∂pt≠m F∂ ]{X-{]-Xn-\n-[n-bpsS tNmZy-Øn\v adp-]-Sn-bmbn s\lvdp ]d-™Xv, Hcp Icmdn-s‚bpw Nß-e-bn-√msX GXp kml-N-cy-sØbpw A∏t∏mƒ t\cn-Sm-hp∂ Xc-Øn¬ A{Xbpw kzX-{¥-am-bmWp tIm¨{Kkv `c-W-L-S\m \n¿amW kan-Xn-bn¬ kw_‘n-°pI F∂m-Wv. tIm¨{Kkv `c-W-L-S\m \n¿amW kan-Xn-bn¬ kw_-‘n-°m-sat∂ G‰n-´p-≈q. Iym_n-\‰v Bbn-cØn \m\q‰n ap∏Xv

Zp¬JAZv Ccp-]Ø - n-bmdv


Nne-t∏mƒ ]cp-j-ambn FXn¿Øpw Nne-t∏mƒ A\p-`m-h]q¿hw ]cm-a¿in®pw ]mIn-kvXm≥ DS-se-Sp-°p-∂X - n-t\mSp {]Xn-I-cn® alm-flPn kXy-Øn¬ Hcp Pmay-°m-c-s\∂ \nebn¬ ]c-kv]cw hmtfmßn \n∂n-cp∂ c≠p kap-Zm-b߃°n-Sb - n-te°v Akz-ÿ\ - pw \ncm-bp-[\pw \ncm-ew-_\pambn Cd-ßn-s®-√p-Ib - m-Wp-≠m-bX - v. "C¥ysb sh´n-ap-dn°pw-apºv Fs∂ sh´n-ap-dn-°pI' F∂ At±-l-Øns‚ Bflm¿Y-amb tcmZ\w tKmUvsk-bpsS shSn-bp-≠I - ƒ Poh≥ Ih¿s∂-S° - pwhsc \nc-¥cw Db¿∂psIm≠n-cp-∂p. anj≥ ]≤-Xnsb am‰mt\m ]cn-jvI-cn-°mt\m D≈ kzmX{¥yw B¿°pw ]Wb-s∏-Sp-Øn-bn-´n√ F∂p-w s\lvdp hni-Zo-I-cn-®p. Iym_n-\‰v anj≥ ]≤Xn kzoI-cn-°p-Ibpw, "{]tXyI cmPyw' thW-sa∂ Ah-Im-ih - mZw Dt]-£n-°p-Ibpw sNbvXX - ns‚ t]cn¬ kz¥w AWn-If - n¬\n∂v hna¿i\w t\cn-´n-cp∂ apl-Ω-Zen Pn∂°v c£-s∏-Sm≥ Hc-h-kcw krjvSn-®psIm-Sp-°p-I-bmWv ^e-Øn¬ \lvdp sNbvX-sX-∂mWv Bkm-Zns‚ \nK-a-\w. `qcn-]-£-Øns‚ ]n≥_e-tØmsS `c-W-L-S\m kan-Xn-bn¬ Iym_n-\‰v anj≥ ]≤- X n- X s∂ s]mfn- s ®- g p- X ptam F∂ `bw apkv e nw- I ƒ°n- S - b nepw apkvenweoKnepw \ne-\n-∂n-cp-∂p. AXp-sIm≠v s\lvdphns‚ {]kvXm-h-\-bpsS shfn-®-Øn¬ Iym_n-\‰v anj≥ ]≤-Xn-tbm-Sp≈ eoKns‚ \ne-]mSv ]p\x-]-cntim-[n-t°-≠-Xp-s≠∂v apl-Ω-Zen Pn∂ ka¿Yn-°m≥ {ian-®p. 1947 Pqsse 27˛\v t_mws_-bn¬ tN¿∂ apkvenw-eoKv {]h¿Ø-I-k-anXn, hn`-P\w am{XamWv t]mwhgn F∂v {]Jym-]n-®p-sIm≠v Iym_n-\‰v anj≥ ]≤Xn X≈n-°-f-bpIbpw sNbvXp. 1935˛se C¥ym BIvS-\p-k-cn®v 1937˛¬ \S∂ \nb-a-k`m cq]o-I-c-WsØ kw_-‘n®v s\lvdp F-SpØ I¿i-\-amb \ne-]m-SmWv eoKns\ tIm¨{K-€pambn AI-‰n-b-sX-∂p-IqSn ka¿Yn-°m≥ BkmZv {ian-®n-´p-≠v. B sXc-s™-Sp∏n¬ bp.-]n-bnepw t_mws_-bn-ep-sam-gn®v Fhn-sSbpw apkvenw-eoKv {]Xo-£s°m-Øp-b¿- ∂ncp-∂n-√. _wKm-fn¬ apkvenw-eoKv A[n-Im-cØ - n-se-Øp-sa∂v AhnSsØ Kh¿W¿t]mepw {]Xo-£n-®-Xm-Wv. ]t£ IrjIv {]Pm-]m¿´n F√m IW-°p-Ifpw sX‰n-®p. B ]m¿´n-bpsS t\Xm-hmb ^k-ep-l-JmWv a{¥n-k` cq]o-I-cn-®-Xv. ]©m-_v, kn‘v, hS°v ]Sn-™m-d≥ AXn¿Øn kwÿm\w F∂nhn-S-ß-fnepw apkvenw-eo-Kn\p ]nSn®p\n¬°m≥ am{X-amWv Ign-™-Xv. bp.-]nbn¬ tIm¨{K€pw eoKpw kl-I-cn-®mWv a’-cn-®-Xv. PwC-ø-Øp¬ Deamsb lnµns‚ ]n¥p-W-bp-ap-≠m-bn-cp-∂p. B \ne-bn¬ a{¥n-k-`-bn¬ apkvenw-eoKv {]Xn-\n-[n-I-sf-°qSn Dƒs∏-Sp-Øp-sa∂p kΩ-Xn-Zm-b-Icpw P\-ßfpw {]Xo-£n°p-∂Xv kzm`m-hn-I-am-W-t√m. ]t£, 1937 am¿®v 10-˛\v Ph-l-¿em¬ s\lvdp bp.-]n-bnse \n¿ZnjvS {][m-\a- {- ¥n-bm-bn-cp∂ tKmhnµ h√-`mbv ]µn-\b - ® IØn¬ eoKp-ambn ap∂-Wn-bp-≠m-°p-∂-Xn\v auem\m BkmZv FXn-cm-sW∂p hy‡-am°n-bn-cp-∂p. eoKns‚ {]Xn-\n-[n-I-fmbn a{¥n-k-`-bn-te°v \n¿tZ-in-°-s∏-´n-cpc≠m-bn-cØ - n-sbmºXv

