1ère Conference regionale Euro-méditerranéenne Architecture Traditionnelle Méditerranéenne (part 2)

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1ère Conference regionale Euro-méditerranéenne Architecture Traditionnelle Méditerranéenne Present et Futur Barcelone, du 12 au 15 juillet 2007

1ª Conferencia regional Euromediterránea Arquitectura Tradicional Mediterránea. Presente y Futuro Barcelona, del 12 al 15 de Julio de 2007

1st Euro-Mediterranean Regional Conference Traditional Mediterranean Architecture Present and Future Barcelona, 12-15 July 2007

LE PRÉSENT PROGRAMME EST FINANCÉ PAR L’UNION EUROPÉENNE

EUROMED

EUROMED HERITAGE

AGENCIA ESPAÑOLA DE COOPERACIÓN INTERNACIONAL

COLLEGI D’APARELLADORS I ARQUITECTES TÈCNICS DE BARCELONA


Consortium RehabiMed :

Consorcio RehabiMed:

Consortium RehabiMed:

Responsable du projet : Xavier CASANOVAS

Responsable del proyecto: Xavier CASANOVAS

Project Manager: Xavier CASANOVAS

Membres : Ministry of Communications and Works Department of Antiquities of Cyprus Responsable : Evi FIOURI

Miembros: Ministry of Communications and Works Department of Antiquities of Cyprus Responsable: Evi FIOURI

Members: Ministry of Communications and Works Department of Antiquities of Cyprus Person in charge: Evi FIOURI

Bureau Culturel de l’Ambassade de la République Arabe d’Egypte en France Supreme Council of Antiquities, Egypte Responsables : Mahmoud ISMAÏL et Wahid Mohamed EL-BARBARY

Bureau Culturel de l’Ambassade de la République Arabe d’Egypte en France Supreme Council of Antiquities, Egypte Responsables: Mahmoud ISMAÏL et Wahid Mohamed EL-BARBARY

Bureau Culturel de l’Ambassade de la République Arabe d’Egypte en France Supreme Council of Antiquities, Egypte Persons in charge: Mahmoud ISMAÏL et Wahid Mohamed EL-BARBARY

Col·legi d’Aparelladors i Arquitectes Tècnics de Barcelona, Espagne Responsable : Xavier CASANOVAS

Col·legi d’Aparelladors i Arquitectes Tècnics de Barcelona, Espagne Responsable: Xavier CASANOVAS

Col·legi d’Aparelladors i Arquitectes Tècnics de Barcelona, Espagne Person in charge: Xavier CASANOVAS

Ecole d’Avignon, France Responsable :

Ecole d’Avignon, France Responsable: Patrice MOROT-SIR

Ecole d’Avignon, France Person in charge: Patrice MOROT-SIR

Centre Méditerranéen de l’Environnement Marrakech, Maroc Responsable : Moulay Abdeslam SAMRAKANDI

Centre Méditerranéen de l’Environnement Marrakech, Maroc Responsable: Moulay Abdeslam SAMRAKANDI

Centre Méditerranéen de l’Environnement Marrakech, Maroc Person in charge: Moulay Abdeslam SAMRAKANDI

Institut National du Patrimoine, Tunisie Responsable : Mourad RAMMAH

Institut National du Patrimoine, Tunisie Responsable: Mourad RAMMAH

Institut National du Patrimoine, Tunisie Person in charge: Mourad RAMMAH

COMITÉ SCIENTIFIQUE CONFERENCE

COMITÉ CIENTÍFICO DE LA CONFERENCIA

SCIENTIFIC COMMITTEE

Xavier Casanovas (Espagne): Président Gilles Nourissier (France): Secrétaire

Xavier Casanovas (España): Presidente Gilles Nourissier (Francia): Secretario

Xavier Casanovas (Spain): President Gilles Nourissier (France): Secretary

Dinu Bumbaru (Canada): Secrétaire Général ICOMOS Brigitte Colin (France): UNESCO Josep Giralt (Espagne): Institut Europeu de la Mediterrània (IEMed) Paul Oliver (Royaume Uni): Oxford Brookes University

Dinu Bumbaru (Canadá): Secretario General de ICOMOS Brigitte Colin (Francia): UNESCO Josep Giralt (España): Institut Europeu de la Mediterrània (IEMed) Paul Oliver (Reino Unido): Oxford Brookes University

Dinu Bumbaru (Canada): General Secretary of ICOMOS Brigitte Colin (France): UNESCO Josep Giralt (Spain): Institut Europeu de la Mediterrània (IEMed) Paul Oliver (United Kingdom): Oxford Brookes University

Nur Akin (Turquie): Istanbul Technical University Ziad Al-Saad (Jordanie) : Faculty of Archaeology and Anthropology Khaldun Bshara (Palestine): Riwaq-Centre for Architectural Conservation Michael Cohen (Israël): Israel Antiquities Authority Oriol Cusidó (Espagne): Col·legi d’Aparelladors i Arquitectes Tècnics de Barcelona Faisal Cherradi (Maroc): Centre Méditerranéen de l’Environnement Marrakech Evi Fiouri (Chypre): Department of Antiquities of Cyprus. Giovanni Furio (Italie): Associazione Culturalle “Città, Territorio-Ambiente” Ramon Graus (Espagne): Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya Mahmoud Ismail (Egypte): Centre Culturel d’Égypte à Paris Nikolaus Kalogirou (Grèce): University of Thessaloniki Yasmine Makaroun Bou-Assaf (Liban): Université Libanaise Mourad Rammah (Tunisie): Institut National du Patrimoine Dahmani Younsi-Nawel (Algérie) : Direction Patrimoine Culturel

Nur Akin (Turquía): Istanbul Technical University Ziad Al-Saad (Jordania) : Faculty of Archaeology and Anthropology Khaldun Bshara (Palestina): Riwaq-Centre for Architectural Conservation Michael Cohen (Israel): Israel Antiquities Authority Oriol Cusidó (España): Col·legi d’Aparelladors i Arquitectes Tècnics de Barcelona Faisal Cherradi (Marruecos): Centre Méditerranéen de l’Environnement Marrakech Evi Fiouri (Chipre): Department of Antiquities of Cyprus. Giovanni Furio (Italia): Associazione Culturalle “Città, Territorio-Ambiente” Ramon Graus (España): Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya Mahmoud Ismail (Egipto): Centre Culturel d’Egypte à Paris Nikolaus Kalogirou (Grecia): University of Thessaloniki Yasmine Makaroun Bou-Assaf (Líbano): Université Libanaise Mourad Rammah (Túnez): Institut National du Patrimoine Dahmani Younsi-Nawel (Argelia) : Direction Patrimoine Culturel

Nur Akin (Turkey): Istanbul Technical University Ziad Al-Saad (Jordan) : Faculty of Archaeology and Anthropology Khaldun Bshara (Palestine): Riwaq-Centre for Architectural Conservation Michael Cohen (Israel): Israel Antiquities Authority Oriol Cusidó (Spain): Col·legi d’Aparelladors i Arquitectes Tècnics de Barcelona Faisal Cherradi (Morocco): Centre Méditerranéen de l’Environnement Marrakech Evi Fiouri (Cyprus): Department of Antiquities of Cyprus. Giovanni Furio (Italia): Associazione Culturalle “Città, Territorio-Ambiente” Ramon Graus (Spain): Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya Mahmoud Ismail (Egypt): Centre Culturel d’Egypte à Paris Nikolaus Kalogirou (Greece): University of Thessaloniki Yasmine Makaroun Bou-Assaf (Lebanon): Université Libanaise Mourad Rammah (Tunisia): Institut National du Patrimoine Dahmani Younsi-Nawel (Algeria) : Direction Patrimoine Culturel

Conception graphique : LM,DG : Lluís MESTRES Site web : www.rehabimed.net © 2007 Col·legi d’Aparelladors i Arquitectes Tècnics de Barcelona pour le consortium Rehabimed. Bon Pastor, 5 – 08021 Barcelona, Espagne rehabimed@apabcn.cat ISBN: 84-87104-79-7 DL : RehabiMed incite à la reproduction de cet ouvrage ainsi qu’à la diffusion de son contenu, en citant sa source. Le projet a été financé par le programme Euromed Heritage de l’Union européenne et l’Agencia Española de Cooperación Internacional (AECI). Les opinions exposées dans le présent document ne reflètent pas nécessairement la position de l’Union européenne ni celle de ses États membres.

Diseño gráfico: LM,DG : Lluís MESTRES WEB: www.rehabimed.net © 2007 Col·legi d’Aparelladors i Arquitectes Tècnics de Barcelona para el consorcio RehabiMed. Bon Pastor, 5 – 08021 Barcelona, España rehabimed@apabcn.cat ISBN: 84-87104-79-7 DL : RehabiMed incita la reproducción de esta obra y a la difusión de su contenido, siempre que se cite la fuente. El proyecto ha sido financiado por el programa Euromed Heritage de la Unión Europea y por la Agencia Española de Cooperación Internacional (AECI). Las opiniones expuestas en este documento no reflejan necesariamente la posición de la Unión Europea ni la de sus Estados miembros.

Graphic design: LM,DG : Lluís MESTRES Website: www.rehabimed.net © 2007 Col·legi d’Aparelladors i Arquitectes Tècnics de Barcelona pour le consortium Rehabimed. Bon Pastor, 5 – 08021 Barcelona, Spain rehabimed@apabcn.cat ISBN: 84-87104-79-7 DL: RehabiMed wish to encourage the reproduction of this work and the diffusion of its contents, with due mention of its source. This project is financed by the Euromed Heritage programme of the European Union and by the Agencia Española de Cooperación Internacional (AECI). The opinions expressed in this document do not necessarily reflect the position of the European Union or its member states.


Le projet de réhabilitation : réflexion sur les critères El proyecto de rehabilitación: reflexiones sobre criterios The rehabilitation project: reflections on criteria



Le projet de réhabilitation : réflexion sur les critères El proyecto de rehabilitación: reflexiones sobre criterios The rehabilitation project: reflections on criteria

From Architecture without Architects until Today

Youssef El Khoury Lebanese architect, specialized in renovation and restoration of historic monuments, graduated 2001 form the Lebanese University (UL, Beaux Arts). Currently preparing a thesis in the Technische Universität Berlin with the working title: ‘Tradition Revisited, Additions and Interventions by Architects in Vernacular and Traditional Architecture in Mount-Lebanon from the 1920s until Today’. Address: Kollwitzstraße 92 10435 Berlin, Germany E-mail address: Khoury@baugeschichte.a.tu-berlin.de Telephone: 0049 176 24802131

Vernacular architecture is the outcome of a tradition that has evolved over generations fulfilling specific needs and expressing the aspirations of its users; it is shaped by environmental, social, economic and historic factors. (Rudofsky 1965) In this paper I seek to cast an overview on the influences affecting the domestic vernacular architecture in Mount Lebanon from the 1850s, and the additions of architects on these houses from the 1920s. These houses tell us about the history of Lebanon and problems in the Lebanese legislation of architecture and of built heritage, not to mention the social and identity crisis that the country is undergoing. One of the main features of vernacular architecture is that it does not fully comply with the established typologies1. It is an ‘additive’ and ‘evolutionary’ architecture regulated by many factors, like the economic situation of the inhabitants, the growth of the family, the unplanned need of a new function...etc. Today, the rehabilitation process does not only result from the need for additional space nor to maintain and renew, but it is the outcome of a certain reverence to the past. Following this perpetual ‘evolution’- which reflects a society in constant change - and due to the superposition of many factors occurring between the 1850s and 1900s, the ‘central hall house’ appeared in the main cities of the region spreading to the mountains surrounding it. Khater2 states that the spread of the central hall house in the villages is mainly caused by the return of migrants who formed a new middle class using this new type as a representation of their new status, in contrast with the hovels and poor houses still utilised by their relatives. A transition is witnessed from one multipurpose space house where all the everyday life activities happened, to various rooms that are connected by the ‘central hall’ adorned by the infamous three arches. Many of the hovels are upgraded, not only by being extended, but by receiving some of the new elements in fashion. In a very short period the flat earth roofs of the villages of Mount Lebanon are

replaced by imported red tiles on pitched roofs. From almost empty and minimal single space, to a house full of European style furniture and modern utensils, the house in the rural space parallels the village’s transformation. The village which was an almost independent selfsufficient agglomeration where the life revolved - and was centered - about: land, kinship, and religion (Gulick 1955) was, in a few decades transformed into a suburb. It now revolved around the Western world, especially after the centralization of the state and the independence of 1943. In 1920, other regions are annexed to Mount-Lebanon forming the new state of Lebanon under the French mandate. Though the ‘central hall’ type will be used until the 1950s, new materials of construction are introduced (especially concrete as of the 1930s) and new influences (colonialism and modernism) are beginning to be visible. Naturally, the extensions on the vernacular are built using this new vocabulary. With the spread of the use of concrete, came the decrease in the number of craftsmen that transmitted their know-how for generations. Many flat compacted earth roofs were replaced with reinforced concrete to reduce maintenance; stone lintels are replaced by concrete lintels which are more efficient in tension. And many houses received larger concrete terraces and balconies; concrete was not used solely for its physical characteristics but slowly began replacing old construction techniques. As of the end of the 1950s, partially as a policy of the state to reduce rural exodus, infrastructure was introduced to rural areas which caused an uncontrolled urbanization of the rural space3. With the expansion of the rural space and the construction changes, the tradition of vernacular architecture has ceased to live, becoming a mere trace of the past in different forms: from ruins to still used houses but changed and mutated to adapt to today. In the 19th century, no official building code was applicable in the rural space4 and the heritage laws established by the Ottoman Empire5, were restricted to antique archeological sites, without considering what is today regarded as traditional vernacular architecture. Even during the French mandate period, heritage was limited to the archeological remains and monuments for political reasons. In Lebanon, traditional architecture was always used in ideological construction (Davie 2003). Since 2000, Lebanon has had a pending law project that was prepared by the ministry of culture. This law aims to preserve Ensembles of Traditional architecture, reflecting official interest in the issue. However the actual law governing the protection of historic monuments and “antiquities”6 defines “antiquity” as “...all products of human activity regardless of the civilization they belong to, dating before 1700”. Leaving a large majority of the built vernacular heritage subject to the normal building code; reduced to an area that is usually increased with new additions to reach the allowed exploitation surface. Consequently hundreds of vernacular houses are buried under concrete additions, and others are abandoned because of migration. To attenuate the impact of uncontrolled urban growth of the villages, additional decrees on the building codes and the zoning laws of the Directorate General of Urbanism (DGU), predict some measures like imposing the use of red tiles on roofs and the 60% stone cladding of the façade, without reaching a solution. They reveal however a superficial approach. Architects contribute to this by using elements of traditional architecture in incoherent ways (pastiche of tradition). Under no protection or conservation laws is there a clear policy by the state to manage the architectural heritage in the rural space, with the

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Le projet de rĂŠhabilitation : rÊexion sur les critères El proyecto de rehabilitaciĂłn: reexiones sobre criterios The rehabilitation project: reections on criteria

exception of questionable zoning projects by the DGU commissioned by some municipalities or the personal eort by individuals to charge architects to renovate and add, according to speciďŹ c needs (usually a matter of a prestigious elitist representation). Also is the view point of inhabitants who underestimate the value of their ‘poor’ homes, making cost-eďŹƒcient interventions for certain needs. Although one can consider this the same process of spontaneity that shaped vernacular architecture, there is, however, an incoherence and irreversibility with most of the additions happening today, transforming the villages into slum-like regions. Hence, emerges the necessity of rethinking the process of how to add on a house in a village. In my current research, a survey of dierent villages in Mount-Lebanon establishes a general overview of the additions made to the traditional houses. Simultaneously, selected representative cases of additions by architects are documented in a detailed database. Although they do not evenly represent the general situation (observed in the survey) they can be considered as projects that try to ďŹ nd dierent solutions to similar problems, or they could have provoked dierent problems in similar cases. So far two sets of types have been established: Physical additions, and thematic additions. The ďŹ rst set deďŹ nes the additions and renovations in a quantitative and functional way. The second set facilitates the comprehension of the additions critically, framing them chronologically; showing the prevailing tendencies in each period:

Far more in number are the cases where the postmodern architect chooses a historicist approach; what Tabet (1998) calls “the mask of traditionâ€?, he continues to say that “we are willingly choosing isolated elements of a rich heritage to form a faked heritageâ€? on the ruins of a real but unwanted one: A “projected traditionâ€? that conďŹ rms the loss of the authentic one (Arbid 2005). Finally, the majority of the interventions: extensions to existing traditional buildings should be labeled “Modern Vernacularâ€?7, with faster rates and dierent means than those of the traditional ones. Therefore the additions on vernacular architecture today prove that this tradition is technologically dead but conceptually alive, because of social and economic reasons. Vernacular architecture is jeopardized by two extremes, the ďŹ rst is abandonment and ruin, the second is the freezing and transformation of the structure into a product of the heritage industry. An appropriate policy must be found to preserve it as a living heritage, conciliating between its social and cultural content and the global economy of today. In Lebanon, this is a very fragile balance to manage for “urban planning [in Lebanon] still lacks transparency, inclusiveness, and accountabilityâ€? (KĂśgler 2005) and where heritage is a tool of national identity construction or social status representation.

Physical additions of: t t t t t t t

1BSUJUJPOT )PSJ[POUBM FYUFOTJPO 7FSUJDBM FYUFOTJPO #BMDPOJFT BOE PUIFS QSPKFDUJPOT

/FX PQFOJOHT *OTUBMMBUJPOT LJUDIFO UPJMFU FMFDUSJDJUZ BOE UFMFQIPOF IFBUJOH

4VCUSBDUJPOT BOE SFQMBDFNFOUT

Thematic additions: t 7FSOBDVMBS UP TBUJTGZ B OFFE PG FYUFOTJPO XJUI USBEJUJPOBM PS NPEFSO materials) t CZ CVJMEFST UP mU UP B DFSUBJO GBTIJPO

t CZ BSDIJUFDUT VTJOH OFX UFDIOPMPHJFT GVODUJPOBM

t PG TUBUFNFOU "SDIJUFDUT .PEFSOJTN )JTUPSJDJTN 1PTU NPEFSOJTN Minimalism, Traditionalism...) Selected cases from 1920 until today will be analyzed as monographs. The intention is to study the metamorphosis of these houses through time, showing how each addition reects an architectural, technical, social, economical and legal development. When archived information is insuďŹƒcient – which is the case – the building archeology of the house will provide the missing pieces of the story; confronted with the documented history, the outcome should show and analyze the reasons and meanings of the additions and their evolution. So far, one can say that only a few cases attempt to understand the existing building and add on it in a way that establishes a dialogue between the old and the new, from the technical, material, conceptual and architectural point of view. Conclusively, vernacular architecture can provide rich material to think or rethink modernity.

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1

See Corpus Levant 2004 for the recent list of houses’ typologies.

2

A. KHATER, Inventing Home, London 2001.

3

H. SRAKIS, Circa 1958, Beirut 2003.

4

As opposite to cities like Beirut where the Ottoman reforms were applied.

5

First promulgated in the provinces as of the 1870s.

6

Law decree no. 166/L.R. 7th of November 1933.

7

A term used by Assi and Chakkar, “Peripheral Conditions: Rowaysset, a Modern Vernacular.� 2005, in http://worldcityviews.org/beirut/main.html


Le projet de réhabilitation : réflexion sur les critères El proyecto de rehabilitación: reflexiones sobre criterios The rehabilitation project: reflections on criteria

Simple rural house’ in Ain Ikrin, with the addition of a ‘gallery’. Six visible phases. Until the replacement of the earth roof with a concrete one and the obstruction of the gallery with concrete. (Photo by author, 2006)

Returning migrants, replacing their ‘Liwan’ (below) with a ‘central hall house’ (above). Gaube collection 1971

A house in Hardin, prepared to receive a possible never executed addition, and become a ‘central hall house’. Notice the protruding stones on the corners. (Photo by author, 2007)

Addition on a ‘simple rural house’ in Hasroun. (Photo by author, 2005)

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Le projet de réhabilitation : réflexion sur les critères El proyecto de rehabilitación: reflexiones sobre criterios The rehabilitation project: reflections on criteria

La conservación de la arquitectura tradicional a través de sistemas modernos: los “Sassi” de Matera

Antonella Guida1, Fabio Fatiguso2 & Antonello Pagliuca3 1 Architect, Associate Professor in Building Construction at

University of Basilicata; recent scientific interest: recovery of buildings with particular focus on topics regarding energy self-sufficiency, sustainable upgrading and the science of “industrial archaeology”. 2 Engineer, Assistant Professor in Building Construction at Politecnico of Bari; recent scientific interest: building refurbishment and conservation of traditional heritage, building maintenance and technologies. 3 Engineer, phD student in Building Engineering at Politecnico of Bari. Dirección postal: 1 University of Basilicata - Faculty of Engineering - Viale dell’Ateneo

Lucano, 10, C.da Macchia Romana, 85100, Potenza DAU – Department of Architecture and Town Planning - Via Orabona, 4 70125 Bari 2-3 Politecnico di Bari -

Dirección de correo electrónico: antonella.guida@unibas.it f.fatiguso@poliba.it Teléfono: 1 tel. +39/0971/205174, fax +39/0971/205185 2-3 tel. +39/080/5963789 – 5963347, fax +39/080/5963348

1. Introducción Con la crisis del modelo de desarrollo urbano de tipo horizontalextensivo y con la problemática relacionada con la explotación de los recursos energéticos, la rehabilitación inmobiliaria asume la función de guía en el sector de la construcción: es la ciudad histórica y tradicional la que llama la atención de la mayor parte de la gente con sus peculiaridades tipológicas, morfológicas, espaciales y distributivas. Así pues, cambia profundamente la manera de enfocar la rehabilitación del patrimonio arquitectónico tradicional, que pasa de ser una responsabilidad para la colectividad, a ser el recurso principal para un desarrollo compatible y equilibrado del territorio: en esta óptica, la rehabilitación se hace “acto de cultura” (con fundamento históricocrítico y científico-técnico), entendido en su sentido más amplio, es decir, de “rehabilitación integrada”, abierta además de, a los motivos de la accesibilidad y de la reutilización, a las exigencias materiales y tecnológicas, a los componentes urbanísticos y territoriales, también a los ecológicos y ambientales.

2. Métodos para la reutilización (o la continuación de uso) de la arquitectura tradicional. Parece evidente, como evidencian diversos estudios, una dificultad

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general de conseguir en la arquitectura tradicional (sobretodo en zona mediterránea) cualidades ambientales a través de métodos que ponen limitaciones y vínculos. Tales métodos, a menudo unidos a modelos normativos de traducción de las viviendas a parámetros y estándares de tipo objetivo, impiden la intervención, sea de simple mantenimiento o de rehabilitación; o bien producen el resultado no correlato de manera lógica con los caracteres constructivos, tipológicos, funcionales y tecnológicos de las construcciones. Una rehabilitación “adecuada” del patrimonio arquitectónica tradicional, en la que las instancias de reutilización (o de la continuación de uso) contemporánea de los edificios, con cualidades comparables a las de nuevas construcciones, sean incorporadas (y no sobrepuestas) con las de la conservación y no cancelación de la “acumulación histórica” (entendida como totalidad de valores adquiridos en el tiempo de la construcción), parecen necesitar de un método “global”, es decir, de un actitud adoptada con respecto del objeto de definición prioritaria de las prestaciones y condiciones y, siguiente individuación de las acciones a emprender, acciones que pueden también variar según las exigencias y por lo tanto no son susceptibles a ser generalizadas. Así pues, el método puede resumirse en una primera fase de individuación de las elecciones técnicas y tecnológicas consiguientes a las prestaciones exigidas al edificio y del conjunto de vínculos que la arquitectura pone a las posibilidades de ser transformada sin todavía perder sus señas peculiares, y en una segunda fase de definición de criterios y modalidades de intervención adecuadas a través de una comparación de congruencia entre elecciones localizadas y edificio. Realizar una intervención a través de modalidades de acción que derivan de un acercamiento metodológico “global” permite determinar unas “equlibradas” atribuciones de valor (es decir, sopesar los diversos valores en juego -histórico, de uso, económico, técnico, etc.- a veces con finalidades contrastantes entre ellos) y luego, de obtener una calidad de la rehabilitación que se resume en un nivel elevado de control del proceso y de profundo respeto por los caracteres originales. Las consideraciones desarrolladas asumen particular importancia en el caso de las problemáticas conectadas a la adecuación funcional del patrimonio inmobiliario: algunas tipologías de intervención han llevado a la introducción forzada de nuevos elementos y funciones que han transformado y, en algunos casos, completamente anulado los valores arquitectónico-morfológicos y tipológico-funcionales originales generando una verdadera alteración formal y filológica del bien. A ello, se añade, que una malentendida aspiración al progreso y a la modernidad, ha introducido el uso “cotidiano” de materiales y técnicas extrañas a la cultura tradicional, que están transformando y, a menudo, de manera inevitable, destruyendo “en silencio” la imagen (y la estructura, en el sentido de sistema de relaciones entre los elementos que constituyen el objeto) de muchas arquitecturas tradicionales.

3. El caso de la rehabilitación de las viviendas de los Sassi de Matera. Matera, ciudad histórica, ella misma, monumento tanto por su aspecto topográfico, como por su aspecto paisajístico, tanto por el carácter de sus calles como por la agregación de sus edificios, ofrece hoy un espectáculo del todo imprevisible para el visitante. Una ciudad plantada en una roca natural hirsuta y escarpada, históricamente circundada por llanuras fértiles y núcleos de casas que se ramifican modelando las antiguas barriadas Sassi. Aquí existe un enorme patrimonio inmobiliario


Le projet de réhabilitation : réflexion sur les critères El proyecto de rehabilitación: reflexiones sobre criterios The rehabilitation project: reflections on criteria

y arquitectónico abandonado desde hace cincuenta años, objeto de un lento, en algunos aspectos, y muy (quizá demasiado) rápido en otros, proceso de rehabilitación. Un tejido edilicio menudo, recogido alrededor de los recintos y a lo largo de las terrazas, los callejones, los escalones y las calles, y la dimensión cuantitativa de la operación de rehabilitación, proponen fuertemente los problemas metodológicos de la intervención, los cuales estudios e investigaciones, llevados a cabo en tiempos más o menos recientes [1] [2] [3] han afrontado sólo en parte, sobretodo en lo que se refiere a los aspectos históricos, de análisis crítico y estático. En esta sede se enfoca la atención sobre lo que parece la principal dificultad de la rehabilitación de los Sassi de Matera: la integración de las exigencias concernientes a las prestaciones ambientales exigidas por los “nuevos” usos (incluyendo tanto las nuevas destinaciones como la modernización de las originales) con las necesidades de conservación arquitectónica en búsqueda de un equilibrio “aceptable”, bajo el perfil técnico y cultural, entre materiales/técnicas y elementos/tecnologías modernas. La búsqueda de ese equilibrio, expresión directa del acercamiento global antes esbozado al principio de un estudio exhaustivo de los caracteres específicos del contexto de intervención, puede conducir a prever la atribución de funciones avanzadas (más bien que de actividades “tradicionales”) que particulares arquitecturas tradicionales, como en el caso de los Sassi de Matera, parecen acoger mejor. Este es el caso de las intervenciones de rehabilitación ejecutadas en dos sectores urbanos articulados y reconvertidos en estructuras con capacidad hotelera, la “Locanda di S. Martino” y el “Hotel Sant’ Angelo”. En el caso de la “Locanda di S. Martino” la intervención de rehabilitación consintió una adecuación funcional y tecnológica, que permitió a los antiguos ambientes garantizar notables prestaciones y un adecuado “confort indoor”. El complejo arquitectónico está constituido, principalmente, por inmuebles de tipología a “lamione” (ambiente escavado enteramente y/o construido con cobertura en bóveda de cañón) con una solo vista hacía el frente principal, homogéneos desde el punto de vista constructivo y tecnológico, dispuestos, en serie, adosados a lo largo de terrazas sobrepuestas abancalan la ladera rocosa, al fondo del valle del Sasso Barisano. La organización tipológica y morfológica de la zona se presta particularmente a la transformación en agregaciones de unidades independientes, pero relacionadas orgánicamente entre ellas, a través de la presencia natural de los enlaces urbanos existentes. Así, la intervención, define habitaciones y suites hosteleras, que es más fácil que las residencias (destinación originaria de las construcciones) se adaptan a la especial articulación y complejidad de los espacios existentes. El objetivo de conservar fielmente los ambientes originales, se obtienen integrando nuevas funciones más flexibles (fig.1-2). La simplificación permitida desde el nuevo uso enviste, más allá que los aspectos tipológicos y más específicamente distributivos y funcionales, también las soluciones de equipamiento tecnológico, reconducidas a la sumatoria de simples elementos individuales con conexiones a nivel urbano. Eso permitió el empleo, esencialmente, de técnicas tradicionales para la rehabilitación estructural, el saneamiento higiénico y la eliminación del deterioro, limitando al mínimo la introducción de nuevos componentes (fig.3). El mismo rigor metodológico en las intervenciones, acentuado desde problemáticas aparentemente diferentes, tuvieron en la intervención de rehabilitación y reconversión de otra zona, ubicada en el Sasso

Caveoso, para la realización del “Hotel S.Angelo” Los dos ejemplos de intervención “controlado” formal, morfológico y tecnológico, que permitió la transformación de residencias en estructuras receptivas por estas zonas urbanas, demuestran y validan las consideraciones propuestas: es posible adecuar la arquitectura tradicional a las prestaciones de calidad contemporáneas sin todavía comprometer las connotadas características, consintiendo un conservación “integrada” del bien, y tal posibilidad parece, a menudo, más fácilmente alcanzable en el ámbito de “aparentes” transformaciones funcionales.

4. Consideraciones conclusivas. La rehabilitación de la calidad habitativa de los ambientes del patrimonio arquitectónico tradicional puede realizarse con la menor privación de las señas propias, incorporando tradición e innovación y teniendo siempre en cuenta los aspectos arquitectónicos, tipológicos y morfológicos originales a fin de perfeccionar las calidades de las prestaciones y mantener intactos los equilibrios reforzados en el transcurso del tiempo. Recorriendo la investigación histórica, de los componentes tipológicos y tecnológicos y además, de las problemáticas relacionadas con la adecuación funcional, se debe luego especificar acercamientos metodológicos y reglas que son más que rígidos procesos prescriptivos. El objetivo de la intervención sobre la arquitectura tradicional tiene que ser el de garantizar una continuidad lingüística de las construcciones entre el pasado y el futuro, y en el humilde respeto de los patrimonios edilicios y ambientales hacia a los que dirigir las sinergias de los esfuerzos de los diferentes actores implicados.

BIBLIOGRAFÍA [1] RESTUCCI A., Matera: i Sassi. Manuale del recupero , Electa, (1998) [2] GIUFFRÈ A. – CAROCCI C., Codice di pratica per la sicurezza e la conservazione dei Sassi di Matera, Ed. La Bautta, (1997) [3] ROCCHI P., I SASSI DI MATERA : tra restauro conservativo e consolidamento, Venezia : Marsilio, 1988 [4] F. FATIGUSO, A. GUIDA (2002), Tradizione ed innovazione per il recupero edilizio e ambientale dei Sassi di Matera, – in Atti del I° Congresso Internazionale H & mH Hazards & modern Heritage, “ Vulnerabilità e Rischi del Patrimonio Architettonico del XX secolo e Misure di prevenzione”, Vol. I, pp. 441-449, Rodi (Grecia), aprile 2002 [5] F. FATIGUSO, A. GUIDA, I. MECCA (2003), Setting of the restoration project for durability, in Brebbia, C.A. (Eds.), Structural Studies, Repairs and Maintenance of Heritage Architecutre VII, Wessex Institute of Technology WIT Press, Southampton (UK) [6] F. FATIGUSO, A. GUIDA, I. MECCA, (2004), “The architectonic-environmental requalification of the historical centre: recovery and resignification of “Sassi of Matera.” in Proceedings of The Third Annual Conference “Science and Technology in Archaeology and Conservation” - Queen Rania Institute of Tourism and Heritage QIRTH - The Hashemite University - December 7-11, 2004 – Jordan

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La “Locanda di S.Martino” antes y después de los trabajos de reutilización

Un originario vivienda transformada en habitación de albergue

“Locanda di S.Martino”: esquema funcional de los niveles 0 y 4 antes y después de la reutilización

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Los elementos del patrimonio cultural: su permanente vigencia

Albert PlĂ i Gisbert Arquitecto. t 6/*&." .JFNCSP EF MB +VOUB %JSFDUJWB EF 6/*&." i6OJWFSTJUĂ? EuropĂŠenne des MĂŠtiers et Artsâ€?. t *$0.04 .JFNCSP EFM $POTFKP *OUFSOBDJPOBM EF .POVNFOUPT t '6/%"$*0 .*30 .JFNCSP EFTEF TV GVOEBDJĂ˜O t .64&6 % )*45ž3*" 4BOU 'FMJV EF (VĂ“YPMT (JSPOB .JFNCSP EF MB Junta Tècnica del Museu. t "(361"$*0 % "326*5&$5&4 1&3 -" %&'&/4" * */5&37&/$*0 "- 1"53*.0/* "326*5&$5ž/*$ t 3&410/4"#-& %& -" '03."$*0 0#&35" " 5&3$&3 $*$-& " L’ESCOLA ELISAVA (BCN) Institucion donde colabora: FUNDACIO ESCOLA ELISAVA. ARQUITECTURA TECNICA. CENTRO ADSCRITO A LA UNIVERSIDAD POMPEU FABRA. Domicilio profesional : Albert PlĂ , Arquitecte i Companyia Roger de LlĂşria 119 – 121 ĂĄtico-1a 08037 BARCELONA DirecciĂłn de correo electrĂłnico: albertpla@arquired.es TelĂŠfono: + 0034 932 151 281 Fax: + 0034 932 151 141

La permanente vigencia de los diversos elementos pertenecientes al patrimonio cultural sean ediďŹ cios o no, hace que sean testigos en nuestro territorio de la cultura mediterrĂĄnea. Esta permanencia, se basa en la propia conservaciĂłn del patrimonio cultural, sea por el uso de los habitantes del territorio o por actuaciones puntuales de restauraciĂłn, actualizando su funciĂłn, o bien, adaptĂĄndola a las nuevas necesidades del entorno. La correcta actuaciĂłn de conservaciĂłn de este patrimonio cultural es Ăłptima cuando cumple bĂĄsicamente dos principios fundamentales, como son, conservar su valor de autenticidad y proseguir con una funciĂłn social propia al servicio de la colectividad de usuarios del mismo. Para realizar una reexiĂłn al socaire del Proyecto REHABIMED, que hoy nos acoge, se toma como elemento patrimonial el sistema de itinerarios de costa, concretamente en Catalunya, que es conocido por el nombre de Caminos de Ronda. Se trata de un sistema de senderos de comunicaciĂłn entre el lĂ­mite geogrĂĄďŹ co y natural de la frontera del mar y la zona terrestre de este paĂ­s, es decir, un camino paralelo a la costa que transcurre desde los Pirineos,

Portbou, Colera, hasta el municipio de Ulldecona, en el lĂ­mite sur con la regiĂłn valenciana, esto supone unos 316 Kms., aproximadamente sobre cartografĂ­a. El nombre de camino de ronda se debe a que en origen, o con mĂĄs intensidad, se usaron para controlar desde tierra, tanto momentos de zozobra de naves y problemas de navegaciĂłn en temporales, como de vigilancia en el trĂĄďŹ co irregular de embarcaciones y contrabando a lo largo de la costa, sin elementos notorios que se perciban desde el mar. Su funciĂłn inicial es distinta de a la de los faros. Los faros son elementos puntuales de referencia para la seguridad y orientaciĂłn de navegantes y por tanto, visibles, diferenciados y situados en lugares notorios, en cambio, es obvio, que los caminos de ronda o de vigilancia de los gendarmes, fueran, ya en su origen, acomodados al terreno de forma muy discreta, sencilla y sin seĂąalizaciĂłn. Hay que destacar, que en 1864, en tiempos de la Reina Isabel II, se construye un trazado de camino en la zona de Rosas, colindante con el faro, que dada la topografĂ­a costera del lugar se halla a unos 24 metros sobre el nivel del mar. En la bibliografĂ­a anexa, puede encontrarse una base elemental de datos mĂĄs particulares para goce del lector. Estos caminos de ronda, de uso inicial para servicio y seguridad del territorio y sus habitantes, debido a la extraordinaria evoluciĂłn en la alteraciĂłn de los sistemas de control, sus mĂŠtodos tecnolĂłgicos para seguridad, asĂ­ como las mejoras de las propias embarcaciones de costa, han provocado que, desde el tercer cuarto del siglo XX, exista un desuso y falta de mantenimiento permanente, con peligro de derrumbe de algunas barandillas, apariciĂłn de vegetaciĂłn forestal incontrolada, etc, llegĂĄndose, en algunos puntos, a la modiďŹ caciĂłn o eliminaciĂłn de su trazado, privatizando de forma precariamente arbitraria su funciĂłn colectiva. En la actualidad, y con el cambio de comportamiento social en el uso del territorio y la movilidad de las personas, sea por simple turismo de ocio o cultural, estos caminos de ronda, como se les sigue llamando, han recobrado y aumentado de forma desmesurada su funciĂłn colectiva, con usos que nada tienen que ver con los originales. En su origen, la zona de su enclavamiento era pobre y de desuso productivo, pues la costa deďŹ nĂ­a por Levante (Este) el linde de las ďŹ ncas agrĂ­colas que basaban su explotaciĂłn rural en la terraza agrĂ­cola, sobre el mar y hacia el interior y, generalmente, bastante horizontal. El borde de levante, era totalmente improductivo y sin vegetaciĂłn, sobre el escarpado frente de roca que en acantilado da frente al mar, el paraje era vacĂ­o de poblaciĂłn estable o caminante, salvo los soldados, mĂĄs tarde guardia civil, que debĂ­an hacer las repetidas rondas consistentes en el ir y venir para controlar la costa a travĂŠs de estos caminos, o acceder de una ciudad a otra de la costa. La evoluciĂłn que supone el siglo XX, inicia su transformaciĂłn, entre otras cosas, por la alteraciĂłn de las fronteras y cambios en los productos y mĂŠtodos de contrabando, asĂ­ como, la apariciĂłn de una repoblaciĂłn forestal bastante natural y casi espontĂĄnea, que sĂłlo se puede comprobar hoy en dĂ­a mediante comparaciĂłn de fotografĂ­as. Pero el gran cambio lo produce el auge del turismo que ha supuesto la transformaciĂłn de las zonas de perĂ­metro costero como generadoras de albergue masivo para este tipo de poblaciĂłn temporal, existiendo una invasiĂłn ediďŹ catoria, por lo que debe considerarse un cambio de escala en la producciĂłn y uso del territorio, con apariciĂłn de industrias y sistemas productivos, casi ligados y/o dependientes de este cambio de escala. Consecuencia importante y actualĂ­sima, es, sobre todo, la valoraciĂłn

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del estado en el ĂĄmbito del frente marĂ­timo de toda la costa y, consecuentemente, la reivindicaciĂłn del buen nivel de calidad medioambiental y recuperaciĂłn de espacios y elementos culturales. ÂżPorquĂŠ se ha escogido este tema? Este tema se propone, a nivel general, por el seguimiento que los Ăşltimos aĂąos se ha realizado y documentado sobre el fenĂłmeno de anĂĄlisis del estado relativo al frente del mar de la Costa Catalana, con el reciente “DEBAT COSTA BRAVA, un futur sostenibleâ€?. La elecciĂłn se basa tambiĂŠn, en la sencillez constructiva, los materiales naturales, la manufactura humana, casi artesana de calzada o pavimento, de tierra, arena, piedra natural, su reposiciĂłn permanente a lo largo de los aĂąos, su emplazamiento en el medio ambiente, entre mar y montaĂąa, al lĂ­mite de un territorio propio y particular, diferenciado y peculiar, como es Catalunya, que siempre ha estado ligada al mar, y no sĂłlo por los antiguos Consulados de Mar, sino como tierra de paso desde el interior de la penĂ­nsula IbĂŠrica al MediterrĂĄneo y, actualmente, por los puentes de penetraciĂłn comercial y turĂ­stica a Europa. En deďŹ nitiva, en este marco, sigue vigente su funciĂłn general de costa abierta, como de lĂ­mite de observaciĂłn, con una permanencia cambiante de los caminos de ronda como soporte a las nuevas actividades de la poblaciĂłn habitual, los que habitamos aquĂ­, y los que vienen temporalmente, en deďŹ nitiva todos los usuarios del territorio y su mar. Es por la propia fragilidad del elemento por lo que debe ser protegido, reestudiado y restaurado, pensando en lo bĂĄsico del espĂ­ritu del “restauroâ€?, en la permanencia de la autenticidad, respetando a los usuarios y, adaptĂĄndose, como soporte de las nuevas actividades sociales, como es por ejemplo el acceso a las playas de forma ecolĂłgica y natural, a pie, desde la ciudad vecina, sin polucionar el ambiente y de forma saludable. Para la restauraciĂłn serĂĄ importante y bĂĄsico el valorar y escoger adecuadamente los materiales de construcciĂłn y sus encuentros. Esta permanencia del valor de autenticidad, en el camino de ronda, tanto fĂ­sica como funcionalmente adaptada, serĂĄ determinante a la hora de preservar no sĂłlo el elemento vial, el propio camino de ronda, sino que fomentarĂĄ el conocimiento, la protecciĂłn y el disfrute del medio natural su entorno inmediato que secularmente lo ha envuelto. Antes de acabar, querrĂ­a hacer referencia a una cita escogida del documento ICOMOS citado en la bibliografĂ­a de esta corta reexiĂłn, relativo a los Itinerarios Culturales, y cuya lectura completa es aconsejable, pues los caminos de ronda encajan en el concepto exhaustivamente expuesto en tal documento, asĂ­ pues valga una muestra,

de los mismos, exigen una atenciĂłn importante y pluridisciplinar de intervenciĂłn, tal cual sea la dedicada al monumento mĂĄs emblemĂĄtico de la zona, ni menor, ni simpliďŹ cada, ni mayor, ni exagerada, pues el carĂĄcter anĂłnimo de su presencia en el territorio es un reto para quien deba intervenir en su restauraciĂłn. SĂłlo este nivel de exigencia colectiva a profesionales tĂŠcnicos de la intervenciĂłn de restauro, polĂ­ticos y usuarios, permitirĂĄ a los usuarios de las nuevas funciones, disfrutar cual Ulises, en tierra, de la perpetua visiĂłn de esa lĂ­nea comĂşn que encontramos en el MediterrĂĄneo, que nos pertenece a todos nosotros y que no es otra que el horizonte, desde cualquier punto de su perĂ­metro costero, ya sea desde la antigua Palestina hasta la Hesperea que citaban los griegos, o desde Italia a todo el Norte de Ă frica. albertplĂ , arquitecte i Companyia Mayo 2007 BIBLIOGRAFĂ?A: t

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“El reconocimiento de los Itinerarios Culturales como nuevo concepto o categorĂ­a patrimonial guarda armonĂ­a y no se solapa con otras categorĂ­as o tipos de bienes ( monumentos, ciudades, paisajes culturales, patrimonio industrial, etc.) que pueden existir en su seno. Simplemente los enmarca en un sistema conjunto que realza su signiďŹ cado y los interrelaciona a travĂŠs de una perspectiva cientĂ­ďŹ ca que proporciona una visiĂłn plural, mĂĄs completa y justa de la historia. De esta forma, no sĂłlo favorece la comprensiĂłn y la comunicaciĂłn entre los pueblos, sino tambiĂŠn la cooperaciĂłn para la conservaciĂłn del patrimonioâ€?. La sencillez del elemento vial, sendero, camino o itinerario reducido, y sobretodo su domesticidad peatonal, la ausencia de vehĂ­culos, su agilidad en soportar distintos usos y ujos de personas e intensidades

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Trazado discretĂ­simo del camino de ronda en Cala Ametller, entre el borde del acantilado y bosque. FotografĂ­a cedida por el Museu d’Història de Sant Feliu de GuĂ­xols Procedencia: OďŹ cina de Turisme de Sant Feliu de GuĂ­xols


Le projet de réhabilitation : réflexion sur les critères El proyecto de rehabilitación: reflexiones sobre criterios The rehabilitation project: reflections on criteria

Adaptación con pasarela de madera que une los dos tramos de camino de ronda que acceden a Platja d’Aro y Sant Feliu de Guíxols a la bahía de Sant Pol. Fotografía: Albert Pla

Paso del camino de ronda muy elevado sobre el mar por debajo de la ermita de Sant Telm. Fotografía cedida por el Museu d’Història de Sant Feliu de Guíxols Procedencia: Oficina de Turisme de Sant Feliu de Guíxols Fotografía: J.Gallego

Tramo actual del camino de ronda de Platja d’Aro a Palamós. Fotografía: Albert Pla Llegada del camino de ronda a la Platja Castell, desde Palamós Fotografía: Albert Pla

Tramo actual del camino de ronda de Platja d’Aro a Palamós. Fotografía: Albert Pla

Acceso a la playa desde el local de salvamento Fotografía cedida por el Museu d’Història de Sant Feliu de Guíxols

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Le projet de rĂŠhabilitation : rÊexion sur les critères El proyecto de rehabilitaciĂłn: reexiones sobre criterios The rehabilitation project: reections on criteria

The Challenges in Conservation the Aesthetical Values in the Egyptian Traditional Architecture.

Mohamed Mahmoud Elaraby Born in Cairo 1968 t 1)% *O BQQMJFE BSUT JO UIF mFME PG FOWJSPONFOUBM IBSNPOJ[BUJPO and urban coordination t 1SPG JO UIF 'BDVMUZ PG "QQMJFE "SUT )FMXBO 6OJWFSTJUZ JO $BJSP t %FDPSBUJPO DPOTVMUBOU GPS UIF FEVDBUJPO EFWFMPQNFOU GVOE JO $BJSP 2006 up till now. t )FBE PG TQBUJBM IBSNPOJ[BUJPO EFQBSUNFOU UIF /BUJPOBM 0SHBOJ[BUJPO of Urban Harmonization in Cairo 2005 – 2006. Address: 10, Elmissak st., Dokki, Cairo, Egypt. E-mail address: arabyeg@yahoo.com Telephone: 0020127665002

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with better means where public tendency prefers to live in old city, which caused horrible condensation and demolition of shapes of distinguished buildings as villas and palaces, and use the distances of lands to build towers which means the same distance is re used the same available previous distance but at urban condensation more than ten times which give no chance for perception and taste of space and beauty to take place in general. We can observe this now in Cairo streets and all Egyptian cities without exception. Egypt uses only 6 % of its geographical distance with a unique, unrepeated urban construction gathering around the trajectory of the river. With 70 millions of inhabitants on the same occupied distance along history we can conceive the size of the catastrophe which Egyptians suer from because of the highly expensive prices of lands. What matters us is beauty by its comprehensive concept, as a single person has only one square meter of green or open space in Cairo (the capital).With population condensation about18 millions persons. Considerting Cairo as the main center of traditional architecture and features of creative applied art, We conceive that the opportunity to observe the details and remark creative art on architecture is very limited .So we converted to another approach of research that we hastened to register and document all features of art creation beginning from old streets written enameled plates with Arabic classic calligraphy, (Dewayne) writing and (Thuluth) writing which bear names and features of life in Cairo along centuries, and almost to be extinct and sold as antiques. The researches enlarges to register and document shapes of wood lathe and carve on stones, marble, glass, Kinds of iron and copper and maintained the color structure of Cairo community resulted from local environment material.

The Egyptian traditional architecture maintains many aspects of aesthetics of arts and traditional craft which concurrent the evolution of oďŹƒcial and traditional architecture along all ages. These aesthetics distinct Egyptian art and architecture reality as well as the spreading of traditional craft and skilled workers throughout long ages, which made them a covet targets to be imported by other countries as Turkey in the interim of ottomans as an Islamic (khelafa) nation, which emptied the craftsmen’s society from their masters. many of know- how disappeared so, the applied arts which concurrent Egyptian traditional architecture have been aected whether the casement and (Mashrabias) and shapes of stained glasses with lead or lime also sculpture on stones and its shaping cut- o and piling marble at high skill and forms of decorated iron for all utilities. As for present problem we can determine its general forms with the presence of great challenges maintain these aesthetics and art values which involved in traditional architecture now a day. These can be attributed to many reasons, it’s hard to determine one or some reasons for this problem, but all of these reasons led to arising these problems. With increase of depending on the machines to produce quantitative products in stead of qualitative. With political, social and urban changes as result of previous changes as specially in the second half of twentieth century there is now satisfaction to accept low level of quality with the citation of keepings production machine without aspiring to increase its eďŹƒciency and thinking about local alternative to machines and tools. Community view was and still about how to occupy and exploit lands 500

The greatest challenge to maintain aesthetical values of Egyptian traditional architecture is the persuading of authority and workers. I mean here most of them- about the value of the buildings they pass or where they live or deal with, and value of surrounding space and internal space also to make scientiďŹ c research and employ the potential of modern technology in conformity with the nature of sensitive environment, and prevent any violation on it and misusing it and transferring inconvenient usages and industries outside the sensible block. Concerning traditional architecture, It is worth mention that the most important problem that have not been solved is the absence of scientiďŹ c application how to emerge new requirements to achieve quality of life with valuable urban environment whether in traditional architecture or memorial architecture as conditioning, drainage, alarming, protecting and lighting . Also to enforce accurately and strictly application of building laws in valuable areas. It is irrational to ďŹ nd street has been dwelled by several families of 100 people now become many building with thousands of persons on the same space and old ways. Then we can not neglect economic issues that aect proceeding and tasting beauty values and led to harmful eects; t "T CFHJOOJOH UIFZ BĂľFDU UIF TNBMM QMBDF UIBU QSFQBSFE GPS MJWJOH BOE work. t EFQFOEJOH VQPO PME UPPMT BOE NFDIBOJTN UIBU PGUFO IBT IBSNGVM


Le projet de réhabilitation : réflexion sur les critères El proyecto de rehabilitación: reflexiones sobre criterios The rehabilitation project: reflections on criteria

effects on public health, infrastructure and traditional architecture. t 3FGSBJOJOH UIF EFGUOFTT BOE UFOE UP CF GBTU UP BDDPNQMJTI RVBOUJUJFT not quality. t "DDFQUJOH JNQPSUFE JOEVTUSJFT BOE QSPEVDUT XIJDI IBWF GBMTF features against the pristine and original values on the real life in Egypt. t "MUFSOBUJWF 1SPQPTFE EFTJHOT PS NBUFSJBMT XIJDI JO NBOZ DBTFT does not provide the accepted alternatives for nobles materials to achieve minimum requirement of beauty as ceramic, casting iron, and panels of metal windows.

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RĂŠhabilitation, conception contemporaine et reconstruction en architecture: un dĂŠbat La Maison de Cakirhan

Can Binan, Banu ÇelebioÄ&#x;lu Can Binan : professeur associĂŠ au DĂŠpartement de Restauration Ă la FacultĂŠ E "SDIJUFDUVSF EF M 6OJWFSTJUĂ? 5FDIOJRVF EF :‘ME‘[ FU TĂ?DSĂ?UBJSF HĂ?OĂ?SBM d’ICOMOS Turquie. Banu ÇelebioÄ&#x;lu : assistante de recherche et doctorante au DĂŠpartement de RestauraUJPO Ă‹ MB 'BDVMUĂ? E "SDIJUFDUVSF EF M 6OJWFSTJUĂ? 5FDIOJRVF EF :‘ME‘[ Adresse postale: :‘ME‘[ 5FLOJL 6OJWFSTJUFTJ .JNBSM‘L 'BLĂ MUFTJ #BSCBSPT #VMWBS‘ #FĹżJLUBĹż 34349, Istanbul, TĂźrkiye Adresse courrier ĂŠlectronique: CJOBODC!UOO OFU CBOV@DFMFCJ!ZBIPP DPN TĂŠlĂŠphone: +90 542 2132117

+90 532 7922732

Les prix architecturaux d’Aga Khan ont ĂŠtĂŠ dĂŠcernĂŠs en 1983 Ă 11 projets de diÊrents pays. La Turquie a ĂŠtĂŠ l’un des pays qui a reçu le prix avec une rĂŠsidence construite en 1971 au village d’Akyaka Ă Mugla. C’est une maison conçu par Nail Cakirhan pour lui mĂŞme et son ĂŠpouse. Nail Cakirhan, poète et journaliste, n’a jamais formellement ĂŠtudiĂŠ l’architecture mais il s’est intĂŠressĂŠ Ă la construction dans les annĂŠes 40 et il avait plus de soixante ans quand il a commencĂŠ Ă travailler comme architecte. Depuis qu’il a complĂŠtĂŠ sa maison, il a conçu et supervisĂŠ Ă peu près trente autres maisons ayant le mĂŞme concept architectural. Le village d’Akyaka est situĂŠ au sud-ouest de la pĂŠninsule anatolienne sur les rives de la baie de HisarĂśnĂź / GĂśkova ; c’est donc un village mĂŠditerranĂŠen. L’emplacement de la maison occupe 2 hectares Ă 150 mètres au sud de la mer. La surface totale de la maison est de 195 m2. La maison comprend deux espaces sĂŠparĂŠs, l’un est pour les Cakirhan, l’autre pour leurs invitĂŠs. Bien qu’ils soient rĂŠpertoriĂŠes comme salle de sĂŠjour/ chambre Ă coucher, ces espaces sont multifonctionaux comme les maisons traditionnelles turques. Entre ces deux parties, il y a une salle centrale (divanhane) polygonale oĂš se rĂŠunissent les Cakirhan et leurs invitĂŠs. Une terrasse abritĂŠe (loggia), supportĂŠe par des colonnes en bois, fournit un espace de sĂŠjour additionnel durant la saison chaude avec des salles de bain, une kitchenette et les toilettes sĂŠparĂŠes pour le couple et les invitĂŠs. Une loge de gardiens est situĂŠe Ă cĂ´tĂŠ de l’entrĂŠe. Un garage et un dĂŠpĂ´t ont ĂŠtĂŠ ajoutĂŠs plus tard.

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La construction a ĂŠtĂŠ commencĂŠe en septembre 1970 et achevĂŠe en aoĂťt 1971. La conception du projet s’est faite au cours du temps. Les pensĂŠes et la forme n’ont pas ĂŠtĂŠ tracĂŠes sur le papier mais prĂŠsentĂŠes sur la terre comme le faisaient les artisans traditionnels. La maison de Cakirhan n’appartient pas Ă l’architecture traditionnelle d’Akyaka. Elle s’est inspirĂŠe de celle d’Ula, ville autochtone situĂŠe Ă 30 kilomètres oĂš l’on peut toujours trouver une variĂŠtĂŠ de maisons traditionnelles. L’ossature traditionnelle en bois qui assure l’ÊlasticitĂŠ qui permet de rĂŠsister aux tremblements de terre, se tasse sur une base en moellon. La toiture, couverte de tuiles creuses (alaturka) de la rĂŠgion, n’a pas de ferme mais seulement des poteaux et solives avec des madriers en bois formant les pignons. Les murs sont en brique et enduit d’un mortier de chaux et lait de chaux. Tous les revĂŞtements du sol sont en bois, exceptĂŠ les salles de bain. Les ĂŠlĂŠments principaux sont produits sur place et la menuiserie est manuelle. L’Êquipe se composait de 4 ouvriers: 2 maçons et 2 charpentiers. Selon Nail Cakirhan, les structures en beton armĂŠ se multiplient en Turquie. La simplicitĂŠ et l’ÊlĂŠgance de l’architecture de ses propres maisons rĂŠsulteraient d’une continuitĂŠ et de ce qu’elles reètent les valeurs traditionelles, pas d’une imitation. Il a rĂŠussi Ă faire revivre l’architecture vernaculaire en reintroduisant l’organisation spatiale des maisons traditionnelles turques. En mĂŞme temps, il a dĂŠmontrĂŠ que la forme et la construction de ses maisons ĂŠtaient ĂŠconomiques. Le coĂťt total de la construction s’est ĂŠlevĂŠ 7 535 dollars. L’aspect important du projet est la motivation donnĂŠe aux artisans locaux, en particulier Ă la nouvelle gĂŠnĂŠration. Les charpentiers qui avaient l’habitude de travailler pour des structures en beton armĂŠ, ont recommencĂŠ Ă travailler avec la menuiserie traditionnelle. Les maisons de Cakirhan ont attirĂŠ l’attention des autoritĂŠs responsables de la planniďŹ cation et du dĂŠveloppement. Le grand jury d’Aga Khan a attribuĂŠ le prix pour la puretĂŠ et l’ÊlĂŠgance de la conception et de la dĂŠcoration rĂŠsultant de la continuitĂŠ et la rÊÊction des valeurs traditionnelles. La conception de la maison n’est pas une simple reproduction des modèles anciens, ses ornementations sont judicieuces, sobres et authentiques. Son extraordinaire harmonie avec la nature, son utilisation multifonctionnelle et l’ambiance de l’espace intĂŠrieur lui donnent une grande distinction. La maison mĂŠrite une attention spĂŠciale dans la mesure oĂš elle fait revivre l’artisanat et la sensibilisation culturelle. Bien qu’à l’Êpoque oĂš le prix a ĂŠtĂŠ dĂŠcernĂŠ les dirigeants de la fondation et les membres du jury aient rĂŠpĂŠtĂŠ maintes fois que ce prix rĂŠcompensait un ÂŤ producteur Âť en raison de son ÂŤ produit Âť on n’a pas essayĂŠ de commenter de quelque façon que ce soit la qualitĂŠ du bâtiment et les dĂŠbats se limitaient Ă la question de savoir si le producteur avait ou non un statut ÂŤ oďŹƒciel Âť. Mais mĂŞme si la personne ayant bâti cette maison n’est pas architecte elle a fait Ĺ“uvre d’architecte et c’est en fait ce qu’il faut discuter. Ce qui doit ĂŞtre dĂŠbattu n’est pas en relation avec le fait que la maison n’ait pas ĂŠtĂŠ construite par un architecte. Il faut considĂŠrer l’œuvre et non le bâtisseur. Il faut se demander si la construction mĂŠrite ou non d’être primĂŠe ou en d’autres termes si elle rĂŠunit les conditions pour reprĂŠsenter la Turquie dans un concours international. (Hasol, 1983) Ce dont il est question ici c’est le renouvellement au 20ieme siècle, dans des conditions sociales tout Ă fait diÊrentes, d’une tradition qui a connu son propre processus de dĂŠveloppement dans le passĂŠ. Une maison ottomane anonyme a simplement ĂŠtĂŠ rĂŠpĂŠtĂŠe, quatre Ă cinq siècles plus tard, avec le mĂŞme plan, la mĂŞme façade, le mĂŞme espace,


Le projet de rĂŠhabilitation : rÊexion sur les critères El proyecto de rehabilitaciĂłn: reexiones sobre criterios The rehabilitation project: reections on criteria

mais sans aucune synthèse. Une telle imitation peut ĂŞtre acceptable dans le passĂŠ, dans les conditions de vie alors existantes. Mais ici il ne s’agit que d’une ÂŤ copie Âť, d’un ÂŤ retour au passĂŠ Âť. Il faut discuter de ce qu’une telle construction apporte Ă l’architecture turque-islamique. On trouve encore des exemples originaux d’anciennes maisons turques dans bien des rĂŠgions de la Turquie et s’il faut en tirer parti il serait suďŹƒsant d’accorder la prioritĂŠ Ă leur sauvegarde. (Hasol, 1983) La première erreur a ĂŠtĂŠ commise lors de la prĂŠ-sĂŠlection quand la maison d’Akyaka a ĂŠtĂŠ jointe aux autres constructions soumises au jury pour reprĂŠsenter la Turquie. La deuxième erreur est l’attitude du jury durant l’Êvaluation. Que cette construction Ă la technologie la plus primitive ait ĂŠtĂŠ choisie parmi environ trente Ĺ“uvres proposĂŠes, ne s’accorde ni Ă la place ni aux prĂŠtentions de la Turquie dans ce domaine. Ce prix attribuĂŠ Ă une certaine mĂŠthode de reconstruction et Ă ses consĂŠquences est Ă l’origine d’un dĂŠbat dans le domaine de l’architecture, mais il est aussi une occasion pour dĂŠďŹ nir la sauvegarde en architecture civile tarditionnelle et les limites de l’intervention en rĂŠhabilitation. L’architecture traditionnelle est basĂŠe sur :

de vue architectural. Il est inÊvitable que cet Êtat de fait, encore aggravÊ à l’avenir par l’usure des constructions, induira en erreur des chercheurs mêmes. Les constructeurs citÊs en exemple ne sont pas les seuls dans ce genre architectural si controversÊ. En fait l’on peut voir des exemples de ce genre de  reconstruction aussi bien en Turquie que dans toutes les rÊgions mÊditerranÊennes. Il ne faut pas non plus oublier que cette approche est diÊrente de l’expÊrience et de la philosophie de  construire avec le peuple  de Hassan Fathy. Finalement , Il nous semble que les applications de reconstructions ayant un aspect et morphologie traditionnel en meme temps q’un Êsprit ou ame moderne a l’interieur presentent bien des inconvÊnients et un paradoxe importante dans notre Êspace architectural contemporaine mediterranÊenne.

REFERENCES HASOL, D., i"HB )BO .JNBSM‘L ½EĂ MMFSJw :BQ‘ /P 1Q

t t t t t

6OF DPOUJOVJUĂ? DVMUVSFMMF BV OJWFBV EV QMBO -F GBJU E Ă?USF FO IBSNPOJF BWFD MFT NPEFT EF WJF FYJTUBOUT - FNQMPJ Ă‹ UPVT MFT OJWFBVY E VOF NBJO E ”VWSF MPDBMF - VUJMJTBUJPO EFT NBUĂ?SJBVY MPDBVY FU CPO NBSDIĂ? -B TPVQMFTTF QFSNFUUBOU M BEBQUBUJPO BVY NPEFT EF WJF FO ĂŠvolution t 6OF JOUFS BDUJPO PĂĄ MFT IBCJUBOUT QBSUJDJQFOU BV QSPDFTTVT d’Êlaboration et d’entretien du bâtiment.

SÖZEN, M., Tßrklerde Ev Kßltßrß, Dogan Kitap, Istanbul, 2001. ELDEM, S.H., Tßrk Evi I, Istanbul, 1984. ÇAKIRHAN, N., The Poetry of Traditional Architecture-Half a century in the Art of Building, Ege :BZ‘OMBS‘ *TUBOCVM

En architecture et en dĂŠcoration il s’est formĂŠ une architecture incluant une interprĂŠtation et des solutions locales Ă une continuitĂŠ culturelle. La vraie production d’architecture civile traditionnelle dĂŠpend de ce que la structure culturelle dont elle est issue soit encore vivante, que le savoir-faire et les techniques traditionnels de construction n’aient pas disparu et que les sources de matĂŠriaux soient utilisables. Les modes de vie de ceux qui vivent dans ces maisons sont en rapport ĂŠtroit avec l’Êlaboration de ces maisons. D’autre part si des travaux de sauvegarde et de rĂŠhabilitation sont entrepris c’est qu’en fait ce mode de vie et l’habitation qui lui est liĂŠe ont disparu ou ont ĂŠtĂŠ interrompus. Il est naturel que les interventions de rĂŠhabilitation doivent s’intĂŠgrer dans un discours moderniste et dans ce sens la sauvegarde comprendra inĂŠvitablement certaines adaptations. En restaurant il ne faut pas imaginer le bâtiment uniquement comme une ĂŠcorce vide et il faut conserver les ĂŠlĂŠments architecturaux et humains qui sont Ă l’origine du bâtiment. Il faut remettre en question la relation entre les concepts de sauvegarde et de rĂŠhabilitation et les applications et approches architecturales qui font revivre et rĂŠpètent les constructions traditionnelles tout en utilisant des ĂŠlĂŠments de la vie moderne qu’elles intègrent dans les schĂŠmas traditionnels comme s’ils en faisaient partie tout naturellement. Imiter un caractère architectural traditionnel peut très facilement tromper une personne non-professionnelle et mĂŞme un expert. Que ces formes de construction dont le plan et la rĂŠpartition des espaces de vie rĂŠpondant aux besoins actuels, se trouvent dans un bâtiment traditionnel rĂŠvèle une situation schizophrĂŠnique d’un point

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Plan de la maison Cakirhan (ÇAKIRHAN, N., The Poetry of Traditional Architecture-Half a century in the Art of Building, Ege Yayınları, Istanbul, 2005)

Une maison traditionnelle turque à Sirince, un village méditerranéen (photo : Banu Celebioglu)

La maison de Cakirhan (photo:Ara Guler)

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Un plan d’une maison traditionnelle turque (ELDEM, S.H., Türk Evi I, Pp.132,Istanbul, 1984)


Le projet de réhabilitation : réflexion sur les critères El proyecto de rehabilitación: reflexiones sobre criterios The rehabilitation project: reflections on criteria

Arquitectura vernácula: términos nuevos, conceptos antiguos

Antonio Baño Nieva Arquitecto. Docente en el Departamento de Arquitectura de la Universidad de Alcalá de Henares de Madrid. Coordina e Imparte habitualmente cursos sobre arquitectura medioambiental en La Casa Encendida de la Fundación Caja Madrid. Ha realizado diferentes proyectos arquitectónicos en el ámbito de la construcción sostenible, materia en la que es coautor de dos publicaciones. Dirección postal: c/ Melonares 6, portal 6, 3º C. 28260 Galapagar, Madrid Dirección de correo electrónico: antonio.banno@uah.es Teléfono: 91 8584572

637490299

La arquitectura vernácula siempre ha tenido un gran atractivo para los habitantes de la ciudad, recogiendo de ella valores que han ido desapareciendo en el ámbito urbano y queriendo ver una suerte de vuelta a los orígenes. No obstante, el tipismo rural desde el que se ha contemplado, desarrollaba conceptos banales y mal entendidos que tan sólo miraban la superficie de un fenómeno complejo. Por otro lado, los mismos habitantes del mundo rural, si bien se encuentran unidos a la tierra a la que pertenecen, tienen como referencia los patrones culturales urbanos, a los que acuden inevitablemente a la hora de proponer evoluciones en el hábitat. El panorama que se nos presenta en cualquier caso, es el de descrédito de unos modos de habitar seculares, que no tienen cabida en las prácticas constructivas actuales. Es en este terreno en el que encuentra abono la reflexión que aquí se propone y que cuenta con antecedentes muy interesantes; básicamente se trata de elaborar una nueva lectura de las construcciones que han sido creadas “a fuego lento”, con el conocimiento del lugar y el consentimiento de la experiencia. Términos nuevos, conceptos antiguos Desde la constatación de que nuestras construcciones deben adquirir nuevos derroteros, hemos ido acuñando una serie de conceptos que tienen su referencia y su marco en el término sostenibilidad: inserción en el territorio, eficacia energética, minimización de costes ambientales, utilización responsable de recursos locales, gestión de los residuos producidos, revitalización del tejido social, ...son partes de un mismo discurso, que actuando en sintonía, deben constituir un todo indisoluble. El requerimiento de la inserción en el territorio tiene que ver con la

ubicación del objeto arquitectónico en un entorno concreto, lo que significa atender a todas sus condiciones. Una de ellas, resulta de la consideración del clima del lugar, lo que tiene como consecuencia inmediata una respuesta arquitectónica diferenciada tanto en su relación con el terreno como en la forma y configuración de su envolvente. Esta distinción no ha sido habitual en la arquitectura moderna, pero ahora se presenta como pauta a seguir en las nuevas construcciones: a cada lugar, una arquitectura. Si trasladamos el discurso al ámbito rural, resulta obvio que las construcciones vernáculas siguen de manera inequívoca esta aseveración, implantando tipos distintos según donde nos encontremos. Habrá que ver el porqué y si responden a una inteligencia de mayor complejidad que la inicialmente cabría esperar. La mimetización con el paisaje, característica primordial en la arquitectura vernácula, no es más que un deseo de compatibilidad con el entorno, que ha sido visto únicamente desde el punto de vista estético. Pero la belleza que resulta de la contemplación de un enclave rural, viene dada por el uso de formas, colores y texturas que tienen como fin último la necesidad de habitar, es decir, de servir a las necesidades funcionales, económicas, sociales y culturales de sus usuarios. En definitiva, Arquitectura. Otro de los criterios que en la actualidad se consideran esenciales tiene que ver con la eficacia energética y con la implantación de energías de carácter renovable. En este caso, la mayor aportación de la arquitectura bioclimática, consiste en la toma en consideración de determinadas estrategias que el edificio debe incorporar desde su concepción, y que logran minimizar la factura energética sin aportar consumo alguno; el calentamiento por radiación solar, la inercia térmica, el movimiento natural del aire, los sistemas de protección solar o la capacidad de enfriamiento por evaporación, constituyen ingeniosos modos de lograr el acondicionamiento del ambiente interior. Todas y cada una de estas estrategias, han sido utilizadas de uno u otro modo en la arquitectura popular de las distintas regiones, avalando con ello sus prestaciones. Sin entrar a considerar de donde toma la arquitectura bioclimática estas estrategias, lo cierto es que la construcción vernácula ha buscado siempre, con mínimos recursos y un conocimiento empírico de las soluciones planteadas, las mejores opciones para el confort interior de las edificaciones. Constituyen ejemplos destacables, hábitats tan dispares como la casa enterrada o el palafito lacustre. La primera supone, al aprovechar la inercia térmica del terreno, la mejor solución posible para atender a grandes oscilaciones de la temperatura. La segunda, la más plausible para aquellas viviendas cuya estrategia fundamental se basa en criterios de refrigeración por ventilación. Ambas son viviendas troglodíticas, pero obtienen mayor rendimiento de las condiciones de su entorno que muchas de las viviendas actuales. Se pueden incluso trasladar estas reflexiones, a conceptos más novedosos como el de arquitectura transportable; las referencias existentes de construcciones tradicionales tales como tipis o jaimas, permiten indagar en soluciones probadas y contrastadas de tipologías “de piel y esqueleto” donde las estrategias de confort, pasan por el control del calentamiento o enfriamiento del aire. La utilización de materiales de bajo coste ambiental es también criterio básico para la realización de construcciones sostenibles; es necesario emplear materiales cuyos procesos de extracción, fabricación, transporte, manipulación y eliminación no acarreen daños al medio ambiente. Las dificultades que la industria actual tiene para

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acomodarse a estos nuevos requerimientos son evidentes, dado que es preciso reconvertir la casi totalidad de los planteamientos productivos iniciales. En la arquitectura vernácula, la utilización que se hizo de los materiales, representó una gestión ordenada y razonable de los recursos locales, a los que adecuaron los sistemas constructivos. Piedra, madera, tierra o cerámica son, básicamente, el repertorio de materiales empleados, que a su vez son referentes en la construcción sostenible actual. Incluso existen intentos de recuperación de materiales denostados (como la tierra) para que a través de tecnologías de nuevo cuño se logren productos compatibles con las exigencias del mercado actual. La gestión de los residuos de construcción y demolición representa uno de lo sectores donde se está poniendo especial énfasis, intentando dotar a la región con normas e infraestructuras capaces de resolver el enorme conflicto que origina el exceso de vertidos. La solución tradicional es muy sencilla. Se reutiliza una buena cantidad de material, ya que adobes, mampuestos o rollizos, pasan en bastantes ocasiones de una construcción en ruinas a otra por hacer; si esto no fuera posible, la tierra sigue siendo tierra, la madera es biodegradable (no presenta sustancias nocivas añadidas) y el mampuesto vuelve a formar parte del terreno. El ciclo se cierra, de la mejor manera posible, quedando algunas de estas materias en disposición de volver a ser usadas y pasando otras a ser alimento de generaciones futuras. La intervención sostenible en lo construido De lo anteriormente expuesto, se desprende con nitidez que la construcción tradicional resultaba ser entonces, paradigma de lo sostenible hoy, por lo que puede que otra lectura de las construcciones del ámbito rural abra derroteros inesperados. No se trata de la reproducción de modelos que han tenido su eficacia en épocas pasadas; no contarían con las mínimas garantías de seguridad y salud que se les debe exigir actualmente a las construcciones. Pero es obvio que la experiencia y el saber hacer de generaciones, ofrecen pautas de actuación que no pueden ser ignoradas, sobre todo con las perspectivas que se nos presentan hoy en día. La intervención en lo construido representa una de las asignaturas pendientes de la rehabilitación del tejido arquitectónico tradicional. Incomprensiones de los planteamientos de control del confort o la resolución de problemas a través de patrones culturales urbanos, han acarreado pérdidas irreparables de patrimonio o cuando menos han empobrecido lastimosamente la solución original; el revestimiento de cuevas con trasdosados interiores, la sustitución de cubiertas vegetales por paneles metálicos o la total estanqueidad de cerramientos otrora permeables al aire y la luz dan fe de ello.