\hw_¿ ]Xn-\mev


∂Xv Nu[-cn- J-eoJp-€-am-s\bpw \hm_v Ckvam-Cu¬ Jms\-bp-am-Wv. Ahcn¬ Hcmsf am{Xta a{¥n-bm-°m-\mhq F∂v \n¿tZin-°p-Ibpw sNbvXp. Cu hmKvZØ ewL-\-amWv apkvenw eoKns\ tIm¨{K-€p-ambn Hcn-°epw ASp-°m\m-hmØ ÿnXn-bn-te°v FØn-®-sX-∂mWv Bkm-Zns‚ \ymbw. bp.-]n-bn¬ a{¥n-k-`m -{]iv\w ssIImcyw sNøm≥ auem\m Bkm-Zn-s\Ø-s∂-bmWv tIm¨{Kkv ssl°-am‚ v Npa-X-e-s∏-Sp-Øn-bn-cp-∂-sX-∂v ChnsS A\p-kvac- n-t°-≠X - p-≠v. At±lw apkvenw-eo-Kv Aw-Kß - t- fmSv H∏p-sh-°m≥ Bhiy-s∏´ Icm¿ Ah-cpsS I£n-bpsS \ne-\n¬]p-t]mepw A]-I-S-s∏-Sp-Øp-∂Xm-bn-cp-∂p. (A tale of the Subcontinent˛Ip¬Zo]v \bm¿) bp.-]n-bnse \nb-a-k-`bn¬ apkvenw eoKv {]tXyI {Kq∏mbn {]h¿Øn-°-cp-Xv, eoKw-K-߃ tIm¨{K€n¬ tNc-Ww, tIm¨{K-€nse Aw-Kß - f - p-tSXp t]mep≈ Ah-Imiw Ah¿°pw e`n-°pw, F√m-Im-cy-ßfpw Xocp-am-\n-°p-∂Xv `qcn-]£ - t- hm-´ns‚ ASn-ÿm-\Ø - nem-bn-cn-°pw, bp.-]n-bnse apkvenw-eoKv ]m¿e-sa‚dn t_m¿Uv ]ncn-®p-hn-S-Ww, \nb-a-k-`-bn¬\nt∂m a{¥n-k-`-bn¬\nt∂m cmPn-sh-°m≥ tIm¨{K-€w-K-߃ Xocp-am-\n-®m¬ B Xocp-am\w eoKw-K-߃°pw _m[-I-am-bn-cn-°pw, C\n hcp∂ sXc-s™-Sp-∏p-I-fn¬ eoKv Sn°-‰n¬ a’-cn-°-cp-Xv XpS-ßnb \n_-‘-\-IfmWv Bkm-Zns‚ Icm-dn¬ D≠m-bn-cp-∂-Xv. B Icm-dn¬ H∏p-sh-°m≥ eoKv t\Xm-°fmb JeoJp€am-\pw \hm_v CkvamCu¬-Jm\pw Xbm-dm-sb∂pw Ah-cn¬ Hcmsf am{Xta a{¥n-k-`-bn¬ FSp-°m≥ Ign-bq F∂pw D≈ Ph-l¿-em-ens‚ ]nSn-hmin-bmWv apkvenw-eo-Kns\ ap∂-Wn-bn¬ \n∂-I‰- nbsX-∂p-amWv auem\m BkmZv hni-Zo-I-cn-°p-∂-Xv. a{¥n-k`m cq]o-I-c-WsØ kw_-‘n-®p≈ IqSn-bm-tem-N-\°n-Sb - n¬ X\n°v ]m‰v\b - n-te°v t]mtI≠nh∂p F∂pw Xncn-s®-Øp-tºm-tg°pw Ph-l¿-em-ens‚ ISpw-]n-SpØwaqew Iq´p-a-{¥n-k` F∂ Bi-bta Dt]-£n-t°≠n-h∂p F∂p-IqSn BkmZv tcJ-s∏-Sp-Øn-bn-´p-≠v. auem\m BkmZv ]d-bp∂ coXn-bn-ep≈ Hcp Icm-dn-s\-∏‰n X߃s°m-cdn-hp-an-s√∂pw AØcw Hcp Icm-dn¬ H∏p-sh-°m-sa∂v Hcn-°epw hm°p-sIm-SpØn-´n-s√∂pw Nu[cn JeoJp-€am\pw \hm_p CkvamCu¬Jm\pw Ak-µnKv[amb `mj-bn¬ hy‡-am-°n-bn-´p-≠v. Xß-fn¬ Hcmsf am{Xta a{¥n-bm-°m\mhq F∂v Ph-l¿-em¬ s\lvdp Hcn-°epw Adn-bn®n-´n-√. tIm¨{K-€p-ambn Bkm-Zns‚ \n_-‘-\-Iƒ°-\p-k-cn®v kl-I-cn-°m-sa∂p Jeo-Jp-€-am\pw \hm_v CkvamCu¬Jm\pw kΩ-Xn®p F∂ Bkm-Zns‚ {]kvXm-h-\sb 1959 am¿®v 27\v temIvk`- b - n¬ \S-Ønb {]kvXm-h\ - b - n¬ ]fin‰v s\lvdphpw \ntj[n-°p-I-bp-≠m-bn. 1937 am¿®v 10˛\v ]fin‰v s\lvdp bp.-]n-bnse \n¿ZnjvS {][m-\-a-{¥n-bmbn-cp∂ tKmhn-µ-h-√` ]µn-\-b® IØn¬ apkvenw eoKp-ambn Iq´p-a-{¥n-k` D≠m-°p-∂-Xn\v auem\m BkmZv Xo¿Øpw FXn-cm-sW-∂m-W-dn-bn-®n-cp-∂-Xv. \hm_v CkvamCu¬Jms\ a{¥n-k-`-bn¬ Dƒs∏-Sp-Ø-cp-sX∂ \n¿_-‘hpw Bkm-Zn-\m-Wp-≠m-bn-cp-∂-Xv. eoKns‚ {]Xn-\n-[n-Iƒ Bcm-bn-cn-°-W-sa∂v eoKpXs∂ Xocp-am-\n-°p-sa∂p hy‡-am-b-t∏mƒ lm^nkv apl-ΩZv C_vdm-lo-ans\ a{¥n-k-`-bn-epƒs∏Sp-Ø-W-sa∂ _Z¬ \n¿tZiw BkmZv D∂-bn-®p. lm^nkv apl-ΩZv C_vdm-lo-ans\ eoKn¬ \n∂-S¿Ønsb-SpØv a{¥n-bm-°p-∂X - n¬ BkmZv hnP-bn-°p-Ibpw sNbvXp. eoKv AwK-Xzhpw \nb-a-km-am-Pn-Is‚ ÿm\hpw cmPnBbn-cØn \m\q‰n ap∏Xv

Zp¬JAZv Ccp-]Ø - n-bmdv


s\lvdp

Pn∂

BkmZv

A_p¬Iemw BkmZv Bfl-{]-iw-kb - psS c‡-km£n-bm-sW∂pw, hn{K-lm-cm-[\ A\p-hZ - n-°s - ∏-´ncp∂p F¶n¬ At±-l-Øns‚ apºn¬ {]W-an-°p-ambn-cp∂p F∂pw apjvXmJv Al-ΩZv bqk^v Hcp Ihn-Xb - n¬ Nn{Xo-Ic - n-®n-´p-≠v. CØcw hne-bn-cp-Øep-If - psS shfn-®Ø - n¬ Xt∂-°mƒ BZ-chv a‰m¿°pw e`n-°p-∂Xv s\lvdp-hn\p kln-°m≥ Ignbn-s√∂ Bkm-Zns‚ ]cn-lm-ksØ B¿°pw Hcn°epw apJ-hn-es - °-Sp-°m-\m-hn-√. sh® lm^nkv D]-sX-c-s™-Sp-∏n¬ a’-cn®p Pbn-®-ti-j-amWv a{¥n-bm-b-Xv. bp.-]n-bn¬ am{X-a√ a‰p kwÿm-\-ß-fnepw a{¥n-k`m cq]o-I-c-W-Øn¬ tIm¨{K€pw eoKpw [mc-W-bn-se-Øp-∂-Xn-s\-Xn-cmbn ]e X{¥-ßfpw BkmZv ]b-‰n-bn-´p-≠v. apkvenw `qcn-]-£-{]-tZ-i-ß-fn¬ eoKv H-cn-°epw A[n-Im-c-Øn¬ hc-cp-sX∂v Bkm-Zn\v \n¿_‘-ap-≠m-bn-cp-∂p. Bkm-Zns‚ eoKvhntcm[w GXms≠m-cp-∑m-Zm-h-ÿ-bn¬ At±-lsØ FØn-®n-´p-s≠∂v s\lvdp Xs∂ A°meØv A]-e-]n-°p-I-bp-≠mbn! knwem tIm¨^-d≥kv ]cm-Pb - s- ∏-´X - n-\v D-Øc- h - mZn BkmZv am{X-am-sW∂ Btcm-]-W-sØ-∏‰n C¥y kzmX{¥yw t\Sp-∂p F∂ ]pkvX-I-Øn¬ Xs∂bp≈ hni-Zo-I-cWw {i≤n-®m¬ eoKp-ambn tIm¨{Kkv [mc-W-bn-se-Øp-∂-Xns\-Xn-cmbn BkmZv ]e Icp-°fpw \o°n-bn-´p-s≠∂p hy‡-am-Ipw. ""tUm. kønZv apl-ΩZv \oXo-I-cn-°m-\m-hmØ ]e Btcm-]-W-ßfpw Fs‚ t]cn¬ D∂-bn-®n´p-≠v. tIm¨{Kkv {]h¿ØI kanXn eoKns‚ Bhiyw AwKo-I-cn-°m-Xn-cp∂Xv Fs‚ \n¿_‘w aqew am{X-am-sW-∂mWv At±-l-Øns‚ A`n-{]m-bw. CXv XnI®pw sX‰m-Wv.'' CØcw Hcp {]kvXm-h\ tUm. apl-ΩZv Cd-°n-b-Xn¬ tJZap-s≠∂pw hfsc hnj-an-®mWv tUm. apl-Ω-Zns\ tIm¨{Kkv {]h¿Ø-I-k-anXn-bn¬ Dƒs∏-Sp-Øn-bXv F-∂p-w BkmZv shfn-s∏-Sp-Øn-bn-´p-≠v. a{¥nk` cq]oc≠m-bn-cØ - n-sbmºXv