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Los sistemas tradicionales como Ăłptimos de gestiĂłn de los recursos

Albert CuchĂ­ Arquitecto, profesor titular de Universidad en el Departamento de Construcciones ArquitectĂłnicas I de la UPC, en la Escuela de Arquitectura del Vallès. Investiga en temas relacionados con la sostenibilidad y con los sistemas tĂŠcnicos tradicionales. DirecciĂłn postal: Escola d’Arquitectura del Vallès c/. Pere Serra, 1-15 08173 Sant Cugat del Vallès SPAIN DirecciĂłn de correo electrĂłnico: alberto.cuchi@upc.edu

Si suponemos ahora que el material se extrae del medio natural, y que se tiene un acceso limitado a sus recursos si se desea que el aporte del recurso se mantenga en el tiempo, existe una tasa de producción natural –expresada en kg/aùo- que representa la capacidad de ese medio para aportar un ujo renovable del material. Por supuesto, no debe confundirse ese ujo con los posibles depósitos o reservas existentes del material: los depósitos sirven para absorber las diferencias temporales entre la oferta y la demanda del recurso, y a largo plazo ambas deben estar equilibradas. Para mantener constante la utilidad, la tasa de renovación del material que precisa el sistema debe ser menor o igual a la tasa de producción natural. En nuestro ejemplo, la tasa de renovación no puede ser superior a la tasa de producción natural del bosque que nos procura la madera, considerando que su capacidad productiva debe mantenerse constante. Así, la condición de sostenibilidad del sistema serå: (4) tasa de producción natural ≼ tasa de renovación : QPS UBOUP RVFEBO SFTUSJOHJEBT MBT FYJTUFODJBT QPTJCMFT oFO OVFTUSP caso la cantidad de madera utilizable- ya que (5) tasa de producción natural ≼ [existencias x (1 - tasa de reciclaje)] / durabilidad

IntroducciĂłn En un sistema que desee mantener una cierta utilidad constante a lo largo del tiempo, para cada recurso utilizado –por ejemplo, la madera usada para ventanas en la ediďŹ caciĂłn en un lugar concreto- serĂĄ necesaria una aportaciĂłn de material para substituir el recurso que se deteriora con el tiempo:

de donde, (6) existencias ≤ (tasa de producción natural x durabilidad) / (1 - tasa de reciclaje) transformåndose en igualdad si redenominamos las existencias como

(1) tasa de renovaciĂłn (kg/aĂąo) = existencias (kg) / durabilidad (aĂąos) siendo, t MB UBTB EF SFOPWBDJĂ˜O FM nVKP EF NBUFSJBM QSFDJTP QPS VOJEBE EF tiempo para substituir el deteriorado; t MBT FYJTUFODJBT MB DBOUJEBE EF NBUFSJBM FO TFSWJDJP RVF FT QSFDJTP disponer para mantener el servicio, en nuestro caso, la madera que estĂĄ en las ventanas de los ediďŹ cios considerados; t MB EVSBCJMJEBE MB WJEB NFEJB EVSBOUF MB DVBM FM NBUFSJBM BQPSUB utilidad; si consideramos que una parte del material se recicla o recupera dentro del sistema –por ejemplo reaprovechando la parte de la madera menos deteriorada para hacer nuevas piezas- deďŹ niremos la tasa de reciclaje (adimensional) como la relaciĂłn entre la cantidad de material reciclado o recuperado respecto a las existencias (2) tasa de reciclaje = reciclado (kg) / existencias (kg) Con lo que, incluyendo el nuevo factor en (1) se obtiene, (3) tasa de renovaciĂłn = [existencias x (1 - tasa de reciclaje)] / durabilidad 508

(7) cantidad mĂĄxima utilizable = (tasa de producciĂłn natural x durabilidad) / (1 - tasa de reciclaje) con o que disponemos de una formulaciĂłn que nos permite, para un entorno determinado que usa una cantidad limitada de medio natural, analizar el uso de un recurso de forma sostenible. SimĂŠtricamente, deben deďŹ nirse las condiciones para que el entorno pueda absorber los residuos: (8) quantidad mĂĄxima utilizable = (tasa de absorciĂłn natural x durabilidad) / (1 - tasa de reciclaje) AsĂ­, la cantidad mĂĄxima utilizable de un recurso –y con ella la cantidad de utilidades que procura- estĂĄ limitada en un sistema sostenibilista, con lo que las opciones de cualquier aumento en una situaciĂłn dada pasan por alterar alguno de los factores: producciĂłn natural, durabilidad P UBTB EF SFDJDMBKF : OBUVSBMNFOUF DVBMRVJFS TJTUFNB UĂ?DOJDP TF WF presionado socialmente para obtener el mĂĄximo de utilidad de sus recursos. Los sistemas de construcciĂłn tradicionales –previos a la revoluciĂłn industrial y a su sistema tĂŠcnico de base mineral- debĂ­an dar una respuesta a las ecuaciones planteadas, en tanto eran sistemas de base orgĂĄnica puesto que la fuente de sus recursos es biosfĂŠrica. Es mĂĄs,


Le projet de rĂŠhabilitation : rÊexion sur les critères El proyecto de rehabilitaciĂłn: reexiones sobre criterios The rehabilitation project: reections on criteria

deben ser considerados como Ăłptimos en la producciĂłn de utilidad frente a otras posibles alternativas y, por tanto, analizados desde el punto de vista de gestiĂłn de los recursos que plantea la ecuaciĂłn. Un acercamiento de este tipo es el que se plantea brevemente en los siguientes apartados de este texto. La madera La madera –mĂĄs considerando con ella tambiĂŠn el resto de ďŹ bras vegetales- es el material orgĂĄnico por antonomasia y, por ello, un referente tanto de los sistemas tĂŠcnicos tradicionales como de la sostenibilidad. Ha servido de ejemplo para explicar la ecuaciĂłn que se ha propuesto y, por tanto, huelga extenderse en cada uno de sus tĂŠrminos para ese material. Pero sĂ­ vale la pena hacer una reexiĂłn sobre su relaciĂłn con la tasa de producciĂłn natural. Aumentar la tasa de producciĂłn natural del medio es aumentar la cantidad de recursos aprovechables por un determinado sistema tĂŠcnico. La biosfera tiende a mantener el mĂĄximo de materiales que le permiten las condiciones locales, siendo mayor cuanto mĂĄs maduro es el ecosistema. Cada cultura interviene sobre el medio para aumentar la producciĂłn de los materiales que sabe usar, en detrimento de la productividad global del sistema. Con lo que esa cultura debe interpretar al mĂĄximo las utilidades en los materiales ofrecidos por el medio. La gestiĂłn tradicional de los bosques tenĂ­a como objetivo la obtenciĂłn de la mĂĄxima cantidad de recursos considerando el conjunto de las utilidades sociales. SĂłlo hay una biosfera para obtener diferentes utilidades, por lo que la maximizaciĂłn de la cantidad de recursos en los sistemas tradicionales debe considerarse globalmente, de una forma integrada, de manera que el uso de un determinado tipo de madera o tejido en la ediďŹ caciĂłn no puede entenderse sin la consideraciĂłn de otras demandas sociales que, ďŹ nalmente, lo determinan. La tierra La tierra proviene del suelo, un material formado, gestionado y mantenido por la biosfera. Su tasa de producciĂłn natural es muy reducida –apenas unos kilogramos por hectĂĄrea y aĂąo, y a menudo negativa cuando se producen fenĂłmenos de desertiďŹ caciĂłn o desertizaciĂłn, hoy tan frecuentes- y por lo tanto la cantidad mĂĄxima utilizable es muy reducida. MĂĄs aĂşn cuando la durabilidad de la construcciĂłn con tierra se ve seriamente afectada por un agente tan extendido como el agua. El uso de la tierra como material de construcciĂłn –en competencia a menudo, por ejemplo, con sus usos agrarios- se explica en gran medida por el factor que aparece en el denominador: su reciclabilidad. En condiciones normales de degradaciĂłn –sin un lavado apreciable de las partĂ­culas mĂĄs ďŹ nas del suelo- la tierra proveniente de la ruina de una construcciĂłn es perfectamente reciclable sin pĂŠrdida de sus capacidades tĂŠcnicas, con lo que a pesar de tener un numerador reducido –baja producciĂłn natural, baja durabilidad- su denominador es prĂĄcticamente nulo, lo que nos permite acceder a los enormes depĂłsitos existentes para usarlos. Esa disponibilidad de la tierra explica su uso en zonas cuya disponibilidad de otros recursos –e incluso de la tierra- es reducida, que no nula. Las ideas referidas a que se construye con tierra cuando no hay otro material o que estĂĄ fuertemente limitada por condiciones locales –como el clima u otros- son falsas, y en cambio es explicable el uso de la tierra –con su implĂ­cita fuerte carga de trabajo constante para su mantenimiento-

cuando el resto de recursos disponibles son destinados a otros usos sociales. De nuevo el anĂĄlisis debe ser hecho desde la globalidad de la disponibilidad de los recursos y de la demanda de utilidades sociales. La piedra La producciĂłn natural de la piedra es reducidĂ­sima. La litogĂŠnesis abarca periodos inmensos y, localmente y a escala humana, los procesos de erosiĂłn y formaciĂłn de rocas son inapreciables, con lo que la producciĂłn de nuevas disponibilidades del recurso es nula. No obstante, su durabilidad es enorme y supera, habitualmente, la de las sociedades que la han utilizado para sus construcciones. Ello ha dado pie a un reciclado continuo del material: desde la PirĂĄmides hasta el Coliseo de Roma, las grandes construcciones han actuado como canteras de material para construcciones posteriores y el uso, a menor escala, de piezas de ediďŹ caciones anteriores en nuevos FEJmDJPT FT BCTPMVUBNFOUF OBUVSBM FO MBT BSRVJUFDUVSBT USBEJDJPOBMFT : esa elevada durabilidad y reciclado es lo que permitiĂł, como en el caso de la tierra, movilizar los depĂłsitos existentes para cubrir las demandas sociales. No obstante, y a diferencia del caso de la tierra, lo que se recicla no es tanto el material como el trabajo que estĂĄ integrado en la conformacion de los bloques. Tallar una piedra exige una cantidad de trabajo tanto mayor cuanto mayor es su dureza. A mĂĄs dureza, mayor durabilidad. : DVBOUP NĂˆT BKVTUBEP FM USBCBKP EF UBMMB NĂˆT DBMJEBE Z EVSBCJMJEBE MB fĂĄbrica que con ella se construya. Reutilizando una piedra tallada, se recicla el trabajo impuesto en ella, con lo que se transďŹ ere trabajo entre generaciones, trabajo que se acumula en muchas otras formas –por ejemplo estructurando el territorio para obtener una gestiĂłn mejor de la biosfera- y que pasa a ser una forma de capital que permite aumentar la disponibilidad de recursos socialmente disponibles. Conclusiones El anĂĄlisis de los sistemas tĂŠcnicos tradicionales debe enfocarse desde su consideraciĂłn como Ăłptimos en la gestiĂłn de los recursos, e integrados en unas estrategias mĂĄs amplias que su estricta aplicaciĂłn como materiales o tĂŠcnicas especĂ­ďŹ cos para solventar demandas concretas, como por ejemplo la construcciĂłn de ediďŹ cios. El anĂĄlisis tecnolĂłgico es insuďŹ ciente para explicar la selecciĂłn y uso de los sistemas tĂŠcnicos en ediďŹ caciĂłn, o en cualquier otro uso. Como no puede plantearse la gestiĂłn, mantenimiento y recuperaciĂłn del patrimonio tradicional desde una visiĂłn que no tenga en cuenta los mecanismos de reconocimiento y distribuciĂłn de utilidades contemplada desde la gestiĂłn del medio por parte de la sociedad que los usa.

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Rehabilitation between Necessity and Luxury

Khaldun Bshara Bshara is the Director of the Conservation Unit at RIWAQ - Centre for Architectural Conservation. He was awarded Bachelor degree in Architecture from Birzeit University (1996) and Masters in Conservation from RLICC @ K.U.Leuven (2001). Bshara is a designer, architect conservator and author / co-author of number of books and articles. Address: Riwaq Centre, P.O. box 212, Ramallah, Palestine E-mail: khaldun@riwaq.org Telephone: + 970 2 2406926

Introduction: It is well known that we preserve built heritage for either knowledge or aesthetic values. And it has been a long tradition for the decision makers to concentrate on ediďŹ ces or renowned sites and not on average houses. There has been a pre-conception that conservation, as archaeology and art, is a luxurious activity. Of course the long practice of the elite community, mainly Europeans, associated the heritage and the art knowledge with luxury. The concept of heritage, conceived in Europe, didn’t recover from the image of the European gentleman who endangers himself searching for the un-known past in the Orient, in the moving sands of Egypt or amidst the jungles of Africa. This elitist approach was transferred onto the preservation of the heritage. This could be noticed in the European stamp on heritage charters, conventions and in the many conservation activities lead and funded by the Europeans in developing countries. In remote countries, conservation in general and rehabilitation of houses are not a priority since such countries are preoccupied with allegedly more important and vital matters for their communities, such as education, health and infra-structure.... This is not a strange in developing countries because they are bonded with international funding strategies drafted by World Bank and other agencies, who dictate certain directions for development; heritage is not considered as such. However, there are new emerging concepts regarding the built heritage and its restoration. Such concept includes the group of buildings (ensemble) vs. monument, the concept of living heritage (rehabilitation) vs. archaeology (preservation), the socio-economic values (sustainability) vs. aesthetics and knowledge values... all call for reconsideration of the heritage rehabilitation as a necessity for development and not as a luxurious activity. In this brief intervention, I will shed light on the rehabilitation of the Mediterranean habitats, utilising the Palestinian example and other experiences where rehabilitation, in rapidly changing and alienated landscape, is emerging

as a necessity as any development project which embarks upon some vital socio-economic and political problems. Prioritising Heritage: Since its establishment, the Palestinian National Authority (PNA) managed not to have the Heritage on its priority list. Of course, in a devastating situation it has been diďŹƒcult to shift attention from the day-to-day life problems to what is considered a luxury activity. This can be observed in the allocated budget for ministries working in the ďŹ eld of heritage such as Ministry of Tourism and Antiquity (MOTA). Its budget since 1993 continued to be the least among its sister ministries in the newly born authority. Nevertheless, donations for NGOs working in the ďŹ eld of heritage have also been the least among the civil society institutions. With the continuation of the Arab-Israeli conict, the donor’s community as well as PNA are realising more and more that the past funding trends did not lead to development, and voices are calling for other resources of development such as heritage. After Oslo Agreement (1993), substantial eorts were directed towards heritage. This was reected in the many institutions and the many restoration BOE SFIBCJMJUBUJPO QSPKFDUT JO UIF 1BMFTUJOJBO UFSSJUPSZ :FU BT TUBOET today, heritage suers from neglect and mal-management such that it doesn’t play a major (expected) role in the Palestinian GNP or appears as such in its expenditures. Funding History for Palestine: As a result of the Israeli occupation, the PNA was handed the inhabited zones of the West Bank and Gaza Strip in rather very bad shape concerning infrastructure, health, schooling, employment. The PNA started from scratch to re-correct the long years of recklessness. To do so, from 1994-2005, the PNA received US$ 4.677 billions as donations form foreign countries. Before the current Intifada most donations were directed towards development while the rest was allocated to budget support and emergency needs. In the last few years donations were shifted towards humanitarian and emergency needs, a trend that didn’t come to halt until our current days. Sectors such as infrastructure, governance and civil society, human resource development and productive sectors are considered as development projects according to the WB and donors’ criteria. These sectors received most of the funds; more than two thirds of the budget were directed to infra-structure and human resourced development and only one third was allocated to governance and civil society and productive sectors, the later being the least. Nation of Beggars: The donation mechanisms as well as the allocation of funds mainly in the last few years have converted Palestinians to a nation of beggars; the Palestinian economy is built on the foreign donations without XIJDI UIF 1/" XPVME OPU CF BCMF UP TUBOE JUT SFTQPOTJCJMJUJFT :FU the donors dictated how and where the funds should be spent. As a result the PNA could not have an independent development vision for Palestine. Some funds were counterproductive and managed not to inuence the overall economic situation. For example, the employment generation (job creation) which has been the key funding issue after (2000) contributed as much as to the Israeli economy as much as to the Palestinian economy1; for each US dollar injected in the Palestinian economy, 45 cents have been channelled through the multiplier eect

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to the Israeli economy. Strange enough, productive sectors in Palestine such as agriculture and tourism received very little donations2. Housing which is considered an infra-structure development project received only around 2% from the donations to the PNA. Nevertheless, the donors’ policy reected itself on the Palestinian budgetary; the priorities of the donors were adopted by the PNA priorities. This could be noticed in Socio Economic Stabilization Plan (SESP) list of projects of the Ministry of Planning (MoP) published on the ministry’s oďŹƒcial website3. The list of projects includes mainly infrastructural works. Culture and tourism are almost absent. The Ministry of Tourism and Antiquity appears once in a capacity building for policy development in Palestinian line ministries. The productive sectors such as tourism and agriculture were, consciously or unconsciously, marginalised in the Palestinian Budget. The accounts4 show that the Ministry of Tourism and Antiquities (MOTA) expenses were 0.2% from all over PNA budget. Also, the Ministry of Agriculture share from the budget was 1% from over all PNA budget for the years 2003-2005. The PNA budget doesn’t represent a development model since it doesn’t allocate budget that encourage productive sectors though they play a major role in employment generation and in the GNP. Tourism contributed substantially to GNP and employment generation5. The well established sector of agriculture contributed more to the Palestinian economy6. Heritage development is a necessity for development: Heritage, if well managed, would constitute a major asset to Palestinian economy. The last years of employment generation in conservation works approved that they contribute substantially to Palestinian community. Being labour intensive activity, relying on domestic materials and on the local Know-How (Fig 2), the job creation through restoration programs left a direct multiplier eect on the Palestinian economy. Implementing agencies are ever more aware of the fact that their former polices did not and eventually will not lead to development. The Report on the Program of Assisting to the Palestinian People (2003) concluded by a statement that calls for reversing the pattern of development assistance observed in 1999-2000 and allocating more funds to the relatively intensive labour industries and agriculture. Having said so, I believe that developers should shift from relief to development utilising heritage, light industries and agriculture bearing in mind the following: 1. The former donation polices not only didn’t lead to development or prosperity but changed the Palestinian to a nation of beggars. 2. The PNA should have a vision for development and should act as a leader and as a catalyst for the development. 3. The donations should be directed to support productive sectors such as cultural tourism, light industries and agriculture. 4. The development of tourism implies the development of facilities and the rehabilitation of heritage goods as a medium for this tourism. 5. To start an ambitious plan and to maximize the beneďŹ t of the donations it must be oriented towards the Palestinian economy that has relative independency from the Israeli economy such as heritage rehabilitation. 6. With the existing Israeli occupational measures it is not possible to have development.

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Conclusion: Developing countries are more and more aware of the heritage value for their economy, in the Mediterranean basin countries such as Egypt, Tunis, Morocco, Lebanon and most recently Syria are establishing themselves as tourist destinies and build their economy around alternative resources. For example, the Syrian government is investing US$ 4 billion in the ďŹ eld . Foreign funds were counterproductive and defeated its purpose in many occasions. Controversially, the development of Palestinian heritage sites will attract more tourists to the Israeli airport, hotels and restaurants. This puts the Palestinian aspirations to construct a viable state on a crossing point. It is more evident that if Palestinians want to establish a viable state, then they need to abolish former funding and spending systems. Rehabilitation of historic centres for housing or tourism, presentation of the enormous archaeological heritage became a necessity. The heritage rehabilitation will trigger a dynamics that will enable the Palestinians to establish strong economy that relies on its resources and not on foreign funding.

1

The Report on the Program of Assisting to the Palestinian People entitled “International Support to the Palestinian People 1999-2000 / 2001-2003�. A compendium prepared by United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD) presented at the Consultative Meeting: Palestine Rehabilitation and Development Forum, Beirut 29-30 July 2003.

2

3.8% and 1.3% respectively between 2001 and 2003 and received 2.1% and 7.1% respectively between 1999 and 2000. The substantial amount allocated to tourism between 1999 and 2000 is due to the Bethlehem 2000 Project.

3

IUUQ XXX NPQ HPW QT FO BDNT TFTQ@QSPKFDUT BTQ SFDPSE*% 4&4 SFWJFXFE "QSJM 2007

4

The detailed expenses of the Palestinian Authority Jan 2003 to Dec 2005, published May 10th 2006. Palestinian Authority Published accounts. http://eufunding.org/ accountability/PublishedAccounts.html An electronic source reviewed April 2007

5

Before the current crises between 200,000 and 300,000 tourists visited sites such as Jericho and Samaria (Sabastiya). One million tourists visited Bethlehem in (1996) and two million visited Jerusalem in the years prior to the year (2000). Palestinian revenues from the tourist sector rose to US$ 120 millions in (1997). In the same year the Israeli revenues reached US$ 2600 millions, an indicator of the huge potential of this sector in the Palestinian GNP. The sad state of Palestinian tourism, by: Adnan Dagher. http://www. jmcc.org/media/report/98/Jun/3b.htm An electronic source accessed March 2007.

6

In 1999 agriculture (Fig 1) constitutes 33% from the GDP and absorbed 13% labour force. In 2002, agriculture share to the Palestinian economy declined to form only 9% from the GDP, yet it continued to absorb 13% Palestinian labour force. Economy of the 1BMFTUJOJBO UFSSJUPSJFT IUUQ FO XJLJQFEJB PSH XJLJ 1BMFTUJOJBO@/BUJPOBM@"VUIPSJUZ "O electronic source accessed April 2007.

7

Al Jazeera News. 28 April 2007.


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Una materia singular para un mundo global

Sandra Bestraten y Emilio HormĂ­as Docencia Profesores de la UPC. Asignaturas: “Vivienda y CooperaciĂłnâ€?- “TecnologĂ­as de bajo Coste para la CooperaciĂłnâ€? y “Talleres Experimentalesâ€? de la CĂ tedra UNESCO de Sostenibilidad. CooperaciĂłn Miembros de “Universitat Sense Fronteresâ€?. Responsables del Programa “EducaciĂłn para el Desarrollo, Boliviaâ€?, expatriados periĂłdicamente para ejecutar proyectos. Despacho profesional Bestraten HormĂ­as Arquitectura. EspecializaciĂłn en arquitectura sostenible. Viviendas, oďŹ cinas, rehabilitaciones. DirecciĂłn postal: Av. Europa, 55 desp.-F DirecciĂłn de correo electrĂłnico: sandra.bestraten@upc.edu TelĂŠfono: 932637924

686684823

“Vivienda y CooperaciĂłnâ€? Los programas docentes de las Escuelas de Arquitectura estĂĄn enfocados al uso exhaustivo de tĂŠcnicas de hormigĂłn y acero en la ediďŹ caciĂłn actual. El uso de la madera se trabaja muy tangencialmente y la tierra como material de construcciĂłn, sĂłlo se cita como memoria de un pasado nostĂĄlgico; Hoy en dĂ­a, la poblaciĂłn cuando realiza alguna obra en su casa y se percata de que vive en un ediďŹ cio construido en tierra, se inquieta como si su casa ya no fuese segura. Los arquitectos cuando tienen que rehabilitar ediďŹ cios de tapial o adobe, no tienen formaciĂłn en intervenciĂłn en estos materiales; ante este desconocimiento acaban reforzando los ediďŹ cios histĂłricos con hormigĂłn armado. La situaciĂłn actual no propicia un marco adecuado, especialmente normativo, que favorezca la rehabilitaciĂłn de la ediďŹ caciĂłn existente con tĂŠcnicas tradicionales o mejoras de las mismas, pero sin perder su carĂĄcter propio. En el aĂąo 1998 nace en la Escuela TĂŠcnica Superior de Arquitectura de #BSDFMPOB MB BTJHOBUVSB i 7*7*&/%" : $001&3"$*Âť/w DPO MB WPMVOUBE EF incidir en el espacio social que la arquitectura ocupa, en especial en el trabajo desarrollado en los Ăşltimos 20 aĂąos de cooperaciĂłn al Desarrollo realizado por ONGs y administraciones europeas. Desde su inicio, en el marco de la CĂĄtedra UNESCO de Sostenibilidad, esta asignatura pretende formar a los alumnos de la UPC como profesionales de la arquitectura con capacidad de acciĂłn en los proyectos de cooperaciĂłn. La asignatura se estructura en dos cuatrimestres. Durante el primero se analizan soluciones urbanas en la planiďŹ caciĂłn de ciudades del tercer y

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cuarto mundo. Se presta especial atenciĂłn a los procesos de gestiĂłn y organizaciĂłn social de los proyectos. Durante el segundo cuatrimestre, la asignatura que pasa a llamarse i5&$/0-0(Âś"4 %& #"+0 $045& 1"3" -" $001&3"$*Âť/w 4F QSPGVOEJ[B en el conocimiento y la investigaciĂłn de tecnologĂ­as constructivas con materiales de bajo coste, que puedan resolver de forma eďŹ ciente, sostenible i econĂłmica el “hambre de viviendaâ€? de los paĂ­ses en vĂ­as de desarrollo. En este marco hay soluciones tĂŠcnicas tradicionales que adquieren gran importancia por su adecuaciĂłn a los requerimientos de cooperaciĂłn al desarrollo. Solo por poner un ejemplo, un saco de cemento en Bolivia vale 3 veces mĂĄs que en EspaĂąa. Teniendo en cuenta que el coste de la vida es unas 8 veces mĂĄs bajo, se puede entender la insostenibilidad social y econĂłmica como soluciĂłn generalizada, existiendo otras alternativas. Talleres Experimentales de construcciĂłn Durante la primavera, en paralelo a las clases del segundo cuatrimestre se realizan Talleres Experimentales. Los estudiantes construyen pequeĂąos prototipos de vivienda a escala real, poniendo en prĂĄctica alguna de las tĂŠcnicas estudiadas en clase, bĂĄsicamente las basadas en el uso de la tierra cruda. Se han construido bĂłvedas numĂ­dicas sin cimbra con adobes de tierra, cubriendo un ĂĄmbito de 6m2. Se han fabricado bloques de tierra comprimidos con prensas manuales. TambiĂŠn se han construido muros de tapial, utilizando una tĂŠcnica ancestral con aportaciones actuales: martillo neumĂĄtico, encofrados propios del hormigĂłn, estabilizaciĂłn con cemento blanco, en un intento de aproximarnos a una industrializaciĂłn de esta tĂŠcnica. PrĂĄcticas en proyectos de cooperaciĂłn La asociaciĂłn “Universidad sin Fronteras - Universitat Sense Fronteresâ€? PSHBOJ[B FO DPPSEJOBDJĂ˜O DPO MB BTJHOBUVSB i 7*7*&/%" : $001&3"$*Âť/w un vivero de formaciĂłn in situ. Algunos estudiantes de la asignatura, se seleccionan para participar en proyectos de cooperaciĂłn durante los veranos en el marco del programa “EducaciĂłn para el desarrolloâ€?. Desde sus inicios en el 2000, recibe el apoyo del Centro de CooperaciĂłn para el Desarrollo de la Universitat PolitĂŠcnica de Catalunya, CCD-UPC. Parte esencial de los mismos es recuperar tipologĂ­as urbanas y sistemas de construcciĂłn tradicionales que todavĂ­a hoy son vigentes en las regiones de trabajo y que son parte intrĂ­nseca de su valor patrimonial. El proyecto de cooperaciĂłn se convierte en el contacto directo con la realidad y permite la aplicaciĂłn de las tecnologĂ­as autĂłctonas con las mejoras oportunas. De esta forma, se complementa el programa docente universitario con la realizaciĂłn de proyectos reales en los que poder aplicar los conocimientos adquiridos. En todo momento hay el apoyo tĂŠcnico in situ de los profesores de la asignatura. Ă mbito de trabajo, Patrimonio de la Humanidad La zona de trabajo principal es la regiĂłn tropical de Bolivia que limita con Brasil y forma parte de las Misiones de Chiquitos. La presencia misional dejĂł un patrimonio arquitectĂłnico en tierra y madera realmente trascendental que todavĂ­a hoy perdura vivo. Por este motivo en 1990, despuĂŠs de un proceso de rehabilitaciĂłn integral, fueron declaradas Patrimonio de la Humanidad por la UNESCO. San Ignacio de Velasco con 30.000 habitantes es la capital de las misiones. OrganizaciĂłn de los Proyectos de CooperaciĂłn Tales proyectos de cooperaciĂłn se conciben desde una perspectiva


Le projet de réhabilitation : réflexion sur les critères El proyecto de rehabilitación: reflexiones sobre criterios The rehabilitation project: reflections on criteria

integral, reforzando los oficios tradicionales, introduciendo mejoras tecnológicas en la producción de materiales (adobe, madera) y en los sistemas de puesta en obra e integrando plenamente las edificaciones en la estructura urbana y social del medio. Más de 5.000 personas han trabajado voluntariamente en la construcción de las escuelas de sus hijos, colaborando con un día voluntario por familia de manera que cada día han participado cinco padres, que sucesivamente durante dos meses, se han implicado con la construcción de cada escuela, sumando unas 500 personas. Esta organización del trabajo permite concienciar a la población local en la validez de los materiales y sistemas de construcción utilizados, siendo un medio eficaz y directo de capacitación y difusión de las mejoras tecnológicas incorporadas, que después podrán utilizar en la autoconstrucción de sus casas de adobe y madera. Hasta ahora, en estos siete años, 90 estudiantes universitarios y más de 20 técnicos, durante los dos meses no lectivos de verano, han trabajado construyendo 6.000m2, repartidos en diez escuelas de la región de la Chiquitania Boliviana. Como proyecto principal se ha iniciado la construcción de una universidad pública, la Universidad Indígena Chiquitana en San Ignacio de Velasco, Bolivia. El objetivo del proyecto es potenciar la educación superior, equilibrando la población en el territorio y generando un motor de desarrollo de una región con muchas deficiencias. La participación de los voluntarios en los proyectos Para un estudiante de arquitectura el proyecto de cooperación es la oportunidad de hacer un seguimiento completo de todo el proceso arquitectónico. Esto implica la definición del mismo, desde su concepción hasta el detalle constructivo, las mediciones, cronograma de la obra y la gestión. Participan en la solicitud de las ayudas económicas para poderlo realizar, y por último la construcción in situ. El conocimiento previo que se ofrece permite dar las herramientas necesarias para la elaboración del proyecto. El diseño se concibe desde la optimización de las técnicas tradicionales de la región, convirtiendo el proyecto en un posible modelo para la población local en futuras construcciones. La dirección de obra se sigue de forma constante cada día por los cooperantes, pudiendo incidir en todos los detalles y controlando la calidad de la ejecución. La gestión económica del proyecto también se realiza de forma directa por los cooperantes, buscando siempre el reparto del trabajo y la correcta ejecución de los materiales. En paralelo a la construcción de escuelas se han creado cooperativas de tejeros, para unificar criterios de fabricación como medidas y calidades. Para darles apoyo técnico se han construido hornos con cámara de cocción que permita aumentar la temperatura y mejorar la calidad de los productos cerámicos y hacerlos competitivos frente a los materiales importados de la ciudad. Desde la misma perspectiva se han iniciado proyectos de pavimentación con adoquinado cerámico, que permite dar una solución más económica a la convencional pavimentación de cemento. A su vez, el adoquinado ofrece mucho trabajo a la población local, es una solución reversible que permite incorporar instalaciones paulatinamente y ofrece una imagen más acorde con el entorno patrimonial. Una de las facetas más importantes del trabajo del cooperante es la organización del trabajo voluntario de la población local. Aunque se organiza para que la colaboración de cada día sea de unas 5-10 personas, hay días, especialmente los sábados, que se aprovecha para dar de comer a todos los voluntarios y fomentar un día de trabajo

más festivo. Pueden llegar a participar hasta 100 personas en un día. Organizar y distribuir la colaboración según las capacidades de cada persona se convierte en un pilar para optimizar la colaboración. Durante los dos meses que dura el proyecto se finaliza la estructura y la cubierta, de manera que la construcción esté protegida a la llegada de la época de lluvias. Después falta finalizar los acabados como pintar, pavimentar, colocar luminarias. Los beneficiarios continúan el proyecto sin la presencia de la cooperación. Se dejan listos los materiales necesarios y lo finalizan con el mismo sistema de trabajo participativo. Este hecho, permite demostrar que sin la cooperación pueden realizarlo y se ha garantizado la transferencia tecnológica y de gestión. Financiación de los proyectos Cada año el presupuesto de la Asociación para los proyectos en Bolivia es de 50.000 €. aproximadamente. Los proyectos arquitectónicos tienen un presupuesto de 40 €/m2, incluyendo acabados. Los proyectos se han financiado con el apoyo económico durante últimos años del Centro de Cooperación para el Desarrollo CCD-UPC, el Colegio de Aparejadores y Arquitectos Técnicos de Barcelona, la Diputación de Barcelona, el Ayuntamiento de Barcelona y el Ayuntamiento de L’Hospitalet. La contraparte de los proyectos son las alcaldías respectivas de cada municipio boliviano donde se trabaja, que aportan manutención de los cooperantes conviviendo con familias locales, los terrenos de los equipamientos, mobiliario, sueldos de los profesores y mantenimiento de la infraestructura. Sin embargo, lo esencial del proyecto es el intercambio de conocimiento y el enriquecimiento mutuo.

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Le projet de rĂŠhabilitation : rÊexion sur les critères El proyecto de rehabilitaciĂłn: reexiones sobre criterios The rehabilitation project: reections on criteria

A window for contemplating aesthetics The traditional courtyard revisited

Nabeel Elhady and Raghad Mofeed Nabeel Elhady holds a bachelor of architecture form Cairo University and a PhD in Architecture and urban design from the same university. He currently teaches at Cairo university in addition to having a private practice. Raghad Mofeed also holds a bachelor of architecture form Cairo university and a PhD in Architectural criticism from the same university. She currently teaching at Cairo university as well as the Arab Academy. Address: 1 3/4 street #221 Degla, Maadi, Cairo Egypt 2 32 Melsa Buildings, apt. # 33, Naser City. Cairo, Egypt E-mail address: rmofeed@yahoo.com Telephone: (+2010)6005320

nelhady@soďŹ com.com.eg

(+2010)1959295

Introduction Studying aesthetics in Cairo Teaching aesthetics in architecture in Cairo is relatively recent subject. It started as a postgraduate course discussing mainly the psychological aspect of aesthetics and the related theories among which the Gestalt was a dominant. Few years ago the subject was introduced to the undergraduate level with a somewhat similar content. Tow years ago there was an opportunity to introduce a dierent approach and content. Here we are trying to outline this still early eort. Our concern when we made the proposal of the course was how to convey to the students not only the ideas but the importance and relevance of such an essential subject in architecture. We were face by a number of challenges; ďŹ rst the challenge of the dealing with the subject. According to John Lang Aesthetics is studied in tow ways ; ďŹ rst emphasizing the process and hence becoming more interested in the issues of perception and human behavior and reaction to objects. This is the psychological approach. The other is approach that focuses mainly on the meaning of Aesthetics and its relevance to the essence of architecture and design in general. This second approach is the philosophical approach. We opted for an approach that tries to combine both the physiological which is more tangible and comprehendible with the philosophical which is more elusive. The second issue that confronted us is how to teach Aesthetics in an Arab Islamic country where issues of Aesthetics are not really discussed from our point of view. Rather it is discussed through the studying of Gesthalt theories, Aristotle, Plato, and others. We as Egyptians and Cairo residents are lacking a solid ground to stand on in our discussing of Aesthetics. Therefore we thought of ďŹ nding an object that holds

for us and the students and Cairo citizens an undisputed ( form our point of view) level of beauty. Through our numerous visits and travel around Cairo, we came to the courthouse of medium sized Mamluk house named Zainab Khaton. In this court we thought that we found a beautiful place through which we can address the subject of Aesthetics in architecture in Cairo. Zainab Khaton courtyard contemplated We arranged a number of visits to the court yard with our forty students. Our tools were a sketch book and a camera. We stressed more the sketch book as though it encourages the deep observations and engagement in the courtyard. As the slides shows there were numerous points of views. 1-Layering When looking at the architectural elements that exist in the court yard there is a sense detailing that takes you form certain level to another in a continuous way. This sense of connected layers of things is at the same time unfold to the observer other things and qualities or other connected worlds (details of the Mashrabia). 2-Subtleness Look at how openings meet their wall, and note how are very ďŹ ne detailing is used to declare this relation. Also note how stone are cut in dierent sizes and forms , how wood is treated in doors and in windows. There is a sense of subtleness in the courtyard that means in a way that builders were very sensitive to dierent situations, locations, and materials. And there is also odd relations that might be a result of dealing with the accidents that took place during the building in a clever way and turning them into meaningful acts. 3-Ambiguity, mystery, secrecy. The sense of that there is some thing hidden or concealed can be notice whenever you look in the courtyard. The lattice structure of the Mashrabia is reinforcing this sense. The way you enter the courtyard and even the scale of the openings even if they are large. 4-Calmness When entering the court we and the students observed this overall DBMNOFTT :PV GFFM PĂľFOEFE XIFO TPNFCPEZ SBJTFT IJT WPJDF BT JG UIF court yard telling you to be quite. One might think that calmness is derived not only form profound sense of stability of elements and how they relate to each other, but it is also a result of a sort of slow rhythm that relates the objects ( it may be also noted in the slow rhythm of Arabic music and azan). This calmness is what Christopher Day calls the healing silence. To him this was one of the greatest qualities of environments around us. It is not death; rather it is the sound of resting where you are hearing the sounds of your body . 5-Grace and Glory In the court yard there is a sense of glorifying the sky in the way by which the court surrounds and ascends to it. This gloriďŹ cation that some considers as a condition of architecture . This might have a connection to the genesis of the courtyard as it came to being in Sumer. The universe to the Sumerians was mainly heaven and earth. The mythology says that they were united until ‘Lilâ€? which is wind, breath, spirit came and separated them . The court yard became the

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Le projet de rĂŠhabilitation : rÊexion sur les critères El proyecto de rehabilitaciĂłn: reexiones sobre criterios The rehabilitation project: reections on criteria

place where they come together again. 6-Humility Objects in the courtyard are not striking in the ďŹ rst instance. They are also looks as they are good neighbors to each other. There is a sense of fragile structure or image. The strength of this fragility is of adopting “a posture that is not aggressive and dominating but tangential and weak.â€? The reconstruction of the courtyard The idea of this part of the class was to invite each student to create his or her own courtyard (named after his or her family) based on the qualities learned from Zaynab Khaton courtyard. They were free to choose any medium they can think of in order to do that. It can be certain material, color, covering or otherwise. This exercise aimed at investigating the possibility of creating contemporary houses of deep aesthetical quality, and hence further investigates on the nature of beauty in architecture. The exercise ended up with various proposals that in one way more concentrating on the formal aspects of the old courtyard. Few yet were in there way to touch on the qualities of beauty and were able to propose a tart of creative ideas. There were three points emphasized in the students’ proposals; 1- the ground of the court yard 2- the openings of the court yard 3- the Roof of the courtyard As seen in the slides the former points were made in a way that interpret the students understandings of the qualities observed. The exercise proved to be more diďŹƒcult and required more time than what was allocated. From our point of view, the results of the exercise did not lead us in the same way that the observations took us to. Reections Thinking about the observations and the exercise made by the students presents a number of issues. We believe that these issues are not only concerned with the nature of architecture but they also question the extent to which architecture as an art and object of aesthetics is connected or detached from the daily experience of life. Beauty and Art in Cairo SuďŹ men where mostly responsible of the most acts of buildings and craftsmanship in Cairo at the time when Zainab Khaton where built . They believed in three basic principles of undertaking of any good act; 1- Imagination 2- Taste 3- Patience. In Arabic beauty is gamal which is related to gamal or camel who was worshiped in the era before Islam. Camel used to be a symbol of abundance, fertility and beauty . Art in the other hand is Fann . It points to good work, or craftsmanship. Fanan (artist) means a creative maker.

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Architecture and Art Architecture is usually perceived as an art or as a hybrid of art and science . May be more convincingly some would see it as a practical art. In the latter view architecture comes into being in the tension that is created between the artistic domain and the real life domain. According to Wilson “It is historically the task of architecture to draw them together and to make of that very occasion an act of discovery, a revelation about a way of framing the daily activities and celebrations and rituals of society in ways that oer them both place and identity “ Aesthetics and Ethics Architecture is a process of exploring. In this process of exploring the creation of good or beautiful piece of work becomes a constant matter of making choices between polarities. In this view architecture can be seen as an ethical process. But as this process aspires to the beauty, Aesthetics becomes the dominant or the superior. According to Rinato Rizzi Aesthetics becomes the mother of ethics . In this way we come to appreciate Moore ‘s view on the nature of the good ; “The inquiry into what is valuable or what is really important... into the meaning of life, into what makes life worth living, the right way of living.â€? Ihsan is the Islamic ethical principle that denotes attaining beyond normal obligations; it includes “itkanâ€? or precision, and perfection . Teaching Aesthetics Beyond theories and into practice and reality In the beginning of the teaching and of course during it we were interested in introducing to the student the Hegelian, and the Kantian thoughts on Aesthetics. We thought that they are more relevant to PVS WJFX PG "FTUIFUJDT :FU XF TUBSUFE UP UIJOL BCPVU UIF QPTTJCJMJUZ of deriving our own theories on Aesthetics that is driven mainly for reading the very rich context of Cairo. We were not sure if the theory is a prerequisite of doing any useful reading and even in drawing lessons for making architecture. And despite that we do not agree with Speaks that “theory is not just irrelevant but continues to be an impediment to innovation. “ Still we wonder if there is a possibility of continues dialogue between theory and practice. Blomstedt rightfully noted that “Theoretical contemplation is essential, but let us remember that the Greek verb theoria originally meant to examine, not to speculate, It is said that the basis of all brilliant perceptions is an immediate personal observations ,.â€? We think that what we are seeking is a process where observations, making, theorizing, and designing became a continuous process with no clear cut rather inherent integration. From courtyard to Entrances. In the following year (which is this year) we continued to experiment with the subject. We chose entrances as the object of our observations and contemplations on Aesthetics. We were trying to here tow things. First we wanted to develop more our ideas of observations and the underlying qualities. Therefore, we introduced a physical model of the subject of contemplation as a way to understand more the qualities through the making of a fairly large physical model (1:20). We wanted the students to elaborated there sense and understanding of the entrance as an architectural object. The following slides are showing the result of this part of the exercise. Second; we wanted to understand the entrance through deconstructing it as an object. We thought of this exercise as a way not only to further our thoughts on the relevance of the historic ediďŹ ce to contemporary practices but also to understand


Le projet de réhabilitation : réflexion sur les critères El proyecto de rehabilitación: reflexiones sobre criterios The rehabilitation project: reflections on criteria

the contemporary architectural ideas and practice that relates to beauty.

1

JOHN LANG. Aesthetic theory, in Designing Cities, A.Cuthbert ed., 2003 Blackwell Publishing

2

C.DAY, Places of the soul, Architectural press, London, 2004

3

See C.S. WILSON, Architectural reflections, architectural press,

4

Cited in FAOZI UJAM, The cosmological genesis of the courtyard house, in Courtyard housing, KTaylor & Francis, 2006

5

Cited in JUHANI PALLASMA, Notes on the fragile architecture, in Encounters, Pakennustietot, 2005.

6

SEE A. RAYMOND, Great Arab cities, See Also Nelly Hana

7

SEE ALY ZAYOOR, Toward an Arabic school of Aesthetics, in Algamaliat Alarabia,

8

See for example Naser Rabat, The culture of building and building of Culture, Dar alsaki, London, Bairout, 2003.

9

C.S. WILSON, Architectural reflections, architectural press,,

10

RENATO RIZZI, Space without a fault, public lecture at Cairo University, feb.2005.

11

Cited in C.S. WILSON, Architectural reflections, architectural press,

12

See NABEEL ELHADY, Ethics and urban form production, unpublished ph.d. Thesis, 1997.

13

MICHAEL SPEAKS, After theory, in Architectural Record, June, 2005.

14

Cited in Juhani Pallasma, Man Measure, and Proportion, in Encounters, Pakennustietot, 2005

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Reuse of Demolished Building’s Debris in Post war Construction An approach to conservation of traditional architecture

Khaled I. N. Ahmed, Hanan S. Wasfy Khaled I. N. Ahmed is a professor of building techology in the Department of Architectural Engineering, Zagazig University, Egypt. He has got his B.Sc. in Architecture from Alexandria University in 1981, and his Ph.D in: “Appropriate Building Technologyâ€?, from Cairo University in collaboration with Penn State Uni, USA. Professor Ahmed has long research, teaching and practical experience, in design and supervision of many projects. His work and patents are related to technical innovations of low cost traditional housing. Hanan S. Wasfy is the head of the architectural department at the Works Directorate of the Suez Canal Authority (SCA) at Egypt. She has got her B.Sc. in Architecture from Alexandria University in 1981. She is a consultant engineer, with a long experience in design of dierent projects. Her work in SCA has stimulated her interests and given her experience in conservation and rehabilitation of ancient French buildings in the Suez Canal region. E-mail address: khanabil@yahoo.com

hananwasfy@yahoo.com

Telephone: ++20105140518

++20105624662

1. Introduction: “if God had not enabled people to defend themselves against one another, corruption would surely overwhelm the earthâ€?. 2.251. “if God had not enabled people to defend themselves against one another, all monasteries, churches, and mosques, would surely have been destroyedâ€?. 22.40 Translation of the Holly Quran Mediterranean is the interchange pot of civilizations, which have moved along its shores, rarely by trade, while mostly by conicts and wars that brings destruction also. Recently, wars have been spreading in the Mediterranean from Bosnia, Albania, Cyprus, Lebanon, Israel and the ongoing destruction of Palestine, threatening the people, the built environment and the local architectural heritage. Developed countries with limited resources can not aord total rebuilding of demolished cities, as what happened in the southern district of Beirut at July 2006, where thousands or even millions of tons, of rubble have to be disposed, while roads have to be cleaned for post war construction. Thus, re-use of building debris is very important for

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sustainable development, having many beneďŹ ts as followed: t .JOJNJ[JOH DMFBOJOH DPTU BOE UJNF GPS SFDPOTUSVDUJPO t 3FEVDUJPO PG USBOTQPSUBUJPO DPTU GPS EJTQPTBM PG EFCSJT BOE OFX materials. t 4BWJOH JO NBUFSJBM DPTU CZ VUJMJ[JOH SFDZDMFE NBUFSJBMT t &MJNJOBUF EJTQPTBM PG XBTUF UP MBOEmMM TJUFT XIJDI CFDPNF GVMM BOE costly. t $POTFSWJOH UIF FOWJSPONFOU t 4FMMJOH SFDZDMFE CVJMEJOH NBUFSJBMT PS QVSDIBTJOH BU MPXFS DPTUT which is usual for the poor, who got used to buy second-hand building materials. Moreover, recycling into the same architecture has a cultural crucial role probably more beneďŹ ciary than economics and environment. Bevan thinks that “the destruction of symbolic buildings and the physical fabric of cities is not merely collateral damage, but a deliberate intention by the attacker, to dominate and eliminate the memory, history and identity of the opposing side...The war in Bosnia saw an almost complete destruction of a unique and beautiful Islamic heritage, whose existence was simply denied by local Serbianâ€? (Bevan 2006). Although, he argues, that “rebuilding in post-war cities or restoration of damaged buildings can never re-create their originality, the author thinks that rehabilitation by reusing some original material with new similar ones, could keep the image and the psychological feeling of traditional architecture. Recycling of war demolition waste was ďŹ rst carried out after the Second World War in Germany to tackle the problem of disposing large amounts of demolition waste caused by the war and simultaneously generate raw material for reconstruction. Dresden was destroyed by the ďŹ rebombing during World War II, where the largest rebuilding eorts ever in Europe, took place to restore many historical buildings. There is considerable research in advanced countries for recycling building waste, which has demonstrated possibility of using construction waste to substitute new materials. They are enforcing recycling in solid waste management rules, requiring that demolition debris, which composes about 50%, should be separated from the waste stream and segregated into recyclable and non-recyclable materials (Sherman 1996). Hopefully, most civilian buildings are demolished partially after wars, thus rehabilitation accounts for most of the building construction. However, war demolishing is dierent having many levels, analyzed latter by this study, after deďŹ ning the related technical terms. 2. DeďŹ nitions Reuse: the subsequent use of a material, product, or component upon recovery. Recycling: remanufacture materials into new products. Building demolition: knocking down, or explosion of a building. Debris: pieces of materials & rubble resulting from knocking down, or explosion. C&D waste: Construction and demolishing remains. Enriched uranium warhead: radioactive weapon using fuel of nuclear reactors. Depleted uranium warhead (DU): a weapon treated by the waste product of uranium enrichment process, which is less radioactive than enriched uranium. Deconstruction: systematic disassembly of a building in economical


Le projet de réhabilitation : réflexion sur les critères El proyecto de rehabilitación: reflexiones sobre criterios The rehabilitation project: reflections on criteria

and safe way, to re use materials and recover rare items like old umber or antique fixtures. Segregation: Keeping materials separated by type until they recycled. RCA: recycled concrete aggregates. 3. Research problem: There are many studies and applications of recycling and re-use of planned (civil) demolishing debris, but there is a scarcity of information about war demolishing except for land mark buildings. For instance, literature review shows that Dresden cathedral were rebuilt stone by stone using sophisticated computer modeling tool to restore its original shape, costing €180 million (Wikipedia, a). This goes beyond the capabilities of most governments, nevertheless, ordinary people who have limited resources and seeks the know-how. Moreover, there is almost no data on the technical aspect of post-war construction of traditional vernacular architecture. 4. Aim, objectives and limitations: The aim of this study is to drive the attention to the value of war demolished buildings’ debris, and provide a technical and economical approach to the conservation of traditional architecture. The paper objective is to set up a planned process of re-using building rubble in the same architecture. It is expected that people would reconstruct their buildings, with limited means, through civil societies and building communities to help each other. The research is concerned with traditional architecture, built with conventional local materials and techniques. It does not deal with conservation or rebuilding of monumental buildings, requiring sophisticated resources. This study is limited to the technical aspect of re-building, not design or policies, with special focus on the walls and floors’ rubble which forms most of the debris. 5. Demolishing types: 5.1. Planned demolishing; by a specialized contractor, who can recover usable materials between 25% in old buildings, and 75% in new buildings. IT has been reported that this process saves up to 30% of the building cost (TIFAC). 5.2. Natural disasters’ demolishing: caused by floods, earthquakes, tornados etc., their effect could be more than war demolishing. For instance, the 2001 earthquake of Gujarat, India has devastated a large number of villages and towns. This earthquake had a profound effect on structures of all types; ancient, modern, traditional masonry and contemporary reinforced concrete (UNESCO). 5.3. Systematic hostile demolishing; using bulldozers and tanks against non-military buildings. For example, crushing historic buildings in the ancient Casbah in Nablus, Palestine in 2002, was described by the head of the Israel Museum, as “non-existent damage “ (Bevan 2006). 5.4. Demolishing using fire bombs, known as incendiary bombs, designed to start fires using materials such as napalm, or white phosphorus, causing extreme temperatures that could destroy most buildings made of wood or other combustible materials. However, buildings constructed of stone tend to resist incendiary destruction unless they are first blown by high explosives.(Wikipedia.b). Although UN Protocols on Conventional Weapons prohibits the use of incendiary

weapons against civilians, Israel has used phosphorus bombs in Gaza and Lebanon (Fisk 2006). 5.5. Dirty war demolishing; to prevent humanitarian aids and delay reconstruction, e.g. Israeli army flooded southern Lebanon with cluster bombs before war ends (Worker, J. 2007). In this particular demolishing type, mine clearing should precede reconstruction. 5.6. Non-usable demolishing debris; using radio-active weapons. American and British forces used depleted uranium (DU) shells in Bosnia and Iraq, where years later, a plague of cancers emerged across large areas. More over, Israel has used enriched uranium weapons in Gaza and Lebanon (Fisk 2006). The particles of the explosion are very long-lived in the environment, and spread over long distances. It is believed that the weapon is highly carcinogenic and harmful to the environment (Rapoport 2006). Thus, recovered components and debris should not be re-used, nevertheless living in the hit area. 6. Re used materials from building debris: Recovered materials are different according to type of demolishing and the building structure, whether wall bearing or skeleton. It is known that Mediterranean traditional architecture is usually built of stone or brick, and of wooden floors and roofs in northern and eastern regions. Wood composes about 20 % of the debris, while it is less in south of Mediterranean, as floors could be arched stone or brick. Because the largest portion of the debris is rubble, it would be studied in detail, by the end of this section. The following is a short literature review on the feasibility of recycling various C&D waste: 6.1. Wood is easily burned however, waste can be processed and used for landscaping, compost, or engineered building products. Wood chips could be compacted and injected with cement grout, to produce wood-concrete, which could be swan and nailed, to provide low-cost wood alternative (Kassai 1995). Construction timber is often treated with chemicals to prevent Termite infestation therefore it needs special care during disposal. Other problems associated are inclusion of jointing, nails, screws and fixings. Recovered wood components, in good condition are reused as it was, to preserve the building image. 6.2. Metals such as copper, bras, lead, aluminum and steel with its different types are generated during demolition in the form of pipes, conduits, sheets, wires and bars. These are the easiest and most costeffective materials to be reused directly if in good shape. In fact, steel is Europe’s most-recycled material with an average recycling rate of 50%. Reinforcement bars and sheets could be straightened, while scrap could be re-melted in metal yards (Ozkan 2000). 6.3. Glass sheets are reusable if intact, while broken pieces can be recycled into fiberglass or used in place of sand in paving material. Glass fragments is easily processed into a number of new materials; mineral wool, to substitute quartz in sanitary ware, and to produce light-weight structural concrete. 6.4. Isolation materials e.g. asphalt layers and bituminous materials are commonly recycled, by hot or cold mixing technique either at location or at a central asphalt plant.

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6.5. Marble oors and cladding sheets could be used even broken, in smaller sizes, by pre casting with same color terrazzo mortar, to produce larger sheets. 6.6. Sanitary ware can also be re-used if they are not chipped or cracked, but if they are, It would be better to be crushed and used as construction inďŹ ll. Crushed and powdered sanitary have a pozzolanic nature same as other clay products, which could be used to produce low cost cements (Stulz & Mukerji 1993). 6.7. Demolition rubble containing masonry elements and concrete can be processed in crushing plants using wet or dry system, to produce recycled aggregates suitable for stucco works and concrete blocks of acceptable quality (Pernia&Ramos&Suarez&Malave 1996). Many studies have shown that RCA can be used as aggregate for new concrete. 6.7.1. Brick rubble is usually mixed with 20 % cement or lime mortar, could be reused, if they are not contaminated or mixed with vegetation or organic matters. Broken and discarded brick can be used as construction inďŹ ll or aggregate for non-structural concrete. Recovered brick with minimal damage is ideal for building rehabilitation. 6.7.2. Stone has been used widely in traditional architecture for several structural purposes, according to its properties (Abd-Elmaksood 2006). As a natural material, having dierent ages and color, it should be reused, even broken pieces, mixed with new similar stone, to sustain the building identity and soul. Partially damaged stones could be recycled as pre cast stone blocks, mixed with same color mortar in moulds at the same size of original stones (Fig. 1). During casting, it must be noticed that stone rubble, should face the ground, to be seen in the façade latter (Fig. 2) (Stulz & Mukerji 1993). 7. Concrete is the most used building material for the last century, even in traditional load bearing architecture, in foundations, sub layers and instead of wooden oors, especially in the southern of the Mediterranean. Because rubble reuse could reduce the volume of debris by 80% (US army 2004), it would be studied in depth, through the required steps and available technology as follows: 7.1. Steps of recycling rubble: 1. Checking the building site and clearing of left unexploded objects. 2. Choosing or Clearing a suitable area for material segregation. Quick removal of debris is necessary to start rehabilitation work (Fig.3). 3. In-site segregation for dierent recovered materials and for impurities. 4. Material classiďŹ cation into state (damaged, partially...) or graded sizes. 5. Clay brick rubble is crushed and used with lime as a binding material. 6. Concrete and masonry waste are crushed to produce a granular product of given particle size (Fig.4). Plants for processing of demolition rubble –RCA- are three types, dierentiated based on mobility, type of crusher and process of separation.

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7.2. Types of RCA plants (TIFAC): 1. Mobile plant; the material is crushed, screened and ferrous impurities are separated through magnetic separation. The plant is moved to the site and is suited to process only non-contaminated concrete or masonry waste. 2. Semi-mobile plant; removal of contaminants is carried out by hand and the end product is also screened. Magnetic separation for removal of ferrous material is carried out. End product quality is better than of a mobile unit. 3. Stationary plants are equipped for carrying out crushing, screening as well as puriďŹ cation to separate the contaminants. Issues necessary to Stationary plant are: plant location, road infrastructure, availability of land space, provision of weigh-bridge, provision for storage area etc. 7.3. Some technical consideration for RCA (TIFAC): t %FOTJUZ PG SFDZDMFE BHHSFHBUF JT MPXFS BOE XBUFS BCTPSQUJPO JT higher. t .JYFE EFCSJT XJUI IJHI HZQTVN QMBTUFS TIPVME OPU CF VTFE BT mMM t 8PSLBCJMJUZ PG DPODSFUF EFDSFBTFT XJUI JODSFBTFE QPSUJPOT PG demolition waste. Up to 30% of natural coarse aggregate can be substituted. t 3$" NBJO QSPCMFN JT UIF QPTTJCJMJUZ PG DPOUBNJOBOUT JO PSJHJOBM debris, which would reduce the strength of the concrete. Organic substances like wood, textile fabrics, paper and other polymeric materials are unstable in concrete. Paints may entrain air in concrete. t 3$" PG CFTU RVBMJUZ GPS DPODSFUF QSPEVDUJPO JT PCUBJOFE XIFO JU JT graded. t 5P UBLF DBSF PG UIF QSPCMFN PG OPJTF BOE EVTU FNJTTJPO BTTPDJBUFE with recycling plant; acoustic screening around the equipment, use of muers/silencers and water spraying equipment should be used. 8. Conclusion: Developed Countries with limited resources can not aord re-building of demolished cities, where rubble piles have to be disposed. Thus, reuse of building debris in post war construction is crucial for sustainable development, having many beneďŹ ts; economical, environment and more important cultural. Recycling the same material, built by traditional techniques, could preserve the local architectural heritage, keep the memory and identity of the nation. Dierent demolishing types were analyzed, showed that some debris, e.g. radio-active, cannot be recycled. Most materials could be reused after segregation and classiďŹ cation, e.g.; damaged brick, stone and marble sheets are recycled into pre-cast blocks and terrazzo tiles blended with new similar material. As the largest portion of the debris is rubble, and its recycle could reduce the volume of debris by 80%, it was studied through the required steps and available technology, which turned to be simple and inexpensive. Masonry and concrete rubble are crushed to produce a granular product of given particle size suitable for stucco works and concrete blocks. RCA could substitute 30% of natural coarse aggregate of new concrete. Crushing plants for processing of demolition rubble –RCA- are three types, based on mobility, type of crusher and process


Le projet de rĂŠhabilitation : rÊexion sur les critères El proyecto de rehabilitaciĂłn: reexiones sobre criterios The rehabilitation project: reections on criteria

of separation. A mobile unit could be procured at low investment, useful for low quantum of waste and easily moved to the demolition site avoiding cost of waste transportation. To promote this technology, governments should ďŹ rst apply it on traditional public buildings, housing, and provide incentives in the initial phase. The study has managed to set up a planned process of re-using building rubble, providing a technical and economical approach to conservation of traditional architecture.

REFERENCES:

(Fig.2) Stone masonry construction using pre cast rubble. (Stulz & Mukerji 1993)

ABD-ELMAKSOOD, S. (2006) “Construction Systems As An Approach To The Restoration of Historical Buildingsâ€?, Unpublished Ph.D. thesis, Department of Architectural Engineering, Ain Shams University, Egypt. ASAD, M., “Translation of the meanings of The Holly Quranâ€?. At: www.islamicity.com BEVAN, R. (2006) “Destruction of Memory: Architecture at Warâ€?. Reaktion Books, UK. FISK, R. (2006) “Mystery of Israel’s secret uranium bombâ€?. The Independent online. http:// news.independent.co.uk/world/ďŹ sk/article1935945.ece. KASSAI, Y. (995).â€?Newly developed concrete with recycled timberâ€?, Disposal and Recycling of Organic and Polymeric Construction Materials, Proceeding of the RILEM Workshop, Ed. 0IBNB : -POEPO & '/ 4QPO Q OZKAN, S.T.E. (2000) “Recovery and reuse of demolition wasteâ€?, Unpublished Ph.D. thesis, Department of Architecture, Middle East Technical University, Ankara, Turkey. RAPOPORT, (2006) “Israel used uranium-based warheads in Lebanon warâ€?, 28th October 2006, Haaretz. http://www.haaretz.com/hasen/spages/780516.html SHERMAN, R. (1996) Managing Construction and Demolition Debris: A Guide for Builders, Developers, and Contractors, North Carolina Cooperative Extension Service, Publication Number: AG-473-19 (Internet). STULZ & MUKERJI (1993) “Appropriate Building Materialsâ€?, SKAT, Switzerland, p74-76. TIFAC; “Utilization of Waste from Construction Industry: Executive Summary Technology Informationâ€?, Forecasting & Assessment Council, New Delhi, India. www:mtifac.org.in. PERNIA&RAMOS&SUAREZ&MALAVE (1996) “Industrialized recycling of construction wasteâ€?, The 24th IAHS World Housing Congress, Ankara, Turkey, Vol. 1, P 1080, METU, Turkey. UNISCO; “UNISCO mission to Juratâ€?, The conservation of earthquake-damaged cultural properties, Internet.

(Fig. 3) Material segregation

US ARMY (2004) “Reuse of concrete materials from building demolition�, Public Works Technical Bulletin 14 September 2004, No. 200-1-27, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. WIKIPEDIA, a; “The Dresden Frauenkirche�, at www. Wikipedia.com. WIKIPEDIA, b ; “Incendiary bombs�, at www. Wikipedia.com. WORKER, J. (2007) “Israel planned 2006 Lebanon war�. http://israel.suite101.com/article.cfm/ JTSBFM@QMBOOFE@ @MFCBOPO@XBS

(Fig. 1) Filling the mould with rubble stones and compacting.

(Fig. 4) Rubble crushing.

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Le projet de rĂŠhabilitation : rÊexion sur les critères El proyecto de rehabilitaciĂłn: reexiones sobre criterios The rehabilitation project: reections on criteria

The Reection of Euro- Mediterranean Historical Culture on Contemporary Architecture in Alexandria

Ahmed B. El-Seragy (BSc., MSc., PhD)1, Amira M. ElNokaly (BSc., MPhil, PhD)1, Sarah Al-Saadani (BSc.)2 1Assistant Professor 2 Teaching Assistant

Architectural Engineering and Environmental Design Department, Arab Academy for Science and Technology, AAST Alexandria, Egypt www.aast.edu E-mail address: ahmed.elseragy@aast.edu amira.elnokaly@aast.edu TBSBI@BMTBBEBOJ!IPUNBJM DPN

Introduction Alexandria, the second largest city in Egypt, extends 32km along the Mediterranean coastline, and is the primary seaport of the country [1]. However, its roots go a long way back to prehistoric times, when Alexandria was originally a small ďŹ shing village named Rakotis, before Alexander the Great conquered the city in B.C 332 [2]. Alexander than turned Alexandria into a typically-designed linear Greek city with similar attributes to that of cities found on the mainland [3] as shown in Fig.1. Alexandria, for example, is greatly comparable to a Greek city such as Miletus in aspects such as its linear grid-iron planning system shown in Fig.2. Dinocrates and Hipodamus, Greek planners and architects, contributed greatly in the design of Alexandria by creating a causeway, the Heptastadion, linking the island of Pharos, previously home of the ancient Alexandria lighthouse, to the mainland [3]. This divided the coastline of the city into two; the Eastern and Western Harbours. Over the centuries, further development took place, inďŹ lling the areas around the causeway, transforming it into a continuation of the mainland, into the landform we are familiar with today as shown in Fig. 1. Since the establishment of the city, a lot of growth and expansion has taken place. Over the centuries, settlers came and went and, during the late 1800s and early 1900s, several European communities settled mainly in Alexandria [4]. This was a reason of Egypt integration as a principal cotton exporter into the world economic system, and Alexandria being the country’s largest port and principal export and ďŹ nancial centre [5]. Marks of their culture and lifestyle are still clearly visible in the city, particularly in their architecture, which is still in quite a good condition now. This paper aims to highlight the architectural character of Alexandria, as a Mediterranean city on the waterfront. The European architecture of the early 20th Century and its inuence can be easily considered a symbol of Alexandria’s past, its culture, tradition and history.

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Alexandria – Background Information: The architectural construction of early Alexandria can be mostly considered European renaissance style that ourished in the ages of conforming city counsels between 1858 – 1890 [3]. The architecture can be characterized by ďŹ ne and abundant detailed architectural elements, their consistency yet variation relative to their analogous altitudes. The skyline of Alexandria’s city centre, seen from what was once the Island of Pharos and is now the Anfoushi Bay, depicts a style of building that is rhythmatic, orderly and regular, a reection of the ourishing communities that previously resided in the city shown in Fig. 3. Despite the focus on intricate details in the building facades, the style of architecture can generally be characterized as simple, uncomplicated and superbly exquisite in composition. Furthermore, the composition of the urban pattern of the central part of the city similarly reects this simple yet very detailed town planning of the city, also revealing orderly streets and squares that have survived several centuries and generations. Alexandria- Development of the City The construction of this style of architecture, in the form of both residential and public buildings, and in coordination with symmetrical and systematic landscape features continued up until approximately the middle of the 20th Century. Some of the buildings that were left in a poor, deteriorated condition by the Europeans were promptly demolished, and ‘matchbox buildings’ were erected in all free spaces and in what used to be the lavish gardens of old villas. With the start of the era of modernism, box-like structures began to be constructed all over the world, including Alexandria. In addition, with overpopulation and the limited available number of spaces left to build in, architects, contractors and clients were all encouraged to construct these boxlike structures, without putting issues such as character, heights and consistency of design into consideration as shown in Fig. 3. As a result, the order of the skyline began to overturn, the rhythmic tempo of the oor heights ruined and the overall pattern started to become more and more disorderly with the continuing construction of these buildings, during the late 1970s and 80s as seen in Fig. 3. However, it was not until the 1990s that the government began to realize the disadvantageous eect the construction of these contemporary, modernist buildings were having on the skyline and the general urban form and fabric of the city. Therefore, it began to apply strict building codes and regulations on the demolition of buildings in poor conditions. Regulations were also furbished for the rehabilitation of signiďŹ cant historic buildings and the reconstruction of buildings in the remaining plots of land, which must now clearly respect the width to height ratios. Alexandria’s Coastal Mediterranean Line In the Mediterranean region, issues that pertain to identity, character, and architectural trends of the built environment have been in debate for several decades [6]. In Alexandria the fact of its being an Islamic country and the issue of sacred Symbolism that make it even much more diďŹƒcult to behold or comprehend. This dierentiating style, reecting the dierent eras in Alexandria’s history, can clearly be seen on the seafront of Alexandria. The city centre of Bahari and Anfoushi, which was once the Heptastadion, as well as what was once known as the prestigious area of Elmanshiya is still characterized by Europeanstyle buildings [7]. Although newer additions, modiďŹ cations as well as


Le projet de rĂŠhabilitation : rÊexion sur les critères El proyecto de rehabilitaciĂłn: reexiones sobre criterios The rehabilitation project: reections on criteria

poorly-designed signage on the building facades draw a lot of attention away from the beautiful intricate detail of the architecture itself. It is unfortunate that their conditions continue to depreciate year after year, because of a lack of cultural awareness of the signiďŹ cance of these buildings, which have led to poor maintenance of these buildings and further deteriorating conditions as time goes by. Some architects have attempted to achieve equilibrium between utilizing the available plots of land available to the utmost extent, while creating what they feel are beautiful facades that may reect the history BOE DVMUVSF PG UIF DJUZ < > :FU UIFZ EP OPU IBWF B QSPQFS VOEFSTUBOEJOH of the historic symbolism of the architectural vocabulary. However, in an attempt to develop and individualize the character of these ‘new neo-classic’ buildings, as they are sometimes labeled, the sacred proportions of certain architectural elements of the façade, such as Ionic and Corinthian columns, cornices and pediments have all been ruined. The result of this misunderstanding can be seen in various parts of the city, in a confused blending of matchbox structures hanging very high above tight and compact streets, with a false curtain of disproportionate modiďŹ cations of so-called Greek and Roman architectural elements. The change and development of the architectural character are very visible when one continues to progress along the waterfront of the city. As one starts moving from the edge of the city, one can still witness the obvious regularity in the pattern of the façades of the buildings, before a change starts to be seen further to the east. The clear beat is abruptly interrupted every now and again, and at unplanned intervals, with the sudden appearance of soaring, high-rise buildings shown in Fig.4. As one continues to move, the hasty yet indistinctive style of newer, modernist buildings continue to appear. Until we reach a point where those historic buildings so important for the inscription of Alexandria’s history, culture and tradition, cease to appear, and all one can see is the undisrupted irregular pattern of unplanned and poorly-designed buildings. The Designer’s Responsibility The polarity inuencing the shape and use of buildings in the historic context is the designer whose behavior is governed by a factor, an awareness of historic circumstance and a sense of responsibility to historic evidence. In some of the Egyptian designers this is suďŹƒciently undeveloped, due to a number of facts and mainly their deep inuence of the western curtain wall boxes. These boxes do not by any means ďŹ t our Mediterranean culture or climatic issues. This is thought to be a serious impediment. A professionally responsible designer may, in such a circumstance, pass the burden to a colleague better endowed with historical knowledge or sensitivity. The term responsibility indicates an accentuated sense of duty to the community expressing itself perhaps as a sense of privilege and this in itself becomes a constraint on the designer. Beyond that designers are driven by responsibility to their clients, (who usually have a poor understanding of history, culture and architecture and their inuence on the environment and whole society). Social duty at large and, that plague of all artists, the sense of their own artistry or artistic self importance, this may in itself lead to arrogance or the personal self interest of reputation making. These two incentives may themselves be in conict with the interests of the community in the rich historic Mediterranean context. Designers with sensitivity to the quality, or avor, of the historic Mediterranean environment will ďŹ nd themselves exercising special care over the impact of their work. They

will be conscious that the environment represents a statement in time and that their work can aect the apparent time in history that the environment displays. Herein lays the important principle: that it lies within the power of the designer to amend by reduction or enhancement the historic context. The constraint is the designer’s own sense of responsibility, respect of Alexandria’s established Mediterranean character and environment and attitude to change. Conclusion: It is imperative for designers with increasing commercial pressures, to be sensitive to the historic settings of a Mediterranean city like Alexandria and to recognize the delicate balance that is required between personal innovation and the character of extant buildings and landscapes. Warren [9] argues that designing in an historic environment requires an ‘awareness of historic circumstances and a sense of responsibility to historic evidence.’ The designer with sensitivity to the historic environment is working within a ďŹ ne balance. The main concern of Alexandria’s Mediterranean architecture like that found on the eastern harbour, is that the design is unduly historic, full of details that it may cause the environment to take on a greater historic appearance than is justiďŹ ed. If material is injected that is vigorously new and disruptive the historic quality of the environment will be diminished, thus each and every detail must be added with great care and precision. Finally, strict building codes and regulations have to be added to the Egyptian building codes regarding the conservation and rehabilitation of such buildings. As stated earlier there are regulations that prevent the demolition of such buildings but then, nothing that clearly states what to be done regarding conservation and preservation in some of their very poor situations.

REFERENCE 1. I. SHAW AND P. NICHOLSON, The Dictionary of Ancient Egypt (Harry N. Abrams, Inc.//ISBN 0-8109-3225-31995). 2. C. FREEMAN, Egypt, Greece and Rome (Civilizations of the Ancient Mediterranean) (Oxford University Press, ISBN 0-19-815003-21996). 3. E.M. FORSTER, Alexandria a History and a Guide1922). 4. P.C. SAAD, Writings for acquisition : Hellenizing Alexandria, Egypt Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Dept. of Architecture (2005) Thesis (S.M.) . 5. MOHAMED FOUAD AWAD, Italian Inuence on Alexandria’s Architecture (1834-1985), 1990). 6. A.M. SALAMA, Mediterranean Visual Messages: the Conundrum of Identity, Isms, and Meaning in Contemporary Egyptian Architecture, Archnet - IJAR 1, March, (2007). 7. T. VRETTOS, Alexandria, City of the Western Mind (Free Press, ISBN 0-7432-0569-32001). 8. SHAHIRA SAMY, Test of Time Aziza Fahmy Palace, Medina Magazine, Dec. (1998). 9. J. WARREN, J. WORTHINGTON AND S. TAYLOR, Context: New Buildings in Historic Settings:,Architectural Press. (1998).