\hw_¿ ]Xn-\mev


I-cn-°p-tºmƒ apkvenw- eo-Kn-t\mSv hfsc DZm-c-amb \bw ssIs°m-≈-W-sa-∂v X-\n-°v B{K-lap-≠m-bn-cp-s∂-∂mWv BkmZv Ah-Im-i-s∏-Sp-∂-Xv. ""FhnsS apkvenw eo-Kw-K-߃ \nb-a-k-`-bn-te°v sXc-s™-Sp-°-s∏-´n-´pt≠m Ahn-sSsbms° Ahsc £Wn-®p-hc- pØn tIm¨{K€p-ambn kl-Ic- n-°W - s- a∂v Rm≥ Bh-iy-s∏-´n-´p-≠v. tIm¨{K-€n\v `qcn-]-£-ap≈ kwÿm-\-ß-fnepw, tIm¨{K€n\p H‰-I£n F∂ \ne-bn¬Xs∂ `qcn-]£w Ah-Im-i-s∏-Sm-hp∂ kwÿm\-ß-fnepw Rm\nXp sNbvXn-´p-≠v. ]t£ Fs‚ £Ww kzoI-cn-°m≥ Ahsc A\p-h-Zn-®n√'' F∂mWv Bkm-Zns‚ Bt£-]w(C¥ym hn≥kv {^oUw t]Pv 136). AtX kabwXs∂ ]©m-_n¬ apkvenw-eo-Kn-t\mSv Kh¿W¿°v hy‡n-]c-ambn Nmbvhp-≠m-bn-cp-s∂-¶nepw bq\n-b-\nÃv t\Xm-hm-bn-cp∂ Jnk¿l-bmØvJms\ a{¥n-k-`m-cq-]o-I-c-W-Øn\p £Wn-°p-I-b-√m-sX a‰p am¿K-an-√mØ \ne-bn-te-s°-Øn-°p-∂-Xn¬ auem\m Bkm-Zn\p ]¶p-s≠-∂p- A\pam-\n-°m\mWp \ymbw ImWp-∂-Xv. bp.]n tIm¨{Kkv ]m¿´n-bpsS apJ-]-{X-sa∂p ]dbm-hp∂ \mj-W¬ sldmƒUv t]mepw ]©m_v a{¥n-k-`m-cq-]o-I-c-W-Øn¬ Xm≥ {]I-Sa- m-°nb cmPy-X{- ¥-⁄X - sb «mLn-°p-Ib - p-≠mbn F∂p-IqSn BkmZv tcJ-s∏-Sp-Øn-bn-´p-≠v. ]©m-_nse a{¥n-k`m cq]o-Ic- W - Ø - n-te°v \bn® IqSn-bm-tem-N\ - I - f - n¬ Xm≥ {]Z¿in-∏n® sshZ-Kv[ysØ cmjv{Sob hrØ-߃ {]Io¿Øn-®n-´p-s≠∂pw BkmZv A`n-am-\n-®n-cp∂p (C¥ym hn≥kv {^oUw t]Pv 137). A_p¬Iemw BkmZv Bfl-{]-iw-k-bpsS c‡-km-£n-bm-sW∂pw, hn{K-lm-cm-[\ A\p-h-Zn°-s∏-´n-cp∂p F¶n¬ At±-l-Øns‚ apºn¬ {]W-an-°p-am-bn-cp∂p F∂pw apjvXmJv Al-ΩZv bqk^v Hcp Ihn-X-bn¬ Nn{Xo-I-cn-®n-´p-≠v. CØcw hne-bncp-Øe - p-If - psS shfn-®Ø - n¬ Xt∂-°mƒ BZ-chv a‰m¿°pw e`n-°p-∂Xv s\lvdphn\p kln-°m≥ Ign-bn-s√∂ Bkm-Zns‚ ]cn-lm-ksØ B¿°pw Hcn-°epw apJ-hn-e-s°-Sp-°m-\m-hn-√. XØz-im-kv{X-]c- a- mb ]cn-KW - \ - a- q-ea- mWp ]©m-_n¬ bq\n-b\ - nÃv ]m¿´nbp-ambn tIm¨{Kkv kl-I-cn-®Xv icn-bm-bn-s√∂ A`n-{]mbw ]fin‰v s\lvdp D∂-bn-®-sX-∂mWp Bkm-Zns‚ Bt£-]w. apkvenw-eoKv Hcp _lp-P-\-kw-L-S\-bm-Wv. B \ne-bn¬ tIm¨{K€pw eoKp-am-bmWp Iq´p-tN-tc-≠n-bn-cp-∂X - v. bq\nb-\nÃv ]m¿´n-bp-ambn kl-I-cn-®Xv sX‰m-bn-t∏m-bn F∂ Iayq-Wn-ÃpIm-cpsS hna¿i-\-Øn¬ s\lvdp ]¶p ]-‰p-I-bm-Wp-≠m-b-Xv (C¥ym hn≥kv {^oUw t]Pv 131). ]©m-_n¬ tIm¨{K-€ns‚ A¥€v If-™p-Ip-fn-°p-Ib - m-Wp-≠m-bs- X-∂mbn-cp∂p s\lvdp-hns‚ A`n-{]m-bw. "`qcn-]-£-an-√mØ bq\n-b-\nÃp ]m¿´n-bpambn' kl-I-cn-®Xv Xo¿Øpw sX‰mbn-t∏mbn F∂pw At±lw hne-bn-cp-Øn. tIm¨{K-€n¬ H∂n®p {]h¿Øn®p XpS-ßn-b- tijamWv Xs‚ F√m A`n-{]mb-ß-sfbpw Ph-l-¿em¬ FXn¿ØXv F∂v BkmZv shfn-s∏-Sp-Øn-bn-´p-≠v. apkvenw-eo-Kn-t\m-Sp-am{Xw Iog-S-ßm≥ Bh-iy-s∏-Sp-Ibpw tIm¨{K-€n\p `qcn-]£ - a- n-√mØ kwÿm-\ß - f - n¬ apkvenw-eo-Kns\ H‰-s∏-Sp-Øp-∂X - n\p th≠n XØz-Zo£ C√mØ Iq´p-sI-´n-te¿s∏-Sm≥ aSn-°m-Xn-cn-°p-Ibpw sNbvX BkmZns‚ \bw apkvenw \yq\-]-£-Øns‚ Bi-¶- Cc-´n-∏n-°m-\m-Wp-]-I-cn-®-Xv. ""aX\n-c-t]-£X hnP-bn-°p-∂pt≠m F∂dn-bm≥ `qcn-]£w F¥p-sN-øp∂p F∂√ Bbn-cØn \m\q‰n ap∏Xv

Zp¬JAZv Ccp-]Ø - n-bmdv


CJv_m¬

h√-`mbv ]t´¬

hn.]n tat\m≥

`qan-im-kv{X-]-c-amb sFIy-Øns‚ t]cn¬ kap-Zmb ssa{Xnbpw \yq\-]£ - Ø - ns‚ \ne-\n¬]pw Ah-KW - n-°c - psX∂v am{X-am-Wv Pn∂ Bh-iy-s∏-´X - v. ]mIn-kvXm≥ hmZsØ hne-t]-im-\p≈ Hcm-bp[w am{X-am-bmWv Pn∂ ]cn-KW - n-®n-cp-∂s - X∂v C¥y-bnse Ata-cn-°≥ ÿm\-]X - nbm-bn-cp∂ sad-ens‚ A`n-{]mbhpw {i-t≤-ba - m-Wv. {]iv\]-cn-lm-c-Øn\v ]cnK-Wn-°m-hp∂ ]e ]≤-Xn,-Ifpw A°meØv ka¿∏n-°s - ∏-´n-cp-∂p. hn.]n tat\m≥ XpS-ßnb DtZym-K-ÿ-ta-[m-hn-I-fpsS ]≤Xn C¥y c≠p cmjv{S-ßfmbn ]ncn-bW - s - a∂p \n¿tZ-in-°p-∂X - m-bn-cp-∂p. \yq\-]-£-Øn\p F¥p tXm∂p∂p F∂mWv \nco-£n-®-dn-tb-≠-''sX∂v {]Jym]n® ]fin‰v Ph-l-¿-em¬ s\lvdp-hns‚ kap-Zmb ssa{Xn°pth-≠n-bp≈ Bflm¿Yamb bXv\ß -- ƒ°Xv hnLm-X-am-bn-Øo¿∂p (s\lvdp B‚ v C¥ymkv IzÃv t^m¿ sFU‚n-‰n). ""C¥y°v kzbw-`c- Ww e`y-am-°p-Ib - mWv tIm¨{K€n-s‚bpw apkvenw eoKns‚bpw e£yw. Cu Ah-Im-i-hm-Z-Øn\p \mw AwKo-Im-cw \¬tI≠-Xp≠v......... lnµphpw apkvenapw sFIy-Øn-eS- n-bp-d® - n-cn-°p-∂p. ap∂q-dp-Zi - e - £w P\-Øns‚ i_vZw C¥y-bpsS \m\m-`m-KØpw {]I-º\w sIm≈p-∂p. Cu i‡nsb sNdp°m≥ `qan-bn¬ B¿°pw Bhn-√'' F∂v eJvt\m-hnse ktΩ-f-\-Øn¬ (1917) tIm¨{Kkv˛eoKv kJy-Øns‚ kq{X-[m-c-s\-∂- \n-e-bn¬ Pb-t`-cn-b-Sn® aplΩ-Z-en -Pn∂ hn`-P-\-Øns‚ h‡m-hmbn amdn-bXv Cu ]›m-Ø-e-Øn-em-Wv. ""Cu cmPyØv Hcp lnµp-`-cWw hcp-sa∂p \n߃ Icp-Xp-∂pt≠m? Ncn-{X-a-dnbp-∂-hcpw _p≤n-bp-≈-h-cp-amb lnµp- cm-jv{So-b-t\-Xm-°ƒ kzbw-`-cWw In´nbm¬ _me-‰p-s]-´n-bn-eqsS ChnsS Ah-cpsS \nbaw ASn-t®¬]n-°p-sa∂p \n߃ Icp-Xp-∂pt≠m? ]ns∂ F¥mWv t]Sn-°m-\p-≈-Xv? Fs‚ apkvenw ktlm-Z-c∑mtc \n߃ tIƒ°p-∂Xv Ip{]-Nm-c-am-Wv.'' kzbw-`-cWw ÿm]n-°m≥th≠n lnµp-°-tfmSv kl-I-cn-°p-∂Xv XS-bm-\p≈ D]-Pm]w am{X-am-W-sX-∂p-IqSn c≠m-bn-cØ - n-sbmºXv