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Figure 1: Photos depict the Eastern Harbour during Ancient Greek Times and the Hepastatadion Mainland Development during Modern Times

Figure 2: The Planning of Alexandria and Miletus, a Greek City, are Very Comparable

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Figure 3: Photos Depict the Overturn in the Skyline Heights and Rhythm through the Overall Pattern of Alexandria’s Coastal Line

Figure 4: Photos depict the old San Stefano Hotel & Casino and the New San Stefano Towers built on the ruins of the old one


Rendre compatible les techniques traditionnelles et les modernes Compatibilizar tĂŠcnicas tradicionales y modernas Combining traditional and modern techniques



Rendre compatible les techniques traditionnelles et les modernes Compatibilizar técnicas tradicionales y modernas Combining traditional and modern techniques

The ‘Svevo’ Village of Termoli. The traditional constructive techniques of Molise

Agostino Catalano Engineer, Ph. D. in “Technologies for the Building Recovery and the Technological Innovation”, Professor of Architettura tecnica to the Faculty of Engenering of University of Molise, Visiting Professor to the Faculty of Architecture of the University the Republic of Montevideo (Uruguay). He publishes volumes and articles about technological recovery of the traditional architecture. Address: Università degli Studi del Molise – Facoltà di Ingegneria – Via Duca degli Abruzzi – 86039 Termoli (CB) - Italia E-mail address: agostino.catalano@unimol.it Telephone: 347.0156552

In this contribution the noticeable traditional constructive techniques in Molise will be synthetically exposed, a small region of central Italy characterized by a mostly mountainous nature, with characteristic rural villages, and with a limited coastal area in which the city of Termoli in the province of Campobasso resides. The analysis of the traditional building typologies and the constructive systems of the architectonic patrimony, although not rich of any particular historical building of artistic value, can lead to a handbook useful in order to elaborate the criteria for the plan of recovery and conservation of the local buildings. The survey and the indexing of most common constructive systems and the materials used constitutes the only way to characterize those criteria culturally correct for the formulation of the recovery plan especially in a diversified architectonic panorama like the one of the Molise region with different characteristics in the inner areas and those by the sea. To such purpose the information collection with a standard form is that the author, with Camilla Sansone, is leading for the indexing of the typologies and the analysis of the associated constructive systems to characterize those common characters that can constitute the foundation of a recovery manual. The city of Termoli constitutes an important example of correlation, as it should be, between the historical parts of the city. Molise is known as a mountain region, barren, whose city centers are legacies of the Appennine ridge crossed by a net of “tratturi”, historical paths used by shepherds for the “transumanza” of the cattle, that characterize a beautiful territory, rich of valleys and in which the nature constitutes the determining factor. All that sublimes, when it reaches Termoli. The city is laid down by the Adriatic Sea and constitutes a territorial anomaly since it does not present those architectonic-urban values of the inner centers. If, in fact, they are compared, as an example, the plan organization of the city of

Termoli and that of the village of Ripalimosani we find and catalogue diametrically opposite ways of building, sure legacies of the different characters of the sites. The village of Ripalimosani is on an emerging rock mass that constitutes, at the same time, a solid foundation for the buildings and part of the same houses being inserted in the border and inner masonries of the constructions (fig.1). Termoli, instead, sees, constructions of various type, ordered on an almost flat territory, defined in a reticular plot that reminds us of the Greek hippodamean system for its regularity. Rural the first, diffusely noble dwellings the second a testimony of the “diversities” of Termoli due to the possibility of sea trade and the development of a wealth unknown in the remaining territory of Molise. The city plan is still today clear. The ancient nucleus, on the sea, the Svevo Village, well preserved, with its defensive walls and its towers, with its buildings collected around to the cathedral built by Federico II and with typological characteristics tied to the mercantile and fishing activities; outside, monumental, isolated and therefore of high value for its high degree of authenticity (fig.2). A short distance from the sea, the city center fruit of a nineteenth-century urbanization, tied to the ancient nucleus in an “alternative” way being external to it. Such diversities have lead to a varied elaboration of constructive techniques according to the clients. “Poor” techniques for the inner villages, tied to the natural resources, mainly classifiable as traditional in the sense of local development, more open towards the industrial development those noticeable in the Termoli area. The limestone and wood, materials present in abundance locally, constitute the raw materials for the load bearing structure and the noticeable elements of horizontal partition in the rural buildings; the stone and the bricks for the structure united to the iron for the ceilings constitute the materials of base of the termoli historical buildings. Obviously, the noticeable constructive techniques in the constructions of the Svevo Village reveal the adoption of stone and brick for the realization of the vaults as elements of horizontal partition. The realization of the vaulted structures, in particular, sees the uses of bricks, tied with chalk mortar, arranged with bricks on edge preventively aligned on shapes in earth on laggings realized with bundles of branches, that, as Camilla Sansone in other relation connected to this one writes, “... present widely articulate modalities of organization of the blocks that compose it, rich elaborate and accurate in the geometric and technical construction” (fig.3). The vaulted ceilings are found again in the Svevo Village also in order to create protected passages in the public streets and, in more advanced constructive shapes, the cathedral and the castle. The constructive techniques are determined directly by the typology of the buildings. The natural slope affects in a determining way the constructive characteristics, as already mentioned previously for a village like Ripalimosani, that uses the emerging rocks in order to avoid the damage deriving from the land being prone to landslides (fig.4). The position on the slope, with a number of floors limited to three, concurs, moreover, to the complete vision of the land, even if of limited extension, annexed to the house. The first level is always constructed partially underground in local stone coursed rubble and, where possible, partially inserted in the slope in order to realize the inner microclimate useful for the conservation of the food and the shelter of the animals. The ceiling of first level is usual realized with a barrel vault in stone elements. The higher ceilings, instead, are realized in wood in which one finds just one main framework on which a plank surface rests to shape the formwork for a successive base course made with argillaceous earth and straw in which very rarely one finds added

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tile fragments and pebbles. In Termoli, on the contrary, it is in the Svevo Village and in the nineteenth-century enlargement, that ceilings realized with iron beams and small brick vault or with pignatielli, light hollow bricks. These small vaults take the name of plaffoni. The foundations are, for the buildings of the coastal area of Termoli, of continuous type in masonry, therefore like the structures in elevation, even if these see several systems according to the local working abilities of the workforces. In particular, the vertical structures are constituted by masonries in stone of varied sizes, with double outer layers filled with incoherent material, with thickness of the walls tapered towards the higher levels; in some areas also well worked squared elements are present. Other type stone masonry with rounded off elements with mortar, or a load bearing structure in squared or partially worked stone blocks. In the building structures integrations are evident realized with various materials (bricks of varied typologies). The techniques for the realization of the partitions is particularly elaborated. Being non load bearing masonries they were realized with currents of fir or chestnut tree and a filling of canes or planks finished with plaster of chalk. Sometimes, in the coastal area, we can find fillings with cylindrical bricks. The roofs are fundamentally doublepitched roofs in the rural constructions, with the possibility to conserve foodstuff, while in the coastal area the terrace roof prevails with cornice realized with “romanelle”, three layers of tiles, jutting out progressively.

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The Swabian Village of Termoli. The vault system: tecniques and recovery

Camilla Sansone Architect, Ph. in “Technologies for the Building Recovery and the Technological Innovation”, researcher with biennial scholarship, visiting Professor to the Faculty of Architecture (Montevideo UY), Assistant Professor of “Technology for the building recovery” in the University of Molise (IT). She publishes volumes and articles about technological recovery of the traditional architecture. E-mail address: camilla.sansone@fastwebnet.it Telephone: 039 3331127900

The ancient Swabian Village of Termoli is the original nucleus of the adriatic town, whose foundation is dated, by archive sources, to the Vth century. It was born as an extension of a fortified emplacement pertaining to a system of sighting towers installed to protection of wraps coastal. This village constitutes an independent entity from the modern city, fruit of an expansion plan of the XIXth century. It presents uniform constructive characters that have been maintained unchanged in the centuries. As centre of the Bishopric and a trades port them Termoli has always been a rich city and this explains the notable characteristics present also in the more modest buildings. Apart from some of the wealthier buildings like the castle, the cathedral and lesser noble mansions, the building of the Swabian Village of Termoli was born in order to accommodate merchants and fishermen. The composition of these architectures is strongly conditioned by the requirements deriving from the activities tied to the sea. The buildings are on three levels: on the ground floor the storage for the equipment and the stock and a premises with the fireplace; on the first floor the residence for the family and, in the attic, a ventilated area for the conservation of the provisions. The construction materials from the technological survey carried out on these buildings show a prevailing local origin. The construction stones come partially from still existing quarries, for example the breccia del Gargano. The constructors, instead, show a typical technical formation of the swabian constructive culture, imported in Italy by the emperor Federico II, that was the initiator of the construction of the Cathedral of Termoli. The systems of horizontal partition of the buildings introduce a rich technological and constructive variety. The vault system, frequently used for the realization of the ceilings of the first level of the buildings, present widely articulate modalities of organization of the blocks that compose it, rich elaborate and accurate in the geometric and technical construction. The vault system is found also outside the buildings in the planning of the city system. In fact the Swabian Village of Termoli, raised on a limestone block nearly entirely encircled by the sea, is exposed to strong winds. For this reason it is delimited by a wide building curtain that protects the residential area and is characterized by tight and winding roads,

made mostly by means of city passages covered with characteristic barrel vaults in stone and brick. (img.1) Made in limestone and sandstone stone with disarticulated weaving in the ancient buildings, like the castle and the cathedral, the vaults assume, in the course of the centuries, more and more elaborate apparatus by use of the brick that, covered with plaster opportunely mixed guarantees a better capacity of the horizontal partition system. The simplest vault system is the barrel vault in stone to cover basements and underground spaces. The construction used a arch lagging in earth shaped with uses of bundles of wood, made with stone chips jammed together and tied with chalk or lime mortar. The traditional mortars are based on the baking and the treatment of local limekilns with river sand, in the proportion of 1/3 and 2/3. In order to accelerate the setting processes of the mortar chalk was added, or more often for vaults and hourdis ceiling only chalk mortar was used. The cladding spandrel was realized with a system known as “copertina a tre accavallatoi” cover with three levels, that is a filling obtained in three distinct phases. The first part has the task to fill up the interstices and the sides, the second level renders the surface flat still slightly curve while the third part finishes the surface destined to receive the pavement. In some cases the upper surface of the vault is left without filling or filled up with incoherent materials that offer insufficient support, the pavement is supported by an independent ceiling. The beams of this ceiling, supported on the mid portion of the vault below, can be of reduced dimensions. Structurally different are the vaults placed on the upper floors: with baked bricks, rectangular pianelle laid on edge high 0.15cm united with chalk or lime mortar with sand or volcanic sand (pozzolana), or small hollow floor bricks on lancet or skene arch lagging. The geometric configuration of these vaults generally is of versatile shape, pendentive dome or pavilion. (img.2) Less frequent are the groined volts that are found mostly in the covers of the footpace of the stairs The use of brick in the coastal area of the Molise widespread thanks to the presence of clay quarries; in fact the difficulties in the transports and the inadequate street net did not favour the transport of the construction materials. The activity of brick creation happened near the quarry. The procedure consisted in one first phase in which the clay in pieces was sifted by hand, and then struck with a mallet or crumbled under a stone. After a second passage in the sieves and an addition of water the material was pasted with the feet in appropriate pits lined with bricks. In order to make more valuable bricks the clay was left to sediment for five or six months exposed to the atmospheric agents. Every pit concurred the preparation of approximately 600 bricks. The confection of bricks employed of shapes positioned on a surface covered with sand or ash in order to facilitate the separation of the finished pieces. The shapes were rectangular for the making of bricks and pianelle. After the formation the next step was drying exposed to the air and then baking in appropriate furnaces. The handcrafted bricks, beginning from the 1800 had standard dimensions, with small local variations. Normally solid bricks and the those with two holes were 26x13x7cm while those with three holes were 21x10x4 cm. For the construction of the light vaults and the vaulted ceiling slabs between the metallic beams of the ceiling special shaped bricks were made: these elements, called pignatielli had a cylindrical shape and they were hollow inside. The last system frequently found, beginning from the second half of the eighteen hundreds, the ceilings with iron beams and small brick vaults. (img.3) A variation of the wood ceiling 531


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that slowly proposes a mixed system in between the ceiling and the barrel vault. This system has origin from the static concept of the ceiling with wooden beams and planks: in our case the planks are replaced by vaults made with bricks or with pignatielli. These small vaults are called “plaffoni”. The beams of the main framework of this ceiling can be done with metallic beams or wooden ones. The choice of the material depends on the age of construction (the older ones are in wood) and from problematic of economic nature and obtaining the material. The beams in wood assume the configuration of double T through two straight edges nailed to form the support wings of the vaults. The vaults are prepared with the support of a light jack lagging temporarily fixed to the wings by means of wedges.(img.4) The same structure with metallic beams with double T profile present, confronted with the wooden beams material compatibility problems. In fact the ceilings with metallic structure show a strong tendency to corrosion, facilitated by the presence of the chalk in the mortar. In order to contrast this problem the beams preventively are protected with varnishes made with tar. Another problem of the structures in steel is the excessive flexibility of the load bearing elements confronted with the flexibility of the brick plaffoni. For this reason it is frequent that in these ceilings median or cross-sectional divider beam are present to control the inflection of the beams. These ceilings, even if carefully crafted, usually were hidden with false ceilings. The finish of the outer face consist in a thick layer of plaster that in the chine was rounded. The false ceiling was covered with a glued paper or with burlap. It was connected to the ceiling by means of a truss with lists of wood or suspended from divider beams. Only in the course of a recent operation of diffuse city recovery, aimed at proposing new functions within the historical centre, the positive characters and the aesthetic valences of these systems has been exalted, within project choices that values them, hidden by plaster but made with such care and accuracy to appear as finishing elements.

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Building and Rebuilding with earth. Earthen architecture in Cyprus and the problem of its conservation

Diomedes Myrianthefs School of Architecture, NTU Athens, Greece, 1983-89. MA in Architectural Conservation, IoAAS, U of York, UK, 1990-91. He has been working in the conservation of historical buildings field, in Greece and Cyprus, since 1989. He participated in several seminars and congresses in the field of history and conservation of Byzantine, Post Byzantine and more modern architecture Address: 13A, Averof st. Strovolos 2063, Nicosia, Cyprus E-mail address: dmyri@cy.net Telephone: +357.22.516.447

fax : +357.22.516.449

mob.:+357.99.654.456

Historical Information It seems that mud brick structures were common in Cyprus from the Neolithic age (7000-6000 BC) to the first decades of the 20th century, The earliest example of such structures were found at Choirokitia, a Neolithic Age settlement. Through archaeological investigation and excavations it was found that adobe was used in several places of Cyprus from the Neolithic, to the Classic Period. The construction of those walls is very simple; mud bricks of different sizes and thicknesses are resting on a rubble-stone substructure. This technique continued to be used throughout the various periods of Cypriot history. Mud bricks were also used in military structures like the Venetian walls of Nicosia as well as in some Medieval churches. Adobe as a basic building material is met mainly today in the rural and urban traditional architecture of the 19th and 20th c. Types of traditional architecture The basic rural dwelling in Cyprus is the single-unit structure. Two can be considered the main types of this. In the plains and in the settlements of the foothills of the mountains the type that prevails is the broad-front single-room house (makrinari). The maximum width of the makrinari varies from 3-4 meters which is determined by the constructional properties of the timber available where the length of the building varies between 6-8 meters or even more. A second basic type of a single-unit house is that in which the almost rectangular room (palati or dichoro) is divided either by a large, often pointed, arch that supports the roof or by a wooden post on which the central beam rests and carries either a pitched roof or an almost flat roof. In these cases and according to the timber available the dimensions are about 6X6 meters. Of course the variety of the islands rural houses is not limited to the above mentioned basic types. There are many house variations as

a result of either successive extensions or additions of auxiliary units to the basic one. According to the plot and the area available a house was built and extended as a single-storey building (plains) or in two levels (mountainous regions). In the towns the typology differs, especially from the end of 19th century onwards, as neo-classical characteristics were incorporated both in typology and façade formation. In this category a central common room (iliakos) is surrounded on both sides by rectangular rooms which with the backyard additions, the verantahs etc create a more complex type of dwelling. The structure Mud brick construction Adobe architecture has been mainly used in the plains where soil is plentiful and stone rare and difficult to obtain. Mud bricks were made with the use of local soil and the addition of binders such chaff, straw and ear as the most common ones. Also goat hair and seaweed was used depending on the location and availability. The mixture of soil, straw and water was left for few hours up to a day so as cellulose was released to give adhesive properties and make it mouldable. Mud bricks were prepared with the use of a wooden mould of internal dimensions 30x45x5 cm and were left to dry for at least a week. Mud bricks were only made during the summer. Building with mud bricks The foundation of an traditional house consist of a mixture of lime, sand and gravel (“limeconcrete”) and was used to fill a trench which was dug for the purpose. On top of that a stone base foundation is always built to protect mud brick walls from rising damp. The stone base of the wall, of about 40 cm thick, was built with local stone. The height of the stone part of the wall varies, it goes from 1 meter high, up to the lintel of the openings. Mud bricks were then laid in consecutive layers with intersecting joints. The walls were built with the use of straw based mortar which was as thin as possible to avoid shrinking and uneven settling while drying. The wall was strengthened and “tied” with the use of wooden binding beams (mantosia). Mantosia was placed at the top of the wall, usually at the external side of it. Wooden beams were also used at the height of the lintels of the openings. The walls were left to “settle” for a long period before any kind of coating was applied. The most common renders were gypsum on the inside and mud plaster with straw on the outside. From the beginning of the 20th century onwards lime based renderings were used as well. Mud plaster is essential for the protection of the mud brick wall from rain but it has to be repaired annually when used externally. The causes and effects of decay on mud bricks structures The main cause of mud brick, and its render, deterioration is water penetration. 1. Deterioration at the base of the wall. The rising damp penetrates into the mass of the wall and depending on the temperature alterations it is drawn outwards. Thus the evaporating water leaves behind crystalline salts breaking this way the coherence of the soil and creates disintegration of the material which is then easily eroded by wind action. The process continues upwards and inwards, undercutting the wall structure and it may end to a collapse. 2. Deterioration at the top of the wall. Water penetrates when the 533


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roof structure at the top of the wall fails. Hair cracks due to excessive wetting gradually develop to channels which become thinner and die out as they progress downwards. This procedure leads to extensive disintegration of the bricks and to vertical cracking. 3. Disintegration of the material. Damp penetrated the wall gradually evaporates and through the freezing-thawing cycle causes loss of the material cohesion which is pulverised and becomes dust. 4. Cracking is developed as a result of structural inefficiency due to extrinsic causes like earthquake or due to poor foundation construction which causes displacements and bending. 5. Human activity. In order to “strengthen” or “protect” the sensitive mud brick material or its stone base from external dump and water, cement plaster was extensively applied. This method proved to be catastrophic for the mud wall as the cement render being stronger than the earthen core does not allow humidity to be released and leads to humidity accumulation in the core of the wall. This leads eventually to the extensive disintegration of the mud brick. Repair methods An intervention on a damaged mud brick structure aims at the restoration of those parts by eliminating the causes of its destruction. Also additional strengthening by means of modern techniques must be considered if necessary. 1. I ntervention on the stone base of a mud brick wall. The most common techniques for the strengthening of the stone wall and the prevention of the rising damp are, the underpinning, the construction of a proper drainage system and the grouting by compatible injection grout. Stone replacement as well as repointing of the wall are also common practice. 2. Repairs in the body of the wall. Heavily damaged mud bricks should always be replaced. Precaution must be taken in relation with the “soil compatibility” and the proper bonding of the new with the existing. Replacements of mud bricks with other material than that (fired bricks etc) should be avoided as incompatibility may result to poor connection. If the damaged part is a corner or is accompanied by cracks a further strengthening method must be applied. The most common one is the insertion of a wooden tie beam at an appropriate length and at several levels along the height of the wall (stitching). If it is necessary wooden tie beams could be inserted on both sides of the wall and should be, in this case, properly connected between them. The same way a proper interlocking of the corners must be inserted if the existing one is not appropriate or does not exist at all. It is of crucial importance to create a proper tie at the top of the wall to establish the diaphragm function. This can be done by the insertion of ring beam(s) where the wood structure of the roof/floor can rest. Other strengthening methods that are widely used is the increase of the length of the sitting of a wooden beam so as load is distributed in a wider area and the increase of the length and section of the lintels of the openings. In an extreme case where a wall has a very low load bearing ability, a timber frame structure (vertical posts and horizontal beams properly connected) can be incorporated to carry the load of the structure.

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RÊcupÊration des Techniques Constructives Traditionnelles SismoRÊsistantes pour un Entretien du Bâti Ancien

Amina Foufa Dr. Architecte, enseignante-chercheur au DĂŠpartement d’Architecture. 2002-2003 et 2004- Enseignant invitĂŠ aux cours intensifs EuropĂŠens sur la Culture Sismique locale. (CUBEC), Ravello, Italie. 2000 - Aujourd’hui –Projet de Recherche IUGS-UNESCO-IGCP Projet 457 “Seismic Hazard Assessment in North Africaâ€?. 2007 – Chercheur associĂŠ au CNERU, Alger. ÂŤ Projet : Plan de sauvegarde de la Casbah d’Alger Âť. Adresse postale : DĂŠpartement d’Architecture, FacultĂŠ des Sciences de l’IngĂŠnieur. UniversitĂŠ de Blida. BP 270- Blida 09000, AlgĂŠrie Adresse courrier ĂŠlectronique : Foufa_a_dz@yahoo.fr TĂŠlĂŠphone : Tel : + 213 25 415 697

Mob : + 213 71 309 595

Introduction : Pour mettre en ĂŠvidence la rĂŠsistance des constructions datant de la pĂŠriode Ottomane (Alger et Tunis) et de la pĂŠriode Alaouite (Fès) durant le XVIIIème siècle, une analogie avec ce que prĂŠconisent d’une part, le règlement parasismique actuel pour les constructions en maçonnerie et une comparaison avec la thĂŠorie de la dynamique des structures d’autre part ont ĂŠtĂŠ ĂŠtablies. En eet ces lois sont immuables et le comportement dynamique des constructions de mĂŞme type est le mĂŞme quelles que soient les pĂŠriodes. Cette dĂŠmarche Ă partir de donnĂŠes scientiďŹ ques nous a permis d’Êviter les interprĂŠtations hasardeuses en matière de techniques parasismiques. Les normes utilisĂŠes concernent tous les ĂŠlĂŠments structuraux. Dans le bâti traditionnel ont ĂŠtĂŠ pris en considĂŠration les règles qui rĂŠgissent les constructions en maçonnerie1 rĂŠalisĂŠes gĂŠnĂŠralement en murs de commande simple (brique de terre cuite2 ) ou mixte (briques et moellons). Les techniques constructives mise en ĂŠvidence ont permis d’Êtablir que le bâti traditionnel construit après les sĂŠismes destructeurs n’est pas aussi vulnĂŠrable car il rĂŠpond aux règles des codes parasismiques actuels ĂŠtablis pour les constructions en maçonnerie. Les techniques constructives sismo-rĂŠsistantes : Il a ĂŠtĂŠ mis en ĂŠvidence suite Ă une lecture archĂŠologique in situ Ă la Casbah d’Alger3, dans la mĂŠdina de Fès et celle de Tunis, des techniques constructives sismo rĂŠsistantes qui ont ĂŠtĂŠ exĂŠcutĂŠes suite au tremblement de terre de 1716 par la communautĂŠ d’Alger3. Et

probablement depuis les sÊismes de 1624 et 1755 à Fès et 1758 à Tunis. Ces techniques concernent : t t t t

-B TUSVDUVSF SJHJEF D FTU Ă‹ EJSF MB NBĂŽPOOFSJF QPSUFVTF -B TUSVDUVSF nFYJCMF FO M PDDVSSFODF MFT BSDBUVSFT -FT EJBQISBHNFT SFQSĂ?TFOUĂ?T QBS MFT QMBODIFST -FT PVWFSUVSFT

La typologie constructive de la structure rigide (murs en maçonnerie) : La structure rigide (murs porteurs) est reprĂŠsentĂŠe par des murs de commande en maçonnerie qui peut ĂŞtre classĂŠe selon le type de matĂŠriaux, la taille et la forme des blocs ainsi qu’en typologie constructive rĂŠgulière ou irrĂŠgulière4. Le type principal de maçonnerie rencontrĂŠs sur les diÊrents sites (Alger, Tunis et Fès) est : t .BĂŽPOOFSJF EF UZQPMPHJF SĂ?HVMJĂ’SF SĂ?BMJTĂ?F BWFD EFT CSJRVFT EF UFSSF cuite de dimensions variables 3x10x20 cm, 3x12x20 cm, 3x12x25 cm, 3.5x12x20cm et 4x11x24cm pour Alger5 et 2.5x13x26 cm pour Fès6. Cette maçonnerie est liĂŠe par un mortier de terre ou de chaux. La paroi murale en gĂŠnĂŠral a une ĂŠpaisseur de 60 cm. Ces murs de commande prĂŠsentent diÊrentes variantes. t 6OF NBĂŽPOOFSJF FOUSF MBRVFMMF T JOUFSDBMFOU EFT SPOEJOT EF CPJT non ĂŠquarri de 10 cm de diamètre (thuya Alger7 , cèdre Ă Fès8 et genĂŠvrier Ă Tunis9 ). Le bois dans ce cas-lĂ n’exerce aucune force de traction (Fig 1). Cette disposition de deux matĂŠriaux, l’un rigide et l’autre exible, permet une absorption des charges horizontales lors des sollicitations sismiques. Par ailleurs, les murs prĂŠsentent peu de ďŹ ssures et ne se dĂŠtruisent pas. t 6OF NBĂŽPOOFSJF SFOGPSDĂ?F QBS EFT BSDT EF EĂ?DIBSHF t 6OF NBĂŽPOOFSJF NJYUF SĂ?BMJTĂ?F FO CSJRVFT FU QJFSSFT Ă‹ TUSBUFT rĂŠgulières ou non prĂŠsentant un ÂŤ opus mixtum Âť. Dans ces cas lĂ seule la stratiďŹ cation des matĂŠriaux fait baisser le barycentre global des masses d’oĂš la sismo-rĂŠsistance de ce type de mur10 . La typologie constructive d’un pilier de voĂťtes : Les piliers en maçonnerie supportant les voĂťtes sont ĂŠgalement rĂŠalisĂŠs en briques entre lesquelles est insĂŠrĂŠe une rangĂŠe de 4 Ă 5 rondins de thuya Ă Alger et 6 rondins de genĂŠvrier Ă Tunis (ďŹ g 2). Ces rondins sont Ă intervalle rĂŠgulier variant entre 80 cm et 100 cm. A Fès, il semblerait que cette technique soit semblable Ă celle observĂŠe dans les deux autres mĂŠdinas. Cette technique a ĂŠtĂŠ dĂŠcrite lors des travaux de restauration de Da r ‘Adyal11 . Il est dit que des plaques de bois sont intĂŠgrĂŠes tous les 50 cm aux sections des piliers assurant ainsi la connexion entre les piliers octogonaux des rez de chaussĂŠe et les piliers rectangulaires de l’Êtage. Ces ĂŠlĂŠments en bois, disent-ils, ont pour fonction d’absorber les ĂŠventuels dĂŠsordres gĂŠnĂŠrĂŠs soit par les sĂŠismes soit par les tassements diÊrentiels du sol de fondation. Cette technique semble procurer Ă cet ĂŠlĂŠment structurel sa fonction sismo-rĂŠsistante puisque le bois intercalĂŠ entre les ĂŠlĂŠments de maçonnerie fait baisser le barycentre global des masses. Les encorbellements : Dans le trois mĂŠdinas ont ĂŠtĂŠ exĂŠcutĂŠs des encorbellements Ă l’extĂŠrieur des constructions. Ils rĂŠsultent d’une extension en profondeur donnant sur la rue, un avant-corps soutenu en ĂŠtage supĂŠrieur par des rondins

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de bois débordant largement du mur. Ces balcons de façade appelé q’bu à Alger et Tunis et ru sha n12 à Fès sont soutenus par des rondins de bois formant un angle avec le mur porteur et ayant le rôle de jambage. Ce dernier permet à l’encorbellement de ne pas osciller lors des secousses sismiques et de ne pas se briser. Les rondins de thuya et les poutres de cèdres sont en une constante flexion dynamique (fig 3). Les planchers : Ceux d’Alger sont constitués par une superposition de deux rangées de thuya insérées dans toute la largeur des murs porteurs créant ainsi une différence de niveau. Entre ces derniers est disposé un voligeage en bois13. Cette disposition du bois facilite l’absorption des efforts horizontaux lors du mouvement de glissement ou de roulement. Ainsi les planchers sont préservés

dimanche 13 janvier, 7 Ramadan, n°4386-20eme année. 4. CORPUS (2001). Architecture Traditionnelle Méditerranéenne. Euromed Héritage. C.D.Rom 5. LAVORGNA A (1990). San Lorenzello. La recherché des “anomalies” qui protègent. Ouvrage collectif CUEBC. Ed F. Ferrigni. Naples. 6. LIBERATORE D et BERNARDINI A (1999). Seismic behaviour, vulnerability and probability of collapse of masonry buildings. In GNDT, The Catania Project earthquake damage scenarios for a high risk area in the Mediterranean. Pp 127-159. 7. Ministère de l’habitat et de l’aménagement du territoire du Maroc (1978). Schéma Directeur d’Urbanisme de la ville de Fès (SDU Fès). Dossier technique n° IV.2 : les techniques traditionnelles d’architecture et de décors à Fès. 8. Ministère de l’Habitat et de la Construction, CGS (2003). RPA 99 ; Modificatifs et compléments aux Règles Parasismiques Algériennes CDRom 9. RANDAZZO, G (1988 ). Le strutture murarie negli edifici del centro storico di Catania, Documenti dell’Istituto Dipartimentale di Architecttura e Urbanistica dell’Unversità di Catania. 10. RAVEREAU, A (1985). La Casbah d’Alger et le site créa la ville », Sindbad, Paris. 232 p.

Le détail constructif de la liaison colonne- départ d’arc : Par ailleurs, un détail particulier a été observé uniquement à Alger. Au niveau de l’articulation de la colonne avec l’arc et au dessus du chapiteau, il y’a une ou deux rangées de rondins superposées à la maçonnerie (fig 4). Cette disposition de matériaux différents l’un rigide et l’autre flexible garantit grâce aux mouvements de glissement une bonne résistance aux cisaillement. Ce détail contribue à la résistance sismique de l’arc algérois. Conclusion : t $FT RVFMRVFT NFTVSFT QSÏTFOUÏFT TPOU VO ÏDIBOUJMMPO EF DFMMFT RVJ ont été relevées. Le catalogue des techniques sismo-résistantes répond en matière d’entretien du bâti historique localisé dans les régions sismiquement actives à travers les opérations de réparation et de restauration sismiques. t *M SÏQPOE ÏHBMFNFOU BVY CFTPJOT E VOF SFDPOTUSVDUJPO EV QBUSJNPJOF par une utilisation innovatrice des matériaux et des techniques traditionnelles qui soient compatible avec le temps, l’existant et les aléas naturels (séimes). t % BVUSF QBSU *M QFSNFU BVY EJõÏSFOUT JOUFSWFOBOUT EÏDJEFVST planificateurs, bureaux d’études, architectes, entreprises de réalisation, ingénieurs ...etc) de disposer d’une documentation synthétique, relative aux mesures préventives traditionnelles et à la prise en charge du risque sismique. t %V QPJOU EF WVF 4DJFOUJmRVF DFUUF SFDIFSDIF QFSNFUUSB EF développer une culture de la conservation en vulgarisant la méthodologie de mise en évidence des techniques préventives dans les universités pour les disciplines liées au patrimoine. t %V QPJOU EF WVF QSBUJRVF DFUUF DPOOBJTTBODF BDRVJTF EFWSB ÐUSF diffusée par la formation d’ouvriers qualifiés dans le domaine de la conservation et favorisera la bonne exécution des techniques préventives pour un meilleur entretien du bâti.

11. Saadaoui A. (2001). Tunis ville ottomane. Trois siècles d’urbanisme et d’architecture. Ed CPU, Tunis, 473 p 12. TOURI A, AMEZIANE-HASSANI M ET BARBATO G. Le projet pilote de restauration et réhabilitation du palais Da r ‘Adyel à Fès : un exemple remarquable de coopération tripartite. Ed Diagonale, Italie. 158 p. 13. ZACEK, M (1996). Construire parasismique, Risque sismique, Conception parasismique des bâtiments, Réglementation, Ed Parenthèses, Marseille, 340p

1

RPA 99, Modification et compléments 2003 op.cit et Zacek (1995) op.cit

2

Atelier Casbah (1980) Projet de revalorisation de la Casbah d’Alger, Plan d’aménagement préliminaire, structure du bâti et CORPUS- Euromed Héritage (2001), les principes constructifs, Saadaoui (2003). Tunis ville ottomane trois siècles d’urbanisme et d’architecture, pp 291-345. SDU de la ville de Fès (1978). Notes sur les techniques traditionnelles de l’architecture et du décor à Fès, pp 1-30.

3

Berbrugger (1867). Dans un article faisant une synoptique des tremblements de terre ayant affecté Alger, Berbrugger annonce que le système constructif d’Alger datait de 1716.

4

Randazzo (1988). La strutture murarie negli edifici del centro storico di Catania. Documenti dell’Instituto Dipartimentale di Architecttura e Urbanistica dell’Università di Catania, 16; pp109-143 et Liberatore et Bernardini (1999). Seismic behaviour, vulnerability and probability of collapse of masonry buildings. GNDT, The Catania Project earthquake damage scenarios for a high risk area in the Mediterranean; pp128-129

5

Abdessemed-Foufa (2005) idem, Atelier Casbah (1980) idem et CORPUS (2001) idem

6

SDU Fès op.cit p 8 et p121

7

CORPUS (2001), op.cit, Typologie Architecturale, les maisons de la Médina d’Alger, p 3 et Abdessemed-Foufa (2005) op.cit pp 28-30

8

SDU Fès, ibidem

9

Saadaoui (2000). Op.cit p 311

10

Lavorgna (1990). San Lorezello. La recherche des « anomalies » qui protègent. p 51

11

Touri, Ameziane-Hassani et Barbato (1999), op .cit ibidem

12

SDU de Fès op.cit p 25

13

Ravereau (1985).La Casbah d’Alger et le site créa la ville. P 148.

RÉFÉRENCES : 1. ABDESSEMED-FOUFA, A, A, (2005). Contribution for a catalogue of earthquake resistant traditional techniques in Northern Africa: the case of the Casbah of Algiers (Algeria). European Earthquake Engineering Journal, 2.05, Ed Patron, Bologne, pp 23-39.

GLOSSAIRE : Fahs : la région extra muros

2. ATELIER CASBAH, ETAU, UNESCO, PNUD (1980). Projet de revalorisation de la Casbah d’Alger, plan d’aménagement préliminaire, MUCH, Algérie.

Da r: maison

3. BERBRUGGER A (1867), les tremblements de terre algériens, Akhbar, journal de l’Algérie,

ru sha n: encorbellement

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q’bu : encorbellement


Rendre compatible les techniques traditionnelles et les modernes Compatibilizar técnicas tradicionales y modernas Combining traditional and modern techniques

Pilier à Tunis

Détail articulation colonne - arc

Bois inséré dans la maçonnerie à Fès

Encorbellement à Alger

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The observed seismic damage of traditional buildings of Western Greece reinforce the need for their strengthening

F.V. Karantoni Dr. Civil Engineer, Lecturer of masonry structures at the Department of Civil Engineering, University of Patras, Greece. Adress: Department of Civil engineering, University of Patras University Campus, Gr 26500, Patras, Greece Email: karmar@upatras.gr Telephone: +30 2610 997778

1. Introduction The traditional buildings in Greece as in the most countries around the Mediterranean Sea should be classified in three major groups in relation with their structural type, which is related to their construction period. The older buildings may consist the first group (type A1). The material of the structural walls is adobe or stone, the floors and the roof are of timber joists but sometimes the floors are vaulted. The openings are of a small percentage of structural walls and the height of each storey is relatively high. These buildings are generally stiff structures with natural periods less than 0.10 sec, depending on their height. The second group (type A2) consists of the buildings subsequently constructed of stone or solid bricks, that contain many and large openings. The floors and the roof are of wooden joists. These structures are more flexible than the previous ones, with natural periods higher than 0.20 sec. In the third group (type B) belong the buildings constructed in the beginning of 20th century and have an internal reinforced concrete frame and external structural masonry walls, principally of solid or perforated bricks. The floors are of reinforced concrete and the roof is either wooden or composite of bricks supported by steel beams. A characteristic of these buildings is the asymmetry in plane and in elevation. Their natural periods are lower than 0.20 sec. These values of natural periods refer to low rise buildings, which are common in Greece. In the present paper the vulnerability of each type of building is examined by the means of finite element analyses. The results of the simulations are compared with the data collected after earthquakes. Furthermore, simple strengthening techniques are recommended. In addition, an assessment of the widely spreading intervention, which is the demolition of internal structural walls and the erection of a new frame of steel or reinforced concrete as a load

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bearing system, is made. Group A1 consists of stiff, symmetrical stone masonry buildings with relatively high storeys, and openings of a low percentage of the total wall surface. The main external characteristic is that all the architectural elements emphasize the horizontal dimension of the structure. The type A2 buildings consist of openings with great percentage of the total area. These buildings are also more or less symmetrical, have lower storeys, and are less stiff than the type A1. The vertical dimension is emphasized by all means, structural and architectural. The type B buildings are of a hybrid type between frame structures and structural masonry ones. An internal frame of reinforced concrete beams and columns supports the reinforced concrete slabs while the external structural masonry supports the end of the reinforced concrete beams and the outer side of the slabs. As a result, these buildings have a little percentage of structural walls, but the slab makes them less flexible than those of type A2. Their seismic behaviour is unpredictable as a shearing failure causes severe damage due to the lack of load bearing walls but the bending develops light damage to the upper floor. The analyses were linear elastic by means of finite elements methods. The seismic forces are according to the Greek Aseismic Code [2], which has many similarities with the specifications of the Eurocode 8 [1]. The loading combination includes the dead loads, plus 30% of live loads, the seismic force along a principal direction plus 30% of seismic force along the orthogonal direction, each one along positive and negative direction. In this study, eight seismic loading combinations are considered. The results presented correspond to the most unfavourable combination of each one of the four combinations in each direction, regardless if the outer or inner fibre of the masonry is mainly stressed. Of course, the reverse of seismic action stresses the opposite fibre of the wall. 2. Buildings of type A1 In situ inspections have shown that the main reason for seismic damage of these stiff structures is the out of plane bending of the upper storey which develops vertical cracks near the upper parts of the corners due to the separation of orthogonal walls and almost vertical cracks of the lintels and of the top of the walls. Also, diagonal cracking of the lower storeys piers and of the strong lintels is observed [6,7]. The results of an analysis of such a building are presented in Fig. 1. The building is of stone masonry with only one internal load bearing wall in the two lower storeys along the x direction. The tensile strength of the stone masonry was estimated to be 0.25 MPa. The building is stiff with natural periods Τx=0.07 sec and Ty=0.1 sec along the x and y direction, respectively. The contours represent the principal tensile stresses developed in the external fiber of masonry. As shown, the regions of the masonry walls with tensile stresses exceeded 0.25 MPa are those predicted to be most vulnerable. A simple method to strengthen this building is to add a structural wall along the y direction up to the roof level as well as to raise the existing internal wall to the same level. As shown in Fig. 2, this easy to make intervention, results in decreasing the principal tensile stresses up to 50%. In addition, after the intervention, only a few elements of the wall develop principal tensile stresses that exceed the tensile strength of masonry. A usual modern intervention in order to rehabilitate traditional buildings is the demolition of the internal load bearing walls and the preservation only of the external shell of the building. A new framing


Rendre compatible les techniques traditionnelles et les modernes Compatibilizar técnicas tradicionales y modernas Combining traditional and modern techniques

load bearing system is constructed independently of the existing walls. This intervention makes the remaining walls much vulnerable as shown in Fig. 3, where the results after the demolition of the internal load-bearing wall are presented. Of course, this intervention, does not affect the seismic behaviour for seismic action along the y axis, because nothing was changed along this axis. 3. Buildings of type A2 The difference from the above mentioned buildings of type A1 is that they are more flexible due to the greater percentage of openings and the weak lintels. So, the difference in the seismic behaviour is the failure of the lintels of all the storeys due to bending and not due to shear [8, 10]. The building under consideration is a two-storey stone masonry building with internal load bearing walls. The natural periods along the x and y axes are 0.23 sec and 0.19 sec, respectively. As shown in Fig. 4, the principal tensile stresses have greater values in the upper floor and are greater at the walls transverse to the seismic direction under consideration. If the internal load bearing loads continue up to the roof, the decreasing of stresses is dramatically. As shown in Fig.5, the developed stresses are lower than the tensile strength of stone masonry, which is 0.25 MPa, the same as in the previous case. The analysis predicts that the demolition of the internal load bearing walls increases the part of the walls that are overstressed, as is presented in Fig. 6. 4. Buildings of type B The buildings of type B are mainly asymmetric in plane and have reinforced concrete slabs supported by a reinforced concrete frame at the inner of the structure and by brick or stone walls in the perimeter. The roof is generally of wooden trusses and occasionally of bricks supported by steel beams. The main characteristic of these buildings is the low percentage of load bearing walls and their unpredictable seismic behaviour. As is mentioned in [3, 4, 5] the damage may be due to shear failure of the basement or due to bending failure of the upper storey. In the first case the damage is severe because just a few walls carry the shear seismic forces. On the other hand, the bending of the upper storey is not as severe, because the walls are supported by the reinforced concrete slabs and the bending height is limited to just one storey. The reinforced concrete slabs make these buildings stiff despite the lack of walls. In Fig. 7 the results of the analysis of a building of type B are presented. The building is of solid brick masonry and has natural periods Tx=0.21 sec and Ty=0.19 sec along the x and y axes, respectively. Fig. 7 shows that when the main seismic action is along the x direction, then the bending of the walls of the upper floor transverse to the force is severe, while when the main seismic action is along the y direction the shear of the parallel to the action walls of the ground floor is severe. This is in agreement with the inspection results after earthquakes [9]. In fig. 8 are shown the principal tensile stresses after the addition of new walls and the construction of a reinforced concrete tie belt at the top of all the walls. The decreasing of the tension by these means is considerable and up to 50%.

structures more vulnerable to seismic actions. One reason is that the remaining walls cannot sustain the applied forces. Another reason is that constructing a new bearing system, the dead and live loads of the floors do not apply to the walls, therefore their strength in shear is decreasing. On the contrary, the construction of new walls in conjunction with the existing walls, which are well joined, is a good strengthening technique.

REFERENCES [1] EUROCODE 8: Design of structures for earthquake resistance, Part 1: General rules, seismic actions and rules for buildings [2] GREEK ASEISMIC CODE, Earthquake Planning and Protection Organization, Athens, 2000 [3] FARDIS Μ.Ν., KARANTONI F.V., KOSMOPOULOS A., «Statistical Study of damage due to Aegion Earthquake of 15-6-95», Report to Earthquake Planning and Protection Organization, 1997, (in Greek). [4] FARDIS M.N, KARANTONI F.V. “Vulnerability Study of Patras” Technical Report to the Greek Earthquake Planning and Protection, Patras, 1997 (in Greek). [5] Fardis M.N, KARANTONI F.V, KOSMOPOULOS A, “Study and Statistical Analysis of Structural Damage to buildings of Aegion, due to 15-6-1995 Earthquake”, to Earthquake Planning and Protection Organization , 1999 [6] FARDIS M.N, KARANTONI F.V., Panagiotakos Til. “ Seismic Behaviour of masonry buildings and of masonry- infilled frames”, Technical Report to European Centre on Prevention and forecasting of earthquakes, Patras 1995 [7] KARANTONI F.V., BOUCKOVALAS G., «Description and analysis of building damage due to Pyrgos, Greece, earthquake», Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering, Vol. 16, No 2, 1997. [8] KARANTONI F.V, “Seismic vulnerability of masonry buildings due to recent earthquakes in South Greece” H&M symposium, Rhodes, 2002. [9] KARANTONI F.V, FARDIS M.N. “Damage to masonry buildings due to the Aegion, (GR) 1995 Earthquake”, in Structural Studies, Repairs and Maintenance of Heritage Architecture IX, WIT Press, 2005, pp 191-201. [10] KARANTONI F.V “A parametric study and modelling of stone masonry buildings, Technical Report to Technical Chamber of Greece (TCG), 1997 (in Greek)

5. Conclusions The results of the above mention analyses show that a method widely employed in practice during the rehabilitation works of traditional buildings that is the demolition of load bearing walls make the

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fig 1a

fig 1b

fig 4b

fig 2a

fig 2b

fig 5a

fig 5b

fig 3a

fig 3b

fig 6a

fig 6b

Fig1: Building of type A1. Principal tensile stresses of outer fibers due to: (a) G+0.3Q+Ex+0.3Ey, and (b) G+0.3Q+0.3Ex+Ey seismic action Fig2: Building of type A1. Principal tensile stresses after adding structural walls, of outer fibers due to: (a) G+0.3Q+Ex+0.3Ey, and (b) G+0.3Q+0.3EX+Ey seismic action Fig3: Building of type A1. Principal tensile stresses after demolition of internal structural walls, of outer fibers, due to: (a) G+0.3Q+EX+0.3EY, and (b) G+0.3Q+0.3EX+EY seismic action

fig 7a

fig 7b

fig 8a

fig 8b

Fig7: Building of type B. Principal tensile stresses for inner fibers due to (a) G+0.3Q+Ex-0.3Ey seismic action, and (b) G+0.3Q+0.3Ex+Ey seismic action Fig8: Building of type B. Principal tensile stresses after the interventions for inner fibers due to (a) G+0.3Q+Ex-0.3Ey seismic action, and (b) G+0.3Q+0.3Ex+Ey seismic action

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fig 4a

Fig4: Building of type A2. Principal tensile stresses for (a) inner fibers due to G+0.3Q-Ex-0.3Ey seismic action , and (b) outer fibers due to G+0.3Q-0.3Ex+Ey seismic action Fig5: Building of type A2. Principal tensile stresses after adding structural walls for (a) inner fibers due to G+0.3Q-Ex-0.3Ey seismic action, and (b) outer fibers due to G+0.3Q-0.3Ex+Ey Fig6: Building of type A2. Principal tensile stresses after demolition of internal structural walls for (a) inner fibers due to G+0.3Q-Ex-0.3Ey, and (b) outer fibers due to G+0.3Q-0.3Ex+Ey seismic action seismic action


Rendre compatible les techniques traditionnelles et les modernes Compatibilizar tĂŠcnicas tradicionales y modernas Combining traditional and modern techniques

A proposal for the development of the traditional construction crafts in Egypt A case study of Aswan City

Diaa-Eldin Ibrahim Mohamed HanaďŹ , Sherif Mohamed Rabie Khashaba Dr. Diaa-Eldin Ibrahim Mohamed HanaďŹ : Faculty of Engineering, Ain-Shams University Dr. Sherif Mohamed Rabie Khashaba: Faculty of Engineering, Zagazig Universiy

Research Problem: Through studying the current situation of traditional crafts in Aswan we ďŹ nd a clear shrinking in this new constructional result due to the recession of traditional construction crafts and the overwhelming of non local construction ways over stable construction ways. Research Target: Oering a proposal to develop traditional construction crafts in the governorate of Aswan to match modern needs as well as to maintain local identity. Research Methodology: The research was based on a theoretical method to recognize the local construction crafts existing in Aswan, their progress, and the transfer of expertise. Along with conducting a practical study of construction models expressing the architectural heritage existing in Aswan to come up with the architectural speciďŹ cations and local methods of construction and to recognize its positive as well as negative aspects and also to know the extent to which society accepts them, then to analyze the previously mentioned points and to come out with a suggestion to develop inherited traditional ways of construction, to match modern requirements, and then to apply this method to a current projects and measure the extent to which users will accept it as well as the extent to which it will contribute to improve the standard of traditional crafts in Aswan. 1- Types of traditional construction crafts in Aswan: A variable collection of traditional crafts in Aswan were located as follows: ďŹ g(1). t t t t t t

.BOVBM .BOVGBDUVSJOH PG (SFFO BOE #VSOFE $MBZ #SJDLT 8JOEPXT BOE EPPST XPSLT 7BVMUT BOE EPNFT BDIJFWJOH XJEF MPOH TQBOT 4IFMM GPSNJOH DSBGUT 1BJOUJOH BOE ESBXJOH DSBGU 8PPEFO XPSLT DSBGUT

2- Reasons for the deterioration Of the traditional construction crafts decline in Aswan: t -BDL PG EFWFMPQNFOU PG UFDIOJRVFT BOE UIF JNQMFNFOUBUJPO PG crafts restructuring. t 5IF MPX FDPOPNJD SFWFOVF GPS UIF XPSLFST PG USBEJUJPOBM DSBGUT t 5IF CSFBLJOH PG LOPXMFEHF USBOTGFS NPWFNFOU CFUXFFO HFOFSBUJPOT due to aversion from many people to work in traditional crafts. t 5IF FNFSHFODF PG TPDJBM JODMJOBUJPO UPXBSET DPODSFUF CVJMEJOHT BOE modern construction systems as an aspect of social prestige. t -BDL PG MFHJTMBUJPOT QSPUFDUJOH UIF VTBHF PG USBEJUJPOBM DSBGUT JO building. t -BDL PG EFWFMPQNFOU PG DPOTUSVDUJPO DPEFT BOE TDJFOUJmD UIFPSJFT required for the usage of traditional construction crafts. 3- Proposed methodology for developing and maintaining traditional crafts in Aswan: After analyzing this research, methodology for preserving the traditional crafts in Aswan is proposed and it is as follows: Levels of proposed methodology

Legislation level

Economical level

Artistic level

Cultural and social level

3-1 Cultural and social level: t *ODSFBTJOH "XBSFOFTT PG UIF QFPQMF PG UIF CFOFmUT PG UIF TZTUFNT depending on the traditional crafts. t *ODSFBTJOH UIF USVTU PG QFPQMF JO UIF USBEJUJPOBM DSBGUT t 4QSFBEJOH UIF SFTQFDU GPS CVJMEJOH VTJOH UIF USBEJUJPOBM DSBGUT t 1VUUJOH JODFOUJWFT UP BUUSBDU DSBGUTNFO UP USBEJUJPOBM DSBGUT 3-2 Technical level: t %FWFMPQJOH B XBZ UP USBOTGFS LOPXMFEHF EPDVNFOUJOH UIF methodologies and techniques of the traditional crafts. t %FWFMPQJOH CVJMEJOH USBEJUJPOBM DSBGUT BOE USZJOH UP BVUPNBUF JU TP JU would be economically. t %FWFMPQJOH UIF NBUFSJBMT VTFE BOE VTJOH FOHJOFFSJOH USFBUNFOU UP maximize the beneďŹ ts of the end product. t #VJMEJOH OFX USBJOJOH DFOUFST UP USBJO DPOTFDVUJWF HFOFSBUJPOT PG craftsmen t 1VUUJOH OFX UIFPSJFT JO CVJMEJOH DPEFT UP PSHBOJ[F UIF NFBOT PG traditional crafts t 0SHBOJ[JOH UIF DSBGUTNFO JO UIFJS QSPKFDUT UP FOIBODF UIFJS QSPEVDU and supplying them with the various technical support 3-3 Economical level : t *ODSFBTJOH UIF CFOFmUT PG USBEJUJPOBM DSBGUT UISPVHI UIF EFDSFBTF JO total cost of construction. t $POmSNJOH UIF FOWJSPONFOUBMMZ GSJFOEMZ BEWBOUBHF PG USBEJUJPOBM crafts, to increase it. t 5PVSJTN BOE MPDBM QSPNPUJPO PG CVJMEJOH VTJOH USBEJUJPOBM DSBGUT BT to spread the knowledge about it 3-4 Legislation level: t QBTTJOH MBXT UIBU FOGPSDFT DPOTUSVDUPST UP BTTJHO B QFSDFOUBHF PG the building cost to using traditional crafts

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Rendre compatible les techniques traditionnelles et les modernes Compatibilizar tĂŠcnicas tradicionales y modernas Combining traditional and modern techniques

t EFWFMPQJOH CVJMEJOH DPEFT UP JODMVEF NPSF EBUB BOE UIFPSJFT concerning traditional crafts. 4- Practical application for proposed methodology in a family residential housing Project: “El herbiyabâ€? projects in Aswan where designed by a two researchers to support the use of traditional crafts in building, ďŹ g(2). 4-1 “ Al-HERBIYABâ€? VILAGE PROJECT : The project aim to construct family houses, under the national housing project in Aswan including 500 units. 4-1-1 Purpose of project: Support for traditional crafts existing in Aswan through a project that uses traditional crafts in a wide range which does the following: t &NQMPZNFOU PG USBEJUJPOBM DSBGUT BOE BMM UIBU GPMMPXT JU GSPN USBEJUJPOBM means of construction using timber, masonry, stone or clay. t .BLJOH UIF USBEJUJPOBM DSBGUT B NFBO PG BDRVJSJOH IJHI JODPNF through incorporating them in big scale projects. t JODSFBTJOH UIF BXBSFOFTT PG QFPQMF BCPVU IPX CFOFmDJBM USBEJUJPOBM crafts could be. t JODSFBTJOH UIF VTF PG USBEJUJPOBM DSBGUT CZ QFPQMF 4-2 Studying the applications of the proposed methodology in project (after Construction of the proposed project): 4-2-1 Craftsmen: A lot of opportunities were made available for the craftsmen , new craftsmen were trained to preserve the new traditional crafts. 4-2-2 The general Style used in buildings: IT was taken in consideration the local identity and the local style through using their same style in the design to produce a secure, healthy and comforting living Place that will attract them to buy new units with the same style. 4-2-3 Construction method: All units used a wall bearing method, using stones and covering spans using vaults and domes built from bricks, , which also decreases cost as no exterior ďŹ nishing is needed. 4-2-4 Using natural and local materials Natural stone was used ,which is abundant in to build walls and vaults, also the windows and doors used local timber , manfactured in a local method ,the pergolas also where made from palm leaves and straw which was done by local craftsmen. 4-2-5 Inhabitants participation: Project includes the participations of the users in design and construction process 4-3 Implementing the proposal: 4-3-1 Social level t PG UIF VTFST XFSF JOUFSWJFXFE UP FYQMBJO UIF BEWBOUBHFT PG the project using traditional building systems and crafts. The two researchers, the governor, the oďŹƒcials and the popular leaders have participated in these meetings. t *ODSFBTJOH UIF LOPXMFEHF PG UIF VTFST PG UIF UFDIOJDBM BOE TPDJBM

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advantages of the houses which are built using the local crafts. 4-3-2 Technical level t " CVJMEJOH TZTUFN IBT CFFO EFTJHOFE EFQFOEJOH PO MPDBM construction systems, local materials, participation of the local technicians who are specialized in the local systems and crafts. t " EPDVNFOUFE NFUIPEPMPHZ IBT CFFO JTTVFE UP CVJME UIF QSPKFDU using the local systems and crafts that includes construction systems, local building materials and local crafts. t " QSPQPTFE EFWFMPQNFOU GPS UIF NBTPOSZ XPSL IBT CFFO FTUBCMJTIFE by developing a system of scaold and wooden moulds to achieve better performance and saving time. t " USBJOJOH DPVSTF PO MPDBM CVJMEJOH TZTUFNT BOE DSBGUT IBT CFFO IFME for one hundred non skilful workers. t "O FWBMVBUJPO TZTUFN IBT CFFO QVU GPS BMM UIF TUBHFT PG UIF QSPKFDU 4-3-3 Economical level t 5IF DPOTUSVDUJPO DPTU IBT CFFO SFEVDFE GSPN &VSPT UP Euros by changing the rooďŹ ng from reinforced concrete to brick vaults, ďŹ g(3). 4-3-4 Legislative level An oďŹƒcial approval for building the project using local building systems and local crafts has been obtained and this generates a new oďŹƒcial principal to a lease to build by using local building systems and crafts. 4-4 Results t 3FEVDJOH UIF DPOTUSVDUJPO UJNF t $SFBUJOH KPC PQQPSUVOJUJFT GPS XPSLFST DPNQBSFE XJUI workers if they built the project using contemporary construction systems, ďŹ g(4). t 3FEVDJOH UIF DPTU PG UIF QSPKFDU CZ t 5SBJOJOH GPS XPSLFST PO UIF JOUFHSBUFE LOPX IPX GPS UIF MPDBM building craft. t 4QSFBEJOH UIF LOPX IPX PG UIF CVJMEJOH EFTJHO VTJOH UIF MPDBM building crafts. t *ODSFBTJOH UIF EFNBOE GPS UIF IPVTFT UIBU IBWF CFFO CVJMU VTJOH the local crafts that from 500 houses to 4000 houses. t &ODPVSBHJOH "TXBO HPWFSOPSBUF UP UBLF B EFDJTJPO UP CVJME OFX 600 houses extra by the same construction systems and crafts. t 0CUBJOJOH B QSPKFDU XJUI B HPPE VSCBO QBUUFSO SFnFDUJOH MPDBM Aswanian culture and a unique architectural character. Recommendations: t *NQPSUBODF PG EPDVNFOUBUJPO PG UIF USBEJUJPOBM DSBGUT internationally. t *NQPSUBODF PG QVUUJOH MBXT UIF EFWFMPQ BOE FODPVSBHF USBEJUJPOBM crafts internationally. t *NQPSUBODF PG TQSFBEJOH UIF BXBSFOFTT UP EFWFMPQ 5SBEJUJPOBM $SBGUT world wide. t *NQPSUBODF PG QFPQMF QBSUJDJQBUJPO JO QSPKFDU DPOTUSVDUJPO t *NQPSUBODF PG UIF QBSUJDJQBUJPO PG DPVOUSJFT JO OBUJPOBM QSPKFDUT UP revive Traditional Crafts. t 6TJOH UIF QSPQPTFE NFUIPEPMPHZ JO QSFTFSWJOH BOE EFWFMPQJOH Traditional Crafts.


Rendre compatible les techniques traditionnelles et les modernes Compatibilizar técnicas tradicionales y modernas Combining traditional and modern techniques

REFERENCES: http://www.fekrzad.com/library/8227 http://www.kenanaonline.com/page/3173 RAAFAT, A., Future Architecture, Published by Inter-consult Research Center, Giza, Egypt, 2007. FATHY, H., Natural Energy and Vernacular Architecture, Arabic edition published ,Beirut, 1988. Modern Architecture between Imitation and Renovation, Abenaa Magazine Vol.83, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudia Arabia 1995. http://www.smartwebonline.com/NewCulture/cont/018300200009.asp IBRAHIM, A. Arab Architects- Hasan Fathy, Center for Planning and Architectural Studies, Cairo, 1987. http://www.kenanaonline.com/page/8227 9Hakim. O., Nubian Architecture, the Palm Press, Cairo, Egypt, 1999.

Fig(3) The preliminary design Skelton building, which is changed by two researchers

Fig(1) Samples of Traditional crafts used in buildings in Aswan.

Fig(2) “El herbiyab” projects in Aswan after construction, where designed by a two researchers to support the use of traditional crafts in building.

Fig(4) brick vaults users in project.

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Rendre compatible les techniques traditionnelles et les modernes Compatibilizar técnicas tradicionales y modernas Combining traditional and modern techniques

Repair and Maintenance guidelines for the inhabitants of a historical district: Papaz Mahallesi in Yeni Foça, Izmir

Ege Uluca Tumer PhD in Architecture, Department of Architecture, Restoration and Conservation of Historical Buildings Programme, ITU MSc in Architecture, Department of Architecture, Restoration and Conservation of Historical Buildings Programme, METU BA in Architecture, Faculty of Architecture, Department of Architecture, METU Research Assistant in Design, History of Art and Architecture, Restoration Courses, İstanbul Kultur University, Istanbul Address: İstanbul Kultur University, Atakoy Kampusu Bakırkoy Istanbul E-mail address: egeuluca@superonline.com e.ulucatumer@iku.edu.tr Telephone: 0-216-4501705

0-532-4528218

0-216-4984293

Introduction Traditional buildings in Turkey are at risk mainly because of harmful/lack of repairs due to the deficient knowledge of the users and craftsmen. Studies on the preparations for repair and maintenance guidelines are needed for the continuity of traditional historic sites in Turkey. Papaz Mahallesi was found suitable for a case study on ‘developing proper methods and techniques for repair and maintenance problems and guidelines for users’, for reasons such as its values and specific problems. Papaz Mahallesi (Figure.1) is a well preserved 19th century settlement in Yeni Foça, a small town located north of Izmir. The study area, comprising fifty-six traditional masonry buildings, shows architectural and settlement characteristics of its period in the Aegean Region. The values of Papaz Mahallesi are categorized under six titles; “Aesthetic Value”, “Value for Architectural Diversity”, “Value for Functional Diversity”, “Resource Value”, and “Value for Continuity of Cultural Memory/ Heritage”, “Value for Uniformity in Architectural Style” (1). 1. Problems in Papaz Mahallesi 1.1. Str uctural System Problems Although there are not many serious structural problems in buildings, some unique cases have been taken into consideration for the evaluation of structural problems (Figure.2). 1.1.1. Interior Structural Problems and Their Causes Interior structural problems documented in the area are mostly

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deformation problems in floors, slight deformations of interior walls. More serious problems have emerged in unused and not maintained buildings in the area. Loss of mortar, plaster and other binders are the primary cause of external wall movements that cause interior structural problems, as well. However, rigidity of external walls is sufficient for the rigidity of structural system. 1.1.2. Exterior Structural Problems and Their Causes Exterior structural problems are mainly small structural cracks and deformations on external walls. Emptied joints and loss of binders are the most important factors that may cause a weakening in these 8090cm thick walls. As the deformation of walls with emptied joints has led to the collapse of façades in other historic sites of the town, this problem must be taken into consideration rapidly as a primary problem for the structural systems. 1.2. Problems of Materials Materials are visually examined by grouping the problems of each material in order of emergency. Problems of materials are documented on 1/100 street elevations (Figures.3-4) and 1/200 plan (Figure.2). Stone, timber, mortar, plaster, iron, roof tiles and paint are recorded according to the visual observations made. 1.2.1. Decay Forms of Stone The decay forms of stone is visually recorded and classified according to the classification of Fitzner et al (2).Stone decay was detected at lower levels of the buildings, areas under the eaves and on the corners. Discoloration, crusts and salt deposits on stone surface are the most widely seen problem types on these areas. The effects of rainfall penetrating the surface under the eaves are very clear. The other problematic area is the lower level of the buildings where material losses, flaking, discoloration, crusts and soiling are visible. Besides these, rising damp causes joint loss in the upper levels and serious problems in the whole structure by loss of its binders (Figures.3-4) 1.2.2. Timber Problems Observed problems on timber are due to the lack of maintenance – preservative waxes, polishes. The problems of structural timber and architectural timber differ in the area and evaluated in different subgroups (Figures.3-4). Structural Timber Problems: There are not any serious problems of structural timber, except in some empty buildings. In three buildings, floor deformation is documented. Roofs have been observed to be quite firm. Ceilings, if maintained, preserve their properties in good condition. Architectural Timber Problems: Capillary cracks and discoloration as a result of damp are found especially on shutters. The man-made problems are most common like the bursting and deformation of shutters. External timber architectural elements, exposed to environmental conditions, have more problems like discoloration, capillary cracks, deformation and material loss. 1.2.3. Mortar Problems Mortar is the material having the most severe problems (Figures.3-4). Loss of mortar between the joints is especially seen on the walls, from which the plaster is completely detached. Slight deformations on the walls with emptied joints have been inspected. At the advanced stage


Rendre compatible les techniques traditionnelles et les modernes Compatibilizar tĂŠcnicas tradicionales y modernas Combining traditional and modern techniques

2.Proposals for Repairs of the Studied Buildings As a result of the studies on building materials, and repair problems, guidelines are formed for dierent types of repairs that are widely needed in the studied buildings. Proposals for these repairs and maintenance are prepared to be used as guidelines for users and a conservation program.

which have completely emptied joints and probably have voids between the layers. Similar building types have collapsed and proved the severity of the problem. Although grouting is not widespread in Turkey, it is the best method for consolidating these buildings. Grouting Masonry Walls: The consolidation of historic masonry involves the need to stabilise walls by ďŹ lling voids within their thickness. This operation is most commonly needed when thick walls of double skin construction, with rubble core ďŹ lling, have been subject to the percolation of water for many years. The important point in consolidating the masonry with a liquid binder is to select a binder that is compatible with stone and former mortar. Re-pointing.: Re-pointing should be carried out immediately to prevent the rapid weathering of the stones. When the mortar in the joints is weathered, the stones become vulnerable to damage and material loss on stone surfaces are seen. Permeability, porosity, density and other properties of mortar and stone must be recorded. When the mortar is less permeable and less porous than stone, it acts like a vapour barrier in the wall, causes a continuous vapour ow into the stone and prevents evaporation. A permanent dampness can occur in stone that is very harmful. Cement based mortars in contact with stone can introduce sodium or potassium sulphate (3) and must be avoided, not only in the preparation of mortar but also in every stage of repairs. Re-pointing is an advanced type of work, and must be done by qualiďŹ ed workers. Flush ďŹ lling will greatly increase the apparent width of the joint, and therefore great care must be taken to keep the layer of the new mortar within the original width.

2.1. Cure of Rising Damp There are two sources of water causing rising damp: rainfall and underground water. The comprehensive method of overcoming the excess water is a better drainage system.

t t t t

of mortar loss, material loss of stones occurs. 1.2.4. Plaster Problems The plaster problems are classiďŹ ed into four categories; “loss of plasterâ€?, “detachment from wall surfaceâ€?, “salt depositionâ€? and “discolorationâ€?. Like stone the worst problems are areas under eaves, lower levels of frontal walls, and corners of the jambs due to dampness. Soiling and crusts are also seen deposited on plasters. Loss of plaster is the ďŹ rst stage of increasing decays on building façades. Where plaster is detached, stone and mortar are prone to problems. As plaster is the protective layer, the maintenance of plaster is very important. As the stones of these buildings are closer to cut-stone, they do not let exterior particles, salts and humidity in as much as the rough cut stones. 1.2.5. Metal Problems The metal elements are iron in all of the traditional buildings. Problems of metals do not show much variety. Oxidation, inspected especially on shutter hinges, and supports is the main problem. Almost all unpainted iron elements, like doors and shutters, are oxidized.

t i%FTJHOJOH B TVĂśDJFOU OVNCFS PG ESBJOBHF HSJMMTw t i1BWJOH UIF TUSFFUT XJUI B LJOE PG QBUDIZ QBWFNFOU UIBU DBO IFMQ ventilation, rather than a monolithic one having cement mortar as binderâ€?, and t i'PSNJOH B ESZ BSFB CZ FWBDVBUJOH B USFODI XJUI B MBOE ESBJO BU UIF bottom in front of the base of the damp buildings to reduce the capillary actionâ€?. 2.2. Masonry Repairs During the repair of masonry, a minimum of stone replacement must be done. The new stones are often more diďŹƒcult to maintain than the old stones. Repair work to be done to these masonry buildings is gap ďŹ lling rather than consolidating. Only the buildings, which lost plaster and mortar in joints, started to have small loss and detachment of stone problems. There emerged small gaps and cracks, which may weaken these stones. The stones with special craftsmanship such as inscriptions, panels, keystones, jambs, architraves and some of the eaves needs gap ďŹ lling or consolidation work. “Using compatible mortars with stonesâ€?, and “taking care of esthetical harmony between mortars and stonesâ€? must be considered while gap ďŹ lling. 2.3. Grouting and Re-pointing Grouting seems to be a appropriate method for some of the buildings,

5IF PSJHJOBM KPJOUJOH QSPmMFT NVTU CF FYBNJOFE 5IF KPJOUT NVTU CF DBSFGVMMZ DMFBOFE CFGPSF SF QPJOUJOH 5IF XJEUI PG UIF KPJOUT NVTU OPU FYDFFE UIF PSJHJOBM KPJOU XJEUI #MVOUFE QPJOUT NVTU CF SFQBJSFE CZ CVJMEJOH TUPOF QSPmMFT JO mortar. t 5IF KPJOU NVTU OPU CF QSPKFDUFE GSPN TUPOF TVSGBDF 2.4. Plastering and Painting Plastering: After grouting and re-pointing, plastering the external walls is necessary. All of the buildings in the area need plaster repairs, except the ones that have never been plastered. The properties of plaster must be compatible with former plaster and stone. If the plaster is more porous than stone it weakens quickly and if it is less porous it causes the deterioration of stone by transporting salts and vapour. The criteria for interior and exterior plasters do not change, while their composition is dierent due to the dierent conditions in and outside the buildings. Painting: Painting is the last step of the maintenance of the walls. Besides the compatibility of properties of paint with the plasters and stones, colours have to be carefully selected for the harmony with the other paints in the district. Some of the plasters in the site are coloured with original colours extracted from plants and earth (indigo, madder, i.e.) 2.5. Timber Repair and Consolidation Structural timber elements like oors and roofs more urgently need attention and must be solved immediately. The main works to be done for the maintenance of the timbers are; t Local or Total Replacements of Timber Elements with New Timber:

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Rendre compatible les techniques traditionnelles et les modernes Compatibilizar tĂŠcnicas tradicionales y modernas Combining traditional and modern techniques

Substitute timber must be the original type of wood and the moisture content of it must be limited in low percentages. New timber must be the treated with insecticides. Replacements must be limited within least possible amount. t Treatment of Infested or Infected Timbers: Infested or infected timber elements must be treated against insects, dry rot or wet rot. Extraction of moisture from infected timber and providing adequate ventilation must be done before treating with fungicidal paste. Similarly, insecticidal pastes may be applied to infested timbers. t Application of Timber Preservatives: For improving the strength and the resistance of timber elements against external conditions, they must be applied proper kind of preservatives, paints, insecticidal/ fungicidal pastes after various studies and researches on them. 2.6. Metal Repairs The traditional method is painting for preventing metals from corrosion; however, there are other works to be done before painting t "GUFS JOTQFDUJOH UIF UIJDLOFTT PG DPSSPTJPO MBZFST BOE EFOTJUJFT PO metal elements, manual preparation (removal of rust, loosening mill scales and soluble corrosion salts) of metal surfaces by using various mechanical and chemical methods considering “not to lose details on surfaces of metalsâ€?. t "GUFS UIF BQQMJDBUJPO PG B QSJNBSZ QBJOU DPBU XJUI BOUJ DPSSPTJWF properties, intermediate and ďŹ nishing coats of paint must be applied, taking care not to harm or change its properties. 2.7. Roof Repairs Roofs: The structural timber elements must be repaired, by considering the important points mentioned for timber repairs. Replacement of the broken and missing tiles must be done with same type of roof tiles.

REFERENCES (1) TIESDELL, S.; OC, T.; HEATH, T. (1996), Revitalizing Historic Urban Quarters, Martnolls Ltd, UK. p.11-16 (2) FITZNER, B.; HYPERLINK “http://webserver.lih.rwth-aachen.de/lih/content/e27/e34/e2876â€? Heinrichs, K.; Kownatzki, R. (1992), ClassiďŹ cation and mapping of weathering forms . In: Proceedings of the 7th International Congress on Deterioration and Conservation of Stone, Lisbon, 15.-18.06.1992, Lisbon (Portugal), S. 957-968. (3) FEILDEN, B. M. (1989), Conservation of Historic Buildings, Butterworths, London, p.324

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Traditional Construction Techniques Revaluation of «Good Practice Rule» for Sustainable Construction

Ezilda Costanzo PhD (1998) and building engineer degree (1993) at University of Palermo. Work activities on building pathology and renovation, architecture technology, sustainable buildings and cities both independently and within different research institutions in Italy and in Switzerland (since 2004) Addresse: Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, Laboratoire de Construction et Conservation, EPFL-LCC1, Bâtiment BP, Station 16, CH-1015 Lausanne, Switzerland E-mail :

Manuals and treaties contain a precious structured repertoire of information on common traditional techniques in the Mediterranean basin. Up to the I World War, French and Italian textbooks - the present study refers to some of them, - endorsed architectonic identity of local examples that were directly surveyed with reference to analogues applications in ancient well known buildings. Local idiom were codified in these “illustrated dictionaries of construction art”, where classical universal rule is taken into account too. Furthermore they give details on durability and quality of different materials and techniques and putinto-work practices, references to cost and material depletion and use optimisation. At any rate transportation, material availability, recycling and recovering concerns were always dealt with in pre-modern building contracts and documents. The paper investigates some issues of “sustainability” which were implicit in traditional techniques of construction by taking into account prescriptions in manuals and existent case studies. Local traditional rules, only partially deducible from manuals, are to be integrated, in fact, by data coming from direct survey in order to verify local variations, efficacy and related durability performances. Good practice Rule and Sustainability Principles in Mediterranean Construction

ezilda.costanzo@epfl.ch Téléphone : 0041.(0)79.2978845

Introduction The Mediterranean area has been characterised, since ancient times, by technical knowledge and stylistic exchange influences. Migrations, conquests, commercial links allowed more advanced constructional cultures to spread, in different historical periods, even at relevant geographic distance and beyond the Basin itself. During European Middle Ages, as instance, the weight of Roman art on Romanesque architecture in France, Byzantine influence on figurative and decorative arts in Germany, France and Italy, Islamic art rule in Southern Spain and Southern Italy can be cited. Multicultural contact European territories like Southern Spain and Italy were interesting demonstrative laboratories of imported techniques adoption and combination, as well as of styles amalgamation (mudejar art). In such contexts, foreign good technical rules have been locally assumed by adapting materials and accustomed practice. Such variations can be seen as the consequence of a process of optimisation of material and economic resources which entails what we could presently call “improvement of sustainability performances”. Since the Renaissance, and more systematically since XVIII century, the habit began to classify architecture constructional and formal rules in treaties and manuals. The Grand Tour, the Grand Prix of Rome1 and afterwards more frequent and southwards travels in the Basin, had permitted direct observation, study and representation of Mediterranean buildings in Voyage Carnets. They were drafted in detail and hypothetically reconstructed by scholars and Beaux Arts academy students2 interested in ancient Greek and Roman construction issues but also in vernacular examples.