\hw_¿ ]Xn-\mev


At±lw {]Jym-]n-®n-´p-≠v. auem\m BkmZv hni-Ie - \w sNøp-∂X - p-t]m-se, apkvenw eoKv Hcp _lpP-\- {]-ÿm-\-am-Ip-∂-Xn-\p≈ Dbn¿sØ-gp-t∂¬]v Bcw-`n-®Xv bp.-]n-bn¬\n-∂mWv. \nb-a-k`m sXc-s™-Sp-∏n¬ H∂n®p a’-cn® tIm¨{K€pw eoKpw H∂n®p `cn-°p-sa∂ hmKvZm\w ewLn-°-s∏-´-Xn¬\n-∂p-f-hmb kml-N-cy-Øns‚ B\pIqeyw Pn∂ icn°pw hn\n-tbm-Kn®v Hcp IS-∂m-{I-aWw B-cw-`n-°p-Ibpw AXp ]mIn-kvXm-\n¬ Ah-km-\n-°p-I-bp-am-Wp-≠m-bXv (C¥y hn≥kv {^oUw t]Pv 171). apl-Ω-Zen Pn∂ BZy-L-´-Øn¬ hn`-P-\-sa∂ ]Zw Xs∂ AwKo-I-cn-®n-cp∂n-s√-∂n-hnsS A\p-kva-cn-t°-≠-Xp-≠v. 1930˛¬ eoKns‚ emtlm¿ ktΩ-f-\Øn¬ C¥y-bpsS hS°v ]Sn-™mdv `mK-Ømbn Hcp apkvenw tÉv cq]o-I-cn-°W-sa∂ Bibw Ah-X-cn-∏n-®Xv alm-Ihn CJv_m-em-Wv. {_n´o-jn-¥y-bpsS \nb-{¥-WØ - n-ep≈ apkvenw {]hn-iy-If - psS s^U-td-j≥ am{X-amWv Xm≥ hn`mh\w sNøp-∂-sX∂v ]n∂oSv ]e-t∏mgpw alm-Ihn hni-Zo-I-cn-®n-´p-≠v. B \n¿tZi-sØ-t∏mepw, Hcp Ihn-bpsS k¶¬]-am-bmWv Pn∂ ]cn-lk - n-®n-cp-∂X - v. 1924˛¬ Aen-KVn¬ sNbvX {]kw-K-Øn¬ lnµp-apkvenw {]iv\-Øn\v ]cn-lm-c-ap-≠mIp-∂n-s√-¶n¬ cmPyw lnµp C¥ybpw apkvenw C¥y-bp-ambn hn`-Pn-t°-≠n-h-cpsa∂ Bi¶ auem\m apl-Ω-Z-en-bmWv {]I-Sn-∏n-®-Xv. Ac-hn-µ-tLm-jv, dmbv_l-Zq¿em¬Nµv XpS-ßnb Nne lnµp-t\-Xm-°ƒ lnµp-apkvenw kwbp‡ tZiob-X-bn¬ hnizm-k-an-s√∂v 1909˛¬ Xs∂ {]Jym-]n-®n-cp-∂p. 1925˛¬ emem-l¿Zbm¬ {]kn-≤o-I-cn® "tatc hnNm¿' F∂ eLp-te-J-bn¬ Hmtcm cmjv{Shpw ]ca-ambn Ahn-SsØ BNm-cß - s- fbpw tZiob `mj-sbbpw tZiob Ncn-{X-sØbpw B{i-bn®mIW-sa∂p Xp-ds- ∂-gp-Xp-Ib - p-≠m-bn. ""kzcmPv t\Sn-sb-Sp-°m≥ \ap°v apkvenw-I-fpsS klmbw th≠. Hcp kwbp-‡(-ln-µp-˛-ap-kvenw) `cWw \mw B{K-ln-°p-∂p-an-√'' ˛ At±lw hy‡-am-°n. 1937˛¬ \S∂ lnµp -a-lm-k-`m-ktΩ-f-\-Øn¬ hn.Un kh¿°¿, C¥y sFI-cq-]y-ap≈ cmPy-am-sW∂p ]d-bm≥ hsø-∂mWv {]Jym-]n-®-Xv. adn®v, C¥y-bn¬ c≠p cmjv{S-ß-fp-≠v ˛ lnµp-°fpw apkvenw-Ifpw. ]c-kv]cw i{Xp-Xb - p≈ Cu cmjv{S-߃ C¥y-bn¬ ASp-ØS- pØv Xma-kn-°p∂p F∂m-bn-cp∂p At±-l-Øns‚ \nK-a-\w. ]©m-_v, hS°v ]Sn-™m-d≥ AXn¿Øn {]hn-iy, kn‘v, _eq-Nn-kvXm≥ F∂o {]tZ-i-߃ {_n´ojv km{am-Py-Øn-\-IØv kzbw`c-Wm-h-Im-i-tØm-Sp-IqSnb Hcp tÉm-bn-Øo-c-W-sa-∂mWv bYm¿Y-Øn¬ alm-Ihn CJv_m¬ \n¿tZin-®n-cp-∂-Xv. apkvenw-Iƒ Hcp {]tXy-I-cmjv{Sw ÿm]n®v C¥y-bn¬\n∂v thdn´p-\n¬°-W-sa∂ Bi-b-hp-ambn X\n°v bmsXmcp _‘-hp-an-s√∂p CJv_m¬ Bh¿Øn®p hy‡-am-°n-bn-´p-≠v. ]mIn-kvXms‚ \nc¿Y-I-Xbpw B]Øpw CJv_m-en\p t_m[y-s∏-´n-cp∂p F∂pw ]mIn-kvXm≥ C¥y°v samØ-Ønepw apkvenw-Iƒ°v {]tXy-In®pw B]-Øm-bn-Øo-cp-sa∂v At±lw a\-€n-em-°n-bncp∂p F∂pw Ph-l¿em¬ s\lvdp tcJ-s∏-Sp-Øn-bn-´p-≠v (C-¥ysb Is≠-ج t]Pv 355). hS-°p-]-Sn-™m-d≥ apkvenw kwÿm-\-sa∂ Bi-b-hp-ambn C¥ysb ASp∏n-°m≥ CJv_m¬ IØp-I-fn-eqsS \nc-¥cw ]cn-{i-an-®n-cp-∂p. ]t£, hn`P\w GXp cq]-Øn¬ Bh-iy-s∏-´mepw AXv HØpXo¿∏n-\p≈ "F√m am¿K߃°pw {]Xn-_-‘-am-bn-Øo-cp-sa∂' Dd® \ne-]m-SmWv Pn∂ FSp-Ø-Xv. 1940 Bbn-cØn \m\q‰n ap∏Xv

Zp¬JAZv Ccp-]Ø - n-bmdv


au≠v _m‰≥

kh¿°¿

1930˛¬ eoKns‚ emtlm¿ ktΩ-f-\-Øn¬ C¥y-bpsS hS°v ]Sn-™mdv `mK-Ømbn Hcp apkvenw tÉv cq]o-Icn-°W - s - a∂ Bibw Ah-Xc - n-∏n-®Xv alm-Ihn CJv_mem-Wv. {_n´o-jn-¥y-bpsS \nb-{¥-WØ - n-ep≈ apkvenw {]hn-iy-If - psS s^U-td-j≥ am{X-amWv Xm≥ hn`m-h\w sNøp-∂s - X∂v ]n∂oSv ]e-t∏mgpw alm-Ihn hni-Zo-Ic - n®n-´p-≠v. B \n¿tZ-i-sØ-t∏mepw, Hcp Ihn-bpsS k¶¬]-am-bmWv Pn∂ ]cn-lk - n-®n-cp-∂X - v. hsc apkvenw-eoKv tI{µ-k-anXn hn`-P-\-sa∂ Bi-b-sØ-∏‰n Nn¥n-°p-Itbm N¿® sNøp-Itbm D≠m-bn-´n√. 1930˛¬ CJv_m¬ sNbvX {]kw-K-Øn-\p-tijw 1938hsc eoKns‚ GsX-¶nepw DØ-c-hm-Z-s∏´ IΩn-‰ntbm t\Xmthm apkvenw tÉv F∂ Bi-bsØ Hcn-SØpw Ah-X-cn-∏n-®n-´n-√. kn‘v {]hniym apkvenweoKv 1938˛¬ am{X-amWv BZy-ambn apkvenw tÉv Bh-iy-s∏-Sp∂ {]tabw AwKoI-cn-®X - v. apkvenw-eo-Kns‚ 1940se hnJym-Xa- mb emtlm¿ {]-ta-bØ - n-emWp {_n´ojn-¥ysb lnµp˛-apkvenw tÉp-I-fmbn hn`-Pn-°-W-sa∂ Bhiyw D∂-bn-®-Xv. ]t£ B {]ta-bhpw ]c-am-[n-Im-c-ap≈ c≠p cmjv{S-ß-fmbn C¥y ]¶p-sh-°s∏-Sp∂ ÿnXn -hn-`m-h\w sNbvXn-cp-∂n-s√-∂-XmWp kXyw. ""ASn-ÿm\ XØzßsf Bkv]-Z-am°n thW-sa-¶n¬ cmPy-c-£, hntZ-i-Im-cyw, hm¿Øm-hn-\n-abw, IÃwkv XpS-ßnb taJ-eI - f - nse A[n-Im-cß - ƒ AXXv {]tZ-iß - f - psS A¥na-amb AwKo-Im-c-Øn\p hnt[-b-ambn Hcp `cWL-S\m ]≤Xn cq]-s∏-Sp-Øm≥ h¿°nwKv IΩn-‰nsb A[n-Im-c-s∏-Sp-ØpI'' am{X-amWv 1940 am¿®v 23˛\v \S∂ ktΩ-f\w ]m€m-°nb {]tabw t]mepw sNbvX-Xv. "Bh-iy-am-sW-¶n¬' F∂ ]Zw A¿Y-K¿`-am-Wt- √m. c≠p kzX-{¥-cm-Py-ßf - mbn ]ncn-™p-t]m-Ip∂ ÿnXnhn-tijw AXnepw hn`m-h\w sNøm-\m-bn-´n-s√-∂m-WXv ]tcm-£a- m-sb-¶nepw kqNn∏n-°p-∂-Xv. emtlm¿ {]ta-b-Øntem AhnsS Pn∂ sNbvX {]kw-K-Øntem c≠m-bn-cØ - n-sbmºXv

\hw_¿ ]Xn-\mev


]mIn-kvXm≥ F∂ ]Zw Cs√-∂I - mcyw {i-t≤-ba- m-Wv. `qan-im-kv{X-]c- a- mb sFIyØns‚ t]cn¬ kap-Zmb ssa{Xnbpw \yq\-]-£-Øns‚ \ne-\n¬]pw Ah-K-Wn°-cp-sX∂v am{X-am-Wv Pn∂ Bh-iy-s∏-´-Xv. ]mIn-kvXm≥ hmZsØ hne-t]-im\p≈ Hcm-bp[w am{X-am-bmWv Pn∂ ]cn-K-Wn-®n-cp-∂-sX∂v C¥y-bnse Ata-cn°≥ ÿm\-]-Xn-bm-bn-cp∂ sad-ens‚ A`n-{]mbhpw {i-t≤-b-am-Wv (Foreign Relations of America -Merrel). {]iv\-]-cn-lm-c-Øn\v ]cnK-Wn-°m-hp∂ ]e ]≤Xn-Ifpw A°m-eØv ka¿∏n-°-s∏-´n-cp-∂p. hn.]n tat\m≥ XpS-ßnb DtZym-Kÿ-ta-[m-hn-I-fpsS ]≤Xn C¥y c≠p cmjv{S-ß-fmbn ]ncn-b-W-sa∂p \n¿tZ-in°p-∂X - m-bn-cp-∂p. kh¿W-¿°pw apkvenw-Iƒ°pw Xpey-{]m-Xn-\n-[y-tØmsS, a‰p \yq\-]-£-߃°p IqSn ]¶p≈ Zp¿_-e-amb tI{µ-`-cWw hn`m-h\w sNøp∂ auem\m Bkm-Zns‚ ]≤Xn ssht{kmbn thh¬ {]`p-hns‚ ]≤-Xn-tbmSv ASp∏-ap-≈X - m-bn-cp-∂p. cmPyw hn`-Pn-°msX `c-WØ - ns‚ ISn-™m¨ Pn∂sb G¬]n°-W-sa∂v \n¿tZ-in-°p∂ Km‘n-Pn-bpsS ]≤Xn au≠v _m‰-ns‚ sk{I-´dn Ck-ta-{]`p I≠ DS-s\-Øs∂ ]cn-K-W-\m¿l-a-s√∂v ]d™p X≈n-°-f-™p. AXp -]p-dØv ImWn-°m-\p≈ ss[cyw au≠v _m‰-\p-ap-≠m-bn-cp-∂n-√. C¥ysb ]e-Xmbn `mKn-°-W-sa∂ au≠v _m‰s‚ \n¿tZiw 1947 sabv 2˛\mWv ]pd-Øph-∂-Xv. \m´p-cm-Py-߃°pw kwÿm-\-߃°pw kzmX{¥yw \¬Ip∂ B ]≤Xnsb s\lvdp-hns‚ Poh-Nc- n-{X-Im-c≥ - AIv_¿ "_mƒ°≥ ]≤Xn' F∂v hntijn-∏n®n´p-≠v. sabv 10˛\v cm{Xn-`-£Ww Ign™v hn{i-an-°p-tºm-gmWv au≠v _m‰≥ ]≤Xn FUvhn\m au≠v_m-‰≥ s\lvdp-hns\ ImWn-®-Xv. InS-∏-dbn¬sh®v AXv hmbn-®-tXmsS s\lvdp Akz-ÿ-\m-bn. C¥ysb ]e-Xmbn hn`-Pn-°p-∂-Xn-t\-°mƒ sNdnb hn]-ØmWp c≠mbn hn`-Pn-°p-∂-sX∂ \nK-a\-Øn-emWv ]fin‰vPn a\-an-√m-a-\-t€msS FØn-t®¿∂-Xv. tIm¨{K-€n\pw apkvenw-eo-Kn\pw ]¶p-≠m-bn-cp∂ ssht{km-bn-bpsS FIvkn-Iyq-´ohv Iu¨kn¬ B c≠p I£n-Ifpw XΩn-ep≈ t]mcm´w aqew Hcp kvXw`-\m-h-ÿ-bn-se-Øn-bn-cp-∂p. [\-Im-cy-h-Ip∏v eoKns‚ ssI∏n-Sn-bn-embn-cp-∂p. `c-W-Øns‚ Xmt°m-emWv AXp-hgn Ah¿°v In´n-b-Xv. B`y-¥-c-hIp∏v hn´p-sIm-Sp-Øp-IqSm F∂ ]t´-ens‚ imTyw aqe-amWv [\-Imcyw eoKns\ G¬]n-®-Xv. B hIp-∏n¬ {]i-kvX-cmb ]e Db¿∂ DtZym-K-ÿ-∑mcpw apkvenwI-fm-bn-cp-∂p. Ah-cpsS klm-b-tØmsS FIvkn-Iyq-´ohv Iu¨kn-en¬ tIm¨{Kkv apt∂m-´p-sh-°p∂ GXp \n¿tZ-ihpw X≈p-Itbm Xma-kn-∏n-°pItbm sNøm≥ enbm-JØv Aen-Jm≥ Bhp-∂{X bXv\n-®p. enbm-JØv AenJms‚ kΩ-X-an-√msX Hcp N{]m-kn-bpsS XkvXn-I-t]mepw krjvSn-°m-\m-hns√∂p ]t´-en\v t_m[y-am-hp-Ibpw sNbvXn-cp-∂p. Cu Xn‡- bm-Ym¿Yy-am-hWw hn`-P\ - sØ AwKo-Ic- n-°m≥ k¿Zm¿ h√-`mbn ]t´-ens\ t{]cn-∏n-®X - v. k¿Zmdpw s\lvdphpw hn`-P-\sØ A\p-Iq-en-®XpsIm≠v Xs‚ Bim-tI{µw alm-flPn am{X-am-sb∂p auem\m BkmZv tcJ-s∏-Sp-Øn-bn-´p-≠v. tIm¨{Kkv hn`-P\ - sØ AwKo-Ic- n-°p-Ib - m-sW-¶n¬ Fs‚ ih-ic- o-csØ adn-IS- ∂p am{Xta AXp {]mtbmKn-I-amhq F∂ Dd® \ne-]m-Sn-em-bn-cp∂p alm-fl-Pn. Xm≥ Pohn-®n-cn-°p-t∂-StØmfw hn`-Pn-°m≥ A\p-h-Zn-°n-s√∂v At±lw hy‡-am-°p-Ibpw sNbvXp. Pn∂-tbmSv Kh¨sa‚ v cq]o-I-cn-°m\pw a{¥n-amsc sXc-s™-Sp-°m\pw BhBbn-cØn \m\q‰n ap∏Xv