Stone Masonry Stone for structural walls - almost 70% material in a traditional masonry construction, - was accurately chosen. For minor constructions and vernacular architecture adoption of undressed stone available on site, rejected or coarse roughly dressed stone consented to save more precious quarried stone for ashlars. Rubbles were picked up from closest plots of land and selected according to dimension and weight. They were proportional to mason’s strength (25-30 kg) and easy to handle (35-40 cm). They were afterwards arranged in the building yard into five separate piles of stones, for rational and ergonomic putting into work. Undressed stones might have different origin, hardness and permeability: cold volcanic or metamorphic, quarry offset, live splinters from crushing, irregular fragments picked up below rock faces. Reuse materials frequently came from ramparts or more ancient existing constructions. In the traditional building site nothing had to be spoilt and discharged: inert wastes were used to form thin walls at upper levels (15-35 cm) and infill. The stuffed wall, where the core between the two external masonry workform walls was filled with mortar and stone rubble, belonged to Mediterranean tradition since ancient Rome (II century b.C.). It has spread in Mediterranean humble or minor constructions until XIX century, assuring quickness and economy when put into work. Roofs and floors Manuals classify pitched roofs secondary timber frame according to kind of support of roof covering: Steep battens roof (piemontese style); horizontal counter batten roof; timber-decking board, terracotta flat tiles or stone slabs. All the systems preview maintenance and partial replacement of timber components, that were pre-squared, prefabricated and ready to be assembled on site. Carpenters used to mark them to facilitate their putting into work. Type and dimensions of secondary roof frame differ according to countries and resources availability.

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In the piemontese roof, span between battens is proportional to minimum tile width (generally almost 20 cm) and curvature. Manuals recommend this system as it is particularly light but also easy to put into work, to maintain, to replace, even if it requires a false ceiling when covering living spaces. Larger tiles with greater curvature permit reducing tiles number for square meter so getting wider span between battens, fewer pieces and lower wood consumption. In some countries dressed wood battens (generally 3x4; 5x7 cm) are replaced by chestnut timber half-poles. Horizontal counterbattens system requires a moulding ďŹ nishing in the tile backside, thus more expensive and fragile. Some manuals specify that necessity for a relevant timber amount make this system more appropriate and more common in Northern countries. The timber-decking board is frequently substituted by other locally available materials, also appraised as more durable. In Mediterranean countries dressed timber often had to be hauled long distances and was very expensive as a result. Local practice can replace timber planks and rafters by mats of reeds, chestnut poles, undressed branches (i.e. laurel), dried palm leaves. Otherwise, for secondary timberwork and minor primary frame, local manuals advise adopting soft timber (i.e. ďŹ r, cypress) instead of harder, more resistant and durable but expensive and rarer species (chestnut and oak). Manual also specify soft timbers are preferable owing to their fast growth. Nowadays we would say: “extremely renewableâ€?. Screed in traditional oors was also made by waste inert materials from demolition like crushed calcareous, broken terracotta debris, animal bones. Moreover, common practice has always reused tiles from roof covering disassembling, permitting a 35% recover. Internal partitions Vertical partitions pre-modern construction technique was basically derived by one principle: a resistant frame (generally timber) with an inďŹ ll made of the most available resources. Load-bearing elements were prefabricated. The inďŹ ll was generally handmade and no specialised skills were required. Pan de bois (with squared timber) and colombage (with irregular timber) are widely used in vernacular architecture not only in Northern Europe (Normandy, Alsace, Switzerland) but also in Portugal and Turkey. The timber frame was ďŹ lled with coarse stone, rubble or irregular blocks of calcareous or brick masonry mixed up with ordinary mortar. The whole element was ďŹ nished with a coat of plaster that was applied onto a nailed on timber lattice. In Wattle and daub partitions the inďŹ ll was organic. They consist of interwoven staves and twigs used, as well, to ďŹ ll a panel in a timber frame, providing a backing for a ďŹ nish of daub (clay, dung, or mud) or plaster (usually on straw or hair). Wattle, as secondary timberwork, could also be made of sea-grape, strawberry or cabbage wood. The whole system was then lime-washed. When the timber frame was in evidence it was protected by beef blood (rich of iron oxide) and pinecone infusion. Certainly diused in Europe since Middle Ages, this system was traditional in Middle and Far East but also in Africa. Vitruvius mentions it in his Ten Books of Architecture, also explaining its technical limits. As a variation of the previous techniques, reed partitions were either woven as an inďŹ ll organic panel or nailed directly, singly or double, onto the timber frame. The rendering coat was then applied directly onto the reed mat since it provides excellent key, either to clay, lime or gypsum

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plasters. Organic cord was usually used to tie dried reed battens. Reeds must have been cut since a year at least. Cavity could be ďŹ lled with rubble. Nowadays modern reed mats or boards are commercialised, complete of up-dated cutting and ďŹ xing prescriptions. Reeds are highly renewable, easily transportable and widely available. Reeds mats could also be utilised for false vaults and ceilings, with aesthetic but also insulating and aerating functions. They were supported by a timber frame made of coupled boards inserted in the structural masonry. Superior side is generally lime-washed and inferior one plastered with gypsum. Conclusions We can then synthesise the following aspects of sustainability in traditional Mediterranean construction: t *OUFHSBUFE DIPJDF PG DPOTUSVDUJPO QSPEVDUT BOE QSPDFTTFT according to availability and supply of resources, - the production, transformation, assemblage rules being empirically known. t &YQFDUFE TFSWJDF MJGF PG UIF CVJMEJOH NJOJNJTJOH DPTUT JNQMJFE optimising durability of components and maintenance to delay service life. t %FDPOTUSVDUJPO SFDPWFSZ SFDZDMJOH mOBM EJTQPTBM USBEJUJPOBM techniques previewed repairing, disassembling and replacing of some parts rather than demolition and complete redoing of elements (carpentry, roof covering and some wall masonry structures). In the traditional building yard, pre-existent elements were reused as well as wastes (tiles, bricks, stones and wood). Traditional mechanic assemblages were often reversible, so allowing recycling and reuse. t -BDL PG $07 TPVSDFT MJLF TZOUIFUJD WBSOJTIFT BOE HMVFT PS XPPE treatments. Wood was seasoned in order to give it mechanical, physical and chemical resistance. Ancient glues were derived from vegetal or animal substances (casein). Nowadays new manuals supply catalogues of suitable examples to insert pre-modern technological culture into nowadays production, organizational and economic environment. Survey and interpretation of recurring element types and pathologies are estimated as necessary to put into force a compatible renovation with respect to the original construction principles. Respect of original conception, as far as possible, is considered essential to any refurbishment and renovation classiďŹ able as sustainable, especially when adopting traditional materials and techniques. A compared analysis of literature with real examples could aid this interpretation work.

REFERENCES ACOCELLA A., L’architettura di pietra Antichi e nuovi magisteri costruttivi, Firenze e Lucca, 2004 GIUFFRĂˆ A.., Sicurezza e conservazione dei centri storici- Il caso Ortigia, Laterza, Bari 2003 MARCONI P., Manuale del recupero del centro storico di Palermo, Palermo 1997. MARCONI P., Manuale del recupero del Comune di Roma, Roma 1889. CHAUVET J.Y., La maison paysanne, histoire, guide de restauration, typologie rĂŠgion par rĂŠgion, Genève 2005. Manuals: SAVOT L. ET BLONDEL F., L’architecture française des bâtiments particuliers, Paris 1685 (reprint Genève 1973).


Rendre compatible les techniques traditionnelles et les modernes Compatibilizar técnicas tradicionales y modernas Combining traditional and modern techniques

MONROY J.F., Traité d’architecture pratique, Paris 1785 (reprint Genève 1973). RONDELET J.B., Traité théorique et pratique de l’art de bâtir, Paris 1802-17. REYNAULD L., Traité d’architecture, Paris, 1850-60. RAMÉE D., L’architecture et la construction pratique, Paris 1868. CLAUDEL J. et Laroque L., Pratique de l’art de construire, Paris 1910. CLOQUET L., Eléments de l’architecture. Types d’édifices – Esthétique, composition et pratique de l’architecture, Paris et Liège 1911. BARBEROT F., Traité de constructions civiles, Paris 1912. BREYMANN, Trattato generale di costruzioni civili, (trad. G. Valentini), Milan 1884. MUSSO E COPPERI, Particolari di costruzioni murali e finimenti di fabbricati, Turin 1885. FORMENTI C., La pratica del fabbricare, Milan, 1893. DONGHI D., Manuale dell’architetto, Turin 1925. BENFRATELLO S, Lezioni di tecnologia delle costruzioni edili, Pisa 1929. GIOVANNONI, Corso d’Architettura, Rome, 1932.

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Present and Future of Solar Control with Photovoltaic Components in Mediterranean Architecture in Turkey

Mujde Altin I work as an Assistant Proffesor at Dokuz Eylul University Faculty of Architecture Department of Architecture Structure and Construction Branch. I had my B.Sc., M.Sc. and Ph.D. degrees also in the same department. My working area is solar architecture, use of shading devices in architecture, integration of photovoltaics into architecture. Address: Dokuz Eylul University Faculty of Architecture Department of Architecture Tinaztepe Kampusu Dogus Cad. No: 209 Kurucesme 35160 Buca Izmir TURKEY E-mail address: mujde.altin@deu.edu.tr Telephone: 00 90 232 412 84 48

1. Introduction: Buildings are constructed to be a shelter for people. They have to provide comfort conditions for the people as well as being a shelter. This is due to the fact that human beings are not well protected against environmental and climatic factors. Some animals have fur and this fur protects them from cold weather. But human beings are not as lucky as those animals. They have to provide these conditions on the buildings that they design, construct and live in. Therefore these buildings should be a shelter that protects them from cold weather in the winter and from hot weather in the summer. Sun is the source of life and we cannot live without it. But especially in some places, it becomes unbearable in the summer time because of the hot weather. Therefore, people developed some strategies to overcome this effect of sun on their buildings. These rules have become traditional in time and they are still being used. One of these strategies is the “Solar Control”. Solar control has been used for thousands of years by human beings for creating comfort conditions in building interiors. Especially Mediterranean architecture uses solar control a lot because Mediterranean countries have more sunlight than they need and this more energy is not wanted in the interior places. Therefore we need to create spaces that will keep us warm in the winter and calm in the summer. By the use of the solar control devices, this is possible because the aim of the solar control is to balance the solar energy which enters a building through its windows. Nowadays, it is possible to change this unwanted solar energy into desired electrical energy by the use of “Photovoltaic Components” as solar control devices, because PV components are devices that

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produce electrical energy from solar radiation directly. It is also possible to integrate them into existing buildings as shading devices with only a little effort economically because the shading elements’ mounting systems already exist on some of the buildings and only the cladding panel should be replaced by new photovoltaic panels. For the ones that do not have any shading system, only the mounting system should be added and then the photovoltaic panels can be placed on them. This is not an uneconomical process due to the fact that new shading system will make the interior more comfortable than its present situation and also will reduce its energy need considerably. Therefore, the aim of this study is to examine the use of solar control systems and to make a proposal for using photovoltaic components for solar control in the Turkish Mediterranean architecture. This will be done by examining solar control in traditional Turkish architecture in Alacati-Izmir as case study and use of photovoltaic (PV) panels for solar control, and by proposing a new method for Turkish Mediterranean architecture for the future. 2. Solar Control in the Traditional Turkish Architecture in Izmir Solar energy is desired in the houses in the winter, but it is not wanted in the summer. Therefore windows have to be designed very carefully in order to avoid overheating in the summer while getting the maximum solar energy in the winter. Especially solar shading elements are being used for that purpose. These shall be curtains, sun louvers, Venetian blinds, etc... These all have the same purpose: to protect the window, therefore the interior of the building from excess sunlight. But the ones that are used inside are not as efficient as the ones that are used outside due to the fact that they stop the solar rays after entering the building. Therefore these rays still make interior hot because of the greenhouse effect of the window-glasses: the solar rays which lose their energy after entering the interior and hitting the solar control device inside cannot get out through the glass again and they begin to heat the interior. Therefore shading elements that are used outside the building are more efficient. Shading elements should be designed very carefully. If the windows are protected with them so strictly, interior cannot be heated with solar energy in the winter. But if they do not protect the windows much, then they are not used efficiently. Therefore, there should be a very careful designed balance when they are being used. For this purpose, masks and sun-path-diagrams are being used. The climate has a very important role in designing houses. Izmir has Mediterranean architecture. The summers in Izmir are hot and dry, and winters are warm and rainy. Due to the fact that the weather is very hot in the summer, all the streets and roads are placed perpendicular to the sea. Therefore all the houses can have the summer breeze, especially the desired local wind of Izmir “imbat” is taken easily to the inner parts of the houses easily. The entrance (bottom) floor of the houses is generally constructed with stone and these walls are thick and massive with low ceilings. These floors are generally called as “winter floor”. Upper floor of the houses is constructed with light materials like wood and the walls are thin with high ceilings. These floors are generally called as “summer floor”1. Besides these, solar control has an important role in traditional architecture in Izmir. As seen in these pictures 1 and 2, buildings are not declined outwards; in spite they are declined inside. That cannot be seen from these pictures but there is a courtyard at the backside, inside the house. This courtyard helps to protect people from excess solar energy by providing shades for them and let them spend most of their time outside the


Rendre compatible les techniques traditionnelles et les modernes Compatibilizar técnicas tradicionales y modernas Combining traditional and modern techniques

house. Courtyards are climate control spaces. They form spaces that are designed according to wind, sun, hot and cold. They provide shade when necessary, and they provide solar energy when needed. Another strategy is to make north facing walls as thick as possible and to open as less and small windows as possible. That is due to the fact that these walls are the coldest walls of houses in winter and heat can escape from these walls easily. As similar, west facing walls of houses are designed and constructed as narrow as possible. Another strategy is using long eaves if there is no opportunity to provide a courtyard. These long eaves protect the building from excess solar radiation and also from rain. As similar, shading elements are also used in front of the windows in order to prevent excess solar radiation enter the building. 3. A Proposal for Using PV Components for Solar Control in Traditional Architecture in Izmir Shading elements are used in the Mediterranean architecture a lot because of the excess solar energy in the summer. This is unwanted solar energy in the summer. If shading devices are composed of PV components, then this unwanted solar energy can be turned into desired electrical energy. This is economical due to the fact that no money is paid for the energy source. And if the mounting system is ready, then it is more economic due to the fact that PV panels can easily be mounted on this system. In the traditional Turkish architecture, it is easy to integrate PV components into the buildings with only a little effort because the shading elements’ mounting systems already exist on some of the buildings and only the cladding panel should be replaced by new PV panels. For the ones that do not have any shading system, only the mounting system should be added and then the photovoltaic panels can be placed on them. This is not an uneconomical process due to the fact that new shading system will make the interior more comfortable than its present situation and also will reduce its energy need considerably. When “PV - Sun - Radiation - Building” words are thought together, the forming of buildings with the help of passive design system principles according to the sun is recognized. That is due to the fact that climatic comfort conditions could be achieved in the interior by the use of the differences in the angles of the sun-rays. If PV elements are going to be used instead of roof or wall cladding elements or shading devices, they are going to take the solar radiation instead of them, but in spite, they are going to use most of this solar radiation to produce electricity. (Some part of the solar radiation will heat the PV panel and this heat will be carried to the interior by conduction. Thus, not all, but most of the solar radiation will be used to produce electricity.) Therefore, the sustainability of the traditional Turkish architecture in Izmir would be achieved because of the fact that these houses would be more comfortable and in addition they would lower the energy need with the energy they produce by using unwanted solar radiation2.

will help the traditional Turkish architecture live longer in time. REFERENCES: AKYÜZ, E. (1993). Traditional Housing Architecture in Izmir, p.39 ALTIN, M. (2005). Research on the Architectural Use of Photovoltaic (PV) Components in Turkey from the Viewpoint of Building Shape, Ph.D. Thesis, p.78

1

Akyüz, E. (1993). Traditional Housing Architecture in Izmir, p.39

2

Altin, M. (2005). Research on the Architectural Use of Photovoltaic (PV) Components in Turkey from the Viewpoint of Building Shape, p.78

1

2

4. Conclusion It is important to provide comfort conditions in the buildings. It is also important to provide the sustainability of traditional architecture with the use of new technologies. This can be done by integrating PV components as shading devices to the traditional architecture in Izmir as well as all around Turkey. This will provide comfort conditions and also will help lowering the energy requirement of houses. Therefore it

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Reproduction of hydraulic lime mortars based on the traditional production technology of ancient mortars from Cyprus

I. Ioannou, M. Philokyprou, G. Papadouris, K. Kyriakou Ioannis Ioannou is a lecturer at the Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering of the University of Cyprus. His research interests lie in the field of traditional building materials technology. His work focuses on the characterisation of mortars, stone and brick. He is particularly interested in water-mediated processes affecting the weathering of masonry materials and methods for the protection and restoration of cultural heritage monuments. Address: 75 Kallipoleos Str., P.O. Box 20537, 1678 Nicosia, Cyprus E-mail: ioannis@ucy.ac.cy Telephone: +357 22 89 2257

Introduction Until the beginning of the 19th century, mud, air hardening lime, hydraulic lime and lime mixed with natural or artificial pozzolanas (e.g. crushed brick) were the most popular binders and renders used in the construction of buildings. After the discovery of Portland cement in 1824, the latter and its derivatives became the dominant binding and rendering materials in the building industry, mostly due to the standardisation of their production [1]. As a result, during the last century, there has been a gradual replacement of traditional mortars by highly hydraulic cement-based mortars. The uncontrolled use of cement-based mortars for restoration purposes resulted, in many cases, in extensive damage to cultural heritage, mainly because of their incompatibility with the traditional material [28]. Cement is hard, rigid and impermeable. It also contains significant amounts of soluble salts which can be harmful to historic buildings. These salts not only produce non-aesthetic efflorescences upon crystallisation on the façade of a building, but they can also develop large damaging pressures when they crystallise behind the surfaces of masonry materials. Reported damage cases, together with the principle of “authenticity”, defined in the ICOMOS Venice Charter [9], resulted in a renewed interest in the use of (hydraulic) lime mortars in the field of restoration. In the research study described in this paper, a physicochemical characterisation of ancient mortar samples from Cyprus was undertaken in order to find out the provenance of their raw materials and to determine their composition and properties. An experimental

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study was also carried out to design compatible mortars for restoration and conservation purposes. Materials and Methods Mortar sampling was performed on excavations, monuments and traditional buildings. Part of each sample was ground and used for Xray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray florescence (XRF) analyses to identify mineral constituents and to determine quantitatively the major oxides present in the mortars. A slice was used for the preparation of a thin section which was used for petrographic examination of the mortars. A scanning electron microscope (SEM), equipped with an Energy Dispersive X-ray (EDX) microanalyser, was also used to examine the microstructure and texture of the mortars, while a significant group of 15 samples underwent thermal analyses (DTA/TG) to determine their hydraulicity. The most important physical properties of the ancient mortars (i.e. vacuum saturation porosity and capillary absorption coefficient) were also measured using water as the wetting liquid. The analytical study of ancient mortar samples was followed by the laboratory preparation and testing of experimental mortars with similar compositions. The laboratory mixes were prepared using a water/binder (w/b) ratio enabling the mortar to achieve a constant flow of 165 ± 10 mm. The proportion of binder (lime and ceramic powder) to aggregates was equal to 1:3 w/w. This was selected as the proper mixture ratio for restoration syntheses since it is matching with technologies of homologous mortars found in ancient monuments of the wider Mediterranean area [6, 10-11]. In all experimental samples, the aggregates comprised siliceous and calcareous sands. The mixing of the aggregates and binder with tap water was mechanical and always uniform. Compaction of the samples was carried out in accordance to EN 196-1:1995 [12]. It was considered critical to use the same batch preparation for all specimens to avoid any differences which might occur from batch to batch. Such differences have been shown to exist for hydraulic mortars in previous studies [13]. The samples were prepared using standardised prismatic steel moulds of dimensions 40 x 40 x 160 mm. After casting, the moulds containing the specimens were covered with a glass plate to prevent loss of water by evaporation. Specimens were removed from the moulds after 7 days and they were kept covered with a wet burlap until testing. The performance efficiency of the experimental mortars was evaluated by a series of tests designed to measure their physical and mechanical properties. Results and Discussion Characterisation of ancient mortars Laboratory examination of the ancient mortars under a stereoscope revealed in most samples the presence of small (angular, sub-angular and rounded) reddish inclusions in a compact (fine-grained) matrix (Fig. 1). These inclusions were identified by SEM/EDX analysis as regions of silica-alumina composition (i.e. clay brick ceramic). Petrographic observations provided evidence that the mortars mostly consisted of fine to medium aggregates of quartz, feldspars, pyroxene and plagioclase. Carbonate compounds and broken shells were also observed in some samples. Microscopic observations also provided ample evidence of products of boundary reactions. Reaction rims were observed at the interface between the binding matrix and the ceramic fragments. These were dispersed in the form of veins along the matrix, filling the vacancies and


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discontinuities of its structure. The presence of hydration rims around individual hydraulic phases is indicative of the existence of a strong cohesion between the constituent elements of the mortars [14]. The results of the mineralogical (XRD) analysis showed that the binding material of the ancient samples was almost exclusively calcitic. The presence of quartz and other accessory minerals was also evidenced in all samples. Salt crystallisation was observed in some cases where halite and/or gypsum were present. Gehlenite was also evidenced in some of the ancient mortars. This is characteristic of the use of natural hydraulic lime burnt at low temperatures (<1200 oC) [15] and/or ceramic fired at 800-1060 oC. The use of the latter is also confirmed by the presence of anorthite in some samples [16-17]. The hydraulicity of the ancient samples was determined using the results of the thermal analyses (Table 1). Weight losses at temperatures below 120°C are attributed to the loss of physically adsorbed water. The loss of water due to hydrated salts is measured at temperatures between 120-200 °C, while the loss of chemically bound (hydraulic) water is measured at temperatures between 200-600 °C. The loss of CO2, following the decomposition of carbonates, is evidenced at temperatures exceeding 600 °C. Sample

A.15 A.17 A.20 AD.5 AD.18 AD.27 AG.4 EP.1 HST.3 HT.1 KK.1 KT.26B M.8B M.20B MV.3

Weight loss per temperature range (%) <120 °C 1.59 1.13 3.25 2.77 2.30 2.51 1.48 1.73 2.83 3.06 4.96 1.86 1.60 1.15 1.57

120-200 °C 1.64 0.93 1.68 2.46 1.39 2.30 1.66 2.03 1.94 2.18 3.52 1.00 2.04 1.45 1.05

200-600 °C [A] 4.61 5.36 6.46 4.75 5.91 3.96 3.51 3.91 2.98 4.56 4.85 2.39 4.16 3.29 3.74

>600 °C [B] 7.28 30.44 27.37 15.12 25.59 16.30 11.52 20.78 9.79 15.71 15.04 21.65 18.95 22.63 28.12

[B]/[A] 1.58 5.68 4.24 3.18 4.33 4.12 3.28 5.31 3.29 3.45 3.10 9.06 4.56 6.88 7.52

Table 1: TG analysis results for 15 samples.

According to Maravelaki-Kalaitzaki et al [8], the results of the thermal analyses permit the classification of mortars into typical lime (aerial), hydraulic and crushed brick-lime and pozzolanic. The typical lime mortars correspond to less than 1.5% structurally bound water to hydraulic components, while the hydraulic lime and crushed bricklime mortars have hydraulic water contents up to 5%. The pozzolanic mortars have a hydraulic water content exceeding 7%. The latter present the most advanced hydraulic character. Based on this classification, one may deduce that the majority of the tested ancient mortars were moderately hydraulic. Further evidence of the hydraulicity of ancient mortars is given by the ratio of CO2/H2O (hydraulic water), also shown in Table 1. This ratio, in relation to the CO2 content (Fig. 2), inversely expresses the hydraulic character of the mortars [6, 18]. The mortars with the most advanced hydraulic character are concentrated at the bottom of the curve, while

those in which there is a reduced presence of hydraulic binder are found at the upper right. Intermediate CO2/H2O ratios (2.5≤CO2/H2O≤7.5) and CO2 contents (10-32%) correspond to moderately hydraulic mortars (i.e. crushed brick-lime mortars) [14]. The hydraulic character of the ancient mortars is attributed partially to hydraulic compounds deriving from crushed brick-lime interactions and partially to raw materials, like marly limestones with clay inclusions, employed to produce hydraulic lime [6, 15]. The specific “pozzolanic” character of the crushed brick-lime mortars is attributed to the adhesion reactions occurring at the ceramic-matrix interface [15, 18-19]. These reactions may, in turn, be attributed to calcium aluminosilicate formations at the interface along the brick fragments, acting as the silicate source and membrane, and lime, which makes the interfacial surface alkaline and causes the chemical reaction. The penetration of lime into the ceramic and the consequent reaction transforms the microstructure of the mortar by reducing the size of the pore radii and augmenting the apparent density. The transformation of the pore size distribution confirms the hydraulic character of the mortar matrix, imparting to the mortar high physico-chemical resistance to polluted and marine atmosphere, as well as high strength. The results of the XRF and SEM/EDX analyses revealed high contents of silicon and calcium oxides and relatively high contents of aluminium and iron oxides in most of the samples. The presence of high quantities of aluminium, silicon and iron oxides in some samples can be attributed to the addition of clay (ceramic) material during the preparation of the mortars. Silica content was highest in mortars of more advanced hydraulicity, while the weak hydraulic and lime mortars showed lower values. In contrast, the calcium oxide content was higher in typical lime and weakly hydraulic mortars. The inverse relationship between silicon and calcium oxides is shown in Fig. 3. Examination of the physical properties of the ancient mortars revealed porosity values between 30-50% and capillary absorption coefficients in the range 3.5-25.5 mg/cm2s1/2. However, due to the very small size and friable nature of the samples, no valid conclusions can be drawn regarding these properties. Experimental mortars From the results (Table 2) of the experimental study that was carried out in order to design suitable mortars for restoration purposes, it is clear that the type and degree of fineness of the ceramic powder play the most important role in strength development. This observation entirely agrees with evidence found in the literature [10, 14, 20] stating that the grain and fragments size of the crushed brick influences directly its hydraulic reactivity and, consequently, the physico-mechanical properties of crushed brick-lime mortars. The results suggest that the ceramic powder is active when its particle size is less than 150 μm. With a reduction in its size below 45 μm, the powder became very active and the compressive strength (Fc) exceeded 5 MPa in 28 days. The experimental results also indicated that compressive strength of crushed brick-lime mortars increases significantly over time. The addition of surplus water in the mix reduced the strength radically. The flexural (Ft) and compressive (Fc) strengths of the samples generally showed the same trends, irrespective of age [21]. The porosities (P) of the experimental mortars (Table 2) were around 35%. This could be taken as an indication of a weak hydraulic to aerial character. The air-hardening lime mortar (B.2) showed a slightly lower porosity value than most of the crushed brick-lime mortars, possibly owing to the

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Sample

Ceramic Powder

w/b

Fc (MPa) 28d

90d

Ft (MPa)

180d

28d

90d

P (%)

S (mg/cm2s1/2)

180d

B.2

n/a

0.8

1.0

1.6

1.3

0.5

0.6

0.5

34.8

26.41

B.4

CB3 (0-150)

0.9

3.0

4.0

4.8

1.1

1.9

1.9

36.9

14.01

B.7

CB11 (0-150)

0.9

0.5

1.0

2.0

0.2

0.5

0.9

37.1

22.33

B.8

CB12 (0-150)

0.9

0.6

1.6

3.3

0.2

0.8

1.1

37.3

14.06

B.9

CB2 (0-150)

0.9

0.6

1.4

3.5

0.3

0.7

1.4

36.5

19.47

B.10

CB14 (0-150)

0.9

1.2

2.9

4.1

0.5

1.4

1.0

37.8

21.68

B.11

CB31 (0-150)

1.0

0.9

2.7

3.1

0.4

1.2

0.5

37.5

25.88

B.12

CB31 (0-150)

0.8

2.4

4.6

4.9

1.2

1.7

1.0

35.8

19.69

B.14

CB31 (0-150)

0.9

2.9

3.0

3.6

0.7

0.6

0.9

37.3

19.74

S.10

CB2 (0-75)

0.8

3.4

6.2

6.4

1.3

2.6

30.6

16.45

S.15

CB2 (0-45)

0.8

5.4

7.5

1.7

2.7

29.1

8.55

S.16

CB2 (75-150)

0.8

2.6

4.6

1.4

1.9

29.9

10.64

S.20

CB2 (150-500)

0.8

1.2

1.7

0.5

0.6

34.8

21.10

S.21

CB3 (0-75)

0.8

7.0

7.7

1.7

2.4

32.3

15.07

S.25

CB3 (0-150)

0.8

5.0

31.0

13.05

1.4

Table 2: Experimental results.

presence of a dense carbonated rim on the surface of the sample which prevented moisture from reaching the interior of the mortar [1]. The experimental results confirmed the close relationship between compressive strength and porosity. Fig. 4 shows that the compressive strength of the experimental crushed brick-lime samples increased with decreasing porosity. The relationship between these two fundamental mortar properties may be described analytically as follows [22]: S = S0 (1=P)n

(1)

where S is the strength of mortar, S0 the theoretical strength at zero porosity, P the porosity and n a constant. The capillary absorption tests (Table 2) showed that the coefficient of water absorption (S) is dependent on the microstructural characteristics of the mortar and, in particular, its porosity [23]. Mortars with lower porosities and higher mechanical strengths (i.e. mortars with finer ceramic powder), generally showed lower capillary water absorption values, as would be expected from denser materials [13]. The results also showed differences between the aerial and the weak hydraulic mortars. The latter exhibited lower capillary water absorption coefficients. The evaluation of the physico-mechanical characteristics of the experimental mortars should be carried out bearing in mind their compatibility with old masonry [23]. Low mechanical resistance (~ 5.5 MPa) and high porosity (35-40%) characterise one of the main building stones (i.e. the calcareous sandstone of the Nicosia-Athalassa formation) found on ancient monuments in Cyprus. The experimental mortars exhibit lower strengths than the original stone and similar porosities. Therefore, one may assume that they are compatible with the units of historic buildings and can be used for re-pointing and re-rendering. Conclusions Following the physico-chemical characterisation of ancient mortars from Cyprus, and adopting a “reverse” engineering” process, it became possible to prepare restoration mixtures having characteristics compatible with the traditional masonry structure. The repair mortars consisted of raw materials locally available. Examination of the physico-mechanical characteristics of the

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experimental mortars indicated the main parameters which determine their strength, workability and durability. These are the binding system and the water content. Acknowledgements The authors acknowledge financial support from the Cyprus Research Promotion Foundation. They also thank Dr. Ioannis Maniatis and Dr. Michele Machiarola for help with thermal and XRD analyses and Dr. Antonis Charalambides for his assistance with the chemical analyses.

REFERENCES 1. K. CALLEBAUT, J. ELSEN, K.V. BALEN, W. VIAENE (2001). Nineteenth century hydraulic restoration mortars in the Saint Michael’s Church (Leuven, Belgium). Natural hydraulic lime or cement? Cement and Concrete Research 31, 397-403. 2. M. Collepardi (1990). Degradation and restoration of masonry walls of historic buildings. Materials and Structures 23, 81-102. 3. D. Michoinová (1999). Lime based mortars for restoration of historical mortars especially under wall paintings. In: P.J.M. Bartos, C.J.W.P. Groot, J.J. Hughes (Eds), Proceedings of the International RILEM Workshop “Historic Mortars: Characteristics and Tests”, RILEM, Paisley, 287-295. 4. I. Holmström (1981). Mortars, cements and grouts for conservation and repair. Some urgent needs for research. In: Proceedings of the ICCROM Symposium “Mortars, cements and grouts used in the conservation of historic buildings”, Rome, 19-24. 5. P. ROTA ROSSI-DORIA (1986). Mortars for restoration: basic requirements and quality control. Matériaux et Constructions 19, 445-448. 6. A. MOROPOULOU, P. MARAVELAKI-KALAITZAKI, M. BORBOUDAKIS, A. BAKOLAS, P. MICHAILIDIS, M. CHRONOPOULOS (1998). Historic mortars technologies in Crete and guidelines for compatible restoration mortars. PACT: Journal of the European Study Group on Physical, Chemical, Biological and Mathematical Techniques applied to Archaeology 55, 55-72. 7. Z. AL-SAAD, M.A.H. ABDEL-HALIM (2001). Laboratory investigation of various types of mortars for the restoration of Qasr al-Bint monument, Petra-Jordan. Engineering Structures 23, 926-933.


Rendre compatible les techniques traditionnelles et les modernes Compatibilizar técnicas tradicionales y modernas Combining traditional and modern techniques

8. P. MARAVELAKI-KALAITZAKI, A. BAKOLAS, A. MOROPOULOU (2003). Physicochemical study of Creatn ancient mortars. Cement and Concrete Research 33, 651-661. 9. ICOMOS (1964). International Charter for the conservation and restoration of monuments and sites (The Venice Charter 1964). ICOMOS, Venice, Italy. 10. A. BAKOLAS, G. BISCONTIN, V. CONTARDI, E. FRANCESCHI, A. MOROPOULOU, D. PALAZZI, E. ZENDRI (1995). Thermoanalytical research on traditional mortars in Venice. Thermochimica Acta 269/270, 817-828. 11. A. MOROPOULOU, G.BISCONTIN, P. THEOULAKIS, E. ZENDRI, A. BAKOLAS, K. BISBIKOU, A. THEODORAKI, N. CHONDROS (1993). Study of mortars in the Medieval city of Rhodes. In: M.-J. Thiel (Ed), Conservation of Stone and Other Materials, Vol. 1, Proceedings of the International RILEM/UNESCO Congress “Conservation of Stone and Other Materials: ResearchIndustry-Media”, E & F.N. Spon, Paris, 394-401. 12. EN 196-1 (1995). Methods of testing cement – Part 1: Determinations of strength. CEN, Brussels. 13. F.M.A. HENRIQUES, A.E. CHAROLA (1996). Comparative study of standard test procedures for mortars. In: J. Riederer (Ed), Proceedings of the 8th International Congress on Deterioration and Conservation of Stone, Moeller Druck und Verlag, Berlin, 1521-1528. 14. A. MOROPOULOU, A.S. CAKMAK, G. BISCONTIN (1998). Criteria and methodology to evaluate the Hagia Sophia crushed brick/lime mortars. PACT: Journal of the European Study Group on Physical, Chemical, Biological and Mathematical Techniques applied to Archaeology 55, 39-54. 15. T. GÖDICKE-DETTMERING, G. STRÜBEL (1996). Mineralogische und technologische Eigenschaften von hydraulischen Kalken als Bindemittel für Restaurierungsmörtel in der Denkmalpflege. Giessener Geologische Schriften 56, 131-154. 16. A. BAKOLAS, G. BISCONTIN, A. MOROPOULOU, E. ZENDRI (1998). Characterization of structural Byzantine mortars by thermogravimetric analysis. Thermochimica Acta 321, 151-160. 17. G. PÉRINET, L. COURTOIS (1983). Evaluation des températures de cuisson de céramiques et de vaisselles blanches Néolithiques de Syrie. Bulletin de la Société Préhistorique Française 80,157-160. 18. G. PÉRINET, R. FAFONT, F. RICHARDOT (1976). Contrôle de la cuisson par diffraction des rayons X. Application au problème du “carton” en tuilerie. L’Industrie Céramique 701, 863-865. 19. A. Moropoulou, A. Bakolas, K. Bisbikou (1995). Characterisation of ancient, Byzantine and later historic mortars by thermal and X-ray diffraction techniques. Thermochimica Acta 269/270, 779-795. 20. I. PAPAYIANNI (1997). A holistic way of studying mortars and bricks of ancient masonries for manufacturing compatible repair materials. In: Proceedings of the 4th International Symposium on the Conservation of Monuments in the Meditteranean, Rhodes, 265-274. 21. Z. AL-SAAD, M.A.H. ABDEL-HALIM (2001). Laboratory evaluation of various types of mortars for the conservation of Qasr al-Bint monument, Petra-Jordan. Engineering Structures 23, 926-933. 22. J. SCHÄFER, H.K. HILSDORF (1993). Ancient and new lime mortars – The correlation between their composition, structure and properties. In: M.-J. Thiel (Ed), Conservation of Stone and Other Materials, Vol. 2, Proceedings of the International RILEM/UNESCO Congress “Conservation of Stone and Other Materials: Research-Industry-Media”, E & F.N. Spon, Paris, 605-612. 23. P. Maravelaki-Kalaitzaki (2007). Hydraulic lime mortars with siloxane for waterproofing historic masonry. Cement and Concrete Research 37, 283-290.

1: Evidence of reddish inclusions in sample KT.26B.

2: CO2 (%) versus ratio of CO2/H2O for ancient mortars.

3: Inverse relationship between silicon and calcium oxides.

4: Correlation of porosity with compressive strength for the experimental mortars.

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Rendre compatible les techniques traditionnelles et les modernes Compatibilizar tĂŠcnicas tradicionales y modernas Combining traditional and modern techniques

Hacia un sistema-mortero para intervenciĂłn en restauraciĂłn Joan Ramon Rosell*, Jaume* Avellaneda, Servando**ChinchĂłn, Judith*RamĂ­rez * UPC Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya ** Universitat d’Alacant E-mail: joan.ramon.rosell@upc.edu

1 IntroducciĂłn Desde siempre el conglomerante universal ha sido la cal, hasta la apariciĂłn del cemento portland. El cemento portland y los cementos en general son la consecuencia de la evoluciĂłn en una determinada direcciĂłn tecnolĂłgica de la producciĂłn de la cal. Resulta muy interesante viajar por los textos clĂĄsicos (los “tratados de construcciĂłnâ€?) para constatar que, con el paso de los siglos, el discurso no ha variado substancialmente en lo referente a la cal. Las instrucciones “vitruvianasâ€? se repiten aconsejando un producto a partir de la piedras lo mĂĄs puras posible [1]. Sin embargo, las tĂŠcnicas de producciĂłn preindustrial de cal no permiten asegurar un producto de mĂĄxima pureza en Ăłxido de calcio [2]. Debemos pensar que casi nunca se conseguĂ­a un producto exento completamente de propiedades hidrĂĄulicas y de elementos no calcinados. La naturaleza de las materias primas disponibles cercanas a las obras, la diďŹ cultad en el transporte, la heterogeneidad en la distribuciĂłn de la temperatura en el horno, etc. necesariamente son causas de una producciĂłn de baja pureza en CaO libre. El largo proceso de apagado por inmersiĂłn en balsa generaba un producto compuesto por hidrĂłxido cĂĄlcico y carga mineral inerte. Otras formas de apagado con menor cantidad de agua, materias primas con mayores contenidos de arcillas y superiores temperaturas de cocciĂłn proporcionaban productos de cal con propiedades hidrĂĄulicas que actualmente conocemos como cales hidrĂĄulicas naturales. El conglomerante con propiedades hidrĂĄulicas es aquel que comporta en si mismo elementos capaces de reaccionar entre si en presencia de agua para formar nuevos compuestos resistentes. AsĂ­ pues, existe una cierta continuidad desde las cales aĂŠreas puras a los conglomerantes modernos con fraguados mayoritariamente hidrĂĄulicos. El conocimiento “clĂĄsicoâ€? ya distinguĂ­a entre diversas utilizaciones de los morteros de cal, donde eran necesarias determinadas prestaciones. Realmente, aquello que se convertĂ­a en un producto con propiedades de resistencia inicial elevada, o con capacidad de fraguado en ambientes saturados, etc., era el propio mortero. Estas propiedades se conseguĂ­an a partir de dosiďŹ caciones con materiales con puzolanidad latente, como puzolanas naturales o chamota.

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Las modernas tĂŠcnicas instrumentales de anĂĄlisis de materiales [3] han permitido constatar en multitud de ediďŹ cios patrimoniales la realidad de los morteros histĂłricos realizados con materiales de actividad puzolĂĄnica. Otra cuestiĂłn es Âżcon que morteros intervenimos actualmente en estas obras? La cotidianidad de las obras de restauraciĂłn [4] nos muestra una realidad muy preocupante. La industria del cemento y las preferencias de los operarios han ido arrinconando el uso de la cal, por muy diversas causas. La cultura actual de las obras (y de los proyectos) es la del cemento y el hormigĂłn. Si en una determinada obra de restauraciĂłn se prescribe el uso de cal como conglomerante, se puede conseguir realmente, como mal menor, la confecciĂłn de un mortero bastardo de cal y cemento. Aunque seguramente serĂ­a mĂĄs correcto deďŹ nirlo como un mortero de cemento adicionado con cal cĂĄlcica, dadas las proporciones de ambos conglomerantes. Incluso determinados morteros industrializados, comercializados como “morteros de calâ€?, son realmente morteros mixtos cemento-cal con proporciones en peso 2 a 1, respectivamente. No es ahora el momento de relatar pormenorizadamente los distintos problemas que comporta el uso de cemento portland en estas obras [5]. Resumidamente: t *ODPNQBUJCJMJEBE DPO PUSPT NBUFSJBMFT QSFTFOUFT FO MB PCSB DPO la consiguiente formaciĂłn de nuevos compuestos, generalmente expansivos. t 'PSNBDJĂ˜O EF TBMFT TPMVCMFT RVF HFOFSBO FnPSFTDFODJBT P criptoeorescencias. t "VNFOUP EFM NĂ˜EVMP EF EFGPSNBDJĂ˜O EFM NPSUFSP DPO MPT consecuentes cambios de rigidez de partes del monumento. t $BNCJPT EF QFSNFBCJMJEBE BM WBQPS FO MB SFE QPSPTB FUD

2 Planteamiento Entroncando con la tradiciĂłn de los morteros romanos, de los medievales y los posteriores hasta los de cal hidrĂĄulica, se plantea desarrollar nuevos morteros de cal con capacidades puzolĂĄnicas (controlando estas caracterĂ­sticas) a partir de productos especĂ­ďŹ cos, de alta pureza y constancia, concebidos como un mortero para obras de restauraciĂłn. Justamente por el hecho de tratarse de este tipo de obras se puede pensar de manera algo distinta a las obras nuevas, dadas las siguientes caracterĂ­sticas: t &M QFSĂ“PEP EF FTUVEJP EFM PCKFUP BSRVJUFDUĂ˜OJDP FT NĂˆT MBSHP Z pluridisciplinar. En particular, generalmente, se identiďŹ carĂĄn los materiales presentes y los procesos patolĂłgicos existentes, lo que posibilitarĂĄ deďŹ nir condiciones generales para los “nuevosâ€? materiales. t -BT FNQSFTBT DPOTUSVDUPSBT TFSĂˆO FTQFDJBMJTUBT 1PS UBOUP DPO experiencia en este tipo de obras y disponiendo de mano de obra cualiďŹ cada en los distintos oďŹ cios. t -PT QFSĂ“PEPT EF FKFDVDJĂ˜O TFSĂˆO HFOFSBMNFOUF NĂˆT EJMBUBEPT Z el presupuesto se regirĂĄ por parĂĄmetros distintos a los de la obra


Rendre compatible les techniques traditionnelles et les modernes Compatibilizar tĂŠcnicas tradicionales y modernas Combining traditional and modern techniques

nueva. t &O NVDIPT DBTPT FM VTP TJNVMUĂˆOFP QBSDJBM EFM NPOVNFOUP condicionarĂĄ el proceso. AsĂ­, es posible plantear para cada caso la utilizaciĂłn de un mortero determinado considerando distintos parĂĄmetros de diseĂąo del material como: t DPNQBUJCJMJEBE DPO PUSPT NBUFSJBMFT FYJTUFOUFT t SJHJEJ[BDJPOFT EF MPT FMFNFOUPT DPOTUSVDUJWPT P EF MB FTUSVDUVSB FO general t QSFTUBDJPOFT NFDĂˆOJDBT EFNBOEBEBT B DPSUP NFEJP Z MBSHP QMB[P t GVODJPOFT EF QSPUFDDJĂ˜O SFTQFDUP EF PUSPT NBUFSJBMFT P EF sacriďŹ cio t BTQFDUP mOBM EF MB JOUFSWFODJĂ˜O B DPSUP NFEJP Z MBSHP QMB[P t BNCJFOUF FO RVF TF FODVFOUSB FM NPOVNFOUP QFSĂ“PEP FO FM RVF se desarrolla la obra, medios disponibles y tiempos de utilizaciĂłn de estos, etc. En la medida de lo posible, se persigue desarrollar una cierta base comĂşn para todos estos morteros que de por sĂ­ resuelva un buen nĂşmero de situaciones, o bien que facilite el desarrollo de morteros especĂ­ďŹ cos para determinados casos. 3 Propuesta Se piensa en un producto a medio camino entre el producto industrial y el artesanal, es decir, un mortero moderno preparado industrialmente, pero con una parte de la dosiďŹ caciĂłn que deberĂĄ de ďŹ nalizarse en la obra. Aquella que resulta mĂĄs determinante en el aspecto ďŹ nal, es decir, el ĂĄrido de mayor tamaĂąo y el colorante. Se parte del conglomerante generalmente aceptado para estas obras, la cal aĂŠrea, por razones de compatibilidad[6]. Se cuanta tambiĂŠn con elementos capaces de incorporar al sistema sĂ­lice reactiva para desarrollar funciones puzolĂĄnicas y conseguir mayores resistencias mecĂĄnicas y rigideces iniciales. Pensamos en elementos de tamaĂąo de partĂ­cula muy pequeĂąo, de gran superďŹ cie especĂ­ďŹ ca (hasta 100 m2/g.)[7,8,9]. La utilizaciĂłn de tantas partĂ­culas pequeĂąas comporta una gran demanda de agua y, por tanto, condiciona la retracciĂłn en el proceso de secado. SerĂĄ necesario incorporar un aditivo reductor de agua. TambiĂŠn debemos considerar las funciones diversas que desarrollan los ĂĄridos en los morteros[10]:

Los colorantes minerales para conseguir el color deseado, y naturalmente, el agua “que pidaâ€?. Finalmente, en tanto que el mortero es un elemento de uniĂłn o de revestimiento, puede resultar un magnĂ­ďŹ co testigo, aparentemente invisible, de dataciĂłn de las intervenciones. El sistema-mortero que se propone conlleva un elemento inerte cuya Ăşnica funciĂłn es la de trazador imborrable de la intervenciĂłn. REFERENCIAS [1] ALBERTI, LEĂ“N BAPTISTA.; Los Diez Libros de Architectura de Leon Baptista Alberti.; Traduzidos del Latin en Romance. [por Francisco Loçano] Madrid: Casa de Alfonso Gomez, 1582. (Ed. facs. C olegios OďŹ ciales de Aparejadores y Arquitectos TĂŠcnicos, 1975) [2] ROSELL, J.; La producciĂł de calç ahir. El procĂŠs pre-industrial de producciĂł de calç a la comarca del MontsiĂ . CAATB, Barcelona 1987. [3] MOROPOULOU, A. BAKOLAS, A. BISBIKOU, K.; Physico - chemical adhesion and cohesion bonds in joint mortars imparting durability to the historic structures. Construction and Building Materials; 14 (2000) [4] “RestauraciĂłn: acciĂłn o efecto de reparar o volver a poner un ediďŹ cio, un monumento, en el buen estado que antes tenĂ­aâ€? GonzĂĄlez Moreno-Navarro, Antonio, en: La masia catalana. EvoluciĂł, arquitectura i restauraciĂł. Ed Brau. 2005 Figueres (EspaĂąa). [5] CAZALLA VĂ ZQUEZ, OLGA.; Morteros de cal. AplicaciĂłn en el patrimonio histĂłrico.; Tesis presentada Universidad de Granada; 2003 [6] TUFANI, A.; “Le malte nel restauro. Studi, ricerche e operativitĂ â€?; Ediart; 1987 Perugia. [7] A. MOROPOULOU, A. CAKMAK, K.C. LABROPOULOS, R. VAN GRIEKEN, K. TORFS. “Accelerated microstructural evolution of a calcium-silicate-hydrate (C-S-H) phase in pozzolanic pastes using ďŹ ne siliceous sources: Comparison with historic pozzolanic mortarsâ€? Cem. Concr. Res., 34, 1-6 (2004). [8] E. ZENDRI, V. LUCCHINI, G. BISCONTIN AND Z.M. MORABITO. “Interaction between clay and lime in “cocciopestoâ€? mortars: a study by Si-29 MAS spectroscopy,â€? Appl. Clay. Sci., 25, 1-7 (2004). [9] G. BARONIO AND L. BINDA. “Study of the pozzolanicity of some bricks and clays,â€? Constr. Build. Mater., 11, 41-6 (1997). [10] M. STEFANIDOU AND I. PAPAYIANNI. “The role of aggregates on the structure and properties of lime mortars,â€? Cem. Concr. Compos., 27, 914-9 (2005).

t *OUFSWJFOFO EFDJTJWBNFOUF FO MB SFPMPHĂ“B EFM NPSUFSP t $POEJDJPOBO MB QPSPTJEBE EFM NBUFSJBM t $PMBCPSBO FO FM QSPDFTP EF HFSNJOBDJĂ˜O EF MPT QSJNFSPT DSJTUBMFT del conglomerante (germinaciĂłn). De todo el conjunto de la curva granulomĂŠtrica, la parte mĂĄs relevante en los aspectos anteriores es la de las partĂ­culas menores (< 200 Îźm), por tanto, deberĂĄ de conllevar una cierta curva de ďŹ nos. La parte de ĂĄridos de mayor tamaĂąo se incorporarĂĄ en obra y condicionarĂĄ el aspecto del mortero. Estos deberĂĄn ser “limpiosâ€? de elementos potencialmente nocivos para el monumento, es decir, lavados bajo agua y tamizados por 200 Îźm, despreciando la parte que pasa.

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Rendre compatible les techniques traditionnelles et les modernes Compatibilizar técnicas tradicionales y modernas Combining traditional and modern techniques

Newsandstone versus Montjuïc. ¿Hermanas Gemelas?

Joan Ramon* Rosell , Antonia** Navarro; Domingo*** Gimeno * Arquitecto técnico e Ingeniero en Organización Industrial. Profesor y Director de proyectos del Laboratorio de Materials de l’EPSEB. UPC ** Geóloga. Técnica del Laboratorio de Materiales de l’EPSEB. UPC *** Geólogo. Departamento de Geoquímica, Petrología y Prospección Geológica. Facultad de Geología. UB. Dirección: Laboratori de Materials de l’EPSEB. UPC Avda. Gregorio Marañón, 44-50. 08028 Barcelona E-mail: laboratori.materials@upc.edu Teléfono: 934016234

1. ANTECEDENTES Comparamos dos rocas, separadas geográficamente, de orígenes geológicos diferentes, pero de composición química y propiedades físicas similares. Una roca es la utilizada en Barcelona, y conocida como piedra de Montjuïc. Sus canteras o están agotadas o han sido cerradas. Es la piedra emblemática de Barcelona. La otra roca proviene de Escocia, en concreto de Moray, con varios frentes de cantera abiertos actualmente, y con buenas reservas de material a explotar. En su lugar de origen se conoce con el nombre de Clashach sandstone. Se ha utilizado en multitud de edificios, destacando el Museo de Scotland (1998), Scottish Widows Fund and Life Assurance Society (1997), y en reparaciones del castillo de Edimburgo (1978)1. Consideramos óptimo que las piedras de substitución deben envejecer de forma similar a las piedras originales, con la finalidad que no se produzcan variaciones de cromatismo y textura muy diferenciados, para que así no se tenga que recurrir a la aplicación de recubrimientos que impidan la lectura de estos elementos nobles: las piedras de construcción. 2. CARACTERIZACIÓN Dada la imposibilidad de finalizar a tiempo la caracterización de la piedra Clashach en nuestro Laboratorio, los datos aquí presentados de esta roca han sido facilitados por el British Geological Survey, a excepción de los datos de resistencia a compresión y flexión que sí se han podido realizar en este Laboratorio. En cuanto a la caracterización de la piedra de Montjuïc, los datos aquí expuestos son experimentales de este Laboratorio, y cotejados con

los publicados por Esbert, R.M. et al2. Para caracterizar esta roca se ha realizado el correspondiente estudio geológico, petrofísico, y se ha envejecido aceleradamente. Actualmente se está llevando a cabo una caracterización de seis tipos diferentes de la piedra de Clashach, diferenciados principalmente por su contenido en óxidos de hierro. 2.1. Caracterización geológica Arenisca de Montjuïc La arenisca de Montjuïc se formó como un depósito sedimentario detrítico en un ambiente deltáico. Esta roca ha sufrido importantes modificaciones (principalmente una extensa silicificación, por circulación intersticial de aguas ácidas a baja temperatura) que han conducido a la desaparición del cemento carbonatado originario y su matriz arcillosa (hasta un 50-55 %del volumen original), así como a la argilización (o neoformación de adularia) a expensas de los feldespatos y fragmentos líticos (San Miguel y Masriera 19703 , Gómez Gras et al. 20004, 20011, Parcerisa et al. 20016, Parcerisa 20027). Su composición es en un 96% de cuarzo y el resto son feldespatos y fragmentos de roca silícea. El cemento de esta roca principalmente es silícico, aunque hay zonas donde existe un cemento ferruginoso. Su coloración varia entre gris (variedad blancatxe, con cemento silícico) y rojo (variedad rebuig, con cemento ferruginoso), aunque la más utilizada en construcción es la de coloración grisácea, que en algunas zonas puede tener cementos ferruginosos. Es una roca de edad miocénica, concretamente del Serravalliense (Gómez Gras et al. 2000, 2001). Arenisca de Clashach La arenisca de Clashach se formó en un proceso sedimentario de tipo eólico (dunas del desierto). Presenta una mejor selección granulométrica y mineralógica que la anterior arenisca. Esta roca también fue afectada por un proceso diagenético (cementación) desarrollado tras su deposición, menos intenso que en el caso de la arenisca de Montjuïc, pero suficientemente importante como para darle características mineralógicas similares. El estudio petrográfico de la arenisca escocesa muestra tanto el carácter eólico como, en general, una menor cementación silícica. Su composición es en un 96% de cuarzo y el resto son feldespatos y fragmentos de roca silícea. También tiene los dos tipos de cemento: silícico y ferruginoso, y por tanto se pueden encontrar desde variedades de color grisáceas hasta rojizas, existiendo sus puntos intermedios. Es una roca del Pérmico superior1. 2.2. Caracterización petrofísica y envejecimiento acelerado En la siguiente tabla se recogen los resultados de algunas propiedades físicas de estas dos rocas, así como la pérdida de material que sufren tras el envejecimiento artificial acelerado mediante cristalización de sales y de hielo deshielo. TIPOS ρo Clashach 2.08 Montjuïc 2.13

no 21.40 24.00

Ws 6.90 8.34

Rc 65.20 60.16

Rf Δm sal Δm hielo 7.60 -0.8 -0.08 7.20 -0.1 -0.07

ρo: densidad aparente (g/cm3); no: porosidad abierta (%); Ws: contenido de agua en saturación (%); Rc: resistencia a la compresión uniaxial (MPa); Rf: resistencia a la 559


Rendre compatible les techniques traditionnelles et les modernes Compatibilizar técnicas tradicionales y modernas Combining traditional and modern techniques

flexotracción (MPa), Δm sal: incremento de masa tras envejecimiento por cristalización de sales (%). Δm hielo: incremento de masa tras envejecimiento por hielo deshielo (%).

FRANCE 172 (6): 751-764. 7

Parcerisa, D. (2002) PETROLOGIA I DIAGÈNESI EN SEDIMENTS DE L’OLIGOCÈ SUPERIOR I DEL MIOCÈ INFERIOR I MITJÀ DE LA DEPRESSIÓ DEL VALLÈS I DEL PLA DE BARCELONA Evolució de l’àrea font i dinàmica dels fluids, Tesis doctoral inédita, UAB, 261 pp.

Dado que el principal agente de alteración de la arenisca de Montjuïc, a excepción de las actuaciones realizadas por la mano del hombre, es la cristalización se sales solubles, se ha creído conveniente observar el envejecimiento de los dos tipos de roca, bajo este agente alterológico. Por ahora, se ha comprobado que presentan una pérdida de masa insignificante al finalizar los ciclos normalizados, y que no se observan formas de alteración relevantes, a excepción de una subida de los tonos rojizos en aquellas muestras que presentan una concentración de óxidos de hierro importante. También se ha realizado el envejecimento artificial acelerado mediante hielo deshielo. No se ha observado ningún síntoma de alteración de estas dos rocas bajo este agente alterológico. 3. CONCLUSIONES Como se ha podido comprobar, las características petrológicas y petrofísicas de estos dos tipos de piedra son muy similares. Su envejecimiento es muy similar, tanto en valores de pérdida de masa como de su forma de alteración. Así pues, la arenisca Clashach se perfila como una verdadera substituta de la arenisca de Montjuïc El comportamiento de estas piedras frente al envejecimiento artificial acelerado ensayado nos indica que no se alteran excesivamente, tal y como se puede comprobar en la realidad, en los edificios construidos, y que envejecen como si de dos hermanas gemelas se tratara. Así pues, tenemos la posibilidad de garantizar que los edificios construidos con piedra de Montjuïc sigan teniendo el mismo aspecto, aún con la actuación del paso del tiempo y de los agentes alterológicos. En este estudio no se ha pretendido menospreciar las piedras que en la actualidad se están utilizando como substitutas de Montjuïc (piedra de Vinaixa, La Floresta, etc). Tan solo pretendemos justificar que, si es posible, siempre es mejor sustituir con piedras de similar características que con otras que sólo se asimilan a las originales en el color inicial. A la vista está el comportamiento diferencial de las piedras ya substituidas respecto a las originales.

1

McMillan, A.; Gillandeis, R.J.; Fairhusrst, J.A. Building stones of Edinburg. Where to see sandstones in Edinburgh’s buildings: Part 2.

2

Esbert, R.M.; Ordaz, J.; Alonso, F.J.; Montoto, M. (1997). Manual de diagnosis y tratamiento de materiales pétreos y cerámicos. CAATB.

3

San Miguel, A., Masriera, A. (1970). Contribución al estudio petrológico de los niveles de areniscas de Montjuic (Barcelona). Publicaciones del Instituto de Investigaciones Geológicas de la Diputación Provincial, 19, 83-104.

4

Gómez-Gras, D., Parcerisa, D., Bitzer, K., Calvet, F., Roca, E., Thiry, M. (2000). Hydrogeochemistry and diagenesis of Miocene sandstones at Montjuic, Barcelona (Spain), JOURNAL OF GEOCHEMICAL EXPLORATION 69: 177-182 Sp. Iss. SI, JUN 2000.

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Gómez-Gras, D., Parcerisa, D., Calvet, F., PORTA, J., SOLÉ DE PORTA, N., CIVÍS, J. (2001) Stratigraphy and petrology of the Miocene Montjuïc delta (Barcelona, Spain). ACTA GEOLOGICA HISPANICA, v. 36 (2001), no 1-2, p. 115-136.

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Parcerisa, D., Thiry, M., Gomez-Gras, D., Calvet, F. (2001). Tentative model for the silicification in Neogene Montjuic sandstones, Barcelona (Spain): authigenic minerals, geochemical environment and fluid flow. BULLETIN DE LA SOCIETE GEOLOGIQUE DE

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Sagrada Familia de Barcelona. Piedra de Montjuïc

Exterior del Museo Nacional de Escocia. Piedra de Clashach


Rendre compatible les techniques traditionnelles et les modernes Compatibilizar técnicas tradicionales y modernas Combining traditional and modern techniques

Traditional Building Techniques from 1850 to 1950: The case of northern Jordan

Fandi. A. Waked*; Ziad al-Saad** * He got his BA in architecture in 1987 and his MA in Stone Conservation in 1997. Mr Waked attended many training courses in architectural conservation, and he participated in many national and international conferences and projects. His main research interest is architectural conservation and Rehabilitation of traditional buildings.

** Ziad Al-Saad is currently the Dean of the Faculty of Archaeology and Anthropology at Yarmouk University. He is a professor of conservation of cultural heritage at Yarmouk University. His research interest focuses on conservation and management of cultural heritage in addition to application of scientific techniques for the study and analysis of archaeological materials. Prof. Al-Saad is the principal investigator and coordinator of a number of EU funded collaborative projects. Address: Department of conservation Faculty of Archaeology & Anthropology Yarmouk University E-mail: wfandi2000@yahoo.com Mobile: +962-777313059

Introduction The past human activities had always left traces on the landscape as the thread on canvas (Ashmore and Knapp, 1999). On of these traces is architecture embodied in building and structures which reflects in a way the interaction of the social systems with the surrounding environment (Sozen and Gedik, 2007), geography (Doeppers, 1990) and politics (Swenson, 2007). It has long been known that architecture indirectly serves as a metaphor for the people’s social and behavioral attitudes and consequently the culture (Al-zoabi, 2004). All of these components were not divorced from the cultural exchange which most of the time enriches the traditional buildings and structures, and provides a special essence for them. Taking a very important time span of the history of Jordan (1850-1950), this study focuses on the various attributes of the traditional buildings in Jordan, an issue that remain not very well researched until recently. Before 1921 and during the Ottoman era (1520-1920AD), the area comprising modern Jordan was divided among a number of continuously changing administrative provinces which comprised Bilad

al-Sham (the area consisting of Syria, Jordan, Lebanon, and Palestine) (Salibi,1993, Fradric,1958). Being a passage for the pilgrimage to Mecca, Jordan received a special attention by the Ottoman authority, which constructed the Hijaz Railroad in 1900 (Fraddric, 1934; Ochsenwald, 1980). The Ottoman heavy taxes altered the development of settled life as much as the raids of Bedouin tribes (Daher, 1988; Abujaber, 1989). Consequently, Jordanian peasants fled to caves; then numerous villages were constructed on the mountains representing several stages of architectural development through trial and error to suite the environment and the community (Khammash, 1986). Each village adapted to several cultural and environmental changes through time as being located near historical sites (Khammash, 1986; Knauf, 1986). The villages’ architecture reflects the social traditions and the prevailed socio-economic patterns; the subsistence economy was mainly agriculture and pastoralism (Khammash, 1986) and the construction materials were stone, mud, wood, and reeds (Mahadine, 1997). The establishment of Transjordan encouraged the development of a settled life. Therefore, a considerable progress was achieved in the construction development. The emerg¬ing state acted as a magnet which attracted immigrants bringing with them new construction methods (Al-rifaa’i and Kan’aan, 1987; Salibi, 1993), such as Circassians and Chechens in the late 19th century (Al-rifaa’i and Kan’aan, 1987; Ochsenwald, 1980; Abujaber, 1989). The north of Jordan received series of immigrants from Syria and Palestine. These new developments created an immediate need for new buildings in Amman and the other major towns of Jordan. Interesting new structures, which incorporated imported design features and construction methods, were built during the next few decades (Al-asad, 1997). These buildings included train stations, which were built along the Hijaz Railroad. The stations spread new building materials such as steel beams that were used in the construction of roofs. Previously, the roofs in the area were constructed using stone vaulting, which is complicated, and costly (Zou’bi and Shahab, 1995). The other method of roofing comprised the use of wooden beams or tree trunks that spanned a maximum length of about 3 meters and covered with thatch and mud. This method is not durable; it needed frequent maintenance and depended on the availability of wood which is very scarce in the region (Bushnaq, 1997, Al-rifaa’i and Kan’aan, 1987). Before the establishment of Transjordan, few important structures other than those of the Hijaz Railroad were built, especially in the major cities by master builders from Bilad al-Sham. These structures incorporated Western architectural features alongside local traditional ones, and showed a remarkable use of stone for construction and decorative purposes (Al-asad, 1997). The traditional buildings can be classified as rural and urban, the traditional urban buildings were affected by the already existing patterns of rural architecture (Bushnaq, 1997). Rural Dwelling plans: The first type of the rural houses was the peasant house (Fellahi House); this type of houses has been existed as early as the beginning of sedentary life (Nourissier, et al., 2002). It’s simple in form and building technique with a rectangular plan and double skin stone walls. This type was a single or multi-purpose space. These houses can be entered from one door; they have small openings for natural lighting and ventilation (Khammash, 1986, Nahhas, 1987; Faqih, 1991) (fig.1). The second type of rural houses was the Yard house (Housh), which was

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Rendre compatible les techniques traditionnelles et les modernes Compatibilizar técnicas tradicionales y modernas Combining traditional and modern techniques

almost a development of the previous type (Fakhoury, 1993; Khammash, 1986). This type dominated over the other types in Jordanian villages due to its compatibility with the environment and daily activities. The rooms were grouped around a large open space, while the rest of the space is defined by the use of high walls built in the property line (Alrifaa’i and Kan’aan, 1988; Faqih, et al., 1989) (Fig.2) Urban Dwelling plans: Riwaq type was brought by Circassians and Chechens immigrants. This type consists of a number of rooms placed side by side. They are connected together through doors opened in a front arcade (shaded space functioned as a foreground and summer living) (fig.3).This type was found in Amman, Jarash and Swaileh (Khammash, 1986). The other type of urban dwelling(in most of the urban buildings) followed a tripartite arrangement. The middle section contains an entrance and a major living room. The side sections contain sleeping and service areas. One of the corner rooms is usually located next to the entrance; it may have been used as a reception. This arrange¬ment was originally a traditional courtyard house one, but here the central section of the house replaced the courtyard. The prototypes for these houses are built in the urban centers of Bilad al-Sham during the early 20th century. During the 1940s, this traditional arrangement was changed to a more western one in which the bedrooms are grouped together and separated from the living, dining, and family rooms (Zou’bi and Shahab, 1995; Al-asad, 1997; Bushnaq, 1997) (Fig.4). Foundation system: In the mountain areas where the topsoil is shallow, Jordanians built their houses directly into the rocks either on a slope or step systems. In the clay soil they usually dig a trench about one meter in width and down to the bed rock (Zou’bi and Shahab, 1995). The foundation trench was filled with stone boulders mixed with mud. The mud was replaced by concrete in later periods (Al-asad, 1997). Walling system: The load-bearing walls were made of rubble stones held together by mud and mixed with thatch making them thick. Rough-textured stone blocks provided the major exterior surface mater¬ial for the houses. Smooth-textured stone blocks were also used, but less frequently than the former ones since they require additional chisel¬ing by stone masons and therefore being relatively expensive (Al-asad, 1997). Roofing system: The flat roof was the common roofing system in traditional buildings having very weak slopes to evacuate water, which required permanent maintenance (Nourissier, et al, 2002). Jordanians experienced different roofing techniques; mostly not domestic. Barrel vaults and cross vaults made of limestone were the most common. Arched walls that divided the house space were also used to shorten the distance between the wooden beams. In Jordan valley, these techniques were not applied due to availability of wood. Tree trunks were used as a main beam and reeds as a second beam. After 1912 Steel I-beams, which were closely spaced at intervals of about one meter, were generally used to support the roofs. By the end of the 1930s, the roofs were mostly of reinforced concrete mesh (Al-asad, 1997, Bushnaq, 1997). Flooring:

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In rural areas, earlier type of flooring technique was the compact soil finished with lime wash. The other type of flooring was executed by paving the floor with stones covered by sand mixed with lime but lately replaced by a thin layer of concrete. In urban areas, tiles brought form Palestine and Syria were used. Terrazzo floor tiles were used for the interior and exte¬rior areas. These tiles were often colored and had vegetal or geometric patterns (Zou’bi and Shahab, 1995, Al-asad, 1997). Opening System: The windows of these houses were usually narrow and long. Flat and arched lintels were common for windows and doors. The vertical orientation of windows bridged the horizontal span of the window openings, while the overall area of each window allowed a sufficient amount of light to enter. Wood frames and glass panes were used for the windows. Wrought iron grillwork incorporating a range of patterns pro¬vided protection for window openings from burglary. Stone carving was used selectively for elements such as the frames surrounding openings, columns, cor¬bels, and balustrades (Al-asad, 1997; Zou’bi and Shahab, 1995).

Acknowledgment This project was sponsored by the RehabiMed Project.

REFERENCES AL-ASAD,M, 1997. Old Houses of Jordan, Amman 1920-1950. Jordan: National Press Jordan TURAB. pp; 15. AL-ZOABI, Y. 2004. The residents’ ‘images of the past’ in the architecture of Salt City, Jordan. Habitat International 28(4).pp; 541-565. ABUJABER,R,1989. Pioneers over Jordan, The Frontier of Settlement in Transjordan,1850-1914. I.B.Tauris & Co Ltd, 110 Gloucester Avenue London NW I 8JA.pp:132,197. AL-RIFAA’I, T. Press.

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KAN’AAN, R. 1987. The First Houses of Amman. Amman: University of Jordan

AL-RIFAA’I, T.; KAN’AAN, R AND YAGEN, M. 1988. Iraq Al-Amir/Al-Bardun: Architectural Future of he Jordanian Village. Amman: University of Jordan Press. pp: 4-5. ASHMORE, W. AND KNAPP, A. 1999. Archaeologies of landscape: contemporary perspective. Oxford: Blackwell Publishers Ltd. BUSHNAQ,Z 1997. Adaptive reuse and rehabilitation of traditional buildings in Jordan “ A Crittical Assessment of Selected Adaptive reuse case Studies. Mater Thesis. University of Jordan. Pp:8390 DAHER, A. 1988. (in Arabic). Ghor Al-Urdun,ulamat Al tagher wa Adat Al Tatwear ( Jordan Valley, process of change and development.) Amman: Dar Eben Roushed. pp: 90. DOEPPERS, D. 1990. China’s traditional rural architecture: A cultural geography of the common house. Journal of Historical Geography 16 (2): 268. FAKHOURY,L.1993: Taibeh, A Traditional Village with a New Role . Proc of the Conference on the conservation of architecture heritage in Jordan and the Arab world, University of Jordan. Amman, Jordan. FAQIH,S.1991: The Traditional Souf House. Open House International Vol.16,No 1. pp: 2426.Amman University of Jordan FAQIH,S, MURQUS,F, AL-RAHHAL, Y. 1989; Suf An Architectural study of the Local Environment. University of Jordan.Amman Jordan KHAMMASH, A. 1986. Notes on Village Architecture in Jordan. 1st edition. USA University of Southern Louisiana Press. pp: 8 KNAUF, E.A (1986): A Brief History of Settlement in Jordan. In: Ammar Khammash. Notes on Village Architecture in Jordan, Lafayette: University Art Museum. University of Southern Louisiana.