Zp¬JAZv Ccp-]Ø - n-bmdv


iy-s∏-S-W-sa-∂m-bn-cp-∂p Km‘n-bpsS \n¿tZ-iw. tIm¨{Kkv Km‘n-Pn-bpsS \n¿tZiw AwKo-I-cn-°p-I-bm-sW-¶n¬ am{Xta hn`-P-\-sam-gn-hm-°m≥ Ign-bp-Ibp≈q F∂v au≠v _m‰≥ {]`p I£n t\Xm-°-sf-sb√mw Adn-bn-®n-cp-∂p. \n¿`m-Ky-Øn\v Km‘n-Pn-bpsS \n¿tZiw AwKo-I-cn-°m≥ tIm¨{Kkv t\Xm°ƒ Xbm-d-√m-bn-cp-∂p. k¿Zm¿ ]t´epw Ph-l¿em¬ s\-lvdphpw Pn∂sb {][m-\-a-{¥n-bm-°pI F∂ "{`m¥≥ \n¿tZiw' ]n≥h-en-°m≥ Km‘n-Pn-bpsS ta¬ kΩ¿Zw sNep-Øn. AtXmsS apkvenw C¥ym hn`-P-\-Øn\p kΩ¿Zw sNep-Øp-I-bm-sW-¶n¬ Hcp Alnw-km-hmZn F∂ \ne°v X\n-°-Xns\ FXn¿°m≥ hsø∂ \ne-]m-Sn-te°v Km‘nPn t_m[-]q¿hw HXp-ßp-I-bm-Wp≠m-b-Xv. ""]mIn-kvXms‚ Imcy-Øn¬ F\n°v am\-knI {]iv\-ß-sfm-∂p-an-√. F¥p kw`-hn-®mepw ]mIn-kvXm≥ lnµp-ÿm\p ]pd-Ø-√. ........-A-[n-Imcw apkvenw-Iƒ°v ssIamdn F∂p-sh®v F\n°v bmsXmcp hyk-\-hp-an-√'' F∂v kzbw Biz-kn-°m\pw alm-flPn {ian-®p. Nne-t∏mƒ ]cp-j-ambn FXn¿Øpw Nne-t∏mƒ A\p-`m-h-]q¿hw ]cm-a¿in®pw ]mIn-kvXm≥ DS-se-Sp-°p-∂-Xn-t\mSp {]Xn-I-cn® alm-flPn kXy-Øn¬ Hcp Pmay-°m-c-s\∂ \ne-bn¬ ]c-kv]cw hmtfmßn \n∂n-cp∂ c≠p kap-Zm-b-߃°n-S-bn-te°v Akz-ÿ-\pw \ncm-bp[\pw \ncm-ew-_-\pambn Cd-ßn-s®-√p-I-bm-Wp-≠m-b-Xv. "C¥ysb sh´n-ap-dn-°pwapºv Fs∂ sh´n-ap-dn-°pI' F∂ At±-l-Øns‚ Bflm¿Y-amb tcmZ\w tKmUvsk-bpsS shSn-bp-≠-Iƒ Poh≥ Ih¿s∂-S-°pwhsc \nc-¥cw Db¿∂p sIm≠n-cp-∂p.

c≠m-bn-cØ - n-sbmºXv

\hw_¿ ]Xn-\mev

india divuded p k muhamed kunhi  

]n.sI apl- ΩZv Ip™n Imgv N∏mSv Bbn- cØn \m\q‰n ap∏Xv Zp¬JAZv Ccp- ]- Øn- bmdv c≠m- bn- c- Øn- sbmºXv \hw_¿ ]Xn- \mev Bbn- cØn \m\q‰n ap∏Xv...