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MAHADINE,K. (1997, September): The conservation of the architectural heritage in Wadi Musa. The First Conference on the Conservation of Architectural Heritage of Jordan, Amman. Nahhas,S.1987.: (in Arabic). Tarikh Madaba Al- hadeath . Aldar al arabia le- alnasher. Amman,Jordan. Pp: 186-188 NOURISSER,G, REGUANT,J, CASANOVAS,X and Graz, 2002 Traditional Mediterranean Architecture. CORPUS and European Commission MEDA-EUROMED Heritage. 2002. Grup 4, Barcelona. pp: 54-63. OCHSENWALD,W.1980. The Hijaz Railroad. The University Press of Virginia, pp:14,16 23. PEAKE, F. 1958. A history of Jordan and its tribes. Florida: University of Miami Press, pp:227,260. SALIBI, K.1993. The Modern History of Jordan. I.B.Tauris & Co Ltd, 45 Bloomsbury Square London WCIA 2HY.Pp:26, 28,109. SWENSON, E. 2007. Adaptive strategies or ideological innovations? Interpreting sociopolitical developments in the Jequetepeque Valley of Peru during the Late Moche Period. Journal of Anthropological Archaeology, In Press. SOZEN, M. and GEDIK, G. 2007. Evaluation of traditional architecture in terms of building physics: Old Diyarbakr houses. Building and Environment 42: 1810-1816. ZOU’BI, H and SHAHAB, S.1995 (in Arabic). Khsas Buyut Madaba Al Taqlidaeah fi Bedauate Alquren Al-ushreen Manshurate .al dustor press Amman. Jordan

Yard House

Peasant house

Courtyard house

Riwaq house

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La intervenciĂłn en la cimentaciĂłn de la construcciĂłn tradicional

Fernando da Casa MartĂ­n y AndrĂŠs GarcĂ­a Bodega Ambos Doctores Arquitectos, profesores del Departamento de Arquitectura de la Universidad de AlcalĂĄ, y Director y Subdirector de la Escuela Universitaria de Arquitectura TĂŠcnica del Campus de Guadalajara. Miembros del Grupo de InvestigaciĂłn: “IntervenciĂłn en el Patrimonio y Arquitectura Sosteniblesâ€? de la Universidad de AlcalĂĄ. DirecciĂłn postal: EdiďŹ cio Multidepartamental. C/ Cifuentes no 28. 19003 –Guadalajara DirecciĂłn de correo electrĂłnico: fernando.casa@uah.es TelĂŠfono: 949.20.96.33

La intervenciĂłn en una cimentaciĂłn existente es un tipo de actuaciĂłn que conlleva una problemĂĄtica diferente a otras actuaciones dentro del campo de la rehabilitaciĂłn. El caso de intervenir en el Patrimonio Tradicional, por sus caracterĂ­sticas intrĂ­nsecas, tanto funcionales, como constructivas es particular. La conďŹ guraciĂłn constructiva de la cimentaciĂłn ha variado a lo largo de la historia y de la localizaciĂłn geogrĂĄďŹ ca. Lo mĂĄs comĂşn es que sean elementos con una gran homogeneidad con los materiales de la estructura sobre rasante. Podemos hallar casos apoyados en terrenos blandos, como aluviales, o zonas arenosas, con problemas propiciados por la presencia de agua. Pero no solamente este tipo de terrenos pueden provocar problemas geotĂŠcnicos. Una afecciĂłn diferente es la asociada a la actividad humana, que modiďŹ can las caracterĂ­sticas geotĂŠcnicas del terreno pudiendo afectar a la cimentaciĂłn. Dos aspectos son fundamentales, a la hora de analizar este tipo de intervenciĂłn, y que inuyen a la hora de seleccionar el tipo de tĂŠcnica a aplicar. Son por un lado el aspecto tĂŠcnico, y por otro el econĂłmico. Desde el punto de vista econĂłmico, son intervenciones de gran volumen econĂłmico, que literalmente va a ser enterrado, y por ello la apariciĂłn de dudas sobre la necesidad de su ejecuciĂłn. Desde el punto de vista tĂŠcnico, son intervenciones complejas, con tĂŠcnicas no habituales en el proceso constructivo, que obligan, al tĂŠcnico que interviene, a estudiar de un modo minucioso cada situaciĂłn, cada tĂŠcnica tiene sus aplicaciones y sus inconvenientes. Particularidades especĂ­ďŹ cas en la ConstrucciĂłn Tradicional Cuando se interviene en un ediďŹ cio de carĂĄcter tradicional, existen particularidades que condicionarĂĄn la selecciĂłn del sistema, asĂ­ como

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su proceso de puesta en obra: Derivados de ser una actuaciĂłn bajo rasante t /FDFTJEBE EF NPWJNJFOUPT EF UJFSSBT BGFDUB B MPT FEJmDJPT EFM entorno y servicios subterrĂĄneos, produciendo movimientos diferenciales. t *OWJTJCJMJEBE EFM QSFTVQVFTUP JOWFSUJEP 4PMBNFOUF TFSĂˆO BQSFDJBCMFT los movimientos de maquinaria durante la ejecuciĂłn de las obras. Derivados “de la edad del ediďŹ cioâ€? t &M WBMPS EF MB DPOmHVSBDJĂ˜O EFM FMFNFOUP DPOTUSVJEP QVFEF JNQFEJS su alteraciĂłn, siquiera de forma provisional. t &T GSFDVFOUF RVF MPT NBUFSJBMFT TFBO EF CBKB DBMJEBE Z TV BMUFSBDJĂ˜O implique afectaciĂłn al conjunto. t -B FYJTUFODJB EF BMUFSBDJPOFT JNQPSUBOUFT BHSBWB MB DPNQMFKJEBE constructiva. t $JSDVOTUBODJBT EF MPT FEJmDJPT DPMJOEBOUFT MP RVF JNQMJDB MB necesidad de medidas de precauciĂłn en lo referente a movimientos en ellos. Derivados de aspectos constructivos y estructurales t -BT DJNFOUBDJPOFT QVFEFO TFS EFmDJFOUFT QBSB TV DPSSFDUP comportamiento, estar realizadas con fĂĄbricas de baja calidad, o estar degradadas. t -PT TJTUFNBT DPOTUSVDUJWPT QVFEFO IBCFS BERVJSJEP HSBO complejidad. El tiempo puede producir la integraciĂłn de unos materiales en otros. t 1PUFODJBMFT BTJFOUPT TVGSJEPT FO GVODJĂ˜O EFM UJQP EF UFSSFOP EPOEF se apoye. Esto plantea la imposibilidad de asumir movimientos aĂąadidos, y se deberĂĄn adoptar sistemas dirigidos a tal ďŹ n. t 1PTJCMFT DPOEJDJPOFT EF JOFTUBCJMJEBE FTUSVDUVSBM QSFWJPT RVF pueden ser la causa de la intervenciĂłn. t /FDFTJEBE EF OP NPEJmDBS FM DPNQPSUBNJFOUP FTUSVDUVSBM EFM elemento original. t 0CMJHBEP DPOUSPM EF BTJFOUPT DPNP TJTUFNB EF HBSBOUJ[BS RVF OP TF producen movimientos incontrolados. Derivados de la organizaciĂłn de la obra t 4FSĂˆ OFDFTBSJP BEPQUBS NFEJEBT FTQFDJBMFT QBSB DPOTFHVJS movimientos nulos. t -JNJUBDJĂ˜O EF HĂˆMJCPT QBSB VTP EF MB NBRVJOBSJB t $POPDFS MBT BOPNBMĂ“BT RVF TF QSPEV[DBO EVSBOUF MB FKFDVDJĂ˜O realizando las correcciones adecuadas. MetodologĂ­a de aplicaciĂłn en la selecciĂłn de la tĂŠcnica a adoptar Es necesario saber mirar, “produce una inmensa tristeza observar como la naturaleza habla, mientras que el ser humano no escuchaâ€? (VĂ­ctor Hugo) y utilizando el sĂ­mil mĂŠdico, la terapia debe estar basada en un buen diagnĂłstico, que no se encuentra sino se busca. La selecciĂłn del sistema de intervenciĂłn debe ser como consecuencia de una metodologĂ­a que principalmente debe tratar: t 3FBMJ[BDJĂ˜O Z BOĂˆMJTJT EF MPT FTUVEJPT QSFWJPT


Rendre compatible les techniques traditionnelles et les modernes Compatibilizar tĂŠcnicas tradicionales y modernas Combining traditional and modern techniques

t #ĂžTRVFEB Z EFUFSNJOBDJĂ˜O EFM QSPCMFNB F IJQĂ˜UFTJT EF DBVTBT t 4FMFDDJĂ˜O EFM TJTUFNB EF BDUVBDJĂ˜O Z QSPCMFNĂˆUJDB B SFTPMWFS Los criterios de selecciĂłn serĂĄn fundamentalmente tĂŠcnicos y econĂłmicos, aunque hay otra serie de factores: t 7JBCJMJEBE Z SBQJEF[ EF FKFDVDJĂ˜O t 1FMJHSPTJEBE EVSBOUF MB FKFDVDJĂ˜O t $PNPEJEBE QBSB MB 1SPQJFEBE FWJUBS EFTBMPKPT Todo esto serĂ­a valido para cualquier actuaciĂłn de recalce, independientemente del tipo de suelo. Cada ediďŹ cio debe tratarse como caso Ăşnico, irrepetible y con un estudio especĂ­ďŹ co de sus circunstancias. TipologĂ­as a aplicar. Una clasiďŹ caciĂłn ajustada a la problemĂĄtica, serĂ­a diferenciar entre las tĂŠcnicas que interďŹ eren en el elemento construido, modiďŹ cando su comportamiento estructural, y las que sin actuar directamente en el elemento construido mejoran las caracterĂ­sticas geotĂŠcnicas del terreno. Sistemas que actuan sobre la cimentaciĂłn existente En estas soluciones es imprescindible una conexiĂłn con la cimentaciĂłn original. Fundamental es tener claro cĂłmo funciona estructuralmente el nuevo conjunto de cimentaciĂłn. t .JDSPQJMPUFT 4PO FMFNFOUPT EF HSBO FTCFMUF[ QFRVFĂ—P EJĂˆNFUSP y gran longitud. Son de gran aplicaciĂłn por su cierta versatilidad, sobre todo trabajando como conjunto (“Pali Radiceâ€?). El fallo mĂĄs comĂşn es un deďŹ ciente dimensionado y/o ejecuciĂłn de su conexiĂłn con la cimentaciĂłn, que puede provocar la nula conexiĂłn. Se debe tener en cuenta el estado de la cimentaciĂłn original ya que en caso de optar por perforarla y estar en mal estado podrĂ­a producir su deterioro. t 3FDBMDFT TVQFSmDJBMFT RVF QSPGVOEJ[BO FM FTUSBUP EF BQPZP necesitan una puesta en carga correctamente ejecutada, ya que pueden producir asientos bruscos en la estructura superior, de forma diferencial. Son fundamentales las medidas auxiliares.

morteros muy plĂĄsticos. t -BT JOZFDDJPOFT FYQBOTJWBT FO DBQBT QSĂ˜YJNBT B MB DJNFOUBDJĂ˜O EF material con alta capacidad de aumentar de volumen, aumentan la cohesiĂłn del terreno, pero implican movimientos no compatibles o admisibles con la estructura superior. t -B UĂ?DOJDB EF NBZPS BQMJDBDJĂ˜O FO FM DBNQP EF MPT SFDBMDFT FT MB inyecciĂłn armada, con tubo manguito, que crean franjas de terreno tratado, modiďŹ cando los parĂĄmetros geotĂŠcnicos aumentado la cohesiĂłn y el ĂĄngulo de rozamiento interno. Son inyecciones a baja presiĂłn, y con una gran capacidad de control. La puesta en carga es progresiva conforme se va produciendo la mejora del terreno y no implica variaciones bruscas en el comportamiento estructural de la ediďŹ caciĂłn existente. Esta progresividad en la ejecuciĂłn permite incluso la ejecuciĂłn de recalces parciales, mediante la utilizaciĂłn de zonas de transiciĂłn entre la zona recalzada y sin recalzar. ConclusiĂłn Como se ha observado, y dada la gran variedad de circunstancias que pueden presentarse no se pueden presentar soluciones generales, siendo de gran importancia la metodologĂ­a aplicada, que lleven a un diagnĂłstico completo y a solucionar la tĂŠcnica concreta de aplicaciĂłn. Para poder seleccionar, diseĂąar y poner en marcha cualquier soluciĂłn es necesaria la preparaciĂłn cientĂ­ďŹ ca y tĂŠcnica, por parte de los tĂŠcnicos, que puedan prever las acciones derivadas de cada soluciĂłn, y no se condicionen las obras a decisiones proveniente de carĂĄcter comercial. Es de gran importancia la visiĂłn interdisciplinar, tener en cuenta opiniones desde los diferentes puntos de vista que intervienen. Para la Universidad de AlcalĂĄ y desde su Grupo de InvestigaciĂłn: “IntervenciĂłn en el Patrimonio y Arquitectura Sostenibleâ€? este es uno de sus objetivos. materiales presentes y los procesos patolĂłgicos existentes, lo que posibilitarĂĄ deďŹ nir condiciones generales para los “nuevosâ€? materiales. t -BT FNQSFTBT DPOTUSVDUPSBT TFSĂˆO FTQFDJBMJTUBT 1PS UBOUP DPO experiencia en este tipo de obras y disponiendo de mano de obra cualiďŹ cada en los distintos oďŹ cios. t -PT QFSĂ“PEPT EF FKFDVDJĂ˜O TFSĂˆO HFOFSBMNFOUF NĂˆT EJMBUBEPT Z FM presupuesto se regirĂĄ por parĂĄmetros distintos a los de la obra

Sistemas que actuan sobre el terreno de apoyo del ediďŹ cio En estas soluciones se trata de sistemas que varĂ­an las caracterĂ­sticas geotĂŠcnicas adecuĂĄndolas a las necesidades del ediďŹ cio. La implicaciĂłn de estos sistemas estĂĄ en el propio proceso de ejecuciĂłn. t &M +FU (SPVUJOH DSFB DPMVNOBT EF UFSSFOP USBUBEP NFEJBOUF VO “batidoâ€? de este con cemento, a altas presiones. Estos sistemas implican que en su zona superior no se produzca un contacto directo con la cimentaciĂłn, ya que debido a las altas presiones se podrĂ­an producir movimientos considerables no controlables. t -BT JOZFDDJPOFT EF QPTJCMF BQMJDBDJĂ˜O TPO NĂžMUJQMFT FO GVODJĂ˜O del parĂĄmetro que se desee modiďŹ car. De este modo en el caso de querer dotar de un carĂĄcter impermeable, se deberĂ­an utilizar inyecciones de impregnaciĂłn a muy baja presiĂłn y con lechadas muy uidas de carĂĄcter quĂ­mico. t &O FM DBTP EF SFMMFOBS DBWJEBEFT TF QVFEFO VUJMJ[BS JOZFDDJPOFT EF baja movilidad, con presiones bajas a medias, con la utilizaciĂłn de

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Rendre compatible les techniques traditionnelles et les modernes Compatibilizar técnicas tradicionales y modernas Combining traditional and modern techniques

Utilización correcta de contraventanas para ahorro energético

Margarita Arroba Fernández Universidad SEK de Segovia Dirección postal: C/ Cardenal Zúñiga, 12 – 40.003 Segovia Dirección de correo electrónico: margarita.arroba@sekmail.com Teléfono: 921.412.410

Cuando un arquitecto emprende la rehabilitación de un edificio, sobre todo si éste tiene interés arquitectónico por su carácter histórico y/o artístico, normalmente prestará atención a los aspectos formales del mismo, con la intención de conservar su carácter. Esto conlleva la conservación del tamaño de los huecos y del color y aspecto exterior de las carpinterías, pero no siempre se presta igual interés a otros aspectos de las mismas, como la posición de dichas carpinterías en el espesor del muro, el material de que están hechas – independientemente de que formalmente se haya conservado un aspecto similar – y la protección climática de que se va a dotar al hueco, y estos aspectos son, sin embargo, fundamentales para minorar el gasto energético del edificio. El primero de los aspectos – la posición de dicha carpintería en el grosor del muro – suele funcionar correctamente si se conserva la posición original de la misma, puesto que, tradicionalmente, se buscaba la captación solar en climas fríos – para lo que se instalaba la carpintería a haces exteriores del muro – y el apantallamiento en climas cálidos – para lo que se instalaba la carpintería a haces interiores, logrando mejorar la protección de dicha carpintería y evitar gran parte del efecto invernadero que de otra forma se produciría (de hecho nos encontramos con artificios tales como tejadillos adosados al muro encima de las ventanas (figura 1) que aumentan localmente el ancho del mismo, incrementando la entidad de la sombra, de forma que en verano, con el sol más vertical, no se introducen rayos solares en el edificio a través de las ventanas orientadas a sur) –. El desconocimiento de la utilidad de estos tejadillos hace que encontremos ocasionalmente este tipo de elementos ubicados en zonas de sombra (por ejemplo, bajo porches) donde son, evidentemente, inútiles. Evidentemente, si las ventanas están orientadas a norte la posición de las carpinterías en el espesor del muro es indiferente (excepto en el aspecto de la protección de las mismas contra las inclemencias del tiempo), y si están orientadas a este u oeste tampoco afecta mucho dicha posición desde el punto de vista del ahorro energético, ya que a

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primera hora de la mañana y a última de la tarde, el sol estará demasiado bajo para que cualquier visera horizontal pueda producir sombra sobre la ventana, aunque sí la producirán parcialmente las jambas verticales. En estos casos habrá que recurrir al diseño de las contraventanas para paliar las ganancias energéticas. El segundo aspecto a considerar es el material que se utiliza en dicha carpintería, ya que el coeficiente de transmisión térmica del mismo se toma siempre en consideración, pero no ocurre lo mismo con otros aspectos como su capacidad de almacenamiento de calor, que puede ocasionar elevaciones de la temperatura de la carpintería tan intensas como para llegar a causar quemaduras a los usuarios. El efecto puede incrementarse considerablemente si se pigmenta dicha carpintería en colores “tradicionales”, sin pensar que un color que no afecta en demasía a la temperatura de una carpintería de madera, puede suponer un aumento de temperatura insoportable para una carpintería metálica. Como recomendación general, no deben utilizarse carpinterías metálicas de color oscuro en aquellos puntos en que puedan quedar expuestas al sol directo, puesto que, incluso en los climas más fríos de España, la temperatura alcanzada podría llegar a ser tan elevada, aunque sea por breves periodos al año, como para producir estas quemaduras. Adicionalmente, estas carpinterías transportarían esa temperatura a la cara interna de la misma, actuando como un elemento radiante que modifica las condiciones climáticas interiores en gran medida, incluso en las carpinterías dotadas de rotura de puente térmico. El tercer aspecto a considerar sería la utilización de contraventanas, estudiando su posición, su forma, su color y el material de que estén constituidas. En cuanto al primer punto – su posición – podemos encontrar contraventanas prácticamente idénticas pero ubicadas respectivamente en el interior de la ventana y en el exterior de la misma. Energéticamente, ambas funcionan de forma muy diferente, ya que la primera de ellas permite el paso de los rayos solares a través del cristal, de modo que la contraventana se calentará y la radiación infrarroja que una vez caliente emita tendrá una longitud de onda incapaz de atravesar nuevamente el cristal, por lo que el calor captado se quedará en el interior de la estancia. Si la contraventana es de color oscuro, este efecto aumentará, ya que el porcentaje de energía solar absorbido será mucho mayor que el reflejado, mientras que si es de color claro el efecto será mucho menor debido al alto coeficiente de reflexión de esos colores. También en este caso habrá que tener en cuenta el material de la contraventana, puesto que el metal – mejor conductor del calor – se calentará más deprisa y en mayor medida, radiando posteriormente dicho calor al interior del local, lo que le hace más deseable en climas fríos, mientras que materiales más inertes como la madera, captarán mucha menos energía solar lo que mejorará su comportamiento a nivel energético en climas caliente, aunque, evidentemente, lo mejor será siempre nunca instalar las contraventanas en el interior en climas cálidos. La utilización de contraventanas opacas presenta ventajas en dos aspectos: la protección contra el frío, deseable en zonas con este tipo de clima, y la capacidad de oscurecimiento que las hace idóneas para locales específicos como los dormitorios. Sin embargo, en el área mediterránea, el problema no es usualmente la captación solar sino la tamización de los rayos solares y de la alta intensidad


Rendre compatible les techniques traditionnelles et les modernes Compatibilizar técnicas tradicionales y modernas Combining traditional and modern techniques

de la luz para que sólo se introduzcan en el interior de las viviendas cuando es necesario, permitiendo al mismo tiempo la percepción del exterior. Para ello, tradicionalmente, se ha recurrido a la utilización de contraventanas de tipo celosía, que igualmente pueden ubicase tanto interior como exteriormente. Lógicamente, si se usan preferentemente en climas cálidos su ubicación idónea será siempre en el exterior del acristalamiento, aunque puede considerarse su ubicación interior si el acristalamiento es practicable con la celosía cerrada, ya que el calor que ésta capte será así expulsado al exterior; esto suele recomendar la instalación de carpinterías con apertura de tipo oscilobatiente, y aún así es muy probable que el calor radiado por la contraventana penetre en gran medida al interior. En cuanto al material, las celosías metálicas presentan el inconveniente ya mencionado de su rápida y elevada capacidad de calentamiento, evidentemente tanto más considerable cuanto más oscuro sea su color. Sin embargo, en esta ocasión esa disipación térmica se produce en el exterior del edificio, por lo que es menos perjudicial que con las contraventanas interiores. Además, la utilización de contraventanas exteriores metálicas presenta la ventaja de constituir un cierre de seguridad contra intrusiones, además de una protección térmica, por lo que puede ser aceptable su utilización, siendo en estos casos deseable en el clima mediterráneo la elección de un color lo más claro posible para la misma y una circulación convectiva natural que evacue el calor captado lo más rápidamente posible. Las celosías de madera sólo presentan el inconveniente de su alta necesidad de mantenimiento, ya que a intemperie es un material que se deteriora rápidamente si no es protegido adecuadamente. El color recomendable de estas celosías es, asimismo, el más claro posible. En cuanto a las lamas, podemos encontrar celosías de lamas horizontales y de lamas verticales, siendo siempre deseable que éstas sean móviles para que puedan abrirse con el fin de permitir la percepción del exterior y cerrarse para lograr el oscurecimiento del local. La elección de la inclinación de las lamas semiabiertas de las celosías horizontales dependerá de varios factores: la existencia de pluviometría abundante requerirá que su inclinación hacia abajo favorezca la evacuación de agua y la existencia de altos niveles de soleamiento directo del sur también recomendarán esta posición de las lamas, ya que es la más idónea para el apantallamiento solar con el sol en el cenit. Sin embargo, si la pluviometría es escasa y no existe exposición directa al sol del mediodía (por ejemplo por sombreamiento cvonseguido mediante la existencia de dinteles profundos), se favorecerá la evacuación del calor captado potenciando la convección natural al instalar la lamas abriéndose hacia arriba (segunda imagen de la figura 2). Si además estas lamas pueden abrirse en los momentos en que no les da el sol directo, la evacuación del calor será más rápida. La ubicación de una celosía en una ventana ubicada al este o al oeste, deberá dar preferencia a las lamas verticales (figura 3), dado que el sol puede estar muy horizontal en cualquiera de estas orientaciones. Simplemente con esta actuación y manteniendo la ventana a haces interiores evitaremos gran cantidad de captación solar sin eliminar la posibilidad de la visión hacia el exterior.

1

2. Posición de las lamas horizontales en zona de alta y baja pluviometría

3 Sección horizontal de celosías de lamas verticaes, con lamas cerradas y abiertas, respectivamente.

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Expériences de réhabilitation intégrale en Méditerranée Experiencias de rehabilitación integral en el Mediterráneo Experiences of integrated rehabilitation in the Mediterranean



Expériences de réhabilitation intégrale en Mediterranée Experiencias de rehabilitación integral en el Mediterráneo Experiences of integrated rehabilitation in the Mediterranean

Réintégration d’un lieu dans la ville

Abdelaziz Badjadja Architecte restaurateur qualifié, diplômé de l’école de restauration des monuments, Rome Italie Enseignant à l’université de Constantine, Algérie Membre du comité d’expert pour la conservation et la restauration du patrimoine auprès du ministère de la culture Consultant auprès de bureau d’étude pour divers projets de réhabilitation. Adresse postale: 2 Boulevard de la liberté Constantine Algérie Adresse courrier électronique: badjadja@yahoo.com Téléphone: +213 070 20 41 52

La question de la sauvegarde du patrimoine culturel riche et diversifié en Algérie émane d’un intérêt assez récent. Depuis à peu près une vingtaine d’année, les tendances et les efforts consacrés à la conservation des monuments et des lieux historiques rencontrent de nombreux problèmes tels qu’on en trouve dans les pays développés, mais ils affrontent également d’autres difficultés qui ont leurs sources dans le passé ou le présent de ce pays. Cette situation est tributaire non seulement du développement des systèmes de valeurs qui modifient leurs rapports envers les vestiges, mais aussi des retards accusés dans le développement même des services de protection. En effet, les nouvelles dimensions de la vie économique et sociale s’opposent à l’image cognitive que véhiculent les structures historiques, ce qui se traduit par des rapports conflictuels entre l’ancien et le moderne. L’orientation vers les nouvelles valeurs de vie s’égalise avec la négation des anciennes structures, si bien que cette disposition d’esprit a provoqué et risque encore de provoquer la prononciation de sentences parfois des plus brutales sur les structures historiques (démolitions et autres transformations). Ce n’est que grâce à une politique appropriée qui stimulerait les efforts individuels et collectifs pour la protection et l’amélioration des lieux historiques, et grâce à une forte intervention dans les stratégies et mesures à prendre, que pourraient être réalisées les conditions requises pour redonner de la vitalité aux édifices et centres anciens. Ce n’est qu’en 2003 que de nouvelles dispositions en faveur de la protection du patrimoine matériel et immatériel ont été adoptées. Constantine, l’une des principales villes historiques d’Algérie au site grandiose, peut se vanter d’une très longue permanence (plus de 23 siècles):du 3°siècle avant J.C. à nos jours, la ville a toujours été habitée. Elle révèle de ce fait, une stratification urbaine importante et porte encore des signes visibles d’importantes civilisations qui sont une

source inestimable de renseignements sur les époques anciennes. Cependant, l’état des lieux actuels renvoie à un constat amer. En effet, l’abandon conjugué à l’indifférence voire l’hostilité ont porté atteinte au bâti de Constantine. Le caractère authentique d’un sol profondément imprégné de culture est menacé. Les dégradations plus ou moins graves mais évolutives, les effondrements divers, mais aussi les reconstructions et extensions abusives et chaotiques ont altéré la physionomie du vieux centre, entraînant ainsi peu à peu une perte d’identité, une oblitération de notre histoire. Devant les dangers qui mettent en péril nos monuments, les recherches ponctuelles orientées vers la sauvegarde deviennent impératives et devraient en principe saisir l’attention des autorités concernées. A ce titre, l’étude concrète et opérationnelle qui a porté sur la conservation de l’institut BENBADIS est une modeste contribution à la sauvegarde de notre patrimoine, elle avait pour objectif sa réinsertion et sa réintégration dans la ville. Nous avions tous le devoir de contribuer à sa sauvegarde en tant que patrimoine culturel et historique, pour notre mémoire et notre dignité car un ouvrage architectural bien conservé constitue pour les habitants d’une ville, une leçon de tenue, d’esprit civique et d’exigence culturelle, ainsi qu’un symbole pour la communauté ; symbole illustré par la personnalité et l’œuvre de cheikh Abdelhamid BENBADIS. Cet illustre savant et l’association des Oulémas, avaient pour mission la propagation du savoir, l’instruction et l’éducation de la société, principaux outils pour éveiller les esprits et s’opposer ainsi au colonialisme. Ces objectifs ont été concrétisé par la création de Medersa, d’écoles coraniques, de troupes théâtrales, musicales et sportives. Par ailleurs, cette intervention se voulait d’une part être un frein à la dégradation amorcée et proliférant vers l’artère la plus dense de la ville et d’autre part, constituer le point de départ du plan de sauvegarde de la ville de Constantine, plan qui doit se concrétiser prochainement. Situé en plein cœur de la ville de Constantine, à proximité de la grande mosquée et dans le quartier dénommé EL BATHA, l’institut BENBADIS s’insère dans un tissu urbain compact dans lequel les constructions à usage d’habitation prédominent et dont les rez de chaussée sont pour la plupart reconvertis en activités commerciales. Du fait de son vieillissement naturel, de son utilisation abusive et de son abandon, le bâtiment a subi de graves désordres physiques qui ont eu pour conséquence la détérioration des matériaux de construction entraînant la dégradation des éléments constructifs. Il importait avant tout de pourvoir à ces désordres par différentes opérations de viabilisation, de consolidation des murs et planchers, et de reconstruction totale ou partielle de certaines parties afin de préparer l’édifice à recevoir sa nouvelle fonction. Celle-ci devait conserver le caractère et l’âme de l’œuvre, c’est pourquoi toutes les propositions d’aménagements émanent de l’ambiance du monument et de l’esprit de l’association des Oulémas (savants musulmans algériens). Sa rénovation et son affectation à une fonction culturelle (utile) ont pour mission de le restituer à la ville et à ses habitants compte tenu du fait qu’il soit partie intégrante du quartier. Le montage financier Les travaux de réhabilitation de l’édifice à sa fonction initiale et de réintégration du lieu dans son environnement, ont concerné en définitive, le ministère des affaires religieuses, étant donné le caractère wakf de l’édifice, la wilaya et la municipalité de Constantine Une première étude qui a proposé la démolition de la totalité du

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Expériences de réhabilitation intégrale en Mediterranée Experiencias de rehabilitación integral en el Mediterráneo Experiences of integrated rehabilitation in the Mediterranean

bâtiment et sa substitution par une nouvelle construction de 5 étages n’a pas été retenue par le service concerné. A la suite de quoi, un concours de restauration est lancé en 2000. Compte tenu des délais imposés, de la complexité des espaces, et du délabrement important des lieux, seuls 3 bureaux d’études y ont participé. Le projet de réhabilitation est alors confié à un bureau d’étude ayant pour principaux collaborateurs et associés des chercheurs de l’université de Constantine, la base de toute l’étude historique trouve son origine dans la recherche effectuée en 1993 dans le cadre d’un magister. Les interventions La 1ère intervention a consisté à effectuer les différents relevés graphiques (plans de tous les niveaux, coupes et façades), accompagnés d’un dossier photographique, seuls témoins de l’ouvrage si celui-ci venait à s’effondrer partiellement ou totalement. Le relevé a également porté sur les détails d’architecture, la céramique et la menuiserie, rares vestiges de l’abandon total de l’édifice, abandon qui a eu pour conséquences le pillage, l’infiltration des eaux pluviales et bien d’autres dégradations. Pour des raisons pédagogiques, et de sensibilisation au patrimoine, nous avons jugé utile d’impliquer dans ce travail, un groupe d’étudiants du département d’architecture. En parallèle, une étude relative à l’historique de l’édifice a été élaborée, il y est question de son origine, de son édification et son développement, des conditions de sa fermeture, et enfin une mise à jour de sa nature juridique. La 2ème intervention a porté sur la sensibilisation de la société civile, ainsi que l’implication des responsables locaux afin de structurer un programme financier spécifique. Cette action menée par le biais d’articles et interview divers a mis en valeur l’activité qui s’y est déroulée à l’époque coloniale et le rôle qu’à eu ce haut lieu pour l’indépendance de l’Algérie. A ce titre, notons d’une part, un passage du rapport du capitaine Chaudourne sur « le problème des Ouléma et la question religieuse » en 1957, « ....le rôle particulièrement décisif que cette association a joué non seulement dans le développement de la rébellion depuis Novembre 1954 mais aussi dans sa préparation et maintien dans la poursuite de la lutte ... » et d’autre part, quelques mots de la propagande de l’association en 1952 « ...forger des cerveaux construire des écoles et éveiller les esprits afin d’obtenir l’indépendance de l’Algérie par le savoir ». La 3ème intervention destinée à mettre au point des mesures d’urgence pour la sauvegarde de l’ouvrage, a consisté à élaborer un programme d’actions physiques qui ont donné lieu à la consolidation et la reconstruction de l’ensemble, témoin de l’histoire et du rôle de ce mouvement de l’association des ouléma dans la ville de Constantine en particulier et de l’Algérie en général. En conclusion, les objectifs assignés et atteints ont concerné différents paliers : la sauvegarde et la réinsertion de l’institut BENBADIS dans son environnement, la réhabilitation du lieu à une fonction utile pour la société, le ralentissement voire l’arrêt du processus de dégradation dans le centre historique, la valorisation de l’âme de l’association des Ouléma dont l’institut a été le lieu par excellence de formation de l’élite et des principaux acteurs de l’indépendance de l’Algérie, la sensibilisation et

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la prise de consciences des valeurs cognitives et émotionnelles du patrimoine, et enfin la réalisation d’une expérience de réhabilitation d’un bâtiment fortement dégradé qui ouvre des perspectives à tous ceux qui œuvrent pour la sauvegarde du patrimoine.


Expériences de réhabilitation intégrale en Mediterranée Experiencias de rehabilitación integral en el Mediterráneo Experiences of integrated rehabilitation in the Mediterranean

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Expériences de réhabilitation intégrale en Mediterranée Experiencias de rehabilitación integral en el Mediterráneo Experiences of integrated rehabilitation in the Mediterranean

Habiter le passé. La chapelle des chevaliers de la citadelle de Tartous, Syrie

Mourad Bouteflika Architecte, Spécialiste en préservation et mise en valeur des sites et monuments historiques, Docteur de Recherche en projection architecturale pour les pays de la méditerranée. Est actuellement Chef du Département d’Architecture de l’Université de Blida (Algérie) et membre du Comité des Experts du Ministère de la Culture Algérien, pour la restauration du patrimoine architectural algérien. Adresse postale: AV. BEN BOULAID RUE D07 BLIDA 09000 ALGERIE Adresse courrier électronique: boutefrad@yahoo.fr Téléphone: +213 25 438434 (bur) +213 69 761754 (cell)

+213 25 312618 (dom)

Le thème concernant l’utilisation des architectures existantes pour les destiner à des fonctions différentes s’inscrit dans le processus continuel de la transformation du bâti, avec le double dessein de réaliser des nouvelles architectures pour des nouveaux usagers et de conserver celles qui existent déjà, en prospectant la possibilité de leurs utilisations actuelles. Les cas et les situations qui se présentent sont infinis, chaque intervention ayant des connotations bien précises qui imposent des limites dans les choix mêmes des types d’interventions : Pourquoi et pour qui conserver ? Qu’est-ce qui mérite d’être conservé ? Est-il possible de définir les limites d’une transformation qui préciseraient les parties à éliminer et celles à ajouter ? Dans le cas précis de la chapelle des chevaliers de la citadelle de la ville syrienne de Tartous, qui témoigne à elle seule du passage d’un système de défense à l’origine fermé et imperméable à un système d’habitat intégré, les investigations que nous avons pu y mener entre relevés muraux et analyses typologiques révèlent qu’à travers la lecture des stratifications de l’histoire de sa « construction », il nous est toujours possible de discerner et de qualifier les signes caractéristiques et toujours vitaux de son site, les potentialités directrices de son évolution et de son développement, la réappropriation et la réinvention du lieu étant fondées sur un processus de lecture critique et participant à la requalification de la réalité de sa mémoire. La ville de Tartous : une ville dans la ville La ville syrienne de Tartous se caractérise par la présence d’une citadelle médiévale fortifiée dont subsistent aujourd’hui d’importants témoignages historiques et archéologiques. En effet, son centre

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historique correspond, dans son périmètre, à ce que furent les fortifications médiévales. La structure défensive y reproduit un schéma consacré, doté de trames défensives concentriques et de trois niveaux de protection: le premier correspond à la ville épiscopale, le second à la citadelle militaire, où sont placés les entrepôts, les garnisons, la Salle des Chevaliers et la Chapelle et le troisième au Donjon, une tour qui constitue le point de protection maximale des fortifications. Un double front de murailles fortifiées, décrivant une forme géométrique trapézoïdale et doté de deux douves, séparait la citadelle militaire de la cité épiscopale, marquant ainsi une limite infranchissable. Dans ce contexte, décrit par Paul Deschamps (en même temps que dessiné par P. Coupel) en 1973 comme l’un “des ensembles les plus intéressants de constructions militaires élevées en Syrie durant la domination française”, l’entité historique qui présente le meilleur état de conservation est ainsi celle correspondant à la citadelle militaire semicirculaire de l’époque médiévale, située à l’angle nord-ouest. En suivant la reconstruction historique qu’en donne Gillaume Rey (1871), on peut en particulier observer comment, dans la Chapelle des Chevaliers, les éléments qu’il nous décrit subsistent encore aujourd’hui. La Chapelle des Chevaliers (XIllème Siècle) Située dans le prolongement du Donjon et de la Grande Salle, la Chapelle des Chevaliers (orientée vers l’Est, selon les canons), se compose d’une nef unique et de quatre travées à arcs en plein cintre ogivaux en partie conservés. Le bâtiment, dont les voûtes sont supportées par des doubleaux chanfreinés, présente, sur chacun des tronçons du mur nord, d’étroites fenêtres en ogive (en partie transformées ou occultées), tandis que, pour ce que l’on peut voir, le mur Sud ne fait pas preuve de la même rigueur de composition, peut-être en raison de la présence, ici, de volumes architecturaux conditionnant la construction: deux fenêtres ogivales superposées et décentrées sur la quatrième travée et d’autres éléments partiellement enterrés, parmi lesquels ce qui semble être une seconde entrée à la Chapelle. Cette dernière ne dispose pas d’abside, sans qu’il n’existe cependant de preuves alléguant de transformations quelconques pouvant expliquer celle absence (qui pourrait être simplement la conséquence d’un manque d’espace, le coté Est du bâtiment étant accolé aux murailles), pas plus qu’il n’existe de signes de la réutilisation d’une structure archéologique préexistante. La façade comme l’intérieur de la Chapelle ont souffert nombre de transformations, l’entrée principale (une reconstruction stylistique du XXème) s’ouvrant aujourd’hui sur une rue vicinale qui donne sur les immeubles situés au sein même de son enceinte et qui se poursuit dans les limites du quartier contigu, au travers d’une porte résultant de l’allongement de l’une des fenêtres étroites de son mur Nord. Permanence et transformation des formes Au vu de ce qui précède, la lecture des éléments que contient la Chapelle est ardue, en raison de la présence de bâtiments d’époque ottomane accolés aux murs de son périmètre, à l’intérieur et à l’extérieur, sur la moitié de sa superficie, alors qu’il ressort de l’examen d’un plan cadastral de la période française (1930) qu’elle était alors entièrement envahie de constructions qui furent certainement détruites plus tard. Le système de couverture de la chapelle des chevaliers est un système à voûtes croisées, dont les dimensions reproduisent un rapport proportionnel entre la succession des travées et leur hauteur générale (5,7x10x10, entre largeur d’une travée, largeur totale de la salle et


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hauteur de la voûte, les épaisseurs des murs compensant les écarts de dimensions et faisant apparaître la chapelle comme un édifice qui se reproduit sur la base de la répétition d’un module de base carré de 10x10). Les habitations qui se sont développées à l’intérieur ont certainement été conditionnées par les caractéristiques structurelles de cet ouvrage. Ainsi, les lectures effectuées, cherchant à individualiser les éventuelles divergences des types bâtis qui seraient dues à la présence d’éléments constituant sa réalité structurelle: dimension et axes des travées, parcours des arêtes des voûtes, disposition et épaisseur des murs du périmètre, ouvertures préexistantes de la salle etc.., ont permis la précision des géométries qu’ont assumées les différents édifices qui obstruent l’intérieur de la salle, en même temps que la correspondance entre les axes de développement des habitations singulières avec les limites imposées par les dimensions et la forme des travées et celle générale de la chapelle. A l’intérieur de cette dernière, il est ainsi possible de reconnaître un module correspondant à la cellule de base, constitué de la dimension d’une travée de la voûte, qui par des rabattements successifs permet d’avancer à l’intérieur de l’espace disponible. Pour les cellules du rezde-chaussée, la surélévation advient avec le positionnement d’un corps d’escalier externe, occupant pour cela l’espace faisant front au prospect interne. Le plan supérieur (considéré ici comme un nouveau plan zéro qui est désarticulé par rapport au plan RDC qui lui se spécialise en boutiques à usage commercial) présente une logique de développement très similaire au processus de formation de la maison à cour, avec l’occupation du front du mur du fond (ici le mur-périmètre Sud-ouest de la chapelle) jusqu’à l’entassement successif de la cour qui d’un espace distributif ouvert (peut-être même externe) vient à être couverte, posant les bases d’une successive surélévation de l’habitation avec l’escalier posé cette fois dans un corps de bâtiment spécialisé le long de la cour. Ainsi, les habitations qui s’attestent à l’extérieur, comme celles à l’intérieur, utilisent la limite offerte par le mur du périmètre et usant de rabattements successifs, occupent l’espace contigu aux cellules initiales.

les éléments permanents y sont associés avec les édifices de nouvelle implantation, (rapportant une telle identification à une structure générale d’échelle supérieure qui les contient : celle qui consacre la composante-chapelle comme « enveloppe »), la lecture structurelle adoptée s’affirme en définitive comme un véritable instrument cognitif dont la portée opératoire permet de la représenter comme le point de départ de toute intervention de restauration ou de requalification (urbaine), s’inscrivant dans une continuité avec les structures (urbaines) préexistantes et tendant à la conservation de leurs valeurs consolidées en même temps qu’à la récupération et à la réintégration de leur image figurative, largement altérée par les processus de « médiévalisation » qui les ont caractérisés.

Permanences structurales et bases d’intervention A la Chapelle des Chevaliers, nous avons pu reconnaître la prépondérance de la logique géométrique dans la disposition des habitations qui se sont développées à son intérieur, occupant pour cela la moitié Sudouest de l’espace disponible. A l’autre moitié, après écroulement de deux des travées de la voûte de l’ouvrage, on a pu reconnaître tous les attributs d’une cour, fonctionnant aujourd’hui comme une sorte d’espace semi-public pour les habitants du lieu. Dans cette aire spécialisée de la citadelle, les lectures précédemment décrites ont tenu à montrer comment les tissus du bâti résidentiel de base se soient entièrement formés en se rapportant à ce qui a constitué pour eux un véritable substrat. Leur naissance et leur croissance, dans une aire principalement centrale, dérivent d’un processus agrégatif horizontal en même temps que vertical, lequel a vu se construire et se parcelliser un ensemble de tissus, subissant les effets d’entassements, d’introversions, d’obstructions, en somme de la « médiévalisation » d’une partie de la citadelle en tant qu’entité unitaire et physiquement constituée. Cherchant à identifier les règles géométriques qui ont sous tendu les densifications qui ont, dans l’histoire de ses transformations, fortement caractérisée la Chapelle des Chevaliers et dans lesquelles

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Restoration and Re-use of Omeriye Ottoman Baths, Nicosia, Cyprus

Athina Papadopoulou Athina Papadopoulou is an Architect Conservator with eighteen years experience as a practicing architect. She has been working for the bi-communal Nicosia Master Plan projects since 1999. The past eight years she focused on urban regeneration projects, ranging from building restoration / reuse, urban scale interventions and regeneration strategy development for Nicosia. Address: 13 Paleologos Street, 1011 Nicosia, Cyprus E-mail address: Athina.Papadopoulou@nicosiamunicipality.org.cy Telephone: 00 357 22797542

Omeriye Ottoman Baths Restoration and Reuse First Prize in Category I – Conservation Projects, European Union Prize for Cultural Heritage / Europa Nostra Awards 2005 ‘’For the safeguarding of the authenticity and adaptation to contemporary needs of a distinctive landmark of the walled city of Nicosia and for the sensitive treatment of an Islamic architectural element in a multicultural context.’’ History The Omeriye Ottoman Baths (hamam) is located in the Omeriye Quarter, in the heart of the walled city of Nicosia, Cyprus. It stands to the north of Omeriye mosque, a very important monument of the old city. The mosque was probably named after the prophet Omar, to whom the mosque was dedicated, after the Ottoman conquest of the island in 1570-71. The Omeriye mosque was once the church of St. Mary of the Augustinians, part of the homonymous monastery of the Augustinian order, dating to the 14th century. The Omeriye hamam, built by Lala Mustafa Pasha, the ďŹ rst ottoman administrator of the island, dates back to the late 16th century, (around 1571), at the very beginning of the Ottoman rule. Furthermore, the hamam is one of three public baths in Nicosia and the only one of which has been fully restored. Partners and objectives The restoration of the Omeriye Ottoman Baths is part of a wider rehabilitation project, implemented within the framework of the bicommunal Nicosia Master Plan1, primarily funded by the European Union through United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) / United Nations OďŹƒce for Project Services (UNOPS) – Partnership for the Future Programme. Funds for the realization of this project were also granted from the Nicosia Municipality and the Ministry of Interior (from

the listed buildings incentives scheme). The restoration of the Omeriye Ottoman Baths is one of three subprojects in the Omeriye Area: t 4UBHF 3PBE 3FIBCJMJUBUJPO SFTVSGBDJOH BOE VQHSBEJOH PG infrastructure (Tillirias Street) t 4UBHF 3FTUPSBUJPO PG UIF 0NFSJZF #BUI DPNQMFY BOE UIF PQFO space surrounding the monument t 4UBHF 3FTUPSBUJPO PG UIF OPSUI GBĂŽBEF PG UIF 0NFSJZF NPTRVF BOE landscaping of its garden. Taking into concern the multicultural character of the old city of Nicosia, depicted mainly on its well preserved architectural character and the historic urban tissue, this project is a perfect example of restoring and re-adapting an old building to contemporary needs, preserving its original use and fabric. The aim of this project falls under the general objectives of the Nicosia Master Plan for an integrated regeneration of the walled city of Nicosia and the conservation, protection and enhancement of its architectural heritage. Intervention philosophy The project aimed at restoring this historic building based on international good practice principles and charters regarding interventions on architectural heritage. The safeguarding of the authenticity of the structure, the principle of reversibility and the use of compatible methods and materials were of primary importance in the restoration plan. Minimum interventions, the respect of the historic phases of the monument as well as the clear indication of contemporary interventions were signiďŹ cant elements of the project. Retaining the original use of the building as a hamam was a central issue of the restoration proposal. The structural interventions were formulated and proposed following a condition survey and research of the existing materials, under the philosophy of minimum intervention in order to bring safety to acceptable levels while retaining the historic character and authenticity of the building. The restoration of the hamam, together with the redesigning of its immediate exterior space has contributed to the upgrading of the building environment of the area and to the social enhancement of the complex which has brought new activity into the old city. Meanwhile, the building itself is an important example of ottoman architecture in Cyprus therefore its restoration contributes to the preservation of the islands architectural and cultural heritage.

Building and use The Omeriye Bath is a stone, load-bearing structure built of calcareous limestone quarried in the Nicosia district. The domes and ochre exterior stone walls make it a signiďŹ cant landmark in the proďŹ le of the old city. It has a history of continuous use since its construction up until prior to the beginning of the survey works and restoration project in 2002. The building has a north and south entrance. The south entrance is reached through a small courtyard. The sequence and use of spaces follows the characteristic typology of ottoman baths of the time. One enters into a large square room with a dome and cupola at its peek. This space, the ‘’sadrvan’’ (cool chamber), is where one would undress

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and prepare to proceed into the warm chamber (‘’kapaluk’’). The domecovered ‘’sadrvan’’ has a small octagonal pool located in the centre and divans along the peripheral walls. The divans are sheltered by drapery hung on their outer edge providing privacy for dressing and resting after the bathing experience. The warm chamber or ‘’ kapaluk’’ consists of three main spaces, which are covered by domes and pointed vaults and host sanitary uses. The intermediate temperature of these spaces helps the body prepare for entering the hot chamber (‘’mejan’’), which follows in sequence. Traditionally, while acclimatizing oneself to the gradual increase in temperature, the warm chambers were used for body-grooming activities such as shaving, cutting and dying of hair. The climax of the sequence of ones visit to the hamam is the hot chamber or ‘’mejan’’. This space is square in plan covered by a central dome and has smaller chambers, the halvets, one in each corner. Each halvet includes two marble basins with running hot and cold water and is light by round and star-shaped openings in the dome above. At the centre of the hot chamber stands an octagonal stone bench of about 50cm high, which is used as a massage bench. All of the hot chamber spaces are heated via the floor under which hot air flows. The air is heated by a burner at the east end of the building at a level under the hot water tank. The water in the tank is heated to produce steam for the hot chambers simultaneously as the air is heated under the floor. The room temperature in the hot chambers reaches the range of 36°38° Celsius. After bathing in the hot chambers, one follows the reverse sequence of spaces and temperatures in order to reach the cool chamber where the divans offer a pleasant resting place before leaving the hamam. Impact The restoration of the Omeriye Ottoman Baths, together with the redesigning of its immediate exterior space has contributed to the upgrading of the built environment of the area and to the social enhancement of the complex which brings new activity into the old city. At the same time the building itself is an important example of ottoman architecture in Cyprus therefore; its restoration contributes to the preservation of our architectural and cultural heritage. The project is an example of respecting, preserving and promoting the multicultural character and history of the city of Nicosia, it is an integral part of the multicultural heritage of Cyprus, but also part of the common European heritage. Perspectives The bi-communal Nicosia Master Plan continues to implement and plan projects in the walled city within the general framework of a sustainable urban regeneration approach. Visiting and using the hamam The hamam has been in full operation since March 2005 for the general public. One can visit and use the hamam according to the following opening hours: Mon11:00-17:00(guided tours only), Tues-Sun 09:00-21:00(alternating days for men and women) The Omeriye Ottoman Baths is located at, 8 Tillirias Square, 1016 Nicosia, Cyprus, Tel: 00 357 22 460 570, 00 357 22 750 550

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1

The Nicosia Master Plan is the collaboration between Nicosia Municipality, The Department of Town Planning and Housing, Ministry of Interior under the auspices of the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), since 1980.


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cool chamber after

dome interior after

exterior after

exterior before

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Appropriating the Traditional Hammam to Modern Needs: Community Life and Development

Dalila ElKerdany Dalila ElKerdany is a practicing architect and professor of architecture and Urban Design at the Faculty of Engineering, Cairo University. She is involved in research as well as practice in the fields of conservation, heritage, and design. Ms. ElKerdany is a recipient of many competitions’ awards and actively involved in the architecture profession and the heritage conservation movement in Egypt. Address: 6 Dokki St., Giza, Cairo 12311, Egypt E-mail address: dalila@link.net Telephone: +2020-10-109-1612

Hammam al-Tanbali is a registered monument (No. 564). It is owned and under the supervision of the Supreme Council of Antiquities (SCA). It is located in Bab al Shariya in the centre of historic Cairo within proximity to its major Islamic monuments. This neighbourhood suffers from poverty, degraded environmental conditions and threatened of culture and identity change. The monument needs to be safeguarded, rehabilitated and secured for future generations. This can only be achieved by a comprehensive sustainable plan that would take care for the building the surrounding area, the community, the economic feasibility and environmental sustainable practices. Urban context of hammam al-Tanbali An important artery and potential corridor for through-traffic and cultural tourism, is planned to run from east to west and connects with the planned Northern Jammaliyah axis, linking the main thoroughfare of Salah Salem, to the east, with Ramsis Station, to the west. Amidst this northern edge to our site lie the remains of the Ayyubid wall. The wall divides this urban corridor into two separate streets: al-Fajjala Street to the north and al-Sabban Street to the south. The entrance of Hammam al-Tanbali immediately opens onto the latter, overlooking one of the few remaining portions of the Ayyubid fortifications. This new thoroughfare started to have an impact on the hammam neighborhood. New buildings are getting higher, and new functions started to appear along the road, therefore traditional quality of the neighborhood is threatened. In addition to the rapid change in the traditional urban fabric, Bab AlShariyah suffers from multiple levels of neglect and often decays. Some of the manifestations of such deterioration include a wide range of building materials, conditions and infrastructures, as well as the lack of mechanisms for their maintenance and upkeep. In some areas it manifests itself in marginal industries and often-marginalized groups

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with potential social problems. However, the neighborhood has several potentials that should be sustained and capitalized upon in any future development; its specialized markets, its history, and its people. The community members have initiatives, such as: investing in the provision of certain public amenities namely, mosques and drinking fountains; and rich residents finance modest vending kiosk for the less fortunate to earn their living. Local modes of celebration take place in national holidays especially in religious festivities. Walking through this urban stretch, one cannot fail to notice a complex network of informal transportation system. They navigate the narrow alleys, and deliver goods and services to and from such densely packed urban fabric, linking local economy and light industry to the city at large. Problems in the neighborhood include: poor water and sewage network; street lighting seems to be achieved mainly through community initiatives whether inhabitants and business owners buy their own lighting fixtures, or the street depends on the lighting of shop signs; streets are narrow and well proportioned for pedestrian traffic and limited vehicular access, but with the advent of the whole-sale industries and markets, truck access in both directions causes frequent traffic congestions; and garbage collection seems to be a problem. Hammam al-Tanbali, Tangible and Intangible A study on the two hammams, al-Tanbali and Bab al-Bahr, were conducted. It gives an account of the tangible qualities of al-Tanbli and a sample condition survey. Then it investigates the management modes of Bab al-Bahr by conducting interviews, observations and questionnaires. Some verified information on hammam al-Tanbali from SCA documents as well as few interviews provide an idea on its past operation. A set of historical, architectural and photographic documentation of Hammam al-Tanbali has been developed. Building Physical Condition: A sample of condition survey was conducted in one of the typical problematic spaces in Hmmam Al-Tambali. It gives a fair understanding on the deterioration procedures of the building materials from one side and the buildings systems from the other. The aim is to have one of the main parameters to develop the remedy, beside many other parameters such as the final re-use program, the original building state, the historic value of its architectural and decorative elements, and others. A first hand examination and analysis of Hammam Al-Tanbali shows that it is in a hazardous condition not only for its own unsafe structure but also from a neighboring wall of the building to its east that is about to collapse taking along a big part of the hammam building down. Currently, a full analysis for the structural condition is being carried and a strategy of conservation should be planned soon. Operation and staffing: Historically, the hammam, as a complex, includes the furnace or “mustawqad,” was divided into two different businesses, totally independent from each other in ownership, management, and operation. They are the “ful”, or cooked fava beans, and the furnace. The latter remained the responsibility of hammam management. Fuel, was from burning district garbage in older times, then when that was prohibited as polluting, it became solar, and then finally gas some 15 years ago. This energy-saving sharing of heat source and recycling


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of some of the district’s garbage was terminated in the name of the environment. There are many who work in the hammam, but very few are declared permanent employees to whom the management would pay insurance. The hammam’s most significant staff member is the “mikayyisati,” or “mikayyisatiya” in case of women. This is the person who after hot water and steam bathing would give the client a scrub with a special woolen piece of rough fabric called “kis”. Activities and Clienteles: The main activities in the Hammam have not changed much over the centuries: hot water and steam bath, good scrub, cold or warm shower, rest in the intermediate warm zone, and rest in the outside dry zone. In here all beauty-related activities for women take place. Occasions where currently women with traditional socio-cultural backgrounds go to the hammam include: beautifying and preparing the bride before wedding, bathing just before delivering a baby, and 40 days after, and after having had surgery. Reasons for frequent use include loosing weight, getting rid of chronic pains, and maintaining a general healthy physique. “A hammam’s reputation is a key to its survival” exclaimed the manager of Hammam Bab al-Bahr. Occasionally, illicit activities and services are requested by some visitors to the hammam.

The operation, maintenance and revitalization of hammams are functions of income from visitors, which is in turn a function of fees and number of visitors. It is also a function of cost of municipal fees, supplies and services needed on periodic and daily basis, repairs, and wages. Rehabilitating the Hammam is essential if it is to survive. First there is the need to stabilize and restore the hammam. To revitalize the hammam would require appropriate interior design, replicas of historical furnishings, introducing complimentary fund raising functions, and the training of the employees in the maintenance of the hammam to the required standards. The opening of a new traffic artery in front of the hammam al-Tanbli, although destroying the medieval urban tissue, might bring up new possibilities for linking the hammam with other communities. In such case, parking spaces becomes a high consideration. Development must be tied to neighbourhood projects to conserve and revitalize its historical activities which include manufacture of sweets, wood and metal workshops and traditional inns. Bab el-Shariyia was also known for its religious institutions, sebils, and kottabs, which could be mobilized to create educational- development centers with opportunities to lean IT applications. A comprehensive and sustainable plan should be developed, tested and then implemented for the rehabilitation of such an important building.

Financing: Currently traditional hammams in Cairo charge very low fees, which does not enable the managers to properly maintain a hygienic and pleasant performance, leave alone performing sound restoration and upkeep. The expenses of the hammam management are divided into formal and informal expenses. The components of formal expenses are: water, fuel, rent and electricity. Informal expenses include the “ikramiya” paid to differnt bodies. Hammams fall under several regulatory parties: the antiquities authority, health inspector and tax authority. The hammam operates with a license from the district local authorities, but this license is not verified or renewed so often, so the relation with this authority is meager. Conclusion: Hammams Revitalization and Development The survival of hammams in Cairo faces many challenges beginning with the decisions by the descendants of traditional hammam owners to pursue other activities, or concerning financial matters, which are in turn related not only to the cost of rehabilitation, but to potential income which in turn depends on the socioeconomic level of clients. The social challenge is critical because it will determine the future of the survival of hammam. This challenge includes in addition to who the hammam will attract, but also the re-imaging of hammam to dissociate it from any hint of lewdness. There is also the challenge of bureaucracy in securing permits and resolving ownership issues. The hammams, should potentially serve as a model of cleanliness and ecologically sound, “green” living from which such approaches could spread to the community. Although, heating water is helpful in killing germs, hygienic measures using antiseptic substances must be institutionalized. Fungicides must also be used to prevent the growth of fungi. Sterilization of towels, scrubbing gloves and other materials used by several customers will be a necessity in a new establishment.

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Los procesos de construcción y la implantación de las instalaciones en edificios históricos: La Iglesia de la Trinidad de Segovia.

Patricio Alañón, Margarita Arroba, Concepción Díez-Pastor, Joaquín Grau, Julián García Alañón, Patricio. Ingeniero Industrial, Director Técnico de INTEINCO. Arroba, Margarita. Doctor Arquitecto, Profesora de la Universidad SEK. Díez-Pastor, Concepción. Doctor Arquitecto, Profesora de la Universidad SEK. Grau, Joaquín. Doctor Arquitecto, Profesor de la Universidad SEK. García, Julián. Arquitecto Técnico, Licenciado en Historia, Profesor de la Universidad SEK. Dirección postal: Universidad SEK de Segovia. C/ Cardenal Zúñiga, 12. 40003. Segovia. España. Dirección de correo electrónico: julian.garcia@sekmail.com Teléfono: 921.412.410 – 619.255.372

Da la sensación de que, cuando los constructores románicos plantearon la erección de la iglesia de la Trinidad en la ciudad de Segovia tenían un plan muy preciso y que, teóricamente, lo realizaron de una vez quedando el templo prácticamente inalterado desde entonces. De hecho, la opinión generalizada es que se trata de una de las iglesias románicas de Segovia que ha sufrido menos alteraciones y que se encuentra en estos momentos en un estado casi idéntico al de su primera construcción. Tras un estudio detallado, sin embargo, es posible defender que el templo ha cambiado sustancialmente con respecto al que fue concebido en origen. El proyecto de investigación que hemos desarrollado durante el curso 2005-06 se ha centrado en estudiar los procesos de construcción y la implantación de las instalaciones en la Iglesia de la Santísima Trinidad de Segovia. El análisis de la estructura que hemos realizado permite relativizar la importancia de los problemas que se observan al estudiar los registros de patología. Efectivamente es cierto que la iglesia tiene problemas (el peso excesivo de la torre normanda, inacabada de un modo razonable; y también el empuje de las bóvedas) y manifiesta las consecuencias de ellos (fundamentalmente un cierto deslizamiento a favor de la pendiente del terreno en la zona; como todos los edificios de la vertiente norte de la ciudad, por otra parte). A causa de estos problemas, detectados desde antiguo, las sucesivas reformas han ido sumando soluciones para solventarlos o, al menos, minimizar las consecuencias. El añadido de arbotantes y contrafuertes, la inclusión del tirante, la propia condición de inacabada de la torre son actuaciones en

ese sentido. El edificio resultante de todas estas intervenciones parece ser perfectamente capaz de sobrellevar los problemas a los que hemos hecho referencia. En lo relativo al estudio se las instalaciones se han estudiado el comportamiento térmico, lumínico y acústico del edificio. Debido al corto espacio disponible, se adjunta sólo un resumen de los estudios sobre el comportamiento lumínico del edificio, en el que los cambios a lo largo de la historia son especialmente notables. Variaciones en el comportamiento lumínico del edificio La incorporación de la iluminación artificial, basada en criterios distintos a los que tuvieron los constructores del edificio hace que la luz incida en el espacio arquitectónico de forma extraña, modificando su caracterización espacial inicial, pensada básicamente con iluminación natural. En la época románica la única iluminación artificial factible era a base de velas y antorchas, lo que nos lleva a pensar que probablemente el uso de las iglesias era fundamentalmente diurno. Si intentamos estudiar la iluminación natural de esta iglesia, con el fin de hacernos una idea de lo que el maestro de obras que lo proyectó quiso hacer con la luz y cómo pensó que debía verse su iglesia, encontramos que los óculos construidos en el Barroco la han modificado de tal modo que es radicalmente distinta a como se concibió en origen. Los puntos de luz de que disponía la iglesia de La Trinidad en la época de su construcción eran muy escasos. Incluían las dos pequeñas ventanas ubicadas en las paredes occidental y oriental de la parte alta del crucero, en los muros añadidos de la torre, sobre la clave de los arcos, con escasa capacidad de iluminación salvo en las últimas horas de la tarde y a primera hora de la mañana, tres estrechas ventanas ubicadas en el ábside y una última ventana – de entidad ligeramente mayor – ubicada en la fachada occidental, sobre la puerta de entrada de la iglesia. Los seis huecos son de pequeño tamaño. La iglesia se encontraba en su origen ubicada en una zona escasamente edificada, por lo que todas estas ventanas recibían luz abundante, aunque es posible que se tamizara con algún material interpuesto (en la época era corriente el uso del alabastro y de las pieles de animales). En cualquier caso, el escaso tamaño de las ventanas garantizaba que la luz que aportaban al interior del templo fuera mínima, aunque no estuvieran ocluidas con ningún tipo de apantallamiento. La ubicación de dichas ventanas – orientadas a oriente y poniente – manifiesta que la intención de los constructores de esta iglesia era que la luz más abundante se recibiera en su interior a primera hora de la mañana y a última de la tarde. El hecho de que nos encontremos en el hemisferio norte hace que estas dos luces entren ligeramente sesgadas desde el sur, iluminando sutilmente mejor la zona norte de la cabecera de la iglesia, la parte del evangelio, dejando algo más en penumbra el área de la epístola, aunque de forma casi imperceptible. La iluminación inicial del templo se vio enormemente alterada en el Barroco (siglo XVII), con la perforación de dos óculos en la parte alta de la fachada sur. La nave se convirtió en un lugar mucho más luminoso y este efecto permanece hasta nuestros días. Los yesos blancos que, en esta época, cubrieron los muros y que aumentarían aún más la luminosidad del templo, fueron eliminados en el siglo XX, dejando la piedra desnuda y probablemente eliminando la mayor parte de la policromía románica que pudiera subyacer debajo del enlucido. La percepción luminosa de las paredes actuales no es, en ningún caso, similar a la original, pero sí mucho más próxima que la que se disfrutó durante la época barroca,

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ya que las paredes románicas estaban, asimismo, enlucidas, pero la policromía que previsiblemente las cubría oscurecería su aspecto en gran medida. En cualquier caso, las ventanas incorporadas en ese siglo alteraron sin remedio la iluminación de la iglesia y nos impiden ver, en este momento, cómo se concibió inicialmente el espacio interior, desde el punto de vista de la luz. En el siglo XX se instalaron también las vidrieras en las tres ventanas del ábside, coloreando la luz que se introduce por ellas. Esto, que podría haber sido un problema en el caso de que se conservara la policromía original de los muros, ya que nos hubiera impedido percibir los colores correctamente, sólo altera de forma insignificante en estos momentos la cantidad de luz aportada a través de esos huecos con respecto a la que se hubiera dispuesto con inexistencia de cristal o con un vidrio transparente (sobre todo si, como suponemos, originalmente los huecos estaban cubiertos con alabastro), pero sí modifica en gran medida su cualidad. Por tanto, para analizar la iluminación natural disponible hoy en la iglesia hay que tener en cuenta que los huecos existentes no son exactamente los originales, y, aunque siguen siendo escasos, aportan muchísima más luz de la prevista por los constructores del edificio. Se han realizado multitud de medidas de niveles de iluminación, tanto natural a diversas horas del día y con variados niveles de iluminación exterior, como artificial, con diversas combinaciones de luces encendidas. Dadas las limitaciones de espacio de este artículo, sólo se aportan plantas con las curvas isolux correspondientes a la iluminación natural del día 14 de marzo de 2006, pensando que es la que mejor ilustra la hipotética potente iluminación de la zona del altar mencionada anteriormente. Podemos ver claramente como la inclusión de los óculos barrocos ha alterado tan profundamente este efecto lumínico que prácticamente lo ha eliminado. La luz que penetra por la ventana de la fachada occidental, ya minorada respecto a la inicial tras la construcción del convento de Santo Domingo, desaparece ante el aporte luminoso que penetra por los óculos. Sólo permanece ligeramente un énfasis lumínico sobre la zona del ábside gracias a la claridad que se introduce por las ventanas ubicadas en los muros de la torre, y debido a que la parte de la luz que penetra por dichos óculos que incide en esa área es tan insignificante que aún puede apreciarse ligeramente el aumento de luminosidad causado por esas otras ventanas. Sin embargo, el espectador que contempla el interior del edificio ve su mirada inexorablemente atraída hacia la zona de la capilla de los Del Campo, debido a la alto nivel de iluminación del área, por lo que la ligera luminosidad del altar no causa de ninguna forma el efecto inicialmente buscado. Aún con la iluminación proporcionada por los óculos, la iluminancia media no llega ni siquiera al nivel mínimo previsto por la actual normativa de incendios para un desalojo sin incidentes del edificio (sólo se alcanzan los preceptivos 3 luxes en el punto más iluminado, en la portada de la capilla de los Del Campo), aunque hay que considerar que al tratarse de un día de invierno y a la caída de la tarde, la iluminación proporcionada por el sol era ya bastante escasa, aún así, los niveles de iluminación exterior a dicha hora eran de 590 luxes en el interior del pórtico sur – área cubierta aunque con dos paredes conformadas por arquerías, es decir, con mucha captación de luz –, y de 860 luxes en la zona exterior adyacente más iluminada: la plaza occidental anexa al convento de Santo Domingo.

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Ejemplo de rehabilitación y reutilización del patrimonio construido al Pirineo con criterios económicos ecológicos y sociales

Josep Bunyesc Palacín Arquitecto independiente, proyectos mayoritariamente de rehabilitación en el Pirineo Catalan. master en arquitectura sostenible en la EPFL Suiza. Doctorando UPC. Dirección postal: c/la tallada sn La Pobleta de Bellveir 25513 Dirección de correo electrónico: josepbunyesc@yahoo.es Teléfono: +34 609287277

Los edificios sufren la evolución del modo de vida de nuestra sociedad y son obsoletos antes que sus materiales de construcción. En zonas de montaña, este desfase es más marcado a causa del abandono de la forma de vivir tradicional y la adopción de la sociedad actual terciaria destinada al ocio y el turismo, lejos de la explotación agrícola familiar tradicional de difícil encaje en la sociedad y política actual. Es necesario encontrar y remarcar las cualidades de las construcciones y implantaciones de lo edificios tradicionales, de gran eficiencia fruto de una evolución casi darviniana a lo largo de muchos años de experiencia y observación del medio para responder a sus necesidades. Se intenta subrayar las cualidades de este legado cultural, un poco olvidadas en los últimos años, de este saber hereditario adaptado al lugar y al clima. Las necesidades han cambiado pero no ha cambiado el clima en las zonas de montaña, y las estrategias de implantación o de geometría de los edificios continua en total vigencia pese a la ignorancia de algunas construcciones de la época de la energía barata. Se expone un proyecto de rehabilitación y reutilización de un pajar en vivienda contemporánea. Aprovechando las calidades del edificio existente, que se readapta para satisfacer las necesidades actuales. Proponemos sustituir la hierba y la paja de la vida tradicional por una construcción ligera de madera que está expuesta al sol del invierno y protegida del verano con el alero, bien aislada con lana de oveja de un pastor vecino. Esta intervención es reversible, ya que no se destruye nada de lo existente y la intervención consiste en poner un contenedor autónomo que aprovecha las cualidades del edificio existente. Si en un futuro hay que readaptar las necesidades, permite hacer marcha atrás y corregir si se considera necesario. La actuación dignifica el edifico tradicional dándole una utilidad y un valor, a la vez que prolonga su testimonio histórico y cultural del lugar, que ayuda a conservar la identidad de un pueblo.

El edificio mantiene su carácter tradicional pero adopta una intervención moderna ligada al presente. Pasado y presente dialogan sin gritar, sin falsedades ni decoraciones folcloricas que son imprescindibles para maquillar algunas construcciones recientes para vender un aspecto de “rustico” que le piden a las segundas residencias. Se busca un edificio de bajo consumo energético, que se caliente en invierno con el sol bajo que entra dentro, pero esté protegido del sol de verano. El alero existente a sur permite este efecto. Las nuevas tecnologías nos permiten utilizar materiales y elementos como el vidrio, que nos deja entrar la luz y el calor, pero evita que se escape con dobles vidrios selectivos. El sistema constructivo es muy sencillo. Es un esqueleto rectangular de suelo a techo de madera con piezas de 6x12 cm, arriostradas con un panel tricapa de 17mm atornillado por el interior. La fachada exterior es de tablas de madera de pino bastas de 20mm en horizontal sujeta a la estructura, y entre los pilares de madera se sitúa el aislamiento de 12 cm de lana de oveja natural de una λ= 0,034 W.K.m. con su respectiva barrera de vapor. La cubierta tiene la misma sección que la fachada con un acabado interior de cartón yeso de 15mm en blanco para aumentar la luminosidad. Los ventanales para captación del sol directo, están formados por un cristal fijo sin carpinteria y un pequeño practicable para ventilar y pasar, intentando reducir el porcentaje de marco que impide la entradade la energia y son a menudo puentes térmicos. En la toma de datos in situ, y sin estar aún aislado, solo con la envolvente simple del panel tricapa interio, se aprecia que en verano no hay sobrecalentamiento, ya que la radiación solar no entra en ningún momento por la cristalera y la cubierta esta ventilada. La temperatura durante el mes de julio del 2006 esta en la zona de confort entre los 18 i 26ºC en el interior cuando el exterior supera los 35ºC. En invierno, el sol calienta el espacio interior de poca inercia térmica hasta superar los 15ºC. Cuando estará aislado, la temperatura se mantendrá mejor durante la noche. Solo los pilares de piedra existentes que atraviesan el habitáculo le dan un poco de inercia térmica, ya que el resto es en construcción ligera de madera. El edificio es energéticamente eficiente, con una U media en la envolvente opaca de 0.27W/m2K con un gran aporte solar pasivo del 40% de la necesidad total de calor en invierno y un consumo anual de calefacción de 1800kW.h según cálculos con programas de simulación térmica dinámica, si esta siempre habitada que corresponde a menos de 45 kWh/m2 año o sea a 1/5 de una vivienda convencional anterior al CTE-HE. El buen aislamiento y la reducida dimensión del edificio permite que un aporte de 1000W, con un radiador eléctrico pequeño o el aporte indirecto de los electrodomésticos, se mantiene el espacio interior a 20oC si por la noche hay una temperatura exterior de 0ºC. Una instalación solar activa, permitiría este aporte adicional, pero de momento para reducir costes en instalaciones es suficiente un radiador pequeño eléctrico. El edificio se adapta bien al invierno, cuando se calienta bien con el sol directo, y funciona bien en verano gracias a sus protecciones solares y la envolvente ventilada, pero se aprecian puntos débiles en los equinoccios cuando el sol ya es alto y no calienta suficientemente el interior del espacio aislado necesitando un pequeño aporte suplementario al solar directo, pero no es grave ya que el salto térmico es pequeño entre la

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temperatura de confort que se solicita y el exterior. Para el confort en verano es vital que las grandes aberturas estén protegidas completamente del sol y estén orientadas a sur para captar la energía en invierno. El mismo edificio pero orientado al oeste, provocaría en su interior en verano sin ventilar, temperaturas próximas a los 45ºC, con condiciones invivibles por culpa de la equivocada orientación. Este edificio relativamente ligero se adapta bien a un uso intermitente o de fin de semana, ya que se calienta rápidamente sin necesidad de calentar una gran masa del edificio. Esta ligereza, en este lugar no compromete el confort térmico del verano. En términos de energía gris, o energía consumida para obtener los materiales de construcción y su puesta en obra el edificio ligero de madera, incluyendo la parte de mobiliario fijo, construido con los mismos materiales que la envolvente, contiene 9550 kWh, que por sus 35m2 construidos resultan 273 kWh/m2 cuando un edificio convencional contiene 1.626 kWh/m2. Una relación de 6 veces mas. La débil energía gris radica en parte a la estructura de madera serrada maciza de pino sin encolar ni laminar y en el aislamiento utilizado de lana de oveja, ya que su espesor de 12cm, si fuera de un material derivado del petróleo como un poliestireno haría aumentar sustancialmente los 273 kWh/m2. En peso, el prototipo es de 3.630 Kg. resultan unos 100 Kg./m2. Un edificio convencional pesa casi 3.000 Kg./m2, del orden de 30 veces mas. El precio de construcción, está entorno los 14.000€ incluyendo el mobiliario fijo o sea unos 400€m2, menos de la mitad que una construcción convencional y el tiempo de construcción de la obra de poco mas de un mes con dos personas. La intervención a pequeña escala, no necesita grandes medios para construir-se, y la hace asequible a las pequeñas empresas locales sin necesidad de acudir a grandes empresas de origen lejano. Estas intervenciones favorecen la economía local y ayudan a fijar la población al territorio. El coste de la intervención es mínimo, ya que se conserva las partes existentes pesadas del edificio. Se hace un ahorro a nivel energético de utilización y también de energía gris, de construcción y transporte, con poco material y reciclable como la madera. Su pequeña dimensión y su simplicidad permiten hacer un notable ahorro económico para tener una vivienda asequible preservando a la vez el patrimonio construido y el legado histórico de un lugar.

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Extrapolación de metodologías de análisis de poblados vernaculares del Mediterráneo a la Patagonia chilena

a tener en cuenta en la “Definición del Entorno” definidos paralelamente y complementariamente al Método Rehabimed, para el desarrollo de una Metodología de Análisis. t &TDBMBT EF BQSPYJNBDJØO t «NCJUPT EF DPOUFYUVBMJ[BDJØO t 1BSÈNFUSPT BSRVJUFDUØOJDPT

Virginia Vásquez F. y Jaume Avellaneda Dirección postal: Departamento de Construcciones Arquitectónicas I Escuela Técnica Superior de Arquitectura del Vallès. Universidad Politécnica de Catalunya. Pere Serra 4. CP: 08173. Sant Cugat del Vallès. Barcelona. España. Dirección de correo electrónico: vicky.vasquez@gmail.com jaume.avellaneda@upc.edu Teléfono: 934017885

1. Introducción Universalmente la arquitectura vernácula es reconocida como la respuesta de una “comunidad”1 al medio ambiente cultural, físico y económico, constituyéndose como asentamiento en constante evolución (Ver Fig. 1), como una arquitectura que maximiza los recursos existentes, haciéndolos propios, sin seguir una tipología determinada, sino desarrollando y adquiriendo un lenguaje arquitectónico particular y cultural, en un sentido originario de creación artística de formas, volúmenes y trabajo de los materiales al definir un espacio, tanto individual como comunitario, creando así estructuras urbanas a mayor o menor escala y organizaciones sociales con un rol definido [1]. Sin duda esta manera de construir y de entender el hábitat (bajo un ritmo que se autodetermina debido a la interacción entre autoconstructorentorno), es lo que ha sentado las bases de la construcción actual y que al ver revitalizadas sus potencialidades hace que sea re-descubierta para ser obra de rehabilitación o para constituirse en patrones conceptuales y formales en el desarrollo de valores arquitectónicos. 2. Metologias de estudio A continuación se trata como punto de partida los conceptos generales que propone el Método Rehabimed [3] y como estos se integran a través de la Extrapolación como concepto unificador a la nueva Metodología, propuesta para el análisis del caso en la Patogonia Chilena. Al analizar la primera premisa de Metodología de Análisis, encontramos que bajo el alero de GLOBALIDAD subyacen las numerosas expresiones de construcción vernácula presentes en el mundo y que obedecen a patrones de desarrollo universales, es así que esta definición vernácula se torna bastante genérica, pero que permite desarrollar el primer parámetro de análisis, el que queda reflejado a través de las Escalas de Aproximación al Territorio (Ver cuadro 1), como primera referencia concreta del ámbito de contextualización a analizar. El presente trabajo se enmarca dentro de tres aspectos fundamentales

Los conceptos de Integración, Concertación, Flexibilidad y Adaptabilidad tomados por los autores del Método Rehabimed, y que se utilizan como metodologías de estudio en la definición de un entorno construido y revitalizado, son asumibles en todas sus variantes al presentarse ante el análisis de un caso de Arquitectura Vernácula, y también extrapolable como marco general para asumir el caso de estudio en la Patagonia Chilena. Al ser de aplicación general el presente trabajo se centrara en extrapolar y mencionar los conceptos que han permitido tener resultados visibles hasta ahora, del “Programa de Estudios Multisectoriales” del mencionado Método Rehabimed. ¿Por qué extrapolar conceptos de análisis vernacular en territorios dispares? El Espacio Mediterráneo se encuentra aunado bajo el concepto de “fragilidad” (debido a la multiculturalidad) y se auto propone como un mar interior que trata de unificar, conectando los territorios [3]. Esta fragilidad es su fuerte, ya que gracias a ese equilibrio tan sutil es que ha logrado convertirse en un espacio que alberga la diversidad de Oriente y Occidente, donde el habitar se ha dado a través de una secuencia histórica y heterogénea de culturas; siempre con una memoria colectiva latente, que re-escribe su patrimonio. Es así como el Espacio Mediterráneo se orienta y habita desde sus bordes, que configuran “el Mar interior Mediterráneo” De otra manera, la Aproximación al “Mar interior Patagónico” del Océano Pacífico, se hace desde un enfoque geográfico, que autodetermina los asentamientos vernáculos, y donde la multiculturalidad esta ausente; estos asentamientos se rigen bajo un concepto de “fragilidad” determinado por el aislamiento geográfico (distancia y accesos), debido a esto es una constante latente en el desarrollo de estas culturas, que a su vez han debido adaptar los aportes foráneos (escasos) para re-adaptarlos con soluciones a la medida y al cambio de recursos disponibles, tanto de materiales (Ver fig. 2) como en técnicas artesanales propias. El mar interior se orienta y habita desde sus bordes, al igual que el Mediterráneo. Se observa que la etapa de Diagnosis a través del análisis del territorio propone un desarrollo metodológico que corresponde a lo que los autores denominan Escalas de Aproximación al “Maritorio Patagónico” del Océano Pacífico (mar interior), un espacio natural base para le generación de una arquitectura palafítica en maderas nativas en una zona de precariedad y fragilidad geográfica de borde agua, adoptando el carácter de insularidad continental. MARITORIO...mar y territorio [4]. 3.Extrapolacion en la diagnosis A continuación, se desarrolla una Metodología de Estudio que lleva a obtener Parámetros y Ámbitos de Habitabilidad, generando así Criterios de Intervención y analizando aspectos compositivos en el ordenamiento del asentamiento y su estructura de crecimiento, a través de lo palafitico como tipología vernácula en su caracterización y análisis territorial.

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Los conceptos para este caso de estudio son. “Escalas de Aproximación Territoriales, Ámbitos de Contextualización y Parámetros Arquitectónicos” y los extraídos del Método Rehabimed: Relaciones Macro territoriales, Medio Físico, Paisaje Natural, Parámetros Ambientales Riesgos Naturales, Programa de estudios Multisectoriales y Aproximación Histórico geográfica, estos se complementan con los desarrollados anteriormente constituyéndose como teoría base; los últimos parámetros son ajustados a los nuevos requerimientos añadiendo o suprimiendo variantes del análisis. Se puede observar en el desarrollo del siguiente esquema. (Ver cuadro 2)

Escalas de Aproximación Territoriales

Espacio natural y construido

Contenedor Contenido

Relaciones Macro territoriales Medio Físico Paisaje Natural Parámetros Ambientales Riesgos naturales Programa de estudios Multisectoriales

Generación de un marco de estudio temporal

Ámbitos de habitabilidad

Cuadro 2. Secuencia y contenido de variantes en la metodología de análisis.

Aproximación Histórico-Geog.

Ámbitos de Contextualización

Identificación de Roles, núcleos Sociales

Sistemas de autoProducción

Tipologías de Auto Construcción Parámetros Arquitectónicos

Aproximación Socio económica y cultural

Relación con la Sostenibilidad

Parámetros de habitabilidad Análisis CV de los materiales Entorno construido y urbano Volumetría y fachadas Parametrizar y Caracterizar Ámbitos de intervención Jerarquizar actuaciones

Criterios de Intervención

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Contexto histórico territorial Evolución histórica Evolución estructura

Zonificar, aplicar y desarrollar estrategias para evaluar

4. Breve extracto en caso de aplicación 4.1. Generalidades La vernácula arquitectura de un poblado en la Patagonia de Chile, que se gestó y desarrolla en la desembocadura del río Baker, prisionero de los hielos y de la adversidad de la geografía; su vinculación al crudo clima se desarrolla físicamente a través de la explotación del Ciprés de las Guaitecas, una madera de extraordinaria firmeza, que le permite al hombre asentarse colgando sus viviendas de las montañas, flotando en el borde mar, como primer límite de zonificación arquitectónica construida. 4.2.Desarrollo y concepciones generales Caleta Tortel se [5] encuentra en una condición de fragilidad tanto del sistema socio-cultural, económico-productivo, del medio natural y construido; su condición de ISLA durante mucho tiempo la mantuvo segregada del resto del territorio nacional y le provocó un desarrollo particular y muchas veces precario por esta condición de aislamiento geográfico. La escala local del poblado, se enfoca directamente en la humanización del espacio natural (Ver Fig. 3) y genera así una habitabilidad sostenida en el tiempo a través de la construcción de un suelo firme, otorgado por las pasarelas de madera de Ciprés de las Guaitecas, que logran generar entre sí una malla y red urbana de conexiones (Ver Fig. 4) entre los espacios privados, intermedios y públicos; esta configuración urbana se remonta desde los orígenes del oficio maderero de la zona, que ligados a una malla de interacción social, económica y cultural desarrolló una cultura única y particular. “La temporalidad involucrada reviste una especial importancia, por cuanto desde ella será posible valorar el espacio para transformarlo en lugar significativo” [6]. Esta caracterización corresponde a un esbozo de la problemática tratada, pero que sin duda genera las bases para la conjugación de una Metodología de trabajo conjunta en el entendimiento de la arquitectura vernácula y su rehabilitación partiendo de puntos comunes de análisis que toma matices según el programa de Análisis Multi sectorial. 5. Conclusiones Por ahora se puede decir que existe una presión tanto en el desarrollo urbano como en el cultural, ya que existe un incremento de las actividades turísticas que se traduce un cambio de usos de suelos y una baja manutención y conservación de los espacios públicos, los que ahora se encuentran mas solicitados al estar incrementando su demanda y además cambiando las formas de propiedad inmobiliaria y sus mecanismos de control. Referente a la extrapolación general de conceptos de Globalidad, Integración, Concertación, Flexibilidad y Adaptabilidad es necesario trabajar la Sostenibilidad cultural, ambiental y económica en general, y el material como recurso maderero, con el fin de caracterizar el estado de las maderas nativas, fibras vegetales y sus mejoras tecnológicas como materiales vernáculos. La Metodología y su sistemático desarrollo aborda desde los aspectos técnicos, constructivos, sociales, antropológicos, económicos y geográficos para llegar a proponer esencialmente mejoras de rehabilitación y readecuación en la calidad de vida de los habitantes, lo que se traduce en una mayor sostenibilidad arquitectónica y social,


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es necesario mencionar que ningún aspecto se desarrolla aislado y que son un cúmulo de factores los que determinan el habitar en geografías extremas y frágiles, ya sea por el aislamiento o la sobre-exposición de la cultura que lo habita.

3&'&3&/$*"4 1

[1] KAHN, L., COBIJO, H. Blume Ediciones, Madrid (1970) [2] SERRA, R; COCH, HELENA., Arquitectura y Energía Natural, Ediciones UPC, Universidad Politécnica de Catalunya, Barcelona (1995). [3] REHABIMED, Método Rehabimed para la Rehabilitación de la Arquitectura Tradicional Mediterránea, Documento de Trabajo. Colegio de Aparejadores y Arquitectos Técnicos de Barcelona, Barcelona (2005) [4] UNIVERSIDAD CATÓLICA DE CHILE. Fundamentos Escuela de Arquitectura Universidad Católica de Valparaíso, Valpraíso, Chile (1960). [5] GALLE, J; ILUSTRE MUNICIPALIDAD DE CALETA TORTEL, UNIVERSIDAD DE LOS LAGOS, Anteproyecto Plan Regulador de la Comuna de Tortel, Osorno, Chile (2001) [6] CAMPOS, M; LÓPEZ, L., Identidad y Memoria Urbana. Recuerdo y Olvido, Continuidades y Discontinuidades en la Ciudad, Revista de Urbanismo, Nº 10, Departamento de Urbanismo, F.A.U., Universidad de Chile, Santiago de Chile (2004).

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Entendiendo como comunidad, el conjunto en que uno o varios grupos a través de un valor como la sensibilidad al medio ambiente han sido capaces de transformarlo en su beneficio sin hacer un deterioro de él, si no una comunión.

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Proyecto TEAM

Patrici Lluch Llonch Diseño, Coordinación y Ejecución de Programas de Formación Profesional, en colaboración con entidades públicas: Departament Treball de la Generalitat de Catalunya / Fondo Social Europeo / Entidades locales (P.G.S./T.O./P.EX.) Experto Europeo en Programas de Formación, Metodologías y Gestión (Màster UNIFF-Universidad Politécnica de Catalunya- UPC); Ingeniería de la Formación (Postgrado UNIFF-UPC); CTE/Certificación Energética de Edificios (Postgrado Fundación UPC); Instalaciones de Energía Solar (CENSOLAR/IDAE); Cálculo de Instalaciones Solares (POLYSUN-Institut Solartechnick SPF); Problemáticas Asociadas a la Rehabilitación (Instituto Tecnológico de .Lérida./CentroTecnológico. Forestal de Catañunya/INCAFUST). Dirección postal: c/ Riera de Sant Andreu, nº 91 (casa); 08030 Barcelona Dirección de correo electrónico: TR.TRICI@terra.es patricilluch@yahoo.es Teléfono: 00 34 93 274 32 50 / 625 90 95 66

Las iniciativas de “trabajos integrales de rehabilitación” que recoge el 1SPZFDUP 3&)"#*.&%, han de estar sustentadas y complementadas con Acciones de Formación específicas: (talleres de ocupación, escuelas taller, programas experimentales, etc.), que prioricen y favorezcan también, la “sostenibilidad social” y laboral de los trabajadores en origen. Estas Acciones de Formación han de dar respuesta a las necesidades concretas de cada uno de los países participantes, desde una base común de conocimientos técnico/prácticos extrapolables a cualquier Región del Arco Mediterráneo hasta la definición de técnicas puntuales, tanto en la obtención de materiales primeros, como en la aplicación, uso y coste energético de cada una de estas fases. Para ello se proponen 1SPHSBNBT EF 'PSNBDJØO 1SPGFTJPOBM que faciliten la calificación de los participantes: (Maestros de Obra, Oficiales, Ayudantes) y fomenten la empleabilidad y movilidad de trabajadores cualificados en toda la zona de influencia del Proyecto REHABIMED. Re-descubrir, estructurar, sistematizar y fomentar el conocimiento capitalizado por Maestros Artesanos y Gremios Artesanales hacia la Rehabilitación de viviendas, donde se integre a sus habitantes desde el respeto y la consideración a la cultura propia. Elaboración de pequeños diccionarios visuales de la construcción, con la finalidad de que los conceptos que tenían como base la transmisión oral en el tiempo queden recogidos de forma muy didáctica en unidades de desarrollo de conocimiento educativos sostenibles, a la vez que dotar a los participantes -Arquitectos, Arquitectos Técnicos, Urbanistas, Paisajistas, Maestros de obra, Formadores y Alumnos- de la “herramienta” básica, del elemento común de entendimiento directo: el lenguaje constructivo: materiales, técnicas, usos, herramientas, así como el establecimiento de protocolos esenciales de Seguridad e Higiene Laboral.

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Las acciones de rehabilitación funcional de edificios y viviendas del 1SPZFDUP 3&)"#*.&%, pueden reforzarse mediante una nueva cultura de la Sostenibilidad Medioambiental y Social que actúe de eje vertebrador en el fomento de la conservación del patrimonio, espacios públicos, edificios y viviendas, desde el respeto al trabajo de los Equipos Rehabilitadores, usuarios en general y bienes comunitarios, como experiencia de convivencia e incentivo sociabilizador. Es en este ámbito dónde el 1SPZFDUP 5&". encuentra su espacio de aplicación, en su concepción inicial orientada a la utilización de materiales modulares sostenibles sin renunciar a las nuevas tecnologías en materiales y aplicaciones, a la recuperación del conocimiento práctico de las mal llamadas técnicas artesanales, ya que son parte de los procesos evolutivos de las organizaciones sociales – evolución social y técnica- en cuanto a la capacidad de intervención en el proceso de adaptación a partir de una conciencia crítica, entendida como la capacidad de actuar sobre la naturaleza y sobre nosotros mismos con conocimiento científico y social. Uno de los indicadores de esta evolución y de los cambios sociales que comporta, lo vemos claramente reflejado en la vivienda y su uso, en cómo se han adaptado los espacios y los materiales a las necesidades de cada momento y cómo éstas han generado oficios, profesiones y especializaciones. En la rehabilitación de viviendas y edificios es importante observar la edad media de los oficiales o “artesanos” frente a la del “aprendiz” o peón de obra; desafortunadamente, este último se ha convertido en una herramienta físico-mecánica sin oportunidad ni tiempo para aprender -adquirir conocimiento de una cosa por medio del estudio, ejercicio o experiencia- un oficio, ya que las condiciones laborales actuales propician una renovación constante de las plantillas provenientes de los flujos migratorios, impidiendo que el vínculo maestro/artesanoaprendiz se consolide en el tiempo , a la vez, que la transmisión de conocimientos se dispersa. Por otro lado, observamos como la creciente y necesaria sensibilización medio ambiental genera una nueva tecnología de materiales sostenibles. Ello nos reorienta, a su vez, a la recuperación de sistemas constructivos sostenibles –técnica y conceptualmente- que sí estaban ya contemplados, estudiados e integrados en viviendas o edificios de principios del siglo pasado y anteriores; tanto en el ámbito rural, como en la trama de barrios, ciudades y entornos. Y es en esta franja intermedia, entre el conocimiento por transmisión oral, -artesano/aprendiz- y del conocimiento técnico / conceptual, dónde emergen decididamente estos nuevos perfiles profesionales; entre la comprensión de los usos y técnicas artesanales del “pasado”, y la implementación, el desarrollo de nuevas aplicaciones, como resultado de la suma de ambas visiones. Es necesario fomentar la elaboración de nuevos diseños curriculares que permitan a los participantes la obtención de $BMJmDBDJPOFT 1SPGFTJPOBMFT homologadas en nuestro presente para encaminarnos a un futuro más respetuoso y sostenible: el de la sostenibilidad ambiental y social. La formación escolar no prepara para la realidad laboral, ni siquiera se acerca a las realidades de las empresas. Lejos de converger, las tendencias que siguen ambas líneas –educación y necesidad laboral- tienden a divergir cada vez más. En la escuela, los jóvenes con conocimientos suficientes no reciben la preparación adecuada para sustituir a los mayores que se jubilan, y así, la transmisión directa de conocimientos


Expériences de réhabilitation intégrale en Mediterranée Experiencias de rehabilitación integral en el Mediterráneo Experiences of integrated rehabilitation in the Mediterranean

se diluye en el tiempo, se pierde nuevamente el vínculo, la socialización de la técnica artesanal. ¿Cómo conjugar esta realidad con la necesidad de cubrir los puestos de trabajo cualificados que va dejando la gente de más edad....? Deberíamos trabajar en la dirección de un cambio radical en las actitudes académicas, incorporando activamente a la enseñanza el fomento de conocimientos prácticos sin olvidar una sólida formación en aspectos conceptuales: matemáticas, geometría, expresión escrita e idiomas. Para ello, es imprescindible que los estudiantes se familiaricen activamente con la realidad laboral y conozcan los lugares de trabajo mucho antes de terminar su formación. Intervenir en la transición de la formación escolar al puesto de trabajo para evitar consecuencias negativas. El desempleo juvenil comporta, además de un alto coste social, la adopción de patrones y comportamientos negativos que más adelante son difíciles de abandonar. El 1SPZFDUP 5&"., por los motivos anteriormente expuestos, considera necesario compartir experiencias –1SPZFDUPT EF .PWJMJEBE de técnicos, expertos-docentes y alumnos- con otros países del Arco Mediterráneo –algunos de ellos miembros también de la Unión Europea- en el ámbito de la 'PSNBDJØO 1SPGFTJPOBM, 'PSNBDJØO EF 'PSNBEPSFT Z 'PSNBDJØO 1FSNBOFOUF; todas ellas, Acciones de Formación orientadas a dar respuesta a las necesidades actuales y futuras detectadas de personal cualificado en estas especializaciones que rescatan y recuperan los aspectos de la Arquitectura Tradicional Mediterránea, utilizando a la vez, materiales sostenibles que favorecen y minimizan la demanda energética de las viviendas y edificios manteniendo los acabados tradicionales o artesanales. Este conjunto de factores nos mueve a desarrollar métodos pedagógicos que comportan el diseño y la programación de una "DDJØO EF 'PSNBDJØO (FOÏSJDB &YQFSJNFOUBM –incluida en el 1SPZFDUP 5&".- que conecta la transmisión de conocimientos y tecnologías de materiales -artesanales y técnicos-, con el aprendizaje visual de los conceptos básicos de geometría. Esta Acción formativa se dirige a personas con bajo nivel de formación (Talleres de Ocupación), al reciclaje de Profesionales Artesanos de la construcción y a los Formadores Especializados en construcción (Formación de Formadores). Por último a la Formación Permanente de todos ellos así como de otros profesionales, mediante una herramienta telemática. El diseño de la Acción Formativa Genérica relaciona los conocimientos adquiridos por los alumnos con un amplio abanico de aplicaciones y posibilidades de inserción laboral, a partir de las prácticas en taller con los distintos materiales (fontanería, electricidad, energía solar térmica, estructuras de madera...), y la formación directa en equipos de rehabilitación de viviendas y edificios privados y públicos. Somos espectadores de un fenómeno: la diversidad cultural está en retroceso frente a un proceso de homogenización que barre las diferencias. Hay culturas dominantes, muy dominantes, hegemónicas, en detrimento de las más débiles; la falta de socialización de la técnica, la ciencia y la tecnología y su poder para transformar las relaciones sociales de producción son las responsables de este cambio. La manifestación más plausible de una manera de pensar es como se pone en funcionamiento el Proyecto que se ha pensado. Mientras el Proyecto funciona, la retroalimentación de lo que se piensa y lo que se hace se dinamiza. Éste es el concepto que debemos extrapolar a las

Acciones de Formación, formar a través de una experiencia objetivable mediante &TDVFMBT 5BMMFS EF 3FIBCJMJUBDJØO, dónde el alumnado se sienta acompañado en todos los pasos de su itinerario formativo -tanto conceptual como práctico-, interrelacionando la importancia y utilidad de los dos procesos que convergen en un único objetivo común: la transición desde el proyecto a la ejecución material del mismo. El tejido social está implantado sobre el tejido urbano, que podemos definir como un espacio patrimonial en construcción y de futuro global con un valor productivo importantísimo. Este espacio patrimonial también tiene una dimensión productiva dada su capacidad de atraer la atención de diferentes profesionales implicados en la dinámica constructiva ciudadana. Es en este sentido que la inversión educadora puede generar una correspondencia económica y ser motor de creación de proyectos que consoliden las demandas de la red educativa, articulando dinámicamente los planteamientos pedagógicos con la ciudad. La ciudad, ámbito donde se producen y reproducen las relaciones sociales, debemos entenderla como un espacio orgánico y por encima de todo vivo educativamente hablando, pero también como un espacio para vivirlo y disfrutarlo. Desde este punto de vista se puede desarrollar una estrategia ecosocial que haga sostenible el progreso y la renovación de infraestructuras urbanas de todo tipo en el marco de la tecnología social. Las intervenciones sobre el patrimonio en forma de rehabilitaciones, restauraciones y adecuaciones también dinamizan la imagen de la ciudad que se auto-educa preservando sistemáticamente su pasado para poder vivirlo con plenitud histórica. Una visión pesada y conservadora de la ciudad-patrimonio nos llevaría a la desarticulación del objetivo principal, el de la ciudad educadora y del ocio; por tanto, estas propuestas deben de poder ilustrarse y concretarse en marcos específicos, porque solo así seremos capaces de avanzar en el 1SPZFDUP &EVDBUJWP.

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DÊmarche collective pour la reconnaissance du savoir-faire pierre sèche

Claire Cornu DiplĂ´mĂŠe en architecture et en urbanisme agent en charge d’amĂŠnagement du territoire, dĂŠveloppement local, dĂŠveloppement durable au service ĂŠconomique de la CMA84. La CMA84 est une institution professionnelle impliquĂŠe dans la valorisation des savoir-faire et le dĂŠveloppement ĂŠconomique du secteur artisanal sur les territoires. Elle est attachĂŠe au patrimoine vernaculaire puisque dĂŠjĂ , en 1983, elle a crĂŠe l’Ecole d’Avignon. Depuis 2000, elle oeuvre pour la crĂŠation d’une ďŹ lière professionnelle française de la maçonnerie de pierre sèche. Cette communication est issue d’un travail collectif interrĂŠgional pour lequel la CMA84 a reçu le soutient du Conseil RĂŠgional de Provence Alpes CĂ´te d’Azur, de la DĂŠlĂŠgation Ă l’amĂŠnagement du territoire et Ă l’action rĂŠgionale (DATAR) et du Ministère des PME, du commerce, de l’artisanat, des services et des professions libĂŠrales. (rĂŠsumĂŠ sur www. cm-avignon.fr rubrique les dossiers, puis la pierre sèche) Adresse postale: Chambre de MĂŠtiers et de l’Artisanat de Vaucluse 35, rue Joseph Vernet BP 208 France-84009 AVIGNON cedex 1 Adresse courrier ĂŠlectronique: agent.eco@cm-avignon.fr TĂŠlĂŠphone: 00.33.(0)4.90.80.65.61

Le contexte Pour survivre, l’homme a façonnĂŠ son territoire. Il s’est adaptĂŠ Ă sa gĂŠographie ainsi qu’à son climat en ayant recours aux matĂŠriaux de cueillette pour rĂŠpondre Ă ses besoins. Ainsi, avec la pierre ramassĂŠ en ĂŠpierrant les champs, a-t-il produit des banquettes cultivables, nivelĂŠ les collines, canalisĂŠ l’eau, clĂ´turĂŠ ses parcelles, crĂŠĂŠ des chemins muletiers, des chemins d’estive, bâti des promontoires pour percher ses villages ou implanter sa ferme. Il nous a lĂŠguĂŠ un patrimoine paysager. ConsĂŠquence de l’exode rural et du recours Ă d’autres mĂŠthodes d’exploitation agricole, ces paysages sont tombĂŠs en dĂŠsuĂŠtude. Aujourd’hui, soit ces paysages sont dĂŠlaissĂŠs, soit ils sont rĂŠcupĂŠrĂŠs pour leur image, parce que progressivement, l’authenticitĂŠ d’un paysage a une valeur marchande: celle de l’engouement des productions agricoles de terroir, du tourisme ethnoculturel, de la dĂŠcouverte de l’art des jardins. Mais alors, dans la plupart des cas, les paysages en pierre sèche subissent le recours systĂŠmatique aux matĂŠriaux industriels et aux techniques normalisĂŠes. ConsĂŠquence de l’industrialisation, la perte de savoir-faire conduit Ă la mĂŠďŹ ance des techniques traditionnelles.

Les dĂŠtracteurs de maçonnerie en pierre sèche sont nombreux. Cependant l’urgence climatique impose Ă chacun de remettre en cause son comportement et les matĂŠriaux naturels utilisĂŠs dans les pratiques ancestrales sont reĂŠtudiĂŠs parce que non ĂŠnergĂŠtivore.

Les objectifs Il reste Ă prouver que l’apprentissage de la technique et la qualiďŹ cation du savoir-faire sont une nĂŠcessitĂŠ pour passer d’un paysage de dĂŠcor Ă un paysage ĂŠcologiquement satisfaisant. La mobilisation des professionnels est donc indispensable, non seulement pour maintenir ces ouvrages, mais encore combattre Ă la fois ces dĂŠrives et contribuer au mieux Ă la problĂŠmatique, celle de la prĂŠservation de paysages identitaires, mais encore celle liĂŠes Ă la gestion de notre zone mĂŠditerranĂŠenne : gestion de l’eau et des sols. La CMA84 a prospectĂŠ Ă l’Êchelle nationale pour dĂŠnicher les personnes ressources, puis pour relier les hommes, les savoirs et les savoir-faire, aďŹ n de, non seulement mutualiser les ĂŠnergies et les compĂŠtences pour prouver que cette technique, au-delĂ du geste ancestral et du pittoresque, est ďŹ able, pertinente, innovante, mais encore tisser un rĂŠseau dĂŠcidĂŠ Ă partager les expĂŠriences et Ă se rĂŠpartir les tâches pour faire progresser plus vite et mieux les valeurs de la pierre sèche. Ce rĂŠseau s’est ďŹ xĂŠ de construire la reconnaissance de la technique et celle du savoir-faire aďŹ n de dĂŠvelopper le marchĂŠ national français de la pierre sèche et de contribuer ainsi au dĂŠveloppement durable des territoires. La dĂŠmarche Mobiliser les acteurs et dresser des passerelles Comme seuls la parole et le geste ont transmit cette intelligence de construction, cette technique particulière manque cruellement d’Êcrit. Or, les concepteurs de ces ouvrages, ingĂŠnieurs, architectes, architectes-paysagistes, ont besoin de justiďŹ er leur choix grâce Ă un système constructif certiďŹ ĂŠ. C’est en acquĂŠrant cette certiďŹ cation, par l’instauration d’un dialogue entre concepteurs et artisans et en dĂŠmontrant l’adĂŠquation de la pierre sèche aux besoins actuels de protection de l’environnement, que nous parvenons Ă sensibiliser les maĂŽtres d’ouvrage, notamment publics, aux qualitĂŠs irremplaçables de cette technique. Il faut convaincre Ă prĂŠfĂŠrer la pierre sèche et la considĂŠrer non plus comme un surcoĂťt mais comme un coĂťt Ă notre qualitĂŠ de vie et Ă notre cadre de vie. Evaluer la niche de marchĂŠ pour les professionnels: t 0VWSBHFT SPVUJFST -B %JSFDUJPO EFT SPVUFT B GBJU M JOWFOUBJSF EV patrimoine de murs de soutènement du rĂŠseau routier national et constate que plus de 20% des ouvrages de soutènement sont en pierre sèche et doivent ĂŞtre maintenus, t #BSSBHFT &%' QSFOE DPOTDJFODF RVF OPNCSF EF QFUJUT CBSSBHFT d’altitude sont gainĂŠs de pierre sèche, que ce pĂŠrĂŠ contribue Ă leur rĂŠsistance, et qu’ils doivent ĂŞtre maintenus, t 1BSBWBMBODIFT FO IBVUF NPOUBHOF EBOT MFT DPVMPJST E Ă?CPVMJT les paravalanches sont en pierre sèche. Il est plus avantageux d’hĂŠliporter des hommes avec le seul savoir-faire, capables de bâtir un mur de matĂŠriaux de cueillette, plutĂ´t qu’un va et vient d’hĂŠliportage de matĂŠriaux et de matĂŠriel.

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t &OWJSPOOFNFOU j 5&33*4$ x UFSSBTTFT FU SJTRVFT OBUVSFMT QSPHSBNNF FVSPQĂ?FO QJMPUĂ? QBS MF $POTFMM EF .BMMPSDB FO DPPQĂ?SBUJPO BWFD MF 1/$ &BVY $Ă?WFOOFT $/34 $BOBSJFT Portugal : des chercheurs internationaux se mobilisent pour valider le rĂ´le des terrasses en pierre sèche dans la gestion de l’eau en zone aride et la prise en compte des risques : glissement de terrain, ĂŠrosion, ruissellement, inondations, incendies. t 5FSSPJS NBSLFUJOH UFSSJUPSJBM MFT WJHOPCMFT EFT DPUFBVY EF #BOZVMT l’oignon doux AOC des CĂŠvennes incitent d’autres terroirs Ă se lancer dans cette action. L’UNESCO labellise le paysage de la VallĂŠe du Douro au Portugal, des Cinque Terre en Italie. t 5PVSJTNF JOWFTUJTTFNFOU EBOT MB SFTUBVSBUJPO FU M FOUSFUJFO EFT chemins de randonnĂŠes tels que les chemins de Saint Jacques de Compostelle, Grande randonnĂŠe (GR) petites randonnĂŠes (PR) et autres circuits de loisirs. t &TQBDFT E BDDPNQBHOFNFOU FOHPVFNFOU QPVS MFT NBUĂ?SJBVY TBJOT et naturels, les techniques traditionnelles et identitaires : jardins, clĂ´tures, soubassement, soutènement... PrĂŠparer ce marchĂŠ : t 7BMJEFS MB mBCJMJUĂ? EF MB UFDIOJRVF DĂŠvelopper le marchĂŠ nous impose de dĂŠmontrer que la technique est ďŹ able et d’optimiser le dimensionnement des murs pour en rĂŠduire les coĂťts du Ă l’application du principe de prĂŠcaution. Avec l’appui du Laboratoire EF M &/51& EF -ZPO FU EV 4&53" OPVT BWPOT QSPEVJU VOF reconnaissance scientiďŹ que: t j &UVEFT EFT NVST EF TPVUĂ’OFNFOU FO NBĂŽPOOFSJF EF QJFSSF TĂ’DIF x Thèse de doctorat d’ingĂŠnieur en gĂŠnie civil de Boris 7JMMFNVT &/51& "#14 .VSBJMMFST EF 1SPWFODF "1"3& 1/$ ''# t EFQVJT KVJO Ă‹ M JOJUJBUJWF EV SĂ?TFBV &$0#"5*3 OPVT TPNNFT FOHBHĂ?T EBOT j "OBMZTF EFT DBSBDUĂ?SJTUJRVFT EFT TZTUĂ’NFT DPOTUSVDUJGT OPO JOEVTUSJBMJTBCMFT x pour produire des documents facilement utilisable par les entreprises artisanales. 3 matĂŠriaux bio dans lequel sont ainsi ĂŠvaluĂŠs: le chanvre, la terre et la pierre sèche. 3 techniques traditionelles. Pour la pierre, l’Êtude est pilotĂŠe par M &/51& EF -ZPO FU QPSUĂ?F QBS M "%&.& -B DPPSEJOBUJPO FTU BTTVSĂ?F QBS MF $45# EPOU MB OPUPSJĂ?UĂ? OBUJPOBMF FO HBSBOUJF MB WBMJEJUĂ? -FT syndicats du bâtiment RhĂ´ne Alpes : CAPEB et FFB, la SMABTP, de mĂŞme que Muraillers de Provence et ABPS, y sont associĂŠs. t %FQVJT BWSJM VO HSPVQF E Ă?UVEJBOUT EF M &DPMF $FOUSBMF EF -ZPO DPNQBSF MFT UFDIOJRVFT TPVUĂ’OFNFOU CĂ?UPO EĂ?DPS QJFSSF FU soutènement pierre sèche. t "TTVSFS MB CPOOF QSBUJRVF EFT QSPGFTTJPOOFMT t &O 'SBODF TBOT DFSUJmDBUJPO EF MB UFDIOJRVF BVDVO NBSDIĂ? QVCMJD n’est possible. Avec la CAPEB nationale pour porter le dossier, nous avons ĂŠlaborĂŠ un j (VJEF EF CPOOFT QSBUJRVFT QSPGFTTJPOOFMMFT EF DPOTUSVDUJPO EFT TPVUĂ’OFNFOUT FO QJFSSF TĂ’DIFx avec les CAPEB 84, CAPEB 34, CAPEB 73. Les associations de professionnels ÂŤ Muraillers de Provence Âť et ÂŤ ABPS Âť ont rĂŠdigĂŠ le contenu technique et fournit l’iconographie. L’ENTPE de Lyon et le SETRA ont mis au point des abaques de calcul simpliďŹ ĂŠ de dimensionnement. Grâce Ă ce Guide, les concepteurs et les entreprises pourront engager leur responsabilitĂŠ car ils seront assurĂŠs. En eet, les assurances professionnelles s’appuieront sur ce Guide en cas de litige et de malfaçons. Ce Guide devrait paraĂŽtre Ă l’automne 2007.

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t BQQSPWJTJPOOFNFOU FO QJFSSF FOUSF QJFSSF NBTTJWF FU QFUJUT ĂŠlĂŠments concassĂŠs pour parement de maçonneries de bĂŠton, comment rĂŠcupĂŠrer en carrières des ĂŠlĂŠments adĂŠquat pour bâtir des maçonnerie en pierre sèche, avec ÂŤ Carrières de Provence Âť et ÂŤ Muraillers de Provence Âť. t *EFOUJmFS MFT QSPGFTTJPOOFMT t -F NĂ?UJFS EF NVSBJMMFS O BQQBSBĂ”U QBT TVS MF 3Ă?QFSUPJSF EFT NĂ?UJFST On identiďŹ e ce savoir-faire parmi des artisans maçons, tailleurs de pierres, jardinier-paysagiste ou les responsables de chantiers d’entreprises d’insertion. Avec l’appui du PNC, nous les avons incitĂŠs Ă se regrouper localement sous une Charte, ceci aďŹ n d’être identiďŹ ĂŠs. Les associations ABPS et Muraillers de Provence sont nĂŠes en 2002. t /PVT BWPOT CÉUJ VO annuaire national des praticiens de la pierre TĂ’DIF (disponible sur www.cm-avignon.fr rubrique les dossiers, puis la pierre sèche FU HSÉDF Ă‹ MB DPPQĂ?SBUJPO EV $POTFMM EF .BMMPSDB nous lui avons donnĂŠ une dimension europĂŠenne en l’intĂŠgrant dans son programme REPS. t /PVT BWPOT SĂ?EJHĂ? VO Manifeste Ă l’usage des maçonneries en pierre sèche accompagnĂŠ de Chartes professionnelles : pour les concepteur et pour les artisans. Avec l’appui de notre ministère de tutelle, nous souhaitons promulguer ces Chartes Ă travers toute la France pour garantir l’engagement des professionnels au respect du Guide de bonnes pratiques. t &O DPVST BDUJPO EF DFSUJmDBUJPO OBUJPOBMF EFT GPSNBUFVST QJFSSF sèche pilotĂŠe par les ABPS en coopĂŠration avec la ConfrĂŠrie des Bâtisseurs en pierre sèche, Muraillers de Provence, le PNC et le $"'0$ 6OF DPPQĂ?SBUJPO FTU FOHBHĂ?F BWFD MB %48" Conclusion Construire un dĂŠveloppement durable Ă partir du patrimoine pierre sèche signiďŹ e : t t t t

assurer les conditions de sa prĂŠservation : t SFDPOOBJTTBODF EF MB UFDIOJRVF t USBOTNJTTJPO EV TBWPJS GBJSF promouvoir des projets autour de cette ďŹ lière : t SFTUSVDUVSBUJPO FU SFDPORVĂ?UF EF TJUFT FO UFSSBTTFT t SFTUBVSBUJPO FU DPOTUSVDUJPO E PVWSBHFT SPVUJFST inciter Ă la reconquĂŞte d’une agriculture autrement, WBMJEFS FU QSPNPVWPJS VO TBWPJS GBJSF DPOTJEĂ?SĂ? KVTRV BMPST DPNNF anecdotique, t ĂŠveiller des vocations chez les jeunes, t SĂ?nĂ?DIJS Ă‹ M BQQSPWJTJPOOFNFOU FO DPMMBCPSBOU BWFD MFT DBSSJFST pour une production locale de pierres adaptĂŠe aux exigences de la technique. Chacun, selon ses compĂŠtences, son territoire, ses rĂŠseaux, ses sources de ďŹ nancement, Ĺ“uvre pour la reconnaissance et le dĂŠveloppement de cette ďŹ lière comme une chaĂŽne de solidaritĂŠ. La cohĂŠrence entre toute cette chaĂŽne d’acteurs sur plusieurs territoires est aujourd’hui bien lisible. Le fait de mutualiser les expĂŠriences et les connaissances est un potentiel fantastique d’enrichissement et tous ces travaux de recherche est de nature Ă garantir les objectifs de dĂŠveloppement durable par la prĂŠservation du patrimoine et celle de l’environnement mais encore par le dĂŠveloppement ĂŠconomique de toute la ďŹ lière professionnelle investie dans la pierre sèche.


ExpĂŠriences de rĂŠhabilitation intĂŠgrale en MediterranĂŠe Experiencias de rehabilitaciĂłn integral en el MediterrĂĄneo Experiences of integrated rehabilitation in the Mediterranean

Pour nous, la pierre sèche rassemble, c’est un bon ciment pour lier les hommes.

1BS PSESF BMQIBCĂ?UJRVF TJHOJmDBUJPOT EFT BCSĂ?WJBUJPOT EFT QBSUFOBJSFT DJUĂ?T "#14 = Association cĂŠvenole ÂŤ Artisans Bâtisseurs en Pierre sèche Âť, St Germain de Calberte (48) "%&.& = Agence gouvernementale De l’Environnement et de la MaĂŽtrise de l’Énergie "1"3& = Association pour l’action et la participation rĂŠgionale (84) www.apare-gec.org/ $"'0$ = Centre AcadĂŠmique de Formation Continue. Education Nationale $"1&# = ConfĂŠdĂŠration artisanale des petites entreprises du bâtiment (Syndicat professionnel national) $." = Chambre de MĂŠtiers & de l’Artisanat : CMA48 de Lozère CMA84 de Vaucluse $/34 = Centre National de la Recherche ScientiďŹ que du Languedoc Roussillon $POGSĂ?SJF EFT CÉUJTTFVST FO QJFSSF TĂ’DIF association gardoise de praticiens de la pierre sèche $45# = Centre national ScientiďŹ que & Technique du Bâtiment $POTFMM EF .BMMPSDB Conseil de l’Île de Majorque, BalĂŠares, Espagne (http://www. conselldemallorca.net/mediambient/reps/) %48" = Dry Stone Walling Association (GB) www.dswa.org.uk/ &BV FO $Ă?WFOOFT = www.eau-cevennes.org &DP#ÉUJS = RĂŠseau national d’acteurs de la construction ĂŠcologique www.reseau-ecobatir. asso.fr &%' = ElectricitĂŠ de France &DPMF $FOUSBMF EF -ZPO = LTDS-G8 Laboratoire de Tribologie et Dynamique des Systèmes www.ec-lyon.fr/LTDS/0/ďŹ che_laboratoire/ &/51& EF -ZPO = Ecole nationale des travaux public de l’Etat de Lyon (69) http://www.entpe. fr/Dr/Lgm/CV/CVMorel.htm ''# = FĂŠdĂŠration Française du Bâtiment (Syndicat professionnel national) (3&5" =RattachĂŠ Ă l’Education Nationale, le Greta est un groupement d’Êtablissements publics locaux d’enseignement qui fĂŠdèrent leurs ressources humaines et matĂŠrielles pour organiser des actions de formation continue pour adultes.

Anglaterre avril 2007

.VSBJMMFST EF 1SPWFODF = association vauclusienne de praticiens de la pierre sèche, Carpentras (84) 1/$ = Parc National des CĂŠvennes (48) www.bsi.fr/pnc/ 4&53" = Service d’Etudes Techniques des Routes et Autoroutes, RattachĂŠ Ă la Direction des routes du Ministère de l’Equipement, intervient sur l’ensemble des techniques routières et la planiďŹ cation des infrastructures. 4."#51 = Assurance professionnelle pour le bâtiment

La pierre sèche à travers les territoires

La pierre sèche à travers les territoires

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La formation à la restauration et à la valorisation du patrimoine bâti : le projet européen TRAINMONHER

Isabelle Brianso Isabelle Brianso est économiste de formation initiale, elle est diplômée d’un DESS en gestion culturelle (IEP-Université d’Aix-Marseille 3, France) et d’un Master II en médiation culturelle et didactique muséale (Université Rome 3, Italie). Elle prépare un doctorat à l’Université de Versailles Saint-Quentin en Yvelines (UVSQ) sur la mise en valeur du patrimoine culturel pour des biens inscrits sur la liste du patrimoine mondial de l’Unesco. Elle est consultante internationale auprès de l’Autorité Nationale APSARA sur le site d’Angkor (Cambodge), enseigne à l’IUP-« Arts, Sciences, Culture et Multimédia » de l’UVSQ et coordonne la communication du projet européen Training in Monumental Heritage (TRAINMONHER). Adresse postale: Université Versailles Saint-Quentin en Yvelines (UVSQ) IUP-« Arts, Sciences, Culture et Multimédia » Centre Blaise Pascal 37, rue du Maréchal de Lattre de Tassigny 78150 Le Chesnay, France Adresse courrier électronique: isabelle.brianso@uvsq.fr Téléphone: +33 (0)1 39 25 31 01

Le projet européen Training in Monumental Heritage (TRAINMONHER) est un projet de coopération internationale et de développement durable dont un de ses objectifs principaux est la promotion et le renforcement de l’offre de formation en restauration et en valorisation du patrimoine culturel des pays partenaires de l’Europe. Basé sur une étude spécifique d’identification des besoins de formation et des politiques culturelles développées par les pays partenaires, TRAINMONHER propose de renforcer certains contenus de formations interdisciplinaires combinant arts et sciences afin de mieux répondre aux problématiques de terrain liées à la gestion et à la valorisation d’un site patrimonial. En effet, la conservation, la préservation et la mise en valeur du patrimoine sont des activités pluridisciplinaires qui croisent des connaissances artistiques comme l’histoire de l’art et des connaissances scientifiques « dures » comme la chimie, la géologie ou la physique. Rares aujourd’hui encore sont les formations de haut niveau universitaire (Master) qui apportent ce double regard sur le patrimoine culturel. Malgré quelques laboratoires scientifiques intégrés non sans difficultés dans des institutions culturelles comme des musées (exemple : Laboratoire du C2RMF au Musée du Louvre, France) il reste encore beaucoup à faire dans ce domaine. Ces pluri-compétences doivent

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permettre une meilleure gestion intégrée des sites patrimoniaux tant dans leur histoire que dans leur préservation pour les générations futures. Dans ce contexte, la présence de personnel qualifié ayant ce double regard « art-sciences » est un atout majeur pour les structures en charge des sites historiques. Des pays comme le Maroc ou la Tunisie qui connaissent un développement touristique en croissance, doivent être en mesure de proposer un tourisme de qualité favorisant l’entrée d’importantes ressources socio-économiques et permettant la mise en valeur du patrimoine culturel par la recherche universitaire, la conservation et la restauration de monuments en utilisant les techniques modernes et les savoir-faire traditionnels. La création de nouveaux emplois reste l’indicateur de mesure le plus pertinent dans la redistribution des gains économiques liés au patrimoine culturel. Malgré une réelle coopération internationale et une véritable volonté politique, les jeunes diplômés toutes disciplines confondues (humanités et sciences) rencontrent de nombreuses difficultés à s’insérer dans une vie professionnelle stable à l’instar des pays européens. Le programme de formation à distance proposé dans le projet TRAINMONHER est destiné à un large public composé aussi bien de professionnels travaillant dans le secteur du patrimoine culturel qu’à des étudiants en fin de cycle universitaire ou désireux de compléter leurs connaissances académiques. Cette formule souple s’inscrit dans un objectif d’apprentissage tout au long de sa vie professionnelle. Ainsi, des agents ne pouvant prendre un congé de formation à temps plein ou des jeunes en recherche d’emploi pourront garder leurs activités en cours tout en acquérant de véritables compléments de formation en fonction de leurs spécialités d’origine. Un ensemble de modules élaborés par huit universités localisées en Europe, en Amérique Latine et dans la zone Euro-méditerranée proposent en fonction de leur expertise propre (études des matériaux de construction, restauration, médiation culturelle, gestion de projet, valorisation, etc.), un matériel didactique en ligne disponible sur une plate-forme d’enseignement avec un tutorat individualisé. Cet enseignement en ligne ou e-learning est basé sur des modules pédagogiques théoriques et pratiques composés d’études de cas. La Médina de Marrakech (Maroc), classée au patrimoine mondial de l’humanité par l’Unesco en 1985, fera l’objet de plusieurs exercices, de part son riche passé historique, son état actuel de dégradation (matériaux), et l’engouement des touristes étrangers à visiter ce site sans toute fois avoir été sensibilisés aux règles élémentaires de respect de biens culturels fragiles. Le tourisme culturel génère des gains de productivité dont une partie doit permettre la mise en place d’actions préventives1, notamment la sensibilisation des publics à la protection du patrimoine par, entre autre, des outils et des supports de médiation culturelle. L’université Cadi Ayyad (Laboratoire GERMH) de Marrakech (Maroc) et l’Université Autonome de Barcelone (Espagne), toutes deux partenaires du projet européen TRAINMONHER, ont mené ces dernières années de nombreux travaux de recherche (thèses doctorales de cotutelle) sur l’étude des matériaux de construction en vue d’éventuelles restaurations de monuments. Cette documentation servira de base de travail aux supports didactiques, aussi bien théoriques que pratiques. Les étudiants du programme ou tout internaute spécialisé dans les métiers de la culture désirant approfondir un domaine lié au patrimoine culturel par une formation dispensée dans l’un des pays partenaires du projet TRAINMONHER pourra consulter la base données en ligne. Ce répertoire de formations recense tous les programmes universitaires de


Expériences de réhabilitation intégrale en Mediterranée Experiencias de rehabilitación integral en el Mediterráneo Experiences of integrated rehabilitation in the Mediterranean

Licence et de Master (I et II) des métiers de la culture des différents pays collaborateurs de TRAINMONHER en raison du passage des universités européennes au LMD (Licence, Master, Doctorat). Les fiches de formation de ce répertoire déclinent de manière détaillée les contenus pédagogiques enseignés ainsi que les orientations professionnelles possibles à la fin des études.

Site Internet : www.trainmonher.uvsq.fr

1

ICCROM. Jeunes et sauvegarde du patrimoine, Rome, Italie, 2000. ISBN 92-9077-167-4

Logo TRAINMONHER

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The restoration and rehabilitation of Mansion Saliverou in Santorini - Greece Neoclassical inuences in the vernacular architecture

Maria Doussi Maria Doussi, architect (AUTH), specialized in Belgium in restoration (KUL, R. Lemaire International Centre for Conservation). She is working as an architect dealing with issues of conservation of the architectural heritage as well as with contemporary architecture. She teaches as a lecturer in Democritus University of Thrace. Address: Chalkeon 29, 54631, Thessaloniki, Greece & NBJM BEESFTT mdoussi@tee.gr Telephone: 0030 2310 236888

Introduction The Saliveros mansion lies in the settlement “Ekso Goniaâ€? on Santorini and represents an exquisite example of a particular kind of neoclassical architecture evolving towards the end of the 19th century under the inuence of neoclassicism on the island’s traditional architecture. In this mansion one can discern a very interesting blend of the local with the international style, of the folk architectural tradition with neoclassicism, the dominant style of the era. The mansion, built in 1889 to house the prominent families of Antonis Saliveros and his daughter, was transferred to the municipality of Thera in 1962 and used as municipal oďŹƒces until 1990. In 1994 the building was listed as a historic monument and artistic treasure by the Ministry of Culture. According to the restoration study conducted in 2003, the building will be reused as a centre for the documentation of the island’s architecture and volcano. The place The oldest settlement on the island dates back to the medial ages of the 5th millennium B.C., when the island was round in shape and named “Strongiliâ€?. The island’s economic, social and cultural development was fostered by commerce and the continuous interaction with other eastern civilizations. Traces of this civilization have come to light during archaeological excavations. It appears the houses were spacious, with two or three-storeys, stepped elevations and multi-level at terraces. The eruption of the volcano brought this civilization to an abrupt end around 1500 B.C. Large amounts of pumice, together with other material, were ejected during the eruption, with parts of the island covered with a layer 1-6 meter thick and the place remained uninhabited for 2-3 centuries after

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the eruption. At the beginning of the 15th century the Castelia started to appear: fortiďŹ cations built by the inhabitants at the spots where the aspa, the volcano’s tephra according to the local idiom, had been deposited. The population has maintained its morale despite numerous catastrophic earthquakes. Both the proďŹ table local shipping activity and industrial development at the end of the 19th century were beneďŹ cial to the island’s economy. The settlements expanded into new areas and blocks of mansions were built. The type and the form There are a variety of easily traceable forms and types on Santorini created during the various stages of the island’s economic, social and cultural evolution, from the simplest semi-underground to the volcanic tephra, to the spacious and decorated “capetanospitaâ€? (captains’ houses) and the elaborate mansions with eclecticist and neoclassical inuences. Santorini’s buildings can be generally divided into two categories. Those emanating from the idiosyncratic local forms and construction, formulated without any conscious architectural intentions, namely, the local vernacular architecture; and the mansions reecting the cultural standards of a particular social class. These two categories are directly related to their inhabitants’ social and economic status: working farmers, seamen on the one hand, and privileged landowners, shipowners and traders on the other. The mansion houses are distinctive as individual pieces of architecture within the city, thanks to their special neoclassical aesthetics, as opposed to the urban blocks of traditional dwellings, where the aesthetic value lies in the group as a whole and its organic formation. Many of these are semi-buried, taking advantage of escarpments and rifts, and embedded in the soft material, as protection against severe weather conditions. The place and its history have signiďŹ cantly aected the visual nature of built space. Although these two types of buildings are dierent in size and form, there are common characteristics regarding building techniques and typological characteristics. The Saliveros mansion, despite its vigorous neoclassical morphology, follows some typological norms derived from the local vernacular. Therefore, a brief reference to the typology of traditional houses enables us to more eectively highlight the continuity of several typological elements from the folk to the neoclassicist architecture of the mansion. The traditional dwellings of the island develop from the double-spaced type A, the simplest and most popular type of traditional house, to type B, resulting from the linear repetition of type A, to type C, the most advanced form of traditional house, boasting the addition of a second oor. Some characteristics of these types are: the cistern, the lighting and ventilation exclusively via large openings in the elevation, as well as access to the upper oor through a “modernâ€? space. In the mansion under examination, especially on the second oor, many of these characteristics persist, albeit in a somewhat modiďŹ ed form. There is also a symmetry regarding the arrangement of the main spaces, as well as the arrangement of the entrance, characteristics that derive from neoclassical tradition. The arrangement of the third oor is signiďŹ cantly dierentiated from the typological norms of folk architecture. Some elements of neoclassical organizational patterns are adopted (a central entrance, a symmetrical, south facing living room), although it does not strictly follow the neoclassical format.


Expériences de réhabilitation intégrale en Mediterranée Experiencias de rehabilitación integral en el Mediterráneo Experiences of integrated rehabilitation in the Mediterranean

In conclusion, several typological elements of the building show similarities to the characteristics of Santorini’s traditional architecture; the major differences lie in the morphology. Almost all the internal and external surfaces are decorated with paintings, simulating marble using an underlay in three layers consisting of volcanic earth from Santorini (pozollana), sand of various grit sizes, and quicklime. The outer surface is exquisite and, is in good condition and has the feel of polished marble. The external surfaces of the third floor are decorated with trowelled plasterwork. Construction – Pathology The structural system of Santorini’s neoclassical and eclecticist buildings follows the long tradition of the island’s folk architecture, and consists of stonewalls and vaults. The stonework of these structures (stonewalls and vaults) was built from a variety of stone, volcanic, calcareous, limestone, etc, combined with cohesive local lime-mortar. This combination was sufficiently strong to allow the masons to use this technique not only for stonewalls, tunnel and groined vaults, but also in navicular vaulting. This constructional form was safe enough to be used in two and threestorey structures where the vertical elements were not always aligned; some upper floor stonewalls being supported by subjacent vaults. This allowed for variations regarding the arrangement of spaces and, therefore, the typology of different floors in a single building. The building under study falls into this singular category of construction. Moreover, its singularity is emphasized by its having been built on a sloping site. As a result, both its foundations and its spatial arrangements are stepped. The first two floors were built on the slope itself. The third, and most important floor, was built on top of them. In the earthquake of 1956, several surrounding mansions collapsed, while the Saliveros mansion suffered only minor cracks. Geological investigation showed that, while the other mansions had been built on a layer of volcanic tephra (aspa), the Saliveros mansion was built on the excavated underlying rock, without any layer of tephra underneath. Restoration and Rehabilitation Proposal The historic, architectural and aesthetic qualities of the Saliveros mansion mark it as an important architectural and artistic monument. The damage and alterations it has suffered have not significantly affected its original characteristics. Restoration and adaptation to new compatible uses should not compromise its original elements. The restoration work can be categorised as follows: 1. Work concerning the restoration earthquake damage, as well as by deterioration in some parts of the structural elements. These works comprise steel ties, anchors and junctions, together with repointing work with compatible contemporary mortar, wherever material damage or deterioration is evident. 2. Work concerning the conservation and restoration of the remaining elements, such as floors, plastering, opening frames, balusters, paintings and decorative elements. 3. Work concerning the partial reconstruction or restoration of destroyed elements, either structural, or decorative. This works to be carried out according to traditional techniques. 4. New structures and interventions for the new use. Minimal interventions are proposed, such as construction of sanitary facilities, roof insulation, required electromechanical installations, as well as

the installation of elements of mobile equipment of contemporary design.

The place. The island of Santorini (Thera) in the Aegean Sea.

The typological evolution of traditional houses of the island, from the simplest semi underground into the volcanic tephra to the spacious and decorated captain’s houses and the elaborate mansions with eclecticist and neoclassical influences. The Saliveros Mansion belongs to the last category.

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Expériences de réhabilitation intégrale en Mediterranée Experiencias de rehabilitación integral en el Mediterráneo Experiences of integrated rehabilitation in the Mediterranean

The morphological characteristics of the external and internal surfaces of the building influenced by neoclassical tradition.

Some of the proposal drawings concerning the restoration of the morphological and decorative elements of the building.

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ExpĂŠriences de rĂŠhabilitation intĂŠgrale en MediterranĂŠe Experiencias de rehabilitaciĂłn integral en el MediterrĂĄneo Experiences of integrated rehabilitation in the Mediterranean

Methodological approach for the restoration of historic buildings in Greece. The case of the Daniel Mansion in Xanthi – Thrace

Maria Doussi Maria Doussi, architect (AUTH), specialized in Belgium in restoration (KUL, R. Lemaire International Centre for Conservation). She is working as an architect dealing with issues of conservation of the architectural heritage as well as with contemporary architecture. She teaches as a lecturer in Democritus University of Thrace. Address: Chalkeon 29, 54631, Thessaloniki, Greece & NBJM BEESFTT mdoussi@tee.gr Telephone: 0030 2310 236888

Introduction The restoration and rehabilitations of historic buildings in Greece usually follows certain speciďŹ cations set by the state. Based on these speciďŹ cations, as well as the knowledge and experience born of our long involvement in this ďŹ eld, we have developed a methodological approach presented here in the form of a speciďŹ c paradigm, the study for restoring the Daniel mansion in the city of Xanthi. One of the city’s most important buildings, this still constitutes a signiďŹ cant landmark, thanks to its dominant position within the urban grid. Its total area is approximately 1500m2, divided into four levels. The restoration study, comprising an analytical architectural survey, a photographic survey of the elevations, and structural analysis, was conducted by an interdisciplinary group of experts. I. Architectural analysis and documentation 1.The building and its relationship with its environment The research revealed important information regarding both the historic evolution of the wider urban environment and the contemporary character of the building. The building lies within the city’s historic centre. The residential framework of the original city grid dates from 1800. In 1829 a catastrophic earthquake completely attened most buildings. The subsequent rebuilding organized the city into districts reecting religious and social characteristics. Much of this rebuilding took place between 1870 and 1910, during the boom in the tobacco trade. In 1939, a new city plan, fortunately never implemented, proposed opening up and widening the streets, regardless of the traditional urban grid. The city nowadays comprises a new part containing all the new facilities

and the largely abandoned old part. This was designated a historic site in 1976, while the building under study was listed as a monument in 1995. The building’s location, on the old commercial thoroughfare on the edge of the old city, is important. Here, the majority of the Eclectic style buildings of the boom years were built, with the ground oors used as commercial stores. Nowadays, commercial activity has migrated to the south of the city and numerous ground oor spaces remain derelict. 2. Historical analysis Some signiďŹ cant conclusions emerged from the research, regarding the historic evolution and constructional stages of the building. The building was commissioned in 1897 by a Jewish businessman, Isaac Daniel, an insurer and tobacco trader and one of the city’s wealthiest men; the ground oor space to be a warehouse and the two upper oors as living space. In 1824 Daniel died. Between 1924 and 1932 the ground oor space was rented by several traders, and the two upper oors by wealthy families. One of these was the family of the distinguished Greek composer Manos Hadjidakis, who lived there during his early years. In 1932 the building reverted to the Greek state and several public services where housed there until 2000, when the building was abandoned. In 1957 some important elements of the building were destroyed by ďŹ re. In 2005 it was transferred to the prefecture of Xanthi, who decided to restore and rehabilitate it as a cultural centre, honouring the memory of Manos Hadjidakis. 2.2. Architectural characteristics 2.2.1.Typological analysis Other conclusions from the research relate to the arrangement and hierarchy of spaces that needed to be preserved and emphasised. The owner’s speciďŹ cations, in combination with the fashion of the time, led to the creation of a distinctive dwelling comprising a ground oor with spaces for servants, commercial stores and oďŹƒces, and living spaces on the upper levels. The typology of the building is based on a central hall with rooms on both sides combined with a distinctive staircase in three ights, a typology widely used almost all over the Balkans during the 19th century. The building contains new spatial data and innovative solutions. The commercial stores and oďŹƒces created on the ground oor are independent of the house, as are the servant spaces. These spaces connect with the levels above via an ancillary four-storey timber staircase, so the servants’ movements would not interfere with the primary spaces. Thus, we can distinguish three spatial entities, discreetly connected while functionally independent. 1) The wing-like warehouse on the north side, with underground spaces and lofts, as well as similar spaces on the main side, demolished during the 70’s. 2) The domestic living spaces, arranged with the main entrance at ground level and living spaces on the ďŹ rst and second oor, with their corresponding open spaces. 3) The serving spaces (kitchen etc.) and the spaces for the servants with corresponding cellars and basements.

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2.2.2. Morphological characteristics Other important conclusions emerged concerning the morphological characteristics of the building, an inseparable part of its architectural character. This building is a typical example of eclecticism, the dominant architectural style at the time. The basic organizational principle is symmetry, as well as the smaller morphological setouts that are generated by the complexity of the outer brickwork and partially glazed ceramic elements. Apart from that, the use of cast-iron elements, such as gratings and cantilevers, as well as the granite lower courses, is also important. The wall paintings, preserved under successive layers of colour on almost all walls are also morphologically important, as are the marble parts of the main staircase and the marble oors of the main corridor on the ground oor. Many other important elements, such as internal and external windows and door frames, were damaged by ďŹ re and later replaced. 2.3. Structure – pathology Much information about the construction and building technology were also revealed, together with the physical condition of its structural elements. The construction is typical of the era. The load-bearing walls at the underground level are stonework, at ground level, mixed stonework, and the walls of the upper brickwork. The ceilings of the below-ground and ground oor consist of steel beams and small vaults of bricks. The oors of the upper levels are timber, reconstructed during the 1950’s, after the catastrophic ďŹ re. All the structural elements appear to be in good condition as are the surfaces of both internal and external walls and all the elements of the elevations. More than a hundred years have passed since the construction of the building and it owes its generally good material condition to being constantly in use during this period. The problems lie in the interventions and the damage due to the ďŹ re. To arrive at an analytical record the construction and ďŹ nishes of the building, expansions and bulletins for every space had to be drafted. II. Restoration and rehabilitation proposal

2. Proposed uses - program In accordance with the owner’s wishes, the building is going to be reused as a cultural centre. It is meant to constitute a centre for artistic creation and recreation, with an emphasis on music, as a memorial tribute to the great composer. This will signiďŹ cantly enhance the wider area of the historic centre and may well be incorporated into this historic building without major alterations. SpeciďŹ cally, the following functions will be incorporated: Spaces for musicians and music composers, such as spaces providing multimedia facilities, a radio station, on which the works of local musicians can be promoted, and a music library, where works of music, publications and rare recordings will be displayed and accessible. In addition, recreational and cultural spaces, outdoor and enclosed, a cafĂŠ-restaurant and administration oďŹƒces for the centre, as well as several secondary spaces. 3. Restoration interventions In broad terms, the following interventions are proposed: Restoration of structural load-bearing capacity with mild interventions so as not to compromise the original structure. t 3FNPWBM PG QPTUFSJPS BEEJUJPOT UIBU NJTSFQSFTFOU UIF BSDIJUFDUVSBM character. t 3FQMBDJOH UJNCFS QBSUT UIBU XFSF EBNBHFE CZ mSF JO BDDPSEBODF with the original design. 4. New construction Proposed new construction has been deliberately limited as the building is an architectural monument. However, for new uses to be properly housed some new construction is necessary. This will be structurally and morphologically dierent and clearly state its contemporary identity. It concerns the construction of: t " USBOTQBSFOU DPWFS GPS UIF mSTU nPPS CBMDPOZ t " TNBMM UPXFS BUPQ UIF FMFWBUPS TIBGU MPDBUFE BU UIF TJUF PG UIF secondary staircase t " SPPGFE DPSSJEPS DPOOFDUJOH UIJT UPXFS UP UIF NBJO CVJMEJOH BU UIF second oor balcony level t "O FYUFSOBM mSF FTDBQF TUBJSDBTF

1. General principles – philosophy of the intervention In the course of a study for the restoration and rehabilitation of a historic building the typological and morphological characteristics, as well as the structural form, need to be preserved and emphasized. The graphic and sculptural decoration is an inseparable part of its historic and aesthetic value and therefore needs to be preserved and presented. The alterations necessary for the modernisation of the building to meet the standards for new uses need to be harmonically incorporated into the historic building to give the impression they are part of it, without compromising its aesthetic values. The assessment of compatibility for new uses of the building is one of the most important stages of the study and here incompatible uses and arrangements that signiďŹ cantly damage the building’s elements have to be excluded.

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The study is awaiting approval of the ďŹ nal stage and restoration work is expected to begin by the end of 2007.


Expériences de réhabilitation intégrale en Mediterranée Experiencias de rehabilitación integral en el Mediterráneo Experiences of integrated rehabilitation in the Mediterranean

Some samples of the wall paintings preserved in the interior surfaces of the building.

The architectural characteristics. The Typological analysis and the morphological characteristics of the building.

The building and its relationship with its environment. The position of the Daniel Mansion within the historic centre of Xanthi.

Some drawings of the restoration and reuse project.

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ExpĂŠriences de rĂŠhabilitation intĂŠgrale en MediterranĂŠe Experiencias de rehabilitaciĂłn integral en el MediterrĂĄneo Experiences of integrated rehabilitation in the Mediterranean

The revival of a traditional house in Pindos Mountains, Epirus, Greece

Niki Manou Andreadi Graduate of the Departments of Civil Engineering and Architectural Engineering of the Polytechnic School of the Aristotle University of Thessaloniki. In 1994 she was awarded with Ph.D. in Civil Engineering from the same institution. She is currently Lecturer at the Department of Architectural Engineering at the Polytechnic School of the Aristotle University of Thessaloniki. Address: 47, Nikis Avenue, 54622 Thessaloniki , Greece & NBJM BEESFTT niman@argroup.gr Telephone: +30 2310 240780

Zagori is a complex of 45 villages, situated northern of Ioannina, belonging to the Province of Dodoni in the Prefecture of Ioannina, constituting one of the most remarkable traditional regions in the Greek territory. The Zagori region is particularly well-known for its natural beauty. It is characterized by mountains –at some points covered with dense forests, at other points rocky and steep- which are very often separated by gorges, ravines and rivers. Since the time it acquired the area covered today, Zagori has been divided into 3 departments: the Eastern, the Central and the Western Zagori. This division is not coincidental; it emerged from geophysical and economic reasons. This distinction is also evident in the built environment, in such a way that settlements are dierentiated in those of the Eastern and those of the Western type – where dierences are limited in “secondaryâ€? elements. The region had been inhabited before the 4th century B.C. by the Timfeoi, Pororeoi and Talares. During the Post-Christian Era, the development of the region goes hand in hand with the development of Hepirus and its mountainous settlements. The ďŹ rst organized settlements in Zagori are mentioned in a Hrisovoulo (Byzantine imperial document bearing the Emperor’s golden seal/ bulla) of the year 1352 A.D. and are located in the Western Zagori. These were Papingo, Kato and Ano Pedina and formed as it seems the initial nucleus of the Zagori region, while the other parts were inhabited and developed later. Since their establishment, all settlements experienced both periods of development and decline. In the 13th century it was the Western part which reached its peak in wealth and prosperity. The population started following a dwindling course. Leakage of

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residents began in the late 19th century and particularly after the years 1912-13, i.e. the period of the Industrial Revolution in Europe which had a rather unfavorable impact on the Greek people who were settled there. As a result of both its infertile soil and the high-ranking positions occupied by the Zagorians in Constantinople, the Zagori region preserved its autonomy and retained some privileges during the Turkish Occupation, a time period during which its highest economicsocial-cultural development was achieved (mainly, around 1860). It is thanks to these rights and autonomy that the Zagori managed to become more prestigious compared to the other regions of Hepirus. This is exactly the reason why it developed such remarkable wealth and culture. More analytically, the location was chosen based on: a) the topography of the area (location appropriate for construction, even though on the slopes), b) the distance, c) the connection with other settlements (bridges, cobbled paths), d) the potential for visual communication. The settlements have a defensive character, with relatively dense building, where each structure is responsible for its own defensive capacity. High stone fences, 2-2,50 m high, and constantly closed wooden gates constitute a very powerful barrier between the public (street) and private (house) life. Form of house – Materials and processing modes The Zagorian house is constructed in such a way so as to provide protection from severe weather conditions (rain, wind and snow), invasions and robberies. It is two- or three-storeyed ,depending on the inclination of the ground. Its shape is a simple, regular prism without any decoration on the outer surfaces. There are only some openings on the ďŹ rst oor. It is distinguished for the unique processing of the stone in its masonry, which is always non-plastered. The eaves of the roof, which do not protrude a lot, contribute to creating an austere and absolutely cubic impression, while the height of the roof -no matter how big it is- does not make any particular impression, for the stone roof slabs have the very same texture and color as the stones on the walls. All settlements in Zagori are characterized by the homogeneity, originality and clarity of their buildings. They are simple forms, with shapes similar one to another, fully integrated in the surrounding landscape. The apparent stone, as the primary building material, is the characteristic feature of all Zagorian settlements. This is the material which is found abundant in the region throughout the whole area: white or light grey limestone for masonry, roofs, pavements. For the masonry, it is the white stone and the ironstone that are indicated for their endurance. As for the rooďŹ ng, the black slab is preferred, which is lighter and demonstrates higher strength in temperature uctuations. Walls are 60-70cm thick. They are divided with horizontal bands of timber framework, 70-100 cm apart one from another. These are carved oak or cedar panels which occupy the whole thickness of the wall, with the exception of the outer side where a row of stones is placed so as to protect the house from severe weather conditions. In general, the use of wood is limited: ceilings, oors, window and door


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frames, internal decoration, timber framework. Only in forested areas is the use of wood wider, even in outer walls. Timber comes from walnut trees, beeches, cedars, firs, pine trees, oaks, wild chestnut trees. The roof is hip. It follows exactly the plan layout. It has a 30-40% inclination because of the heavy snow and is formed of simple wooden roof trusses. The house situated in the village of Ano Pedina, central Zagori, is built upon the foundations of the old 1896 house, which collapsed due to the heavy roof load and the snow, after having been abandoned for almost a century. The plan dimensions were 5,5 m X 13,0 m, and, because of the high inclination of the site, the house was two-storeyed in the SE side and only ground floor in the Western and Northern side. Two volume-spaces have been added to the initial layout of the house. On the ground floor in the Eastern side the kitchen was added and in the SW side the living room with the fireplace and the master bedroom with the bathroom. On the floor below also in the SW side, where the house becomes ground floor again because of the inclination of the ground, 2 rooms with bathrooms were added. There is also a mezzanine floor with a very pleasant room open to the living room as an extension of the entrance hall and the dining room. It was reconstructed in the traditional way and by the same materials, as mentioned before. The only difference is that beams by reinforced concrete had to be used along stone, so as to make the house stronger to earthquakes. The house also has a beautiful garden overlooking the high mountains and a big plateau.

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ExpĂŠriences de rĂŠhabilitation intĂŠgrale en MediterranĂŠe Experiencias de rehabilitaciĂłn integral en el MediterrĂĄneo Experiences of integrated rehabilitation in the Mediterranean

Architectural Dialogues. Reuse of Ottoman Bath in N. Apollonia, Greece.

Nikos Dikas Born in 1979 in Thessaloniki Greece where he lives. Graduated with honour from the Department of Architecture, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki (A.U.Th) in 2004. Postgraduate studies on Protection, Conservation and Renovation of Architectural Monuments at A.U.Th, 2004-2006. Scholar of the Onasis BeneďŹ t Foundation. Individual participation in the 1st Architectural Biennial Beijing 2004, Young Architects section. Participations in competitions and workshops. Working as freelance architect. Address: Papadiamanti 16, 54645, Thessaloniki, Greece & NBJM BEESFTT nikosdi@gmail.gr Telephone: 0030 6977 526226

Key words: reuse, extension, Ottoman bath, dialogue, contemporary, historical The paper discusses the relation between historical and new structures at renovation and reuse activities, through a case study. The renovation and reuse of an early Ottoman bath in Nea Apollonia area, northern Greece, that of “Krya Loutraâ€? source. The project has been elaborated and presented as a master thesis during the postgraduate program Protection, Conservation and Renovation of Architectural Monuments in Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, March 2006. The monument, dated at the mid 15th century, is located in a privileged area between the contemporary operating thermal baths and the village of Nea Apollonia, on the side of Lake Volvi. It is worth mentioning the harmonic way the bath is placed into the landscape, due to its small scale, materials and its ruined situation. In such a level that it is diďŹƒcult to be recognised when approaching. Its geometrical clearness, combined with its small scale and materials create a unique example of human centric architectural space. Its simplicity provides a very interesting feeling of familiarity with its space. Special issues that have been elaborated through the renovation proposal were: t UIF NBJOUFOBODF BOE SFTUPSBUJPOT PG SVJOFE QBSUT UP EFWFMPQ JUT structural and its sensual totality, t UIF DPNQMFUJPO PG UIF SVJOFE EPNF t UIF BEEJUJPO PG B OFX CVJMEJOH DPNQMFY UIBU XPVME TVQQPSU UIF function of a small bathing nucleus and its relationship with the old bath,

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t UIF XBZ UIF DPNQMFY JOUFSGFSFT XJUI UIF MBOETDBQF The proposal focuses on the need to create a new bathing complex that would include the old bath and will expand its physical and functional capabilities. The challenge was been to design a new dome in the position of the destroyed historical one so that the old bath could function again and a new building that would provide contemporary bathing facilities and provide a new dynamic to the complex. The project begins with the elaboration of interventions for the reinforcement of the remains. Then continues with additions to the inner parts, the design of a new dome and it ends with the design of a new building, where the old bath remains its nucleus. Regarding its structural reinforcement, the proposal tries to take advantage of the openings inside its old walls, where a system of wooden beams used to work as a ring. Through these positions a new system of steel beams will create a new ring. All the additions to missing parts of the walls will be elaborated so that they regain physical and morphological continuity. Special attention has been given so that the added parts remain as little as possible. Basic part of the renovation process has been the addition of a new dome in the place of the ruined one. This is made by a steel frame that reinforces and surrounds the upper part of the old structure. The frame is ďŹ lled with brick work in order to complete the inner and outer image of the monument. A system of small openings will provide day light inside the bath. The direction of the openings is related to the design centre of the dome. Main target as mentioned before has been the creation of a contemporary bathing complex, where the old and the new part would interact and function. Basic proposal has been the inclusion of the old part, as the centre nucleus of the whole. The design of the new reects an attempt to individualize and spot the space of the bath against its powerful natural surroundings. An eort has been made to maintain a small scale through the new structures and elaborate them in a balanced relation with the old nucleus. The new building unfolds around the old bath like a spiral that ends creating a new underground pool. Its characteristic is the large inner yard. Its architectural purity generates from the same values of the old building. Its geometry and the rest of its architectural values, target in exposing and interpret the special values of the old. The complex consists of a spiral building surrounding a circular yard. The yard is enclosed by a wall structure. Underneath this yard a new large bathing space with be elaborated. The centre of the new circular structures is located on the middle of bath’s third edge. Its diameter’s length is three times that of the ideal circle surrounding the old bath. As a result a large open space is created, on the lake’s side. The underground building is elaborated around a concrete cylinder that includes the foundation of the old bath. The wall structure surrounding the complex has the same height as the old bath’s outer walls. It has several vertical cuts, positioned according to radials from the old bath’s centre and edges. On its inner solid side a circular pass is created higher from the yard’s level. It is combined with several water falling spots that will allow open air bathing and sun bathing. The spiral building is created on the outer side of the wall structure, at the same height. Its ďŹ rst part remains on the ground level and then it continues as a ramp until it gets to the underground bathing area. The ceiling of the spiral has several cuts, positioned according to the


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vertical ones on its inner walls, in order to provide light to the interior. It is accessible from the outside and allows walking around the yard in a higher level and viewing of the monument and the lake. Inside the spiral several dressing rooms, showers and resting spots with soft geometries are placed as floating objects. Sliding down the ramp one gets to the new underground pool. Several vertical cuts on the wall surrounding the pool room allow filtered views from and to the resting areas. The inner yard is filled with water from the fountain for a depth of 10 cm and overflows through the wall vertical cut towards the lake. That creates a light liquid line connection with the lake. Access to the old bath in made from the first part of the new building through a glass circular platform. The yard has several round openings, with different diameters, that provide natural lighting to the underground bathing space. A new small circle pool is created for open air bathing. The new structures are made of concrete. The use of geometrical clearness and design simplicity allows the harmonic elaboration of the new next to the historical bath. Vertical cuts through the exterior circular wall provide a feeling of privacy allowing at the same time the view to the old bath from the outside. The same happens in the new spiral where while moving from the outside to the inside one can constantly view the old nucleus. The whole new structure can be regarded as a mechanism through which the bathing space is defined from the ascendant landscape. It directs the views from and towards the monument and reinforces its relation to the water. The design of the new complex through its close proximity to the old bath transforms the traditional space values and includes them using a totally contemporary architectural vocabulary. Through contemporary architectural gestures a fruitful dialogue between the old and new has been achieved. In such a way that the complex can only be regarded as a total. As if the choral syntax demanded the addition of a new element around the old nucleus in order that it is completed. As a result all its parts (old and new) retain their individuality but remain meaningful only as a part of this new totality.

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Expériences de réhabilitation intégrale en Mediterranée Experiencias de rehabilitación integral en el Mediterráneo Experiences of integrated rehabilitation in the Mediterranean

Villa Ficana in Macerata, The restoring work of a raw earth quarter

Anna Paola Conti Italian architect, studies earthen buildings and the way to develop knowledge and diffusion of raw building techniques; Took part as a representative in international conferences (Icec 96 - Rome; Modern bauen mit Lehm – Berlin 1998; Terra 2000 – Torquay; Terra 2003 – Yazd; Forum Unesco – Florence 2004; Lehm 2004 – Leipzig; AdobeUSA 2007 – El Rito, New Mexico). Is on Scientific Committeee of “Associazione Nazionale Città della Terra Cruda” (National Earthen Town Association www.terra-cruda.org); Dirección postal: Via Roma 388 62100 Macerata Dirección de correo electrónico: E-mail: apconti@alice.it ; apconti@libero.it Teléfono: phone-fax +39 0733 36124

cell. 338 8687679

Earthen houses are still quite widespread in the Marche, especially in the southern-central areas; they are usually rural buildings or semidetached houses forming small clusters. Macerata is one of the chief towns in the Marche region, in its suburban area stands a historical district: Ficana. The quarter is formed of about fifty small and low buildings, arranged in parallel clusters along the northern side of the hill, near the church of Santa Croce. The urban layout is well defined, with internal streets and widening similar to present-day lay-bys. Where it is possible, the main facades of the buildings face south to obtain the best orientation. They are usually two-storeyed, some with an internal staircase, others with an external one and a small loggia (two storey porch) as a covering. Every house is composed of two rooms (about 5x5 m) built one on top of the other and connected by the staircase. They have smaller windows, thicker walls, and projecting roofs but their general appearance is similar to buildings in fired brick The main feature of the district is that it is almost entirely formed by atterrati, houses built in unfired earth. It is one of the few surviving settlements in continental Italy. Despite the fact that kinds of buildings were built as humble dwellings, it is amazing that they show particular attention to the aesthetic aspect. In the simplest buildings too, the search for balance influenced all of the architectural aspects, for instance the placing of windows and doors was important in order to achieve a balanced appearance, typical of vernacular architecture.

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“Massone” (cob) is the name of the main technique used to build this kind of house. It consists of the manufacture of earth and straw until roundish blocks are formed which are then piled up and pressed together to build the walls. Often the walls have a tapered profile towards the top and are of varying thickness, from 60-80 cms at the bottom to 40 - 50 cms where the cover touches; the trapezoidal shape is characteristic of these structures. However massone is not the only technique used, adobe is very common too. Several houses are built partly in unfired earth and partly in brickwork or mixing massone, adobe and bricks. Frequently there is a brick skirting board about 30-60 cms high which helps reduce any damage caused by rainwater. Often the entire northern wall is covered by bricks as it is more prone to damp, to cold winds and is therefore also subject to deterioration. These buildings were built, in the mid XIX century, to the east of the town, by land owners who wished to rent them. From the historical plans we can see the evolution of Villa Ficana and we can notice that the quarter was well-preserved until about 1990 when some atterrati were destroyed in order to erect a large new building. After the Second World War the unfired building techniques went out of use completely. They were abandoned and therefore forgotten because other much easier building materials became widespread, but, above all, because of the prejudice that associated earthen houses with poverty and backwardness. After years in which the buildings of Ficana were abandoned, and after different attempts to destroy them to regain a valuable urban area, recently something has changed in Italy and in Macerata in particular. Raw earth houses are nowadays valued and more appreciated than before thanks to a series of factors: the work of local schools and cultural organisations, a new environmental sensibility and the enterprises of some regions like the Marche, Sardinia, Abruzzo and Piemonte whose Municipalities built up a mutual association called Associazione Nazionale Città della Terra Cruda (National Earthen Town Association). In this new climate, Macerata Council decided to examine the situation carefully. In 2002 a Technical-Scientific Committee was set of which I was the co-ordinator. It was made up of experts, representatives from the Universities of the Marche, Architectural Heritage and Landscape Authorities, ICOMOS and CraTERRE. This Committee elaborated the guidelines for the drawing up of a Rescue Plan. During the works, in 2003, the Architectural Heritage and Landscape Authority issued the approval for the conservation order. Thus the tutorship laws usually applied to buildings and artistic works are now applicable. In the specific case of the Ficana district, the conservation order is a particular one that covers not only buildings, but also every part of the district, public areas, including roads. At the end of 2004 the new Rescue Plan was adopted, I wrote the rules according to the guidelines produced by the Technical-Scientific Committee. In the Plan every atterrato is studied and described using historical plans detail drawings and photographs that show the actual condition. Ficana district has now been officially recognised as an important historical site, placed under the direct protection of Macerata Municipality and of the Italian State. Up to now results have been good because the value of neglected architecture has at last been recognized.


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During 2005 the Municipality ordered the restoration of 25 buildings in Ficana, almost half of the atterrati of the quarter. I was one of the planners and restored 13 small houses. This was possible thanks to public funds of the BANDO REGIONALE “Rinnovamento e miglioramento dei villaggi rurali e protezione e tutela del patrimonio rurale” The funds were allotted “to carry on the restoration of the earthen houses still existent in the Marche Region”. Some buildings were bought by the Municipality and others were rented for ten years with the one condition that during this period the houses must have a public use. The Rescue Plan lays down that the atterrati will give hospitality to tourists, or to teachers and students of the local university, or will be used for cultural exchanges. One atterrato will be a museum. These uses are consistent with the small dimensions and don’t require big changes in the layout of the buildings. The restoration work began in September 2005 and was completed in June 2006, which was really a very short period, because of the deadline given for the final public funding. The atterrati generally were not in good condition, but only three – among my thirteen – were seriously damaged and only one was destroyed. The most important damage was caused by the rain that washed away and damaged the walls, when the roofs were not in good condition. Insignificant damage was caused by recent seismic events (the earthquake in1997) or by the moisture of the soil. The restoration was a conservative work, so respected the peculiarity of each atterrato. According to the prescription of the Rescue Plan, we used “....earth for the restoration and repairing of walls......... the same technology in the same place”. The materials used were only: earth, straw, sand, wood, lime and bricks for the baseboards, no concrete was used. At the beginning of the work we thought we would be using mainly massone. However, since in the Marche the massone technique is not used anymore, before beginning the work it was necessary to start experimentation in order to test the ancient massone technology and to bring it up to date. In fact it was necessary to manage a rational organization of the building methods and to contain the manufacturing costs. This work was executed with the co-operation of a local kiln - the Smorlesi Fornace - that started to produce massone in a semi industrial way. Different kinds of earth and different mixtures of earth, sand and straw were tested to obtain a reliable product; the traditional manufacture of roundish blocks was reproduced. In the end a small massone prototype building was realised.Then the stockage and the carriage were tested too. However, we discovered that using massone for the restoration was a long process and it was impossible to make quickly. So as we were pressed for time the decision was made to use adobe, already present in part in the original houses. The experimentation went on through the organisation of the work necessary to produce the adobe. The architect Gaia Bollini was in charge of organizing this production. Massone was used for small repairs and adobe where large rebuilding was necessary. Thanks to the tutorship laws issued by the Architectural Heritage and Landscape Authority, the rebuilding using raw earth of the destroyed building was possible and it was justified by the necessary resetting of

the unitary look of the quarter. The new atterrato has the traditional shape and dimensions because its rebuilding is based on the study of old photographs and documents. So its walls are about 60 cms thick, its windows are very small, its height is limited. We used adobe technology for the rebuilding. Plaster was made using earth, straw, sand and lime; internal walls were white-washed and coloured using traditional pigments. Thanks to its small size, alleys silence and peace, Ficana could be a new model for living in contrast with the usual life style of today.

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Expériences de réhabilitation intégrale en Mediterranée Experiencias de rehabilitación integral en el Mediterráneo Experiences of integrated rehabilitation in the Mediterranean

Experimentation on the adobe manufacturing standardisation between past and future

Gaia Bollini Architect and Civil Engineering Ph.D. I’m envolved in researches and works about Italian and regional earthen architecture heritage, earthen material phisical and mechanical behaviours, supporting factories aiming to industrialize earth building products. I also work in the field of greenbuildings (energy efficiency). I wrote papers, edited books and I lectured on these themes. Dirección postal: Via Ca’ Baroncello, 39 36022 Cassola (VI), Italy Dirección de correo electrónico: gaia.bollini@archiworld.it; gaia.bollini@uniud.it Teléfono: +39 0424 383338/+39 3471483145

1. Introduction The Marche Region is one of the Italian “earthen architectural” regions. The local typical cob houses are strictly part of the territory and they always design its hilly landscape. The most important local example of earthen architecture is Villa Ficana (or Borgoficana), situated in the very heart of the town of Macerata. It was built in the 19th century and it’s the unique totally earth made quarters in the Central Italy. The most of its buildings are little private houses (two storeys 5x5 m cells, with an outside stair). The original building technique was the cob, known in Italy as “massone”; sometimes it’s possible to find a mix of massone, burned and unburned bricks. (See Anna Paola Conti paper) For several years the whole quarter was abandoned to itself. Fortunately some continuous local sensitization actions leaded to a re-evaluation of Villa Ficana and in the 2004 Borgoficana was recognised as a unique national architectural, historical and cultural heritage. (See Anna Paola Conti paper) In 2005 the Macerata Municipality started all the necessary procedures to restore it. (See Anna Paola Conti paper) One of the Borgoficana restoration problems concerned the complete re-building of a collapsed old house. At the same time it was necessary solving the building-yard organisation problems: to produce, to stock and to make the massone ready to use since the Town administration grant imposed that all the works had to be finished in one year (20052006). The planner (arch. Anna Paola Conti) asked the collaboration of a local kiln in order to have someone producing all the massone needed and a place where to store them. (See Anna Paola Conti paper) The chosen kiln was the Smorlesi SpA, situated close to Macerata. This first experimentation gave good results but the massone manufacture industrializing process was immediately in conflict with

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the typical massone building times. It was in that moment that the arch. Conti decided to pass to the adobe technique (unfired and handmade brick made of clay, sometimes sand, straw and water). 2. From the massone-cob technique to the adobe one In order to face this new request the kiln decided referring to the Italian network “National Earthen Town Association” (www.terra-cruda. org) for help; the association asked me (I’m in the association scientific committee, as Anna Paola Conti) to support the kiln. The initial doubts were how the mixing machine should have respond to the straw presence and defining the right water content. To define the right mixture the Borgoficana earth was analyse at an official laboratory (RI.CERT, at Monte di Malo, Vicenza). The kiln earth was more clayey than the traditional Ficana one, so the necessary percentage of sand was added. The straw was 4% in weight; it was 5-10 cm wheat straw (fig. 1). Once made the adobes were put into the kiln drier. Since the Italian absolutely lackness of a specific earthen building code or a good practice guideline I had to plan a testing protocol to verify the adobe production and to put the Smorlesi kiln in the condition to warrant the building firms for the adobes quality and reliability. To predispose that I based on my experiences, on my studies and on university searches on the exixting international earthen building codes or guidelines, which provides tests, range and results to establish the adobe mechanical behaviour and its durability. To be more coherent with the Italian certification system I also try to follow the burned clay bricks and blocks national guidelines framework (UNI 771 norms). The main goal was to define a testing protocol to directly use at the internal kiln laboratory to control the adobe production. In this way I could verify the fitness of the chosen mixture as well as putting the kiln operators in the conditions to always control what produced. Parallelly I looked for an external official laboratory where carrying out those tests whose results I thought they needed to be confirmed. I divided the test corpus into two different families: the adobe acceptance tests and the adobe quality ones, articulated as follows: Dimensional and mechanical characterization t 7JFX BOE UBDUJMF BOBMZTJT BU JOUFSOBM LJMO MBCPSBUPSZ POMZ

t 4J[F BOE TISJOLBHF FWBMVBUJPO BU JOUFSOBM LJMO MBCPSBUPSZ POMZ

t .FEJVN ESZ XFJHIU BOE EFOTJUZ BU JOUFSOBM LJMO MBCPSBUPSZ POMZ

t .PEVMVT PG SVQUVSF UFTU BOE EFUFSNJOBUJPO PG DPNQSFTTJWF TUSFOHUI (both at internal kiln and external official laboratory) t %SPQ JNQBDU BOE QFOFUSBUJPO UFTUT BU JOUFSOBM LJMO MBCPSBUPSZ POMZ

Performance characterization t 8BUFS BCTPSQUJPO QBSUJBM EJQQJOH CPUI BU JOUFSOBM LJMO BOE FYUFSOBM official laboratory) t "CSBTJPO BU JOUFSOBM LJMO MBCPSBUPSZ POMZ

t &SPTJPO CPUI BU JOUFSOBM LJMO BOE FYUFSOBM PöDJBM MBCPSBUPSZ

2.1 The adobe tests at the Smorlesi kiln (Montecassiano, Macerata, Italy) View and tactile analysis This analysis aims to check both regularity and entirety of the adobe angles and corners since they are its weak point. They don’t have to break nor graze themselves if hit. Also the surface aspect is important: the adobe has to present a good and regular aspect, without cracks. If


Expériences de réhabilitation intégrale en Mediterranée Experiencias de rehabilitación integral en el Mediterráneo Experiences of integrated rehabilitation in the Mediterranean

rubbed it hasn’t to loose superficial material. The specific adobe aspect and behaviour was very good.

obtained average M.o.r is f = 0,91 N/mmq. The result quite coincides with the one empirically obtained with the kiln tests.

Size and shrinkage evaluation The real adobe dimensions are: length L 280 ± 3 mm, depth l 140 ± 3 mm and thickness s 60 ± 3 mm. The medium linear shrinkage is about 8%.

8BUFS BCTPSQUJPO UFTU The same was for the water absorption test. To reproduce the “constantly water saturated porous surface” it was prepared a sand bed that was constantly kept wet. The samples stayed upon it for 7 days (fig. 4). The samples absorbed about 12-14% in weight.

Medium dry weight and density is about 1770 Kg/mc. Modulus of rupture test and determination of compressive strength To carry out this test the kiln operators prepared a specific wooden tool set by the French research team of CRATerre. Its working is simply based on the lever principle (fig. 2). The M.o.r value was about 0,83 N/mmq. It’s a real good result since the minimum required value is 0,3 N/mmq. The compressive strength could be consider as twice the M.o.r value. Drop, impact and penetration tests This tests aim to verify the brick consistence and hardness. The drop test is carried out letting an adobe to fall on a plane and hard surface from 90 cm high (fig. 2). The test was positive since each sample didn’t have the hit corner broken; it resulted only a little bit dented. The impact test consists in beating an adobe sample against another, listing the sound produced. More it’s high better is the adobe hardness. The penetration test is done hitting the sample surfaces with the screwdriver point from a 10 cm distance. The adobe offered a good resistance. Water absorption test (partial dipping) Two water absorption tests were carried out at the same time. The method is quite the same in both cases: the adobe samples are dipped in a flat basin, where the water is constantly kept on 1 or 3 cm level. The difference is the dipping time as well as the measurement system. Both the test gave very good results.

Erosion test This test was carried out as indicated in the Standard New Zealand 4298, Appendix D. The Smorlesi adobes showed a very good behaviour. 3 Conclusions From the comparison of all the data obtained (both at kiln and at RI.CERT) as well as the adobes behaviour during the whole test cycle it was possible to state that the Smorlesi unburned clay brick is a good product of high performance quality and reliability. It was thus considered fit to restoration Borgoficana works. It represents the first Italian case of a “new” earthen building with adobe bearing walls in seismic zone, realized in a Public Work context.

"CSBTJPO UFTU This is a durability test and it doesn’t directly depend from the adobe mechanical strength but from the earth quality. The medium abrasion coefficient was C = about 3 cmq/g. Erosion test It is a durability test too. It’s carried out hitting the standing samples surface with a water jet for at least 1’. The evaluation is quite subjective and based on the experience. 2.2 The adobe tests (validation) at the RI.CERT official laboratory In order to contain the costs for the kiln I decided to carry out only the main tests I thought necessary to assure the adobe behaviour. As concern the testing samples (kind and number) I try to follow the Italian technical code (UNI 771-1) too. Direct compression test It was carried out following what prescribed in the New Mexico Addenda to the Uniform Building Code. The obtained average compression strength is σ = 0,2 N/mmq. The result quite coincides with the one empirically obtained with the kiln tests. Modulus of rupture test The modulus of rupture test was carried out following what prescribed in the New Mexico Adobe and Rammed Earth building Code too. The

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Expériences de réhabilitation intégrale en Mediterranée Experiencias de rehabilitación integral en el Mediterráneo Experiences of integrated rehabilitation in the Mediterranean

The drop test

The adobe manufacture

The wooden machine during the M.o.r test

The water absorption test

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Expériences de réhabilitation intégrale en Mediterranée Experiencias de rehabilitación integral en el Mediterráneo Experiences of integrated rehabilitation in the Mediterranean

Presente y futuro del “fienile” en Lucca, Italia

Ramón Cotarelo Crego Arquitecto (Cuba 1975), Especialización en restauración (Italia1981-82). Numerosas intervenciones puntuales y a nivel de centros históricos. Investigador y promotor del patrimonio cultural, conferencista y prof. Invitado en diversos países, misiones UNESCO. Por 16 años director del Equipo de Monumentos de Matanzas, Cuba. Reconocimientos y publicaciones varias. Actualmente estudia “Ciencias de Bienes Culturales “ en la Univ, de Pisa, Italia. Dirección postal: Via della Fontanella No. 4. Viareggio 55049. LU. Italia. Dirección de correo electrónico: cotarelolari@tin.it Teléfono: 0039-0584-393284

Conservar las producciones agrícolas y proteger los animales es una preocupación muy antigua que ha generado diversas tipologías constructivas a lo largo del tiempo, muchas de ellas llegadas hasta nuestros días sin grandes transformaciones. Graneros, establos, pajares, molinos y tantos otros nombres identifican algunos de esos testimonios que encontramos en los países mediterráneos . En la zona conocida como llanura de Lucca , ubicada en la región toscana de la República Italiana, se destaca en el paisaje rural una tipología constructiva relacionada estrechamente con la conservación del forraje para los animales utilizados en las diversas actividades agrícolas y con características peculiares que también hace reconocible esta tipología en zonas hoy totalmente urbanizadas . Este tipo constructivo, conocido en italiano como « fienile » no se puede traducir al Español como granero pues su función primordial es la de conservar el heno y eventualmente algún grano ( por lo general maíz), tampoco se puede llamar pajar pues la paja tenía otro sitio donde colocarse, ni es correcto denominarlo establo a pesar de albergar en el plano terreno algunos animales menos los caballos que iban a otro sitio y no junto a los bueyes y vacas. Tipológicamente el “fienile” es una construcción desarrollada en dos niveles , el inferior para los animales y el superior para el heno ( fieno en italiano y de ahí la palabra “fienile”.) . Entre la parte inferior y la superior existe una apertura en el forjado de madera como comunicación y espacio donde colocar una escalera, por lo general movible y también para tirar el forraje almacenado hacia la parte inferior para el consumo de los animales. Generalmente es una construcción aislada pero cercana a las diversas dependencias del consunto. En lo casos en que es continuación de la vivienda se desarrolla sin conexión interna con los espacios

domésticos. Los antecedentes del “fienile” tradicional se encuentran en ciertas dependencias de las llamadas “casas de corte” (patio) de la zona de Lucca , formando parte de un conjunto unitario que con el tiempo y partiendo de los cambios que la « revolución agrícola “ generó después de la segunda mitad del siglo XVIII y que introdujo la “casa de cuerpos separados”, siendo uno de estos cuerpos separados el “fienile” que conocemos hoy . El “ fienile” es una construcción orientada y construida de tal modo que las producciones en ella conservadas no pudieran calentarse rápidamente y refrescarse con con la constante ventilación, dando como resultado la conservación por largo tiempo de los proudctos almacenados debido a las características de su estructura que ya desde el siglo XVI, Palladio había establecido en su famoso tratado de arquitectura1. La parte inferior del“fienile”se construía con gruesos muros para el reparo de los animales . La parte superior con un robusto esqueleto portante y llenando los grandes vanos con celosías muy ligeras, convenientes para la ventilación del forraje. Estos cierres inicialmente eran de elementos vegetales que fueron sustituídos posteriormente con elementos de barro cocido conocidos como “mandolato”, una verdadera fuente de infinitas composiciones melódicas de luces, colores y sonidos. Estas construcciones por lo general quedaban sin revestimiento mostrando el material usado para la edificación que en la mayor parte de los casos era extraído localmente o recuperado de construcciones precedentes. En los muros la piedra local , a veces tomadas directamente de la tierra o del lecho de los torrentes , la madera rústica para las vigas y forjados y el barro cocido para las soluciones de celosías o “mandolato”. En la parte inferior, destinada a los animales, las aberturas son escasas, una puerta de acceso con un cierre capaz de garantizar la protección de los animales y poquísimas y estrechas aberturas para permitir un poco de ventilación y una luz mínima . Por lo general en la parte superior existe una sola “boca” (abertura al exterior en función ) para permitir la carga del forraje e y cuya forma puede variar entre rectangular, ojival o usando el arco . En caso de un “fienile” muy alto se encuentra una segunda “boca” que habitualmente está sobre la “boca” inferior y que permite subir el material y disponerlo al interior de una manera más ágil . Un elemento frecuente es la roldana para viabilizar el trabajo. El cierre de las bocas se resolvía con elementos de madera estructurados en forma de rejillas para permitir el paso del aire y en muchos de los casos hoy perdidos los originales. Los diversos tipos de celosías que presentan los “ fienili “, conocidas como “ mandolato “ son expresiones que por su funcionalidad y valor estético merecen ser estudiadas y apreciadas en la justa posibilidad de continuar su uso en el futuro. Las celosías como función principal deben garantizar el paso del aire para mantener ventilado el espacio de almacenaje del heno y también dar iluminación ya que no existe otra abertura que la destinada a meter y sacar el heno y que en la mayor parte de los casos siempre estuvieron cerradas con elementos de madera para controlar la gestión del producto almacenado. Con una extrema probreza de medios se logran notables resultados compositivos e interesantes combinaciones cromáticas, las puertas de los establos de color verde oscuro, los cierres de madera de las partes superiores color ocre, los colores cálidos de los elementos de barro cocido con que se realiza el “ mandolato “. que no son más

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Expériences de réhabilitation intégrale en Mediterranée Experiencias de rehabilitación integral en el Mediterráneo Experiences of integrated rehabilitation in the Mediterranean

que espléndidas y aparentemente frágiles superficies realizadas con piezas dispuestas en formas variadas para permitir la ventilación, caracterizando la tipología por su fuerte expresión de reconocimiento y por tal motivo representan un punto de referencia en el paisaje de la llanura y un elemento distintivo en las zonas urbanizadas donde han quedado integrados muchos de estos testimonios durante el proceso de crecimiento de llas poblaciones. El diseño de “ mandolato” gira alrededor de cuatro tipos fundamentales, aunque son dos los más frecuentes como el construido con filas horizontales de elementos de barro cocido inclinados a 30° con respecto a la línea exterior del muro y separados entre ellos por algunos centímetros para dejar pasar el aire . Esta solución se conoce como “mandolato a cuchillo “. El cierre de estos amplios vanos se produce alternando una hilera de elementos inclinados con una hilera de elementos colocados horizontalmente para dar una superficie estable, encima de la cual colocar una nueva hilera de elementos inclinados pero con una orientación contraria a la hilera inferior así se suceden una sobre otra las hileras hasta rellenar completamente el espacio entre los pilares de ladrillos , permitiendo esta solución el máximo aprovechamiento de la ventilación bajo cualquier régimen de brisas . Muy difundido también es el sistema a “castillo de naipes “ donde se parte de la triangulación con elementos de barro formando triángulos isósceles en crecimiento hacia los lados y hacia la parte superior del vano. La solución “ajedrezada” se encuentra en las construcciones más recientes y un diseño bastante raro es el llamado a “cruz” realizado en vez de con elementos de barro cocido de poco espesor , con ladrillos de dimensiones actuales. El juego de luz y sombra sobre las superficies del “mandolato” ofrece infinitas posibilidades con un resultado agradable a la vista del observador complementado con el susurrro que produce el viento al pasar entre las partes llenas y los huecos , dejando una sesación inolvidable. Actualmente en la zona de Lucca y alrededores existe una gran cantidad de estos testimonios (fienile) conservados muchos de ellos sin modificaciones sustanciales, algunos con cierto degrado y tantos otros refuncionalizados y en un porciento con intervenciones consecuentes a la tipología heredada, en ocasiones convertidos en viviendas y en otros casos en función de actividades relacionadas con el turismo (alojamientos, servicios gastronómicos ,etc, ). El “mandolato” ha identificado desde hace mucho tiempo el “fienile” y hoy, al ser refuncionalizadas estas construcciones , además de estar protegidas como testimonios de la arquitectura vernácula, sus propietarios aprovechan estas “celosías” como fuentes de luz y ventilación de los espacios interiores, adicionando el “encanto sonoro” que produce el aire al pasar a través de las perforaciones. Los “fienile” de la zona de Lucca con sus características “celosías “ no son sólo elementos presentes en el paisaje sino también un esquema constructivo que se conserva a conciencia y se repropone en las nuevas construcciones, trasmitiendo su continuidad a través del tiempo, respetando con las intervenciones el espíritu del sitio y el trasmitir la memoria interpretando las necesarias exigencias de transformación sin alterar el equilibrio original del contexto y efectuando una síntesis proyectual que tenga en cuenta el valor histórico de lo preexistente y de la tipología constructiva. Comprender, proteger y trasmitir los testimonios de cultura material es parte de nuestra identidad cultural, un conjunto de recursos frágiles

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y no renovables con los que debemos garantizar el futruro de las generaciones v enideras.

#*#-*0(3"'¶" LAGANÀ, NICOLA. Appunti per una storia della corte lucchese. Ed. Ponte, Cappanori. Lucca. 2004. MANNOCCI, ROBERTO. (al cuidado de ) Atti del Convegno di Studi La Corte Rurale Lucchese. 2004.

1

PALLADIO, ANDREA, « I Quattro Libri dell’Architettura” Cap. XVI. Ed. Hoepli. Milano. 1990.


ExpĂŠriences de rĂŠhabilitation intĂŠgrale en MediterranĂŠe Experiencias de rehabilitaciĂłn integral en el MediterrĂĄneo Experiences of integrated rehabilitation in the Mediterranean

Étude de cas d’une maison d’architecture traditionnelle à Tyr, Liban sud. RÊinsertion et rÊhabilitation avec des matÊriaux traditionnels

Grâce Rihan Hanna Éducation: D.E.S.S. en Restauration des Sites et Monuments Historiques - UL, 2003 D.E.S. en Architecture - UL / INBA II, 1986 1SJY Premier prix, Projet d’Êtude ďŹ nal, UL / INBA II, 1986 &YQĂ?SJFODF 1SPGFTTJPOOFMMF Etudes de projets de restauration depuis 2004 Etudes de projets architecturaux et d’amĂŠnagement d’intĂŠrieur depuis 1987 Adresse postale: 80, Rue Adib Ishac, AchraďŹ eh, Beyrouth, Liban. Adresse courrier ĂŠlectronique: gracerhanna@yahoo.fr TĂŠlĂŠphone: 961 1 332 506

961 1 219 911

Mob : 961 3 778 685

Il s’agit d’un cas typique de rĂŠhabilitation d’une maison d’architecture traditionnelle mĂŠditerranĂŠenne dans la ville de Tyr au Liban Sud, datant du 19eme siècle. L’intervention porte sur une maison en contact direct avec la mer d’un cĂ´tĂŠ et d’un tissu d’habitation dense de l’autre. Une première opĂŠration de restauration a ĂŠtĂŠ dĂŠjĂ eectuĂŠe il y a une dizaine d’annĂŠes de façon irrespectueuse des mĂŠthodes de rĂŠhabilitation et de restauration propres Ă la pierre. A- Description du bâtiment initial L’accès de la maison se fait Ă partir du Rez-de-chaussĂŠe auquel on y accède Ă travers un jardin du cotĂŠ de la rue. Un deuxième accès (secondaire) se fait Ă partir de la mer au niveau de la cave (Rez-de mer). t -B NBJTPO FTU DPNQPTĂ?F E VO 3%$ GPSNĂ? E VO IBMM DFOUSBM FU EFT pièces autour. Les murs intĂŠrieurs et extĂŠrieurs sont en majoritĂŠ en pierre de grès (Ramleh) ĂŠtant poreux donc fragile Ă l’eau, les murs ĂŠtaient enduits Ă la chaux sauf pour la base qui est en pierre calcaire de constitution plus dure que le Ramleh. t 2VFMRVFT BEEJUJPOT POU Ă?UĂ? PQĂ?SĂ?FT QBS MFT IBCJUBOUT TVDDFTTJGT et puis dĂŠmontĂŠ par les propriĂŠtaires actuels durant les premiers travaux de rĂŠhabilitation.

t 6OF DBWF TPVT VOF QBSUJF EF MB DPOTUSVDUJPO GPSNĂ?F EF EFVY WPĂ&#x;UFT en berceau du cĂ´tĂŠ de la mer dont les fondations faisaient partie des fortiďŹ cations de la ville ancienne, datant du 7ème siècle. t MF UPJU JOJUJBM EV 3 % $ Ă?UBJU FO DIBSQFOUF QMBUF FU UFSSF CBUUVF RVJ TF trouvait en ruine dans les annĂŠes 90 B- L’Êtat de la maison avant notre intervention t 1PVS EFT SBJTPOT E PSESF FTUIĂ?UJRVF VO EĂ?DBQBHF UPUBM EF M FOEVJU EF chaux avait ĂŠtĂŠ opĂŠrĂŠ, exposant la pierre a l’humiditĂŠ et l’eau salĂŠe de la mer, provoquant une dĂŠgradation accĂŠlĂŠrĂŠe du bâtiment et de sa propre structure. t 1PVS EFT SBJTPOT E PSESF TUSVDUVSFM VOF EBMMF EF CĂ?UPO BSNĂ? B Ă?UĂ? coulĂŠe sans avoir tenu compte du coeďŹƒcient de dilatation entre le bĂŠton et la pierre, ce qui a provoquĂŠ des ďŹ ssures dans les murs et des inďŹ ltrations d’eau importantes dans le bâtiment. Ceci a gĂŠnĂŠrĂŠ une forte taux d’humiditĂŠ et donc de condensation entraĂŽnant plus de dĂŠgradation ; ex : prolifĂŠration de la mousse, attaque des linteaux en bois par les insectes et des parasites. t 1PVS EFT SBJTPOT EF NBORVF EF NBJOUFOBODF UPVT MFT Ă?MĂ?NFOUT FO fer et en bois n’ont ĂŠtĂŠ ni traitĂŠ ni protĂŠgĂŠ. L’emplacement critique de la maison en face de la mer, entraĂŽne une dĂŠgradation rapide de tous les matĂŠriaux. (Par exemple : les ĂŠlĂŠments en mĂŠtal se trouvant en contact direct avec la pierre, en se rouillant ont aussi causĂŠ des dĂŠgâts Ă la pierre). C- Projet et travaux de rĂŠhabilitation Au delĂ de la nĂŠcessite première de rĂŠsoudre l’ensemble de ces problèmes de façon cohĂŠrente, ce cas a permis de mettre en place une mĂŠthodologie de travail prenant en considĂŠration le cotĂŠ technique, la valeur patrimoniale et les conditions de confort. A- Utilisation de techniques et de matĂŠriaux traditionnels L’enduit de chaux et ses diverses caractĂŠristiques ont ĂŠtĂŠ mis en Ĺ“uvre. B- Apprentissage et rĂŠinsertion de la main d’œuvre locale En collaborant avec des artisans et des ouvriers de la rĂŠgion, d’une part pour les encourager Ă conserver leur travail et d’autre part pour les sensibiliser au savoir faire des mĂŠthodes traditionnelles, chacun dans son domaine, sans avoir recours a des entreprises spĂŠcialisĂŠes du bâtiment. C- ModernitĂŠ et tradition Un certain nombre d’interventions plus “modernesâ€? ont pu ĂŞtre exĂŠcutĂŠes avec des matĂŠriaux comme l’acier inoxydable, sans pour autant nuire aux contraintes techniques que la maison imposait, et en prĂŠservant son esprit et son caractère traditionnel. Une partie de la terrasse a ĂŠtĂŠ ĂŠtudiĂŠe pour ĂŞtre accessible aďŹ n de proďŹ ter de plus d’espace et d’une vue encore plus surprenante. A- Utilisation de techniques et de matĂŠriaux traditionnels 1. MĂŠthodologie de travail Avant d’entreprendre les travaux, un calepin a ĂŠtĂŠ dressĂŠ, rassemblant toutes les informations utiles et nĂŠcessaires Ă l’Êvolution des ĂŠtudes et Ă l’exĂŠcution des travaux : t 3FMFWĂ? BSDIJUFDUVSBM -FT Ă?UVEFT TF TPOU CBTĂ?FT TVS MFT SFMFWĂ?T FU MFT plans dĂŠjĂ existants.

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ExpĂŠriences de rĂŠhabilitation intĂŠgrale en MediterranĂŠe Experiencias de rehabilitaciĂłn integral en el MediterrĂĄneo Experiences of integrated rehabilitation in the Mediterranean

t 3FMFWĂ? EFT EĂ?TPSESFT FU EFT NBUĂ?SJBVY SFQSĂ?TFOUĂ? QBS EFT mDIFT techniques numĂŠrotĂŠes pour chaque pièce dĂŠcrivant l’Êtat des lieux .Une reconnaissance Ă l’œil nu des types d’altĂŠrations et de l’Êtat de la maison et des matĂŠriaux existants utilisĂŠs. Sur ces ďŹ ches ont ďŹ gurĂŠs aussi tous les dĂŠsordres existants ; un ÂŤ scan Âť des pièces sous forme de croquis schĂŠmatisant les ďŹ ssurations et les dĂŠsordres pathologiques. t %FT QIPUPT EF DIBRVF QJĂ’DF FU EFT EĂ?HÉUT POU Ă?UĂ? QSJTFT t %FT UFTUT EF MB TBMJOJUĂ? POU Ă?UĂ? FĂľFDUVĂ?T TVS MB QJFSSF DPOTUJUVBOU MFT murs extĂŠrieurs. t 6O EJBHOPTUJD E BQSĂ’T M BOBMZTF EF UPVUFT DFT JOGPSNBUJPOT rĂŠcoltĂŠes. 2. Travaux de restauration. B .VST Avant d’appliquer l’enduit initial Ă la chaux sur presque la totalitĂŠ des murs extĂŠrieurs et intĂŠrieurs les travaux suivants ont ĂŠtĂŠ eectuĂŠs : Pierres : Le taux des pierres altĂŠrĂŠes ĂŠtait très ĂŠlevĂŠ. Plusieurs genres d’altĂŠrations dues Ă de diÊrentes causes, ont ĂŠtĂŠ observĂŠs. Nous avons procĂŠdĂŠ par ce qui suit : t 3FNQMBDFS MFT QJFSSFT QPVESFVTFT FU BMUĂ?SĂ?FT QBS E BVUSFT BZBOU MFT mĂŞmes caractĂŠristiques t 3FOGPSDFS MFT QJFSSFT SPOHĂ?FT NBJT EF CPOOF DPOTJTUBODF FO ĂŠgalisant la pierre et en rajoutant la partie manquante. Nettoyage : t /FUUPZFS MFT QJFSSFT BUUBRVĂ?FT QBS MB NPVTTF FO BQQMJRVBOU VO fongicide et laissant agir durant 15 jours puis brosser. t ²MJNJOFS NJOVUJFVTFNFOU MFT KPJOUT FO DJNFOU BWFD VO DJTFBV FU VO marteau pour ne pas atteindre les bords de la pierre. t /FUUPZFS UPVUFT MFT USBDFT EF TFMT FU UPVT SĂ?TJEVT BQQBSFOUT TVS MFT parements des murs par brossage. t /FUUPZFS MFT USBDFT EF DJNFOU TVS MB NBĂŽPOOFSJF EVFT BV DPVMBHF EF la dalle en bĂŠton manuellement. Enduit : Après avoir tout nettoyĂŠ, le support a ĂŠtĂŠ humidiďŹ ĂŠ. Cette humidiďŹ cation a pour but d’Êviter l’absorption de l’eau contenue dans l’enduit par le support. Application d’un enduit de chaux en deux couches successives de composition diÊrentes, après avoir procĂŠdĂŠ au remplissage avec de l’enduit de chaux et des morceaux de pierres Ramleh dans les joints et les endroits de faible ĂŠpaisseur pour ĂŠgaliser le parement. t $PVDIF (PCFUJT t $PVDIF mOJUJPO Ce travail a ĂŠtĂŠ fait sans ďŹ l Ă plomb, Ă l’œil nu (warka arabiĂŠ), les angles ne sont pas des angles droits mais naturellement arrondis. Le but ĂŠtait de garder l’esprit rustique de la maison. Des tests / ĂŠchantillons ont ĂŠtĂŠ faits pour dĂŠcider des textures et couleurs Ă adopter. Les murs extĂŠrieurs du cĂ´tĂŠ du jardin, ont ĂŠtĂŠ teintĂŠs dans la masse en reprenant la couleur initiale (rose) par ajout d’un pigment naturel dans le mortier d’enduit de chaux de la couche de ďŹ nition. Les murs intĂŠrieurs et les façades cĂ´tĂŠ mer ont gardĂŠ la couleur naturel du sable et de la poudre de marbre de notre mĂŠlange, la diÊrence

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ĂŠtait dans la texture. C #PJT FU NFOVJTFSJF Les linteaux en bois intĂŠgrĂŠs dans les murs ont ĂŠtĂŠ gardĂŠs apparents pour pouvoir les entretenir facilement. Les linteaux rongĂŠs par les insectes ont ĂŠtĂŠ remplacĂŠs par de nouveaux qui ont ĂŠtĂŠ traitĂŠs et colorĂŠs. Les anciens linteaux ont ĂŠtĂŠ traitĂŠs, nettoyĂŠs et protĂŠgĂŠs. La mĂŞme procĂŠdure a ĂŠtĂŠ utilisĂŠe pour la menuiserie après avoir dĂŠcaper la peinture. D 'FS GPSHĂ? DĂŠcapage protection et reprise de la peinture en utilisant des produits rĂŠsistants Ă l’eau salĂŠe. B- Apprentissage et rĂŠinsertion Ce paragraphe, sujet important et sensible de notre ĂŠtude, a ĂŠtĂŠ le plus problĂŠmatique: 1. Les artisans au Liban (en voie de disparition) ĂŠtaient introuvables, surtout pour les artisans de l’enduit Ă la chaux qu’on a fait venir de la Syrie dans le but de former des jeunes artisans locaux de Tyr. 2. Les ouvriers et apprentis de la rĂŠgion manquaient d’impatience parfois en trouvant les travaux un peu compliquĂŠs et mĂŠticuleux en comparant leur expĂŠrience dans les chantiers habituels. 3. De leur cotĂŠ, le plombier et l’Êlectricien trouvaient beaucoup plus simple de faire passer les câbles dans le mur en ligne droite pour arriver d’un point ĂŠlectrique Ă un autre en faisant une saignĂŠe le long du mur en pierre. Il fallait les convaincre de faire passer leurs câbles en suivant le jointement des pierres. 4. Le nettoyage des jointoiements des murs en pierre ne s’est pas fait facilement en convainquant les ouvriers de ne pas utiliser le sablage comme outil de nettoyage rapide et eďŹƒcace C- ModernitĂŠ et tradition B 5FSSBTTF t 6O DPNQMFYF E Ă?UBODIĂ?JUĂ? FU VOF JTPMBUJPO UIFSNJRVF B Ă?UĂ? QPTĂ?F sur la terrasse. t 6OF GFOUF EBOT MF QMBGPOE FO CSJRVF EF WFSSF B Ă?UĂ? GBJUF QPVS GBJSF pĂŠnĂŠtrer la lumière naturelle dans la salle de bain. C +BSEJO t %BOT MF KBSEJO VO FTDBMJFS FO BDJFS JOPYZEBCMF NFOBOU Ă‹ MB UFSSBTTF a ĂŠtĂŠ installĂŠ. Les marches de l’escalier ont ĂŠtĂŠ coulĂŠes sur place par les ouvriers en utilisant du ciment blanc et des galets ramassĂŠs de la mer. La structure de l‘escalier repose en appuie simple sur la dalle de la terrasse d’un cĂ´tĂŠ; de l’autre (niveau jardin) il est ďŹ xĂŠ sur une fondation en bĂŠton. t -B DIBNCSF EF EĂ?CBSSBT TĂ?QBSBOU MB DVJTJOF EF MB DIBNCSF Ă‹ coucher a ĂŠtĂŠ transformĂŠe en une petite cour intĂŠrieure. Son toit a ĂŠtĂŠ dĂŠmontĂŠ pour pouvoir aĂŠrer l’ensemble et laisser pĂŠnĂŠtrer la lumière dans une des chambres Ă coucher.


Expériences de réhabilitation intégrale en Mediterranée Experiencias de rehabilitación integral en el Mediterráneo Experiences of integrated rehabilitation in the Mediterranean

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Expériences de réhabilitation intégrale en Mediterranée Experiencias de rehabilitación integral en el Mediterráneo Experiences of integrated rehabilitation in the Mediterranean

La représentation du Patrimoine et son impact sur les chantiers de restauration

Oussama Kallab Architecte Restauratrice diplômée du Centre de Restauration et de conservation des Monuments et Sites Historiques de l’Université Libanaise, ayant travaillé dans divers chantiers de restauration et de conservation archéologiques et patrimoniaux libanais et sur l’élaboration de cahiers de charges de travaux de restauration , membre de l’équipe Corpus-Levant et de l’équipe de REHABIMED, actuellement architecte restauratrice chargée de la supervison des travaux de restauration à la Direction Générale des Antiquités Adresse postale: Byblos, rue du Port, imm Kallab, Liban Adresse courrier électronique: oussama.kallab@lau.edu.lb Téléphone: 9613678049

La représentation du patrimoine, ses sources, la sélectivité du choix de ses images, ses interactions avec les aspects sociaux et économiques ainsi que son impact sur les méthodes et les finalités de opérations de réhabilitation sur l’ensemble du territoire libanais sont des thèmes assez complexes et des objets de controverse qui suscitent actuellement un intérêt accru de la part des spécialistes et acteurs dans les différentes disciplines liées au patrimoine. L’observation des projets de réhabilitation au Liban, des plus anciens aux plus récents, du monumental au vernaculaire, et indépendamment de leur envergure, montre une constante étroitement liée aux représentations du patrimoine dans l’inconscient collectif fortement marqué par le riche passé archéologique et historique du pays. Ainsi on retrouve les divers éléments d’architecture des monuments historiques repris dans les chantiers de réhabilitation tels les crénelages des forteresses à la crête des murets des toits, les colonnes antiques avec leurs chapiteaux appliquées aux façades des maisons, des fausses colonnes en boutisse dans les murs des constructions, les différents appareillages des pierres dans les murs et toutes sortes d’ouvertures avec une prédilection spéciale pour les arcades et fenêtres jumelées inspirées directement des architectures palatiales du 17ème et 18ème siècle de la montagne libanaise. Cette influence déjà présente bien avant la guerre civile libanaise perdure encore et connaît même actuellement un intérêt plus généralisé. Il s’y est ajouté à la première moitié des années 1990 après la guerre, un regain d’intérêt concernant les maisons patrimoniales, plus particulièrement celle aux trois arcs et à charpente à couverture de tuiles connue sous le nom de « maison libanaise » et qui va constituer une image de référence pour un grand nombre de chantiers de réhabilitation . Les éléments constitutifs de cette image se résument dans les voûtes du

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rez-de chaussée, les trois arcades des façades et surtout la charpente à couverture en tuiles rouges. Viennent en deuxième lieu les autres typologies comme les maisons à galeries ou à Liwan qui seront dans la plupart des cas, dénaturées durant les travaux de réhabilitation par l’édification d’une couverture en tuiles (généralement par le biais d’une charpente métallique) en vue de les rendre conformes à la représentation référenciée de la maison patrimoniale libanaise. Quant aux maisons rurales rectangulaires au plancher végétal et couverture en terre, elles figurent en bas de l’échelle et sont l’objet d’un forte « discrimination architecturale ». Elles sont généralement en ruines sur la cote et dans la moyenne montagne. Les rares maisons existantes habitées se situent au niveau de la Bekaa et du Nord et contrairement aux habitants des autres maisons patrimoniales, rares sont ceux qui expriment leur attachement ou leur fierté d’y résider. Généralement, les interventions dans ces maisons se limitent à des interventions d’urgence comme le remplacement des toitures traditionnelles des dalles de béton et des rajouts de volumes extérieurs servant de commodités. Une autre constante dans les chantiers de réhabilitation du patrimoine libanais et qui est sans conteste la plus importante, est la condition suivante: « Patrimoine = Pierre » ou plutôt « Patrimoine valorisé =Pierres apparentes ». Au nom de cette constante sont effectués des décapages systématique des enduits traditionnels de chaux , des nettoyages abusifs aux jets d’eau et de sable des pierres et l’application de revêtements de pierres (ou de pierres moulées) sur les façades des bâtiments patrimoniaux en pierre et en briques de terre. La découpe et la texturation de ces pierres a elle aussi subi l’influence de l’apport de nouveaux outils tels les scies à disques et la boucharde. On observe aussi l’introduction des acier comme chaînage le long des murs en pierre et dans les linteaux des ouvertures. On note aussi le remplacement des linteaux des ouvertures constitués de poutres en bois ou de troncs d’arbres par des pierres. Sur le plan de la structure, on observe de fréquents démontages et remontages des murs et des chemisages de béton à la face interne des murs en pierres et une consolidation en sous-oeuvre des fondations. Les voûtes en pierre sont vidées de leur remblai de terre avant de recevoir une dalle en béton ou des piliers en béton fondés sur les piles des voûtes. Les techniques ancestrales des arts de bâtir sur le territoire libanais étant essentiellement basées sur l’emploi de la pierre, le principe importé des fermes des charpentes n’a jamais fait pas l’objet d’une parfaite maîtrise de la part des maitres-ouvriers locaux ce qui a mené à la création de structures hybrides de charpentes à fermes et empilement conjugués. Rares sont les charpentes en bois restaurées actuellement dans les chantiers de réhabilitation, elles sont souvent remplacées par des charpentes métalliques. Les tuiles, elles aussi, subissent sous l’influence des « modes patrimoniales importées » l’apport de nouveaux matériaux telles les tuiles canal, les ardoises, ou même des tuiles plates d’origines et de dimensionnement différents des tuiles traditionnelles employées aux liban. On ne peut aborder la problématique de la représentation du patrimoine au Liban sans évoquer le projet de la reconstruction du Centre Ville de Beyrouth dont la fabrication de l’image par la société foncière a fait l’objet d’une stratégie visant à l’investir dans la conception et la réalisation du projet . Cette représentation, comme l’analyse Stephane Lortet, est basée sur une “mise en image” sélective des objets les plus marquants issus des


Expériences de réhabilitation intégrale en Mediterranée Experiencias de rehabilitación integral en el Mediterráneo Experiences of integrated rehabilitation in the Mediterranean

différentes fouilles archéologiques et sur les liens forcés crées entre le passé et le futur de Beyrouth imaginé par les concepteurs de Solidere. C’est une stratégie de la représentation qui vise à réduire l’action de la reconstruction comme une évolution normale de la ville. Cette représentation iconographique a donné à la ville une dimension politique par le choix des périodes historiques mises en valeur, une dimension économique liée à l’activité commerciale de ses anciens souks orientaux et une dimension religieuse par les images des monuments religieux conservés. Le tout représente une ville identifiable possédant des codes de lecture accessibles à tout le monde. Les techniques et méthodes employées dans la réhabilitation du Centre Ville ont été soumises à des spécifications précises concernant les façades et les matériaux employés qui ne dérogent pas aux anciennes idées reçues et appliquées. La aussi, l’influence de l’image des centres anciens des villes européennes est présente dans le projet réalisé par le choix de certains matériaux et du mobilier urbain. Entre la reproduction et la négation des images du patrimoine induites par l’histoire et l’archéologie, de celles crées par les besoins identitaires de l’après-guerre et celles résultant des influences d’un patrimoine Kitsch importé d’ailleurs se déploie un éventail de techniques et de méthodes reprises incessamment par les maîtres d’ouvrages et les techniciens du bâti induites pour la plupart par des idées reçues. Elles constituent un poids non négligeable face aux nouvelles exigences des études de réhabilitation et des techniques et visions actuelles.

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ExpĂŠriences de rĂŠhabilitation intĂŠgrale en MediterranĂŠe Experiencias de rehabilitaciĂłn integral en el MediterrĂĄneo Experiences of integrated rehabilitation in the Mediterranean

Les greniers de l’Atlas et du Sud-Est du Maroc: un patrimoine à valoriser

Mohamed Boussalh Conservateur/Ethnologue/Directeur du Centre de Conservation et de RĂŠhabilitation du Patrimoine Architectural Atlasique et Subatlasique ; spĂŠcialiste en architecture vernaculaire des rĂŠgions du sud-est du Maroc et en inventaire du patrimoine culturel. Adresse postale: B.P. 253, Ouarzazate Adresse courrier ĂŠlectronique: mohamedboussalh@yahoo.fr TĂŠlĂŠphone: 00212 (0) 75 61 67 79

Introduction Les rĂŠgions de l’Atlas et des vallĂŠes prĂŠsahariennes du Maroc reprĂŠsentent des lieux de mĂŠmoire chargĂŠs de messages culturels d’une valeur inestimable. Ces lieux de mĂŠmoire illustrĂŠs par des villages communautaires, des demeures seigneuriales, des greniers collectifs avec leurs diÊrentes typologies sont dĂŠlivrĂŠs Ă l’abandon et Ă la destruction d’une manière consciente et parfois inconsciente. La disparition de ce patrimoine ĂŠdiďŹ ĂŠ selon des conceptions sociales et culturelles bien dĂŠďŹ nies est un appauvrissement de la culture, d’oĂš la nĂŠcessitĂŠ d’inventorier et de conserver les traces civilisationnnelles des habitants locaux. Ces lieux de mĂŠmoire appartiennent Ă un patrimoine rural encore dĂŠlaissĂŠ et qui ne suscite que peu d’intĂŠrĂŞt. Les greniers, que la sociĂŠtĂŠ a adaptĂŠs Ă ses besoins de fonctionnement, d’organisation et de dĂŠfense et aux rigueurs du climat, sont tombĂŠs depuis plusieurs dĂŠcennies en dĂŠsuĂŠtude. Ils sont dĂŠlaissĂŠs Ă l’abandon, mal entretenues et sujettes aux apports FYPHĂ’OFT. La nĂŠcessitĂŠ de recenser les tĂŠmoins du passĂŠ, mais aussi du prĂŠsent est toujours d’actualitĂŠ. Vu le processus de changement, la tâche est grandiose. L’idĂŠe de l’inventaire Ă l’Êchelle rĂŠgionale devient plus que jamais nĂŠcessaire. En gĂŠnĂŠral, quatre principales idĂŠes reprĂŠsentent le socle sur lequel se basent les inventaires des greniers dirigĂŠs par le CERKAS : 1. L’aermissement et la continuitĂŠ de l’identitĂŠ culturelle des habitants. 2. L’amĂŠlioration des conditions de vie par la crĂŠation d’activitĂŠs autour du patrimoine architectural. 3. La protection de l’environnement. 4. L’encouragement d’activitĂŠs ĂŠconomiques propres Ă chaque rĂŠgion, notamment le tourisme culturel et l’artisanat. En somme, la perspective de dĂŠveloppement tend donc Ă apprĂŠhender l’environnement global en prenant en considĂŠration la complexitĂŠ des relations entre les humains et leur espace.

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A. Typologie architecturale Les greniers collectifs sont l’une des composantes architecturales les plus remarquables au Maroc. Leur origine demeure encore une question Ă ĂŠlucider. Le manque de documents ĂŠcrits surtout les chartes complique d’avantage la recherche de l’Êvolution historique de ces ĂŠdiďŹ ces Ă la fois grandiose et surprenant par leur architecture et leur organisation. Cependant, les ĂŠtudes et les enquĂŞtes de terrain menĂŠes depuis des annĂŠes par le Centre de Conservation et de RĂŠhabilitation du Patrimoine Architectural Atlasique et Subatlasique (CERKAS) nous ont permis d’Êtablir une typologie des greniers. (SFOJFST HSPUUFT Ils reprĂŠsentent la forme la plus ancienne et la plus rĂŠpandue dans la vallĂŠe d’Awnil et le versant septentrional du Haut-Atlas. Ils sont des espaces entièrement creusĂŠs dans des falaises. Par des trous inaccessibles que par des ĂŠchelles ou des cordes, les hommes accèdent Ă un couloir rectiligne perpendiculaire Ă la falaise et taillĂŠ Ă l’horizontale. Ce couloir dessert un nombre ĂŠgal de cellules. Celles-ci ont un plan ovoĂŻdal, de dimension variable. Certaines sont sĂŠparĂŠes par des briques crues (phĂŠnomène dĂť au système de partage familial). Une cheminĂŠe verticale sert en mĂŞme temps Ă ĂŠclairer les galeries et Ă communiquer avec les niveaux supĂŠrieurs. Les greniers-grottes sont taillĂŠs avec une grande ďŹ nesse et constituaient autrefois un ĂŠlĂŠment important dans la vie des groupes sociaux transhumants. La nĂŠcessitĂŠ de creuser des cellules dans des falaises trouve son origine dans le climat. Dans des rĂŠgions arides et semi-arides, les rĂŠcoltes sont très irrĂŠgulières, d’oĂš la nĂŠcessitĂŠ d’emmagasiner les produits pour les pĂŠriodes de disette. A ceci, s’y ajouta le besoin de sĂŠcuritĂŠ (un fait primordial). Les transhumants stockèrent leurs provisions dans des lieux inaccessibles et sĂŠcurisĂŠs avant de partir Ă la recherche des pâturages pour leurs troupeaux. En plus, les grains, source de vie, doivent ĂŞtre protĂŠgĂŠs contre le pillage des voisins en quĂŞte de nourriture surtout au cours des annĂŠes de sècheresse. Certains pensent que les greniers-grottes sont les ancĂŞtres des greniers de hauteurs ou de village ĂŠrigĂŠs dans l’Anti-Atlas et le Haut-Atlas. C’estĂ -dire, une ĂŠvolution d’un mode Ă un autre. Nous croyons que c’est une hypothèse Ă revoir. Les greniers qu’il que soit leur typologie sont une rĂŠponse Ă un mode de vie spĂŠciďŹ que et Ă une organisation sociale donnĂŠe. Jusqu’à une ĂŠpoque tardive, les greniers grottes sont utilisĂŠs en mĂŞme temps que les autres greniers. (SFOJFST EF GBMBJTF A l’encontre des greniers-grottes, les greniers de falaise sont des constructions amĂŠnagĂŠes sur les parois des falaises (voir photo du grenier d’Awjgal). Ils ĂŠtaient liĂŠs au mĂŞme mode de vie des greniers prĂŠcĂŠdents. Leur construction reète le gĂŠnie des constructeurs et la notion qu’ils avaient de l’exploitation de l’espace. (SFOJFST EF IBVUFVST Ce sont des constructions en pierres ou en terre ĂŠrigĂŠes au sommet des collines et des endroits stratĂŠgiques et diďŹƒcilement accessibles. Ils sont visibles de tous les cĂ´tĂŠs et ĂŠtaient utilisĂŠs par plusieurs fractions de tribus des villages voisins. Ils ĂŠtaient liĂŠs Ă un mode de vie basĂŠ sur le sĂŠdentarise. Les habitants les utilisaient pour entreposer en plus des rĂŠcoltes, des denrĂŠes alimentaires comme le miel, l’huile ; des objets prĂŠcieux comme les bijoux, les documents, les titres de propriĂŠtĂŠ et


ExpĂŠriences de rĂŠhabilitation intĂŠgrale en MediterranĂŠe Experiencias de rehabilitaciĂłn integral en el MediterrĂĄneo Experiences of integrated rehabilitation in the Mediterranean

mĂŞme des armes. Ces greniers sont connus surtout dans l’Anti-Atlas, le haut-Atlas occidental et central. (SFOJFST EF WJMMBHF Ils appartiennent Ă la catĂŠgorie la plus rĂŠcente des greniers collectifs et auraient pris la succession des greniers de hauteur. Ils sont construits au milieu des villages et entourĂŠs d’habitations et d’espaces publics. Ils sont habituellement de petites dimensions par rapport aux prĂŠcĂŠdents. En ďŹ n, nous signalons aussi l’existence de greniers familiaux qui sont des magasins collectifs utilisĂŠs par un nombre rĂŠduit de familles qui habitaient un endroit isolĂŠ et qui ont ĂŠrigĂŠ ces bâtiments pour rĂŠpondre Ă des besoins de sĂŠcuritĂŠ. Ils ĂŠtaient utilisĂŠs pour le stockage des aliments, des denrĂŠes et des biens prĂŠcieux. Chaque famille possĂŠdait une ou plusieurs cases selon le nombre et les besoins. B. Problematique d’integration et de preservation La conservation et la sauvegarde des greniers-grottes et ceux des falaises sont Ă mettre dans le cadre des projets d’intĂŠgration et de dĂŠveloppement local des rĂŠgions du sud-est et de l’Atlas, car ils constituent un atout qui permet l’adhĂŠsion participative des populations locales dans la mise en valeur de leur hĂŠritage culturel. Dans cette optique, A. Chastel a soulignĂŠ que ÂŤ les monuments ne se prĂŠservent pas par dĂŠcret : ce sont les habitants de chaque maison qui assurent ou ruinent eux-mĂŞmes l’hygiène et la propretĂŠ des immeubles, les habitants qui souillent ou entretiennent les vieilles pierres1Âť . En eet, ces modes architecturaux prĂŠsentent un patrimoine exceptionnel. Synonyme d’une culture et d’une tradition lointaine, ces monuments continuent encore de se nourrir de leur propre sève et restent le symbole le plus reprĂŠsentatif de l’architecture dans cette rĂŠgion. Leur sauvegarde et leur rĂŠhabilitation ne doivent pas ĂŞtre rĂŠduites Ă des consĂŠcrations purement techniques et Ă des actions provisoires mais, il demande l’Êlaboration d’une conception globale d’intĂŠgration visant en premier lieu la mise en valeur de ce patrimoine architectural. Cette intĂŠgration, dont les principes s’inspirent des donnĂŠes humaines et ĂŠcologiques, doit viser essentiellement la sauvegarde de la richesse et la diversitĂŠ culturelle et artistique de la rĂŠgion. Elle doit ĂŞtre aussi adaptĂŠe au rythme de dĂŠveloppement et aux mutations socioĂŠconomiques de la population. Avec ses paysages saisissants, sa culture, son architecture, sa faune et sa ore, l’Atlas et la rĂŠgion du sud-est du Maroc reprĂŠsentent un potentiel touristique et culturel exceptionnel. Aujourd’hui, il est l’une des destinations les plus prĂŠfĂŠrĂŠes des randonneurs et des amateurs du tourisme des montagnes et des vallĂŠes. Or, le dĂŠveloppement de ce secteur se heurte au manque d’infrastructures nĂŠcessaires et de centres d’encadrement dans ces rĂŠgions, faits qui pèsent lourdement sur les greniers-grottes et les greniers de falaise dans leur intĂŠgration et leur dĂŠveloppement touristique et culturel.

1

CHASTEL, A., Architecture et patrimoine, Imprimerie National Edition, Paris, 1994, p.33.

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Réhabilitation et développement local Cas des fondouks traditionnels dans la médina de Marrakech – Maroc Kamal Belkyal1 et Abdellatif Marou 2, Moulay-Abdeslam Samrakandi3 1 2 3

Ingénieur – Chef de la division de l’action sociale – Préfecture de Marrakech Conservateur – Inspection des monuments historiques – Marrakech Chef du projet Réhabimed Marrakech - Centre Méditerranéen de l’environnement de Marrakech.

I. Contexte : Le développement démesuré et la transformation urbaine accélérée de la ville ont changé les équilibres longtemps installés dans la médina. Il en résulte que certains secteurs économiques et par conséquent la population correspondante sont fortement touchés. La ville de Marrakech est la cité de l’artisanat par excellence. Les secteurs économiques relatifs à l’industrie en général ne constituent qu’une faible part dans l’activité économique de la ville. Par contre la cité historique a su constituer et recréer un patrimoine incontestable dans les industries de l’artisanat où le facteur humain en est le pivot. Par conséquent, ce changement a généré des conditions de vie et de travail insalubres entravant tout développement durable et la population qui y est rattachée se trouve plongée dans un cycle vicieux de pauvreté et d’exclusion. Les mutations mondiales poussent donc le pays à capitaliser son expérience dans les domaines où la concurrence est encore jouable. Parmi les secteurs les plus productifs dans la ville de Marrakech, l’artisanat et le tourisme. L’artisanat emploie près de 114.000 personnes (représentant 13,7% de la population et 38,3 % de la population active de Marrakech), tandis que le tourisme est en voie d’accroissement continu depuis le début de cette première décennie du 21ème siècle. Mais l’artisanat reste le cœur battant de la ville constituant un pole d’attraction économique important Cependant, cette activité est affectée par de nombreuses difficultés relatives aux conditions et au cadre de travail, la précarité de l’emploi et la dépendance d’une grande part de l’activité au secteur du tourisme. Le gouvernement, les collectivités territoriales, les chambres des métiers et les associations professionnelles multiplient les initiatives depuis peu pour contenir les problèmes liés entre autre à la disparition et/ou à la vulnérabilité de certains métiers à cause de la concurrence asiatique. Par ailleurs, la particularité de cet artisanat est fondée, en plus de sa diversité et sa qualité, sur l’utilisation d’un large espace du tissu ancien de la médina de Marrakech. Cet espace est représenté par des édifices particuliers qu’on appelle les fondouks ou caravansérails.

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II. Aperçu historique sur les fondouks : La présence de ce type particulier de bâtiment est très ancrée dans l’histoire de la ville. On note déjà au temps des almoravides (1062-1147) la présence d’un fondouk appelé «fondouk de l’orange » transformé plutard en maison de particulier. Cependant, le tissu ancien actuel regorge encore de près de 100 fondouks dont la moitié garde encore son aspect d’origine. L’essor économique du pays à l’époque des almohades (1147-1269) et ultérieurement à l’ère des saadiens (1554-1659) revient au fait au rôle important que jouaient les caravanes dans la vie de la cité. Cette situation était favorable au développement de ce type d’édifices où la nature de l’activité détermine l’appellation du fondouk. C’est ainsi qu’on trouve des fondouks Elmelha (sel) ; Guarga’e (noix) ; Zit (huile) ; Thmer (dattes) ; Zrabi (tapis) ; As-sukar (sucre). La répartition des fondouks montre bien la domination des fondouks situés dans le territoire commercial historique de la ville : Coté nord et ouest : Quartier Bab Tghzout(30) et quartier Jamaa Lfna (42) : Trek (rue) Ahl Fès – Trek Dar Lbacha – Trek Lmouassine. Ils représentent aussi les meilleurs édifices du point de vue architectural. D’autres situés à l’est de la médina sont moins conservés et nombreux n’ont que très peu ou pas de valeur architecturale. Les fondouks dont il est question de réhabilitation sont ceux dont la qualité architecturale est bien distincte et répondent à la typologie indiquée ci-dessous. Afin de les distinguer des autres, on les appellera fondouks traditionnels. III. Typologie architectonique des fondouks: Au niveau architectural, les plans reproduisent la disposition classique des bâtiments connus par ailleurs dans la plupart des pays d’islam : Une entrée unique, une cour à ciel ouvert qui sert d’écurie, entourée sur ses quatre faces d’une galerie sur laquelle s’ouvrent des boutiques ou les ateliers et un étage de même plan réservé aux logements des marchands. Si la structure affecte une forme unique, chaque fondouk se singularise par ses éléments architectoniques, son décor et le type de matériaux mis en œuvre. Ainsi, le fondouk Alamari (photos n°2 et 3) adopte l’arc en anse de panier pour marquer ses ouvertures, et le bois roulé pour les balustrades du premier étage. Il est le seul fondouk à Marrakech qui emploie la peinture pour décorer les façades sur le patio. Un autre fondouk, Al-Khiria (photos n°4 et 5), emploie l’arcature, notamment le plein cintre brisé outrepassé, au rez-de-chaussé et à l’étage pour articuler les ouvertures des galeries sur le patio. L’emploi des linteaux en bois supporté par des piliers ou des colonnes polygonales est de règle dans la majoriité des fondouks. Le fer forgé reproduisant les formes et les motifs du répertoire traditionnel est souvent utilisé pour construire les gardes corps (fondouks Moulay-Hfid et Lahbabi ; photos n°6-7 et 8-9). Certains fondouks, en l’occurrence celui de lahbabi (photos n°4), sont menus à l’étage d’auvents en bois de cèdre soutenus par des colonnettes en bois finement sculptés et surmontés par des consoles ou des pseudos chapiteaux. Ces auvents protègent les galeries de l’étage et supportent les lits de tuiles vertes vernissés. IV. Usage actuel des fondouks, types d’interventions et contraintes : L’analyse des édifices cibles dans le tissu ancien de la ville de Marrakech a fait apparaître quatre types d’usage des fondouks. Sur les 98 fondouks recensés, on distingue :


ExpĂŠriences de rĂŠhabilitation intĂŠgrale en MediterranĂŠe Experiencias de rehabilitaciĂłn integral en el MediterrĂĄneo Experiences of integrated rehabilitation in the Mediterranean

sous la volontĂŠ particulière du Roi du Maroc : L’initiative nationale pour le dĂŠveloppement humain (INDH), oĂš le cĹ“ur de toute action doit cibler d’abord l’humain. Ce cadre a permis, depuis le discours Royal du 18 mai 2005, de crĂŠer une nouvelle dynamique dans l’administration des aaires des citoyens et de renforcer les synergies locales. 5ZQFT E JOUFSWFOUJPOT Plusieurs facettes constituent notre intervention. Il s’agit de redonner Ă l’ÊdiďŹ ce son aspect valorisant, autrement dit marchand en jouant sur son capital architectural historique fortement recherchĂŠ dans la dynamique touristique nouvellement crĂŠĂŠe dans la ville millĂŠnaire, de rĂŠgĂŠnĂŠrer un espace pratique, convivial, accueillant et de prĂŠserver sa fonctionnalitĂŠ. Cette action est accompagnĂŠe conjointement par l’organisation des artisans en association et le renforcement de leurs capacitĂŠs de gestion et de communication, dans l’objectif de crĂŠer une dynamique soutenable garante de la viabilitĂŠ de l’intervention entreprise.

RĂŠpartition des fondouks rĂŠsiduels dans le tissu ancien de la ville de Marrakech

2J /VNĂ?SPUBUJPO EFT RVBSUJFST DJCMFT QBS M */%) Quartier Bab Taghzoute

Quartier Jamaa Lafna

Quartier Bab Dbagh

Quartier Bab Ghmat

Quartier bab Doukkala

Quaretier Bahi

30

42

13

1

5

7

t t t t t

'POEPVLT SĂ?TFSWĂ?T Ă‹ M IBCJUBU 'POEPVLT NJYUFT IBCJUBU FU BSUJTBOBU 'POEPVLT NJYUFT IBCJUBU FU DPNNFSDF 'POEPVLT SĂ?TFSWĂ?T Ă‹ M BSUJTBOBU 'POEPVLT SĂ?TFSWĂ?T BV DPNNFSDF

Les usages constatĂŠs ont aidĂŠ Ă focaliser l’action d’intervention sur ceux rĂŠservĂŠs Ă l’artisanat en raison des potentiels de mĂŠtiers et de l’eectif d’artisans/maallems qui constitue le groupe socio-ĂŠconomique correspondant. Près de 4000 personnes y vivent directement de ces activitĂŠs et leur apport Ă la dynamique ĂŠconomique locale et nationale est incontestable (50% d’exportation). Par contre les fondouks mixtes (artisanat et habitat) ou rĂŠservĂŠs Ă l’habitat nĂŠcessitent une approche plus complexe oĂš le dĂŠlogement des habitants est prĂŠalable Ă toute intervention de rĂŠhabilitation. $POUSBJOUFT EF M JOUFSWFOUJPO Si la reconnaissance de la valeur historique et patrimoniale des fondouks est reconnue par tous, en plus de l’importance du tissu artisanal tant au niveau industriel qu’humain, il reste nĂŠanmoins une contrainte majeure liĂŠe au cadre lĂŠgitimant l’intervention dans ces ĂŠdiďŹ ces. Les bâtiments en question sont de nature privĂŠe et aucune loi ne permet les dĂŠpenses des deniers publics dans un ouvrage privĂŠ. Il est certain que le courage politique y fait encore dĂŠfaut au niveau local pour programmer une intervention forte ciblant la prĂŠservation et la valorisation d’un hĂŠritage commun et fortement chargĂŠ d’histoire. Ces contraintes sont amoindries par les nouvelles circonstances nationales qui ont crĂŠĂŠ un cadre exceptionnel permettant et lĂŠgitimant l’intervention dans tels ĂŠdiďŹ ces. Ce nouveau cadre vise particulièrement Ă mobiliser les moyens humains et matĂŠriels pour s’attaquer aux causes de l’exclusion socio-ĂŠconomique d’une franche de la population longtemps marginalisĂŠe. Le nouveau cadre est bâti

V. RĂŠhabilitation des ĂŠdiďŹ ces : Les travaux de rĂŠhabilitation des fondouks ont ĂŠtĂŠ exĂŠcutĂŠs sur la base du diagnostic et l’utilisation des matĂŠriaux et des techniques de mise en Ĺ“uvre traditionnelle. Il s’agit gĂŠnĂŠralement de : (voir dĂŠtail est en annexe) t t t t t

3FQSJTF E Ă?UBODIĂ?JUĂ? FU EF MB NBĂŽPOOFSJF 3Ă?GFDUJPO EFT TPMT 3FTUBVSBUJPO FU SFQSJTF EFT Ă?MĂ?NFOUT FO CPJT 3Ă?GFDUJPO EF M BTTBJOJTTFNFOU EF MB QMPNCFSJF FU EF M Ă?MFDUSJDJUĂ? 3FQSJTF EFT NBVWBJTFT SFTUBVSBUJPOT FU EĂ?NPMJUJPO EFT DPOTUSVDUJPOT parasitaires.

VI. Quelques rĂŠsultats : 4VS MF QMBO EF M BSUJTBO M VTBHFS une nouvelle dynamique est mise en place Le nouveau visage des ĂŠdiďŹ ces a rendu aux artisans leur dignitĂŠ puisqu’ils se sentent moins marginalisĂŠs, et le sentiment d’appartenance aux corporations artisanales est retrouvĂŠ ou renforcĂŠ. Leur pas vers l’organisation en association leur a permis de mieux s’organiser dans l’espace rĂŠhabilitĂŠ, et de soulever les questions communes Ă la prĂŠservation de leurs activitĂŠs et l’amĂŠlioration de leur situations sociale et professionnelle (formation continue, Ĺ“uvres sociales, loisirs, assurance maladie...etc.) 4VS MF QMBO EF M Ă?EJmDF -F QBUSJNPJOF FTU SFOGPSDĂ? Le bâtiment rĂŠhabilitĂŠ, en respectant le cadre gĂŠnĂŠral et en ĂŠvitant la folklorisation souvent pratiquĂŠe par l’introduction d’objets anachroniques, a permis l’intĂŠgration immĂŠdiate de l’ÊdiďŹ ce dans son environnement. Il constitue non seulement un objet de curiositĂŠs multiples, mais il est modèle d’une dĂŠmonstration de valorisation d’un hĂŠritage presque enterrĂŠ.

3²'²3&/$&4 DEVERDUN, G. Marrakech des origines Ă 1912. Rapport sur l’artisanat Ă Marrakech, 2007 – DĂŠlĂŠgation de l’artisanat de Marrakech.

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Carte de situation des fondouks résiduels dans la ville de Marrakech Emplacement des fondouks traditionnels résiduels de Marrakech

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ExpĂŠriences de rĂŠhabilitation intĂŠgrale en MediterranĂŠe Experiencias de rehabilitaciĂłn integral en el MediterrĂĄneo Experiences of integrated rehabilitation in the Mediterranean

Programme de rÊhabilitation et de mise en valeur du Borj Nord de Fès

)BmE .PLBEFN 'PSNBUJPO LaurĂŠat de l’Institut des Sciences de L’ArchĂŠologie et du Patrimoine de Rabat Et de l’UniversitĂŠ Internationale Senghor, Option Gestion du Patrimoine, Alexandrie, Egypte. 1SPGFTTJPO t %V "PĂ&#x;U $POTFSWBUFVS EV .VTĂ?F E "SNFT EF 'Ă’T FU chargĂŠ de la conservation des monuments historiques militaires de Fès, dĂŠtachĂŠ Ă la Commission Marocaine d’Histoire Militaire (Administration de la DĂŠfense Nationale). t %V BV $POTFSWBUFVS EFT NPOVNFOUT historiques de Sefrou (Ministère de la Culture). t %V BV $POTFSWBUFVS BEKPJOU EFT NPOVNFOUT historiques et des sites Ă l’Inspection des monuments historiques de Fès (Ministère de la Culture) Adresse : Maison de la Culture, Place de la RĂŠsistance, Avenue Moulay Youssef, Fès, Maroc &NBJM hmokadem@yahoo.com TĂŠl . : 00212 35647566 (4. 065235939

I- Borj Nord : Le monument Aperçu historique Borj Nord est sans doute le monument dĂŠfensif le plus majestueux de Fès. Il a ĂŠtĂŠ fondĂŠ par le sultan saadien El Mansour Eddahbi, en 1582, dans le cadre de la mise en place d’un dispositif de dĂŠfense constituĂŠ de onze forts ceinturant la MĂŠdina de Fès. Selon les chroniques historiques, les Borjs Nord et Sud furent ĂŠlevĂŠs avec l’apport de captifs portugais, ce qui explique le caractère europĂŠen de leur architecture. Au temps du Protectorat français, le monument a ĂŠtĂŠ utilisĂŠ comme caserne militaire et prison. En 1963, le fort abrita le premier MusĂŠe spĂŠcialisĂŠ en matière d’histoire d’armes au Maroc. Une fois, transfĂŠrĂŠ sous tutelle de la Commission Marocaine d’Histoire Militaire, le 22 Mars 2003, le borj a fait l’objet d’un projet global de rĂŠhabilitation qui englobe la consolidation et la restauration de la bâtisse, le rĂŠamĂŠnagement des abords extĂŠrieurs,

l’installation des ĂŠquipements spĂŠciďŹ ques et musĂŠographiques, la rĂŠorganisation de l’exposition, et la restauration de la collection. Architecture Imposant par son ampleur ( 2250m2), remarquable par l’harmonie de son plan et l’Êquilibre de ses proportions, le Borj Nord tĂŠmoigne d’une phase primordiale de l’Êvolution de l’architecture militaire. Du fait de l’Êpanouissement des armes Ă feu vers la ďŹ n du XVe siècle, les bastions ĂŠtaient dĂŠsormais destinĂŠs Ă abriter des armes Ă feu lourdes et a supporter les tirs de canons. Le borj se compose d’un noyau carrĂŠ, rĂŠgulièrement anquĂŠ aux quatre coins de bastions formant des angles très aigus. L’Êtage du borj abrite des casemates servant au dĂŠpĂ´t de munition. Ce fort est ainsi typiquement reprĂŠsentatif de l’architecture italienne dite “bastionnĂŠeâ€?, en vigueur en Europe au XVIe siècle. Grâce aux travaux de restauration menĂŠs rĂŠcemment par la CMHM, on a pu dĂŠcouvrir trois salles centrales en sous sol qui servaient de rĂŠserves d’eaux et deux autres salles latĂŠrales qui servaient de silos. .BUĂ?SJBVY FU UFDIOJRVFT EF DPOTUSVDUJPO La bâtisse est essentiellement rĂŠalisĂŠe en pisĂŠ. Riche en chaux, celuici intervient dans l’ÊdiďŹ cation de l ‘ensemble des murs porteurs qui prennent des ĂŠpaisseurs variables, allant jusqu’à 3.30 m. L’ensemble des ouvertures et fenĂŞtres sont appareillĂŠes en brique pleine alternant avec un lit de mortier de sable et de chaux. La brique intervient aussi au niveau des couvertures rĂŠalisĂŠes toutes en voĂťte d’arrĂŞte et surtout Ă dos d’âne, ainsi qu’au niveau des angles arrondis des saillants. Les pointes de ceux-ci, sont quant Ă elles, soigneusement appareillĂŠes en pierre de taille grisâtre extraite probablement sur place. La pierre de taille constitue ĂŠgalement le fruit extĂŠrieur qui ĂŠvolue, au pied de l’acrotère, tout autour du borj. Soigneusement taillĂŠe, elle forme aussi l’appareillage et les piĂŠdroits des arcs de l’entrĂŠe de l’ÊdiďŹ ce et de son vestibule. Des fragments de pierres non dĂŠgrossis, associĂŠs Ă un mĂŠlange de terre et de chaux, constituent de hauts soubassements, en forme de talus, bordant le Borj sur ses quatre cĂ´tĂŠs. .BUĂ?SJBVY FU UFDIOJRVFT EF EĂ?DPS Vu sa fonction militaire, le Borj prĂŠsente un aspect sobre marquĂŠ par ses structures architecturales et architectoniques imposantes. Les ĂŠlĂŠments du dĂŠcor se rĂŠduisent aux formes des plafonds voĂťtĂŠs, aux arcs brisĂŠs outrepassĂŠs de l’entrĂŠe et du vestibule, et aux arcs en plein cintre des portes et ouvertures intĂŠrieures et des fenĂŞtres extĂŠrieures. Les angles des murs intĂŠrieurs sont ĂŠgayĂŠs de gorges incurvĂŠes qui s’harmonisent parfaitement avec les courbes et contre-courbes des arcs et des voĂťtes. Par ailleurs, la pierre de taille apparente, ore un aspect esthĂŠtique particulier aux façades extĂŠrieures. Les deux portes extĂŠrieures sont composĂŠes chacune de deux battants de bois massifs pourvus de l’armature mĂŠtallique traditionnelle . &UBU EV NPOVNFOU BWBOU SFTUBVSBUJPO %JBHOPTUJD L’intĂŠrieur du monument dĂŠnotait les dĂŠgradations suivantes : t )VNJEJUĂ? DBQJMMBJSF UPVU MF MPOH EFT DPVMPJST OPSE FU FTU EV 3 % $ $FDJ a suscitĂŠ l’apparition des selles au niveau des murs et a contribuĂŠ Ă la corrosion de certains objets exposĂŠs. t )VNJEJUĂ? BV OJWFBV EFT WPĂ&#x;UFT TVSNPOUBOU MFT DPVMPJST OPSE FU

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est du R.D.C., qui est due Ă l’Êtat dĂŠfectueux des canalisations de l’Êtage. t .BVWBJTF EJTQPTJUJPO EFT DBOBMJTBUJPOT EF M BJMF TVE PVFTU RVJ dĂŠversent les eaux usĂŠes sur les soubassements extĂŠrieures. t .BVWBJTF RVBMJUĂ? EF M FOTFNCMF EFT FOEVJUT BQQMJRVĂ?T BVY NVST Ces enduits ne s’adhèrent pas parfaitement aux matĂŠriaux de construction d’origine. t .BVWBJTF BEIĂ?SFODF EFT TUSVDUVSFT CÉUJFT NPEFSOFT HSFĂľĂ?FT au niveau de l’Êtage et de l’aile sud-est avec l’aspect historique et esthĂŠtique du monument. Il en va de mĂŞme pour le carrelage des sols de l’Êtage. Les dĂŠgradations relevĂŠes sur les façades extĂŠrieures se rĂŠsument ainsi : t &DSPVMFNFOU FU EĂ?HSBEBUJPO EF MBSHFT TVSGBDFT EFT TPVCBTTFNFOUT en talus, causĂŠ par le manque de canalisations verticales. t %Ă?DPMMFNFOU HĂ?OĂ?SBMJTĂ? EFT FOEVJUT TVS UPVUFT MFT GBĂŽBEFT t %Ă?HSBEBUJPO EF DFSUBJOFT NBĂŽPOOFSJFT FO CSJRVFT FU EJTQBSJUJPO EF quelques pierres du fruit et des pointes des saillants. t 'PJTPOOFNFOU EFT IFSCFT TVS UPVUFT MFT TVSGBDFT t 1SĂ?TFODF EF mTTVSFT FU EF NJDSPmTTVSFT

1SPHSBNNF EF SĂ?IBCJMJUBUJPO EV #PSK /PSE QJMPUĂ? QBS MB $.). IntitulĂŠ du Projet : Restauration, rĂŠhabilitation et ĂŠquipement du Borj Nord SuperďŹ cie : t 4VQFSmDJF EV NPOVNFOU 2252 m2 t 4VQFSmDJF EV TJUF BCPSET JNNĂ?EJBUT EV #PSK )FDUBSFT Aectation : MusĂŠe des Armes : MusĂŠe National spĂŠcialisĂŠ, axĂŠ sur l’histoire de armes au Maroc et dans le monde ; %VSĂ?F HMPCBM EV QSPKFU : 24 mois .POUBOU HMPCBM EV QSPKFU 11 Millions dhs ; environs 1,1 Million d’Euro. t $POTPMJEBUJPO FU SFTUBVSBUJPO EV NPOVNFOU TFMPO MFT SĂ’HMFT EF M BSU et en utilisant des matĂŠriaux de construction traditionnels proches des matĂŠriaux d’origine ; Une ĂŠquipe pluridisciplinaire veillait Ă l’Êtude et au suivi du chantier constituĂŠe d’architectes, d’ingĂŠnieurs, d’archĂŠologue, de conservateurs de monuments, de laboratoire et d’un architecte paysagiste. Le suivi a ĂŠtĂŠ aussi supervisĂŠ de point de vue technique par l’Inspection des monuments historiques. t *OUĂ?HSBUJPO EFT Ă?MĂ?NFOUT EF DPOGPSU TBOJUBJSFT FTQBDFT EF EĂ?UFOUF et des ĂŠquipements spĂŠciďŹ ques nĂŠcessaires : tĂŠlĂŠsurveillance, ĂŠclairage gĂŠnĂŠral et spĂŠciďŹ que, sonorisation, climatisation, plate forme ĂŠlĂŠvatrice pour handicapĂŠs, dĂŠtection incendie, système de sĂŠcuritĂŠ alarme sans ďŹ l... t 3Ă?PSHBOJTBUJPO EF M FYQPTJUJPO TVJWBOU VO QSPHSBNNF SĂ?BMJTĂ? QBS le Conservateur du MusĂŠe, encadrĂŠ par la Direction du Patrimoine culturel. t "NĂ?OBHFNFOU TDĂ?OPHSBQIJRVF EV .VTĂ?F TFMPO VOF DPODFQUJPO moderne et intĂŠgration du mobilier d’exposition...La Direction du Patrimoine a participĂŠ Ă la supervision scientiďŹ que de l’exposition. Le travail de scĂŠnographie, conçu par le ScĂŠnographe Philippe DĂŠlis et son ĂŠquipe de spĂŠcialistes, a portĂŠ aussi sur l’Êclairage spĂŠciďŹ que

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de l’exposition, le mobilier d’exposition ( vitrines, socles, cimaises...), le mobilier de la salle d’accueil, des Reserves et de la boutique du MusĂŠe, le soclage des objets exposĂŠs, le graphisme et les supports de textes et des illustrations et les projections audio-visuelles. t - BNĂ?OBHFNFOU EFT BCPSET EV .VTĂ?F VO TJUF EF QMVT EF IFDUBSFT parking, allĂŠes, espaces verts, places, exposition en plein aire, poste transformateur, groupe ĂŠlectrogène, cafĂŠs... t 3FTUBVSBUJPO EF MB DPMMFDUJPO EV .VTĂ?F $F QSPKFU FO DPVST EF rĂŠalisation, concerne 1000 fusils marocains du 18-19e siècle. II- Borj Nord : Le MusĂŠe Borj Nord est un MusĂŠe national spĂŠcialisĂŠ, axĂŠ sur l’histoire et l’Êvolution des armes au Maroc et dans le monde. Une partie de l’exposition est entièrement consacrĂŠe aux armes et harnachements marocaines traditionnelles entant qu’ÊlĂŠments de parade et symboles d’appartenance socioculturelle. La collection du musĂŠe provient en grande partie de l’ancienne Makina, fabrique d’armes construite par le Sultan Hassan I Ă la ďŹ n du XIXème siècle et qui abritait un petit MusĂŠe d’armes. Sa MajestĂŠ feue Hassan II a particulièrement gratiďŹ ĂŠ ce musĂŠe d’un don important provenant de l’ancienne rĂŠserve d’armes du palais. Cette collection est d’une grande importante Ă la fois quantitatif et qualitatif. La majoritĂŠ est en eet Ă caractère archĂŠologique. Elle reprĂŠsente, dans l’ensemble, une fourchette chronologique allant de la PrĂŠhistoire, jusqu’à l’apparition des armes Ă feu automatiques de la première moitiĂŠ du XXème siècle. Les Ĺ“uvres ont une valeur ethnographique, technologique et esthĂŠtique. Par ailleurs, le MusĂŠe d’Armes est le seul au Maroc Ă prĂŠsenter des objets musĂŠaux ĂŠmanant de pays ĂŠtrangers. 35 pays y sont en eet, prĂŠsentĂŠs. En chire, le MusĂŠe d’Armes abrite 8244 pièces, dont 757 sont exposĂŠs de façon permanente, 2079 en RĂŠserves, 5262 en cour de restauration Ă l’atelier, et 128 objets prĂŞtĂŠs Ă d’autres musĂŠes marocain. -F QVCMJD Le MusĂŠe d’Armes de Fès prĂŠsente la particularitĂŠ d’être frĂŠquentĂŠ aussi bien par le public des touristes ĂŠtrangers que par le public marocain, en particulier les habitants de Fès. Ces derniers entretiennent en eet depuis plusieurs dĂŠcennies des liens intimes voir mĂŞme spirituels avec le borj et ses abords. En eet, le monument fait partie d’un site pittoresque surplombant la MĂŠdina et d’un attrait Ă la fois historique, archĂŠologique et naturel. Autres services oerts par le MusĂŠe En plus de l’exposition permanente, le MusĂŠe abrite un espace d’exposition temporaire une salle de documentation et de projections audio-visuelles et un atelier de restauration. Par ailleurs, une partie des rĂŠserves du musĂŠe est visitable, de mĂŞme que la citerne situĂŠe en sous sol. Comme espace de dĂŠtente et de dĂŠlectation, le MusĂŠe abrite aussi une cafĂŠtĂŠria sise aux abords immĂŠdiats du Borj. Des longues vues sont Ă la disposition des visiteurs dĂŠsireux d’avoir des vues panoramiques rapprochĂŠes de la ville. Parcours de l’exposition L’exposition permanente du MusĂŠe propose au visiteur trois grands thèmes, dont le premier sera composĂŠ de cinq sections. Ces dernières sont abordĂŠes selon un ordre chronologique.


ExpĂŠriences de rĂŠhabilitation intĂŠgrale en MediterranĂŠe Experiencias de rehabilitaciĂłn integral en el MediterrĂĄneo Experiences of integrated rehabilitation in the Mediterranean

t *OUSPEVDUJPO 1SĂ?TFOUBUJPO EV .POVNFOU FU EV .VTĂ?F t 1SFNJFS UIĂ’NF j )JTUPJSF EFT BSNFT EBOT MF NPOEF x Ce grand thème est axĂŠ sur la genĂŞse et l’Êvolution des armes dans le monde depuis la PrĂŠhistoire, jusquĂ l’apparition des armes Ă feu automatique au dĂŠbut du 20e siècle. En plus du Maroc, les armes exposĂŠs reprĂŠsentent 35 pays d’Afrique, d’Europe, d’Asie et d’AmĂŠrique du Nord. De point de vue thĂŠmatique, tous les types d’armes sont abordĂŠs : armures et armes dĂŠfensives, armes blanches, engins de siège, armes Ă feu individuelles, pièces d’artillerie, armes d’apparat, armes de chasse, projectiles... Par ailleurs, cet axe, est dĂťment illustrĂŠ par des textes explicatifs, des fac-similĂŠs de manuscrits anciens, des panneaux didactiques, des maquettes, des dessins, des photos et des projections audiovisuelles. Ce thème sera composĂŠ des sections suivantes : -FT BSNFT CMBODIFT EBOT MF UFNQT -FT BSNVSFT %Ă?GFOTF FU BQQBSBU -FT BSNFT Ă‹ GFV JOEJWJEVFMMFT EV e 18eme siècle : De la platine Ă mèche au fusil Ă silex - BSUJMMFSJF HFOĂ’TF FU Ă?WPMVUJPO EV e au 19e siècle) -FT BSNFT Ă‹ GFV JOEJWJEVFMMFT EV EĂ?CVU eme siècle t %FVYJĂ’NF UIĂ’NF j -FT BSNFT NBSPDBJOFT USBEJUJPOOFMMFT Ă?MĂ?NFOUT EF HMPJSF FU EF QSFTUJHF x En plus de leur fonction initiale de dĂŠfense, les armes traditionnelles jouent au Maroc un rĂ´le social d’apparat et d’appartenance tribale et hiĂŠrarchique. Ils constituent pour les ruraux, en particulier, une parure masculine et un complĂŠment obligatoire de leur tenue lors des fĂŞtes et des cĂŠrĂŠmonies. Ce thème prĂŠsente l’arme marocaine traditionnelle entant qu’ÊlĂŠment rĂŠvĂŠlateur du savoir faire de l’artisan marocain et entant qu’œuvre de synthèse pour laquelle contribuent plusieurs corps de mĂŠtiers artisanaux : la sculpture du bois, de l’os et de l’ivoire , et toutes les ornementations faites Ă base de mĂŠtaux ( fer, cuivre, argent et or) . Par ailleurs, le Maroc prĂŠsente des traditions millĂŠnaires relatives Ă la cavalerie et au cheval. La fantasia ou ÂŤ La’b al-Barud Âť (le jeu de la poudre) est un tĂŠmoignage encore vivant de ces traditions. Une partie de ce thème est en fait axĂŠ sur les harnachements marocains traditionnels, les traditions marocaines liĂŠes au cheval et Ă la cavalerie, et les costumes traditionnels du cavalier marocain. Ce thème est illustrĂŠ par des sĂŠquences de projections audiovisuelles. t 5SPJTJĂ’NF UIĂ’NF -B .BLJOB EF 'Ă’T Au XIXe siècle, le Maroc se trouvait dans une situation de dĂŠpendance en matière d’armement vis-Ă -vis de l’Occident. Les achats d’armes ĂŠtaient non seulement coĂťteux mais aussi dĂŠpassĂŠs. Ainsi et dans le cadre des rĂŠformes militaires entamĂŠes par le Sultan Moulay alHassan, une fabrique d’armes (Makina) fut implantĂŠe Ă Fès sous l’assistance d’experts italiens Ce thème est prĂŠsentĂŠ par des armes ( fusils, canons), des projectiles ( cartouches, poudres, pièces explosives) produits Ă la Makina et par des pièces dĂŠtachĂŠes d’armes et des outils de fabrication. Il est agrĂŠmentĂŠ par des fac-similĂŠs de manuscrits et des photos anciennes illustrant le fonctionnement de cette fabrique.

Borj nord avant restauration : quelques aspects de dĂŠgradations

Borj nord après restauration : façade sud

Borj nord après restauration : façade nord-ouest

MusÊe des Armes : vue de quelques salles d’exposition

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The Concept of Yard School in Conservation of Cultural Heritage, Khan Alwakalah Restoration Project, Nablus, Palestine.

Eman Assi Dr. Assi joined the Department of Architectural Engineering at Sharjah University, UAE in 2006. Dr. Assi is working as consultant in projects related to documentation, conservation, and management of cultural heritage in Palestine and in the Arab world. She has many publications related to the theoretical and practical issues of conservation and management of cultural heritage, and was acting as a director of International Council of Monuments and Sites in Palestine, (ICOMOS Palestine) 2003-2005. Dr. Assi also joined the Center for Middle Eastern Studies, University of Californian, Berkeley, as a post doctorate Fulbright Visiting Scholar for the academic year 2003-2004, where she conducted a research in title “ Cultural heritage and Sustainable development: Evaluation of recent Initiatives of Conservation of Cultural Heritage in Palestineâ€?. Dr. Assi is a member in scientiďŹ c committee on Cultural Routes, CIIC-ICOMOS, UNESCO. Address: Department of Architecture, University of Sharjah, UAE & NBJM BEESFTT emanassi@hotmail.com Telephone: 00971 50 7390034

Introduction Kahn Al-wakalah is an old caravanserai1 served as a traditional funduq or khan, built in the middle of the seventeenth century during the Ottoman period.The caravanserais were huge accommodation , facilities that provide shelter, food and drink for a caravan’s full complement of people, animals and cargo and could handle its need for maintenance , treatment and care. Within the city, the caravanserai was known as a khan, and it required less fortiďŹ cation but more space for storage and commercial transactions. Khan Al-wakalah, located along the main road reaching the city of Nablus from the Western Mediterranean plain, was among the four caravanserais constructed in the city in the eighteenth century during the Ottoman period. It was considered to be the largest and the most important. It has a rectangular plan with two oors built around a spatial open court. The main façade contains a unique entrance that was destroyed in April 20022. The ground level has a very close and dense architectural rhythm. The second level could be reached through an open stairs facing the main entrance. Khan Al-wakalah was still functioning till 1927, with traders coming from Syria Egypt, and Lebanon to exchange trade. Soap, textile, species

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were the main goods. In 1927 a very severe earthquake hit Palestine and Khan Al-wakalah was partially destroyed3 made it inconvenient to function except small shops with entrance at the main street. This situation was negatively inuenced the stability of the structure. In 2001 the municipality of Nablus bought the property from Arafat Family who used to own the building for long time and were able to ďŹ nd a ďŹ nancial assistant from the European Union to rehabilitate Khan Al-wakalah and the area around it. Project The main aim of rehabilitation of Khan Al-wakalah is to ensure the historical value of the building through adaptive reuse functions hosting cultural centre serving local community in the old city of Nablus. The project also includes the rehabilitation of main street along the Khan Al-wakalah. The major activities to be curried in this project mainly be; to secure the site, conduct some archeological investigation on site, consolidate the existing structure, clean the facades and the exterior walls, implement the restoration activates, (consolidate , pointing, plastering of stone walls). According to the design proposal, some part of the building in the southern and northern side of the building will be reconstructed to make sure that the building will maintain its original form as much as possible. This will also include reconstructing of the main gate in the northern façade to return it back to its original phase. To ensure building meet the modern standard, new addition was proposed in the inner court of the building. The concept of yard school The approach to rehabilitation of khan Al-wakalah based on dynamic aspect of human development ad capacity building through dierent stages of project implementation and mainly focused on promotion, awareness, visibility and learning. The yard school was adopted here as a methodology and was implemented though organization of training workshop, public lectures and site visits. Its main objective is capacity building in the ďŹ eld CH conservation, where development of appropriate technical and theoretical skills were developed by targeting dierent groups consist of the following: 1 Twelve young workers from the city of Nablus and the surrounding area. 2 Four designated technician fro the municipality of Nablus 3 Eight selected students enrolled in the postgraduate studies at the Department of Architecture, An-najah National University, Nablus.

Educational activities The yard-school will be attended by 8 selected students from An-najah National University to improve the topics and research ďŹ eld in master degree as well as increase the interest of the restoration of Palestinian cultural heritage. Giving the opportunity of young architects in their postgraduate studies an opportunity to gain experience and develop their research studies by working on real case. This will contribute to maintain links between theoretical and practical aspects of conservation in Palestine. It is anticipated that beneďŹ ts will be twofold. At one hand this will give the opportunity for theoretical investigation of issues which could be needed during execution of the Khan Al-wakalah project.


Expériences de réhabilitation intégrale en Mediterranée Experiencias de rehabilitación integral en el Mediterráneo Experiences of integrated rehabilitation in the Mediterranean

Also, the involvement of a number of master students will give better opportunities for academic investigation and documentation of the work. On the other hand, involvement of master students in the project will give opportunities for further investigation and research in the area of conservation on topics beyond Khan Al-wakalah, on other aspects of conservation in Palestine. Public lectures Public lectures considered a core stone in any community outreach activities where raise awareness could foster and rich interaction between public and heritage. Khan Al-wakalah project considered this issue in its activities. Several public lectures were carried on monthly bases targeting the general public. The lectures were conducted at the main theater of An-najah National University and were widely advertised either on the web site of An-najah University or local newspaper and TV. These lectures focused on exploring and discussing wide range of aspects related to social, economical and cultural impact of Cultural heritage conservation. Site visits Site Visits were organized while the conservation work is going on. This will give the public an opportunity to learn more about the history of their city and the building in particular. They will be able to realize the value and the significance of this historic as public collective memory and identity of this place. Those visits were highly appreciated by young, kids and member of local NGO, and community centers. See below a photo taken for elementary schools visit to Khan Al-wakalah during the cleaning of the faced of building.

includes different operation in this project form community awareness activities to training crafts and to educational aim6. This will ensure the change in attitude and paradigm shift in thinking about architectural education nature.

1

Caravanserai, Khan, han, qaisariya, wakalah, are all terms used for certain type of accommodation along the trade routes. In towns used for storing and distributing merchandise. Outside towns used for staging post for caravans provide short term accommodation not only for people but also for merchandise and animals.

2

They were arranged along trade routes at intervals that were calculated in view of the amount of distance that the caravan could be expected to cover in a single day.

3

JALAL DABBEEK, director of Earth Sciences and Seismic Engineering Centre at An-najah National University.

4

Education Outside the Classroom: Second Report of Session 2004-05 : Report, Together with Formal. By Great Britain Parliament. House of Commons. Education and Skills Committee, 2005.

5

PRESTON, J.,’ A common Grounding? – Principles, Standard, and training’ Paper to 2002 Oxford Planning and Historic Environment Conference, www.org.uk/papers/PATHE2002/ Prestongrounding/preston.html.

6

PRETTY. J and CHAMBERS, R. (1993): Towards a learning Paradigm: New Professionalism and Institutions for Agriculture, Brighton: Institute of Development Studies Discussion Paper 344.

7

KING, K and MCGRATH 2003: Knowledge sharing in development Agencies: lessons from for cases, the world Bank Operations Evaluation Department OED.

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MANSON, R. (edt.) 1998: Economics and Heritage of Conservation, report of a Los Angeles.

Conclusion It is now clear that the main objective of any promotion program of cultural heritage has to be centered on the appropriation of CH by people themselves and therefore on education and access to knowledge of cultural heritage4. This particularly true of the Mediterranean region where cultural heritage has been identified as a priority field of action since it is essential factor in the identity of each country. That involves encouraging the economic and social local repercussions of CH. Regarding the safeguarding of the sites and the encouragement for vocational training in the fields of the conservation and management of cultural heritage , these objectives remain relevant, as elements of a development policy, since they support the central aim of public awareness-raising and cultural heritage promotion5. One of the major objectives of Khan Al-wakalah project is the capacity building in the field of restoration in Palestine. The project aims at organizing a training activity called yard-school which aims at development of appropriate skills, by theoretical classes, and transfer of technical know-how, by involving specialists in conservation and local artisans. The rehabilitation of khan Al-wakalah proceeds with the understanding that Heritage is an essential component of civil society and social relations in the present .The goal of the Heritage Education and Community Outreach activities at this project is to coordinate and foster interaction between the public and heritage. This includes the development of; heritage courses for university students and professionals, educational programs for students of all ages, educational networks and community outreach programs. Building capacity is a core stone of all aspect of the project and this

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Photo of Khan Al-wakalah taken in 1927 after the earth quake, Source : ‘ Alathar Alislameya fi Flasteen’,

Khan Al-wakalah is under restoration, May, 2006 showing reconstruction of the southern part of the building and consolidating the roof of the upper floor.

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Post graduate student from the department of Architecture, An-najah National University are training to prepare traditional lime mortar , during a workshop organized by the yard school team and supervised by English expert Nicholas Durum , May , 2004.

A. craftsman is explaining to a group of elementary school students the traditional way of dressing stone, Khan Al-wakalah project , December, 2005.


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Romanian traditional architecture – half way between the Northern Sea and the Mediterranean Sea

Ana-Maria Dabija Professor dr. arch. in the Technical Sciences Chair of the “Ion Mincu� University of Architecture and Urbanism, Bucharest, Romania, member in specialized Technical Committees in the Ministry of Transport, Constructions and Tourism and in the Romanian Association of Standardisation, member of the Romanian Order of Architects, member of the International Solar Energy Society. Address: 18 – 20 Academiei Street, 010014 Bucharest, Romania & NBJM BEESFTT am.dabija@iaim.ro Telephone: +40 21 3077 213

Geography and history Romania is situated in the south eastern part of Europe. It is the country where the Danube River ows into the Black Sea. The sea had a great inuence on the development of relations with the Mediterranean world and there are ruins of ancient Greek cities at the shore of the Black Sea. The contemporary cities Constanta and Mangalia are the ancient Tomis and Calatis, built somewhere in the VI-th Centuriy B.C. by the Greeks that landed on the western shores of the sea. Commercial relations with the local Getic population were established and the Greek cities ourished and developed. Since the beginning of the ďŹ rst millennium (IVth – VIth century and again in the IX-th and Xth century) the architecture in this part of the world was strongly inuenced by Rome and then Byzantium. The inuence of the Byzantine style was stronger in Walachia and more vague in Transylvania and Moldova, where interferences with the features of the western and northern architecture can be felt [1]. Therefore the resemblance with the XIXth century traditional architecture of Fanar and Galata – neighbourhoods of Istanbul dwelled by Greeks as well as Turks is not accidental [2]. On the other hand, the rough winter climate, the rich pluviometric conditions during spring and autumn have lead to building principles that remind of the Northern European architecture. Therefore, the Romanian traditional architecture (see photo 1) cumulates strong elements coming both from the North (high pitched roofs, double glazed windows, thermal mass) and from the South (porches, sun shading devices). Where, what and why The traditional Romanian houses follow principles that are very simple

and of common sense in order to achieve the necessary comfort conditions of every epoch: warming or cooling of the house were achieved by means of eďŹƒcient building materials, the appropriate design and the traditional heating means. The sun radiation was used in the winter to improve the indoor conditions from thermal point of view and was shut out during the summer from the same reasons (these ideas are however emphasized today, as sustainable building principles). The building components (of the traditional buildings) that can be pointed out in respect of the request of appropriate thermal insulation are: t thick walls; in the case of wooden houses (like the one presented in Photo 1) the basement is made with stone. A current building material is clay which, due to thickness and thermal conductivity, not to mention the healthy environment, provides a very good thermal protection t low percentage of glazing (the ratio opaque part – glazed part of the envelope favours the opaque part) t speciďŹ c structure and type of windows: double glazed (in some cases even provided with exterior shutters). The traditional opening system that provides by itself airtightness during windy periods is accomplished with one sash opening towards the exterior and one towards the interior (the so called “customary opening of the windowsâ€?); when exterior shutters are provided, both sashes open towards the interior; t sloped roof, with no dwelling function, but which constitutes a buer zone that protects against weathering and cold; the slope is dierent in dierent regions, according to the climate: in the zones with plenty of rain and snow, the slope is quite abrupt; t concentrated thermal mass provided by the stove in the center of the house; the oven is also located there, so heating and / while cooking is accomplished. The speciďŹ c sun protection means are: t open porch (mainly oriented to the South) that represents solar protection as well as wind buer zone. The idea of a porch is found in the ancient Greece peristyle (patio), in the Roman architecture atrium as well as in the Middle Eastern traditional housing style. In all these cases, the peristyle surrounds an inner courtyard, towards which the rooms and the activities of the family are oriented. Unlike them, the Romanian porch of the traditional house is located along one (preferably South oriented) or two sides, facing the exterior and constituting an intermediary space, private as well as somehow public. The depth of the porch is dictated by the need to accommodate some activities like working together, entertainment, chatting (in some parts it is also called “the place for lookingâ€? [1]), as well as by the need to allow the winter sun rays to penetrate the windows and heat the rooms (passive solar energy in todays’ terms) and to reect the sun rays during the summer, to avoid overheating (see Photo 1) t protective, large eaves, that help also for the protection of the walls against weathering The building material, warm in itself, the thick walls, the glazing percentage and the buer space that is within the sloped roof are

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also supplementary means to reduce the overheating of the inner environment due to the solar radiation on a sunny day. From the “Brâncoveanu” style to the Neo-romanian style The same principles have been developed in the urban architecture of the late XVII-th Century (the “Brâncoveanu” style, named after the prince under who’s reign it was developed) and can be easily spotted until the beginning of the XXth Century. All the features that were presented above as characteristic may be found here as well. The scale of the buildings is different, the materials involved, the nature and quality of the decorations (a refined combination of oriental and western motifs). The functions of the buildings that have been preserved are either civilian (palaces: see Photo 2, The Mogosoaia Palace, XVIIIth Century) and / or religious (many more examples of churches than palaces are preserved). A mention should be made, about the porch or loggia: in the case of churches it is an “intermediary” space, facing the western façade - as the altar is East oriented – for shelter and waiting. In the case of larger buildings, like the inns or the monastic assemblies, the inner courtyard surrounded by porches is obviously a feature of warm climate, while the sloped roofs refer to a rainy climate (as seen in Photo 3, Manuc’s Inn XVIIIth Century). In many situations of merchant houses the porches are closed with glass, in wooden frames, thus creating an extra storage space and also a buffer zone that contributes, due to the green house effect, to the heat gain in the wintertime as well as to protect against major winds. Buffer space that protects against the wind is emphasized in the architecture of the late XIXth century, when the zone of the entrance was covered in a metal and glass skin. The frame was highly decorated, or simple, wooden, according to what the owner could afford. The influence of the European architecture, especially the French one, is obvious after the middle of the XIXth century, as two Romanian Principalities unified and eventually became one kingdom. The need of public buildings led to a period of effervescent building activity and the influence of the classic style is obvious. However, the traditional features have not been forgotten, especially in the traditional architecture [2] and although western and eastern currents influenced the building activity, towards the end of the XIX-th century, the principles established in the previous periods crystallized into what is known as the Neo-Romanian style. Historically it can be included in the Art Nouveau style, but has particular characteristics. Important buildings or simple dwellings were designed according to these principles, where the intermediary space – the loggia – is never failing. Returning to building components, as the buildings were higher, at the beginning of the XXth century, the “customary opening” windows became less and less used as, along with their major quality, some important deficiencies of the system can be encountered, mostly in terms of exploitation (an abrupt opening of the window might hurt a by-passer, if the window is on the ground floor and facing the street) and maintenance (of the outer sash: exposed to weathering and deterioration and also difficult to clean). As shown in Photo 4 (The Museum of the Romanian Peasant – originally the National Art Museum – arch. N. Ghika Budesti 1912), an example of Neo-Romanian architecture, there are more characteristics of the traditional architecture that can be emphasized: not only the open loggia, but also the proportion glazed – opaque, the small windows,

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the large eaves and, last but not least, the rich decoration. The thickness of the walls counts for the mechanical stability of these buildings, as Romania has to withstand very serious earthquakes. In some cases it is more than one meter in the basement. It, of course, helps to improve the thermal resistance of the opaque part of the envelope and ensures thermal comfort in winter as well as in summer time. Conclusion The special character of the Romanian architecture is given by the fact that, due to the geographic position that implies such important climatic differences, the traditional architecture combines the northern European style with the features of the southern, Mediterranean architecture. Apart from the climatic demands that are imposed on the buildings, influences growing from functionality to decoration are absorbed from all adjacent cultures (Orient and Occident) and melt into a unique, genuine style.

3&'&3&/$&4 [1] I. DIMITRESCU, Capitelul in arhitectura din Tara Romaneasca, in Pagini de veche arta romaneasca, Editura Academiei 1981, p.129 [2] C. NICOLESCU, Case, conace si palate vechi romanesti, Editura meridiane 1979, p. 33 - 83 [3] A. PANOIU, Din arhitectura lemnului, Editura Tehnica, Bucuresti [4] AM. DABIJA, Notiuni de proiectare a tamplariilor la cladiri cu functiuni civile, Ed. Universitara “Ion Mincu”, 2004 [5] AM. DABIJA A bridge between old and new. Thermal window refurbishment dwellings in Romania, 10 DBMC Conference, Lyon 2005

of

the

[6] AM. DABIJA, Tradition and innovation in contemporary Romanian architecture, PLEA Conference, Geneva 2006


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Manucs’ Inn

Mogosaia Palace

Traditional house

Peasants’ Museum

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Delving Valldigna

Paul Oliver

As he admired the lush Alfandec Valley, some fifty kilometres south of Valencia, King James II the Just said to his chaplain, the Abbot of the Cistercian Monastery of Santa Creus, “Vall digna monestir de la vostra religio,” to which the Abbot agreed, “Vall digna” (a worthy valley). The land had been occupied by Jews and by Muslims in the past, but as it was now in the royal domain, the King conceded it to the Abbot in 1298 A.D. so that he could establish a new Cistercian Monastery in this appropriate setting. Work on the complex soon commenced, including the building of the Abbot’s Palace, the Silent Cloister and subsequently, the Chapter House, Refectory and other buildings. Tragically, in 1396 an earthquake destroyed the first church built on the site, and two and a half centuries later, when a second church had been built, this too was struck by an earthquake. In the late seventeenth century the present Eglesia de Santa Maria de la Valldigna was constructed, with its Baroque dome and details. After the expropriation of the church lands and the expulsion of the monks in the early nineteenth century, many of the buildings were demolished and the land sold to the Borgias and others, for farming. Being very fertile, the “worthy valley” of Valldigna was used for the cultivation of several crops, the most notable being rice, which was made possible by the abundant water from the surrounding mountains. Over the years the small town of Simat developed in the vicinity of the monastery, as did the town of Tavernas at the entrance to the Valley, close to the coastal communication routes. A few villages and settlements also evolved, their inhabitants being mainly engaged in farming or the marketing of their produce. This continued until 1936 when General Franco ordered the abolition of the rice industry and its replacement with orange groves. The situation changed little for three decades, when a tourist industry served by hotels, railroad and highway, began to grow along the coast as the Playa de Tavernas. Close on seven centuries after its foundation the Church of Santa Maria de la Valldigna was the subject of a major restoration project under auspices of the Generalitat Valenciana , which also restored the Chapel of Our Lady of Grace, and promoted archeological research on the sites of the former monastery buildings. Its opening in 1998 could well have attracted the interest of many tourists, but the site is deep in the valley and is not immediately evident to the uninformed visitor. It was apparent that much more work could be done, and with the formation of the Foundation of James II the Just, funding was sought from the European Union Culture Programme 2002 for a new, partly educational project which would examine aspects of Valldigna as a whole. An award was made and the participating Universities of three countries discussed their respective undertakings. The representatives of the Muthesius Academy of Art, Design and Architecture of Kiel, Germany placed their emphasis on the natural life of the Valley, the psycho-social potentials of the restored monastery, and the history and traditions of its people. The students of the University of Arts, Berlin were interested in the aesthetics of the region and their expression now, and in the

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future, including poetry, symbolic installations, and examples of local popular and industrial culture. The relationship of the landscape, the history of the Valley and its culture, and the formal architectural links within the province, were of importance to Architectural staff and students of the Universidad Politecnica de Valencia. They also acted as translators and sources of information for the foreign groups. With regard to the traditional architecture of towns and villages of Valldigna, this was selected by staff and students of the Master’s Course in International Studies in Vernacular Architecture at Oxford Brookes University. Directed by myself and Senior Lecturer Rosemary Latter, our work was augmented by Dr Aylin Orbasli with respect to conservation and regeneration. Most students chose aspects of the vernacular traditions to study independently but some worked as a group. Their respective studies, made in 2002, are the subject of this paper. Mention has been made of Tavernas, the town at the access to the Valley. It has a fine plaza with trees and sculpture, dating from its earlier times, but many of the town’s buildings are of relatively recent date. On the lower slopes of the adjacent mountain is part of the original old town, with houses needing attention, but having the potential of being restored. There are rice barns still standing which could also be embraced in a general plan, in a town which still respects certain traditions – such as the blessing of horses and farm animals by the Church. Acting as a distribution centre for local produce, especially oranges, Tavernas was physically separate from other settlements, whose proximity to each other made them a more practical focus for study in the time available.. In the heart of the Valley is the small town of Simat, which had grown as a support for the monastery. It still has a daily open market in a street which terminates with what is locally believed to be the earliest house in the town. Simat has an attractive, tree-shaded plaza, beyond which are numerous houses lining streets, some having large doorways leading to rear yards where donkeys were stabled and wagons kept. Balconies and bays frequently project from the facades, from which carts were loaded with produce. These were studied by Ruth Liberty, who also found and documented a number of original but unoccupied stone-built vernacular houses on the hill slopes above the town, which could be utilized as tourist accommodation. The re-use of derelict or empty buildings also interested Siraporn Sihanantavong from Thailand, who observed that “vernacular buildings cannot only be preserved but can also be used for such functions as accommodation, a climbing club, or training centre. Creating attractive activities and providing these supports would be beneficial to the life of the valley and would reinforce the local culture.” For several students the sensitive development of tourism in the Valley had the potential for improving the economy of the villagers. Halyna Tataryn traced the history of tourism in Valencia province, noting that from the 1960s there had been no policy until the 1992 “White Paper on Valencian Tourism, which attempted to devise a working tool.” Helena argued that “with the growing demand for world cultural tourism, Valencia must capitalize on this opportunity: firstly, to diversify their tourism industry, and secondly, to use it as a vehicle for vernacular preservation.” Widya Sujana was also concerned with “adaptive use” of traditional buildings. Near a tree-lined island in a back street she observed a derelict building with adjacent land, which she believed would make an ideal museum. She argued that “the existing structure will stimulate an understanding of dwelling construction and presenting the exhibition in an authjentic environment will support this awareness


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of its history.” A Japanese student, Ayaka Takaku , also had history and accommodation in mind. Having previously made a study of Buddhist monasteries she was interested in the Cisctercian monastery lay-out. Ayaka made a proposal for the “restoration of a guest lodging that is sited in the east corner of the monastery,” explaining that “based on the archeological evidence which I found during my field research, the guest lodging is of central importance and must be shown within its social and vernacular context.” In the centre of the Valley, surrounded by orange groves, is the village of Benefairo, now largely devoted to the production, selection and packing of the fruit. To the dismay of Dimitris Ioannidis from Greece, the village plaza has been virtually abandoned and used as a car park.. He made a detailed study of the houses of the village and proposals for the regeneration of the plaza: “The introduction of traffic calming measures and traffic-free zones, will not only have a positive effect on the historic fabric of the town but also on the social life of the people,” adding that “it is important to establish a conservation policy in order to set the guidelines for any new building activity. This will ensure that the character and identity of the area will be preserved for future generations.” It was an opinion shared by the group who selected for study the village of Barx on the mountain slope of the southern side of the valley. Philip Knudsen, Erik Lang and Samiel Kamal-Uddin sought local opinions. “Upon talking to the local people we found that they were happy with tourists visiting, though they did not want large-scale facilities, such as large hotels.” Collectively, the group produced posters and images of the village, “highlighting areas that work successfully, and areas that could be improved.” They also made their own designs, Samiel suggesting that a derelict street on the edge of Barx could be made into a reception venue with a Tourist Centre which would promote activities. Philip designed a two-hall museum, the first hall being devoted to a permanent exhibition of prehistoric remains and artifacts that have been found in the Barx area, while the second would have shortterm exhibitions to interest both local and visiting people. He added that “the building would contain additional useful facilities such as a bookshop /information centre, and an internet cafe – currently not present in the village.” For Erik it was the views from the elevated village that excited him, and having seen some framed by incomplete new buildings, this led him to design a “boardwalk situated along this back edge which would serve as a direct link between different components of the project”, including “internet access, a place to do laundry, hostel accommodation and the opportunity to taste the valley’s succulent oranges” Diego Carrillo from El Salvador was interested in the agricultural history before the 1930’s introduction of oranges, which are waterconsuming and now make rice growing impracticable. After locating and documenting the buildings scattered through the valley that dated from the earlier periods, he made a visitor’s map for a Rice Trail which would take visitors to the stores, the water-mills, the irrigation channels and other historic structures of a former generation and its rural industry. During the course of the project, discussions were held with the town and village mayors, who were supportive of the studies being made. Following the conclusion of the project an exhibition of the work done by all the contributing Universities was held in July 2002, which displayed their studies, designs and proposals. The Mayors were

very enthusiastic about the possibility of showing the exhibition in their villages. Whether they did I am not certain, and I do not know whether the vernacular traditions of the region have been conserved or not. It would be gratifying if design policies would lead to a sensitive relationship between the inheritance and the new, but the evidence of extensive building works that were commencing on the outskirts of Simat when we left, made this seem unlikely. However, it is certain that several young architects learned much about vernacular traditions and will respect them in their future design careers.

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Al-Khawabi Citadel: a Rehabilitation project

Zeina El-Cheikh Bachelor of Architecture, 2006 (Faculty of Architecture/Tishreen University, Syria). Worked in several Archaeological and Architectural projects in Syria. Had several articles and previous participations on Al-Khawabi Citadel in international events such as 22nd UIA (Istanbul 2005), XI International Seminar FORUM UNESCO UNIVERSITY AND HERITAGE (Florence 2006). Address: P.O. Box 401 Tartous-Syria, P.O. Box 3340 Lattakia- Syria & NBJM BEESFTT elcheikh_zeina@yahoo.com Telephone: +963-43-224131 (Home)

Al-Khawabi Citadel: Why rehabilitation as a treatment? Several organizations and foundations which deal with heritage such as UNESCO, ICOMOS, and NPS deďŹ ned standards and guidelines of the main treatments used in the heritage conservation, and the most familiar are: preservation, restoration, reconstruction and rehabilitation.

+963-932-280156 (Mob.)

Al-Khawabi Citadel: A short story Al-Khawabi Citadel, is located at 20 Km to the North-East of Tartous City on the Syrian Coast. The citadel was built by mountains’ inhabitants and was restored by the Byzantines in 1025. It was handed to Crusaders in 1111. Then the Franks conquered it and toke it from a local governor in 1140 and called it ‘Le CoĂŻble.’ Afterwards, it fell to the Ismailis. Sinan Rashid Al-Din renovated it in the period 1162-1193 by removing some walls and building others, and the entrance tower was attributed to him. The Citadel was attacked in 1213 by Bohemond IV after the murder of his son Raymond in the Cathedral of Tartous. The Ismailis asked for help from forces in Damascus and Aleppo, and the Crusader siege was removed by this Islamic alliance. And according to several references, Al-Khawabi Citadel was not used for any defensive purposes after the 12th century. The Citadel was said to be used as an arsenal in Cheikh Saleh Al-Ali period, after being evacuated. Some original residents were installed in the close villages and others went to Salamiyah and Masyaf. And today, the main remaining historical structures belong to the Ottoman and the French Mandate periods. Al-Khawabi Citadel: Why this project? Al-Khawabi Citadel is a unique choice for such project because it is still inhabited. It is rare to ďŹ nd a continuously inhabited historical site, which possesses the potential that of revival on the aesthetical, social, economic and historical levels, to promote the revitalization of this architectural heritage and its neighborhood. So once such heritage is found, we should take care of it. The aim of this project is not making a full historical record of this architectural complex- despite the fact that it is the starting point of any architectural conservation project- but ďŹ nding solutions for

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its functional and aesthetic problems by using new conservation methods and techniques, and making compatible and meaningful modern designs which respect the original and existing features and functions. The idea is neither to demolish everything, nor to reconstruct everything. It is to preserve the Citadel and its structures, add to it and to appreciate accumulating cultures instead of narrowing our thoughts in a focus on one style, or one period. The challenge is to manage a new strategy to proďŹ t from the dierent values of the historical site, in order to create sustainability and a selfsustainability concepts which deal with several sectors of development for Al-Khawabi Citadel and its village- a strategy which might be adopted for similar historical sites with similar conditions- taking into account the current and future needs of the residents and the neighborhood through short and long term procedures, in which improving the quality of life of both residents and structures is the main objective.

Preservation as a treatment for historic properties is usually used when a continuing or new use does not require additions or extensive alterations, when the property’s distinctive features are essentially intact and thus convey the historic signiďŹ cance without repair or replacement, and when depiction at particular period of time is not appropriate. But by applying this treatment, Al-Khawabi Citadel will stay exactly the way it is now, and all what we will get is just a site frozen in time. Restoration is also another treatment which can be used when the property’s architectural/historical signiďŹ cance during a particular period of time outweighs the potential loss of materials, features, spaces and ďŹ nishes that characterize other historical periods, and when substantial physical and documentary alterations and additions are not planned. And according to this treatment, we will backdate the structures into a certain period by removing all the later changes, and this way we will be losing the character of the blend created by the residents of the citadel throughout centuries. Reconstruction can also be used when a contemporary depiction is required to understand the property’s historic value (including the recreation of missing parts and features), when no other property with the same value has survived, and when suďŹƒcient historical documentation exists to ensure an accurate reproduction. But the idea in Al-Khawabi Citadel is not to reconstruct all what has deteriorated whatever the reason was, besides there are neither enough documentation nor historical studies that show how the demolished parts looked like in the past. And perhaps Robert Venturi’s “Ghost Houseâ€? is a good example on how to create a new use in a historic space and to represent at the same the existence of any historic structure in a modern way without reconstructing it. Venturi constructed the museum and memorial of Benjamin Franklin is on the site of the home Franklin built for himself. The response to the multiple educational and memorial challenges departed from the usual museum and memorial architecture by placing the main exhibit area underground and designing a steel “ghostâ€? structure to represent


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the original house. And since the goal is preserving the overall character of a place as it evolved and keeping the mix for future generations to appreciate, where parts of the historic place are respectfully updated to serve new and continuing uses, the philosophy of SFIBCJMJUBUJPO seems to be the most appropriate for Al-Khawabi Citadel. This is because this treatment is used when repair and replacement of deteriorated features are necessary, when alterations or additions to the property are planned for a new or continued use, and when its depiction at a particular time is not appropriate. The history of Al-Khawabi Citadel needs to be reected in the project, with no emphasis on the bigger/older structures as being better than the others. We need to respect the past, add traces in the present, just as future generations will also make their marks.

5. Applying “burial of archaeological sites� concept in the parts of the citadel where archaeological excavations would be done -in order to complete the historical and archaeological study of the site- and which will not be used later on or shown to visitors, and which in case of being exposed to environmental conditions will cause bigger damages than if they were buried or had a well studied covering system which does not interrupt the paths in the site.

Al-Khawabi Citadel: Methodology of the work The work deals with Al-Khawabi Citadel as an urban texture in a form of a small city which consists of houses, a mosque and stores. And it deals with all its structures –either completely or partially standing- and not only with the oldest or the biggest structures. The methodology of the work includes the followings points: 4UBUJTUJDT BOE RVFTUJPOOBJSFT XIJDI JODMVEF CPUI SFTJEFOUT BOE structures) "SDIBFPMPHJDBM BOE BSDIJUFDUVSBM EPDVNFOUBUJPO $BUFHPSJ[BUJPO PG UIF TUSVDUVSFT BDDPSEJOH UP UIFJS t GVODUJPO t QIZTJDBM TUBUVT t IJTUPSJDBM TPDJBM WBMVF t BSDIJUFDUVSBM WBMVF t BSDIBFPMPHJDBM WBMVF %JTUSJCVUJPO PG UIF QSPQPTFE USFBUNFOUT BOE TPMVUJPOT PO UIF TJUF JO JUT FOUJSFUZ UBLJOH JOUP BDDPVOU t UIF NVMUJ GVODUJPOBMJUZ PG UIF QSPQPTBMT XIJDI JODMVEF SF VTF BOE new uses t UIF NBJOUFOBODF UISPVHI QFSJPEJDBM NBJOUBJOJOH XPSLT BOE through the correct continuity of the re-used areas 1MBOOJOH XJUI UPVSJTN Al-Khawabi Citadel: Conclusions and recommendations 1. Completing the deserted and partially demolished houses in the western sector in order to re-use them , by imitating the similar houses which are still standing in the same sector and which belong to the same period. 2. Building light temporary structures (with several modern materials) to serve speciďŹ c cultural and tourist functions, which should be also designed in a way that in case they were removed later, no damages will be caused to the old original structure or any of its parts. 3. Considering each addition to the inhabited historical texture as a part of its historical continuity, and it shall not be removed unless it causes a real deformation in the general fabric or causes any harm to the old parts (due to building materials, ďŹ nishing materials or installing the dierent networks such as drainage and electricity. 4. Removing cementious structures, either in the citadel itself or in its close neighborhood, unless they can take part in the development and re-use proposals.

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Le village berbère de Chenini : une approche ÊcomusÊographique

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système ĂŠcologique montagnard local et rĂŠgional. Chenini est situĂŠ dans cette ligne de crĂŞte, composĂŠ d’une sĂŠrie des villages, de Jebel Matmata, au alentour de Gabes, au frontières libyen/ tripolitains. Cette ligne est appelĂŠe dans les sources arabes ÂŤ Jebel Demmer Âť, elle reprĂŠsente ainsi un espace gĂŠoculturel spĂŠciďŹ que, relativement autonome. II- le village de ChĂŠnini : localisation et architecture

Assistant de recherche au projet EcomusĂŠe Nationale des Mines MĂŠtlaoui avec l’U.E.R MĂŠmoire et IdentitĂŠ - Ministère de la Culture (2003-2006). Etudiant-chercheur en patrimoine et dĂŠveloppement culturel- FacultĂŠ des Sciences Humaines et Sociales de Tunis- UniversitĂŠ de Tunis MĂŠmoire de master en cours d’intitulĂŠ : ÂŤ les comportements vestimentaires et les traditions alimentaires dans la rĂŠgion de Tataouine: programme scientiďŹ que d’un musĂŠe ethnographique Âť sous la direction du Prof. Ben Younès Habib. Adresse postale: 108, Rue de la kasbah Tunis 1006 Adresse courrier ĂŠlectronique: es_chokri@yahoo.fr TĂŠlĂŠphone: Mobile :(+216) 22667335

Fixe : (+216) 75844740

Introduction Il s’agit dans cette communication de prĂŠsenter quelques repères prĂŠliminaires pour la rĂŠhabilitation d’un model d’architecture traditionnelle mĂŠditerranĂŠenne : le village berbère de Chenini au sud est-tunisien. L’objectif de notre investigation s’appuie sur quelques composantes du programme ĂŠcomusĂŠale, dont les concepts, du dĂŠveloppement global/patrimoine durable/ĂŠcologie/tourisme culturel, s’avèrent indispensables pour ÂŤ relire Âť cet hĂŠritage ÂŤ vernaculaire Âť. La question du patrimoine se situant ainsi dans un champs pluridimensionnel, et rejoint la problĂŠmatique territoriale/spatiale dans ses principaux termes : sauvegarde, mise en valeur et dĂŠveloppement. I- Espace gĂŠoculturel La rĂŠgion de sud-est tunisien en gĂŠnĂŠral et Tataouine, en particulier, se caractĂŠrisĂŠ par un positionnement qui facilite la liaison entre Maghreb et Machrek, et entre l’Afrique subsaharienne et la MĂŠditerranĂŠe, par le biais du dĂŠplacement de L’homme dans ces vastes territoires (conquĂŞte, commerce saharienne/caravanière, pastoralisme...). Par ailleurs, la rĂŠgion a connu deux modes de vie : sĂŠdentaire de montagne et semi-nomades des plaines, deux aspects qui se cohabitent et reètent, autrefois, deux rĂŠalitĂŠs au niveau ĂŠconomique, social et culturel. L’abondance d’une mĂŠmoire collective orale/immatĂŠriel, ainsi qu’un hĂŠritage architecturel traditionnel/matĂŠriel, dans la rĂŠgion, permettra d’Êlaborer une ĂŠtude exhaustive sur la culture matĂŠrielle (savoir faire locale, pratiques culturelles, bâtis...). Les villages berbĂŠrophones, ont reprĂŠsentĂŠ le monde de sĂŠdentaritĂŠ historique, ancrĂŠ dans la rĂŠgion et dans tout le Maghreb, dĂŠs les ĂŠpoques anciennes. Elles se caractĂŠrisent par la spĂŠciďŹ citĂŠ de son

1-localisation et historique du Chenini ChĂŠnini se rĂŠvèle peu Ă peu, a qui l’aborde en venant de Tataouine, dont elle n’est guère ĂŠloignĂŠe que de 16 kilomètres vers le SudOuest, elle ne montre qu’un anc de relief dĂŠchiquetĂŠ, oĂš quelques constructions font penser Ă une agglomĂŠration. Mais la spĂŠciďŹ citĂŠ de l’ancien Chenini est aussi qu’elle reste jusqu’au aujourd’hui habitĂŠ par quelques familles. Face Ă la plaine du Ferch qui se dĂŠveloppe l’ancienne ChĂŠnini, aujourd’hui dĂŠserte, l’habitat ĂŠtĂŠ organisĂŠ sur un relief ĂŠtroit, il ne reste que les ruines de la citadelle et des nombreuses grottes. En bas, une curieuse mosquĂŠe, reconstruite â partir d’un oratoire plus ancien dans le anc de la montagne. La plaine du Ferch a connu l’occupation militaire romaine et byzantine. Ces grottes du Djebel oĂš s’est implantĂŠe ChĂŠnini ont servi, probablement, comme refuge aux Berbères christianisĂŠs qui fuyaient la persĂŠcution de l’empereur Dèce ? des curieuses tombes, de plus de quatre mètres de long, disposĂŠes au pied de la MosquĂŠe, viennent illustrer dans l’imaginaire populaire collectif une lĂŠgende, qui existe tout au long de la MĂŠditerranĂŠe, et qui semble avoir son origine dans le croissement de deux traditions chrĂŠtiennes et musulmanes. Plusieurs lignes d’habitations ceinturant le piton en triple anneau. La citadelle en ruines, qui les domine, a perdu sa fonction de forteresse, elle ne sert plus que de grenier. AďŹ n de retrouver quelques droits de labour et de parcours dans la Plaine, les habitants de ChĂŠnini avaient conclu un pacte de sohba /amitiĂŠ avec les semi-nomades (les OuledYagoub puis les Ouderna). $IĂ?OJOJ VO NPEFM MPDBM EF M BSDIJUFDUVSF USBEJUJPOOFMMF Sur les pentes abruptes du relief, en dessous de la citadelle grenier, les habitants de ChĂŠnini, ont implantĂŠ leurs habitations, Ă l’instar des leurs voisins Jbalia/berbères des autres villages (Douiret, Guermassa, Segdel, Briga...).Des murettes de soutènement retiennent la terre, les grignons venant de la pressĂŠe des olives, et les rĂŠsidus de fourrage et d’alfa. Il se forme ainsi d’Êtroites plates-formes oĂš courent les chemins tortueux. Au-dessus des grottes d’habitation, creusĂŠes à anc de Djebel, se proďŹ lent les ruines d’un ksar. Tout en haut, la MosquĂŠe au sommet de la montagne. L’habitation troglodytique est constituĂŠe d’au moins deux chambres creusĂŠes dans la roche tendre et ayant pour toit les bancs calcaires (roches dure). Les lits, les tables, les armoires sont souvent amĂŠnagĂŠes dans les parois du ÂŤ Ghar Âť. A l’extĂŠrieur de la grotte, se trouve une cour en plein air, clĂ´turĂŠe par une muraille avec une porte en bois de palmier. On y amĂŠnage gĂŠnĂŠralement une cuisine, un magasin et une bergerie. A Chenini trois niveaux de grottes ĂŠdiďŹ ĂŠes entre les bancs calcaires s’alignent sur les deux ancs de la montagne et sont couronnĂŠes au milieu par la forteresse et le gasr, c’est une sorte de citadelle formĂŠe d’un ensemble de ghorfas/chambre superposĂŠes en ĂŠtage et alignĂŠes.

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Dans ces ghorfas ces montagnards ensilaient leurs provisions (olives, huile, grains, figues sèches...) sur la plate forme, à proximité du gasr, se dresse la mosquée du village. Sur les niveaux inférieurs, on rencontre, parmi les «ghiraines » d’habitations, des grottes aménagées en huileries, l’une d’elles est encore fonctionnelle. III-Composantes préliminaires d’un futur écomusée dans le village de Chenini La réhabilitation du patrimoine culturel architecturel, devient aujourd’hui primordiale, vu les nouveaux défis sociétale/identitaire face à la mondialisation. Cette mise en valeur s’adapte à la démarche écomuséologique, expérience initié deux muséographes français, Hugues De Varine et George Henri Rivières, depuis les années 70 en France puis dans d’autres pays. En effet, la réalisation complète et totale de cette expérience demande des moyens financiers et techniques énormes, l’objectif est d’aboutir à la réhabilitation entière de la région/ communauté ciblée, et favorisant ainsi l’émergence d’un processus de développement durable local/régional. Notre choix, au niveau méthodologique, permettra d’identifier quelques repères écomuséales, applicable à la situation architecturelle, socioculturelle et naturelle à Chenini, terrain d’investigation, ethnographique et muséographique. En effet, l’expérience écomuséale se base sur le concept de l’unité écologique, élément didactique et expographique. Toute on se basons sur ce terme, les unités architecturales et écologiques suivantes peuvent être mentionnées : 1-Unité d’habitation troglodytique La maison troglodyte ou semi-troglodytes, exprime réellement cet croissement entre nature/homme/savoir faire local dans l’architecture vernaculaire. Le principe de l’habitation troglodytique est de creuser dans les couches tendres et s’installer sur les couches dures. Trois rangées d’habitations existent aujourd’hui, ce sont des demeures troglodytiques « laté¬rales » (grottes à plan horizontal). Ces grottes comportent toujours deux parties : la première, longue de sept à huit mètres, a une largeur de trois à quatre mètres. Une seconde excavation fait suite à la première : c’est la salle aux réserves (de 4 à 5 mètres de long). Cette ghar/grotte souvent ne suffit pas pour une famille. On en utilise souvent deux ou trois, accolées, disposées parallèlement dans le flanc de la montagne, séparées par un élément de Djebel ou une paroi construite. La grotte ici n’est pas décorée comme la demeure des Matmata. Blanchie inté¬rieurement à la chaux, isotherme, et grâce à une porte en bois de palmier, à l’abri des vents et de la poussière. Le passage d’une grotte à l’autre se fait par la cour, aménagée en avant sur un palier. Un mur la protège des vents et des regards indiscrets. Cette cour, souvent, comprend un ensemble construit, une alvéole à usage de cuisine, une étable, un grenier, parfois nanti d’une terrasse, où l’on dépose quelques provisions. Cette unité/demeure permettra dans sa fonctionnalité socio-culturel et socio-économique, de présenter les divers aspects de la culture matérielle en rapport (table, robe, tissage...) et de conserver ce bâti traditionnel dans une nouvelle vision écomuséographique. 2-Unité de transformation On trouve trois huileries traditionnelles séculaires à Chenini, aménagé dans des grottes/ ghiraines, l’une de ces huileries est encore fonctionnelle, avec son ancien système de broyage et de presse.

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Cette unité écologique, représente l’aspect oléicole prospère dans la région de Jebel Matmata et Tataouine, elle permettrai la restitution des différentes étapes de la transformation de l’olive, ainsi la sauvegarde d’une savoir faire traditionnelle. 3-Unité agricole Les gens de Chénini organisent dans les lits d’oueds des petits jardins, plantés des oliviers, des figuiers et des palmiers. Comme dans toute la région, ce barrage appelé localement « Jesser », il demande toute une techni¬que pour retenir la terre, il ne doit pas, pour autant, capter l’eau de ruissellement, au moment des pluies, au détriment des vergers établis plus bas. Cette unité élaborée dans un champ avoisinant, sauvegardera une tradition agricole locale, les types des plantes adoptées, les techniques et les outils utilisés dans les diverses activités agricoles. Ce qui permettra de présenter les caractéristiques d’une écologie végétale locale. 4 – Bergerie/étable d’animaux domestiques Unité qui peut être réalisée dans la cour d’une maison troglodyte, divisé en deux parties, l’une est consacré pour les animaux domestiques l’autre pour les animaux sauvages. Ce qui permettra de présenter les aspects de l’écologie animale régionale. 5 –Unité de production artisanale Composé d’un atelier de tissage, de vannerie, poterie, ainsi qu’une salle d’exposition et de vente des produits artisanaux locales. Ici on peut présenter les savoir faire artisanales locales. 6 –Unité médicinale Une exposition des plantes de la montagne, ainsi que leurs usages locales. Conclusion Cet essai reste toujours d’un aspect théorique, vu les réalités du terrain. Chenini un model architecturel traditionnel local, implanté dans un espace/écosystème naturel spécifique, dont le concept de l’écomusée, permettrai la réalisation d’une « aventure pareille », ou on dépasse le musée/institution au musée village/espace géographique. Enfin, il faut noter que le village de Chenini a devenu, depuis le début de l’année 2007 un projet inclue au programme de la réhabilitation/restauration architecturale effectué par l’Institut National du Patrimoine.

#*#-*0(3"1)*& Acte du Séminaire International Tunis – Hammamet 23- 27 mai 2000, « Patrimoine te codéveloppement durable en Méditerrané occidentale », textes réunis par Nozha Sekik, Edition I.N.P, I.C.M et PRELUDE, Tunis, 2001. AYOUB (A), « la mémoire et la langue », in Revue arabe de la culture, Numéro spécial sur le patrimoine populaire dans la région arabe, année 18 – Mars, 1999. (En arabe). CHEKIR (MOHAMED SALEH), Chenini, thèse de 3émé cycle en architecture, Institut Technologique d’Art, d’Architecture et d’Urbanisme de Tunis, 1992. DABBABI (RIDHA), Les manières d’habiter en Tunisie, Mémoire de D.E.A. en archéologie et patrimoine, Faculté des sciences Humaines et Sociales de Tunis, 2001.


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DUBÉ (PH), Compte rendu au livre de Jaumain (S), sous direction, « Les Musées en mouvement, nouvelles conceptions, nouveaux publics (Belgique, Canada) », éditions de l’Université de Bruxelles, Bruxelles, In : www.erudit.org, 2000. LE BOEUF (J), Les confins de la Tunisie et de la Tripolitaine, Paris, 1909. LEFEBVRE (B) et ALLARD (M), Le musée : un projet éducatif, Les éditions logiques, Montréal, 1996. LEWICKI (T), « le monde berbère vu par les écrivains Arabes de Moyen âge », in actes du première congrès d’études de cultures Méditerranéennes d’influences Arabo-berbères, Alger, 1973, P.P 31- 42. LOUIS (A.), « Aux Matmata et dans les Ksar du sud, l’olivier et les hommes », Cahiers des Arts et Traditions Populaires, N°3, 1970, pp. 41-66. LOUIS (A.), « Habitat et habitations autour des Ksars de montagne et d’Ifriqiya aux 13e et 14e siècle », Institut des Belles Lettres Arabes, 34e année, 1er trimestre, N°127, 1971, pp. 93-122 LOUIS (A.), Tunisie du Sud. Ksars et villages de crêtes, Paris, Edition CNRS, 1975. LOUIS (A.), HALL ET (S.), « Le monde berbère du sud tunisien : évolution d’un habitat », Institut des Belles Lettres Arabes, 42e année, 2e trimestre, N°144, 1979 pp. 249-268. LOUIS (A), Nomades d’hier et d’aujourd’hui dans le Sud tunisien, édisud, Aix-en-Provence, 1979. POULOT (D), Patrimoine et musées, Edition la Hachette, Paris, 2001. PROST (G), « Utilisation de la terre et production dans le Sud tunisien » in cahiers de Tunisie n° 5, 1954, P.P 28 – 68. PROST (GÉRARD), « Habitat et habitation chez les Ouderna et les Matmata », Cahiers de Tunisie, 3e et 4e trimestre, 2e année, N°7 et 8, 1954, p.p. 239-253 UNESCO, Nomades et nomadisme au Sahara, UNESCO, Paris, 1963. ZAIED (ABDESSMED), Le monde des Ksours du sud-est tunisien, Edition Beit Al Hikma, Tunis, 1992.

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façade d’une maison semi-troglodytes

Unité troglodyte ruinée

Chemin de piton aménagé

Vue d’ensemble de Ksar d’en haut

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De la pertinence de la restauration de l’architecture vernaculaire. Cas de Dar el Wadi à Nefta au sud tunisien

Fakher Kharrat (Architecte ITAAUT diplômé en Etude et Restauration des Monuments de la Sapienza de Rome. Ex chef d’unité de projet à l’Agence du Patrimoine, actuellement chef du projet « étude et sauvegarde des villes oasis »et Maître Assistant à l’ENAU de Tunis, il enseigne la Protection du Patrimoine Bâti et la Conservation des Biens Culturels. ) Adresse postale: BP 157 Publiposte Salammbô 2025 Tunis-Tunisie Adresse courrier électronique: fkarat@planet.tn Téléphone: Mobile : 0021621166760

Tél Fax : 0021671982134

Introduction Restaurer une maison traditionnelle à Nefta1 construite en brique et bois de palmier formant la spécificité de l’architecture du Jerid2 par l’université dans le cadre d’un projet de coopération tuniso-italienne3 est forcement un projet pilote. Il pose deux problèmes essentiels, d’abords comment trouver les matériaux traditionnels de construction et les détenteurs des savoir-faire constructifs et en deuxième lieu, comment concilier théorie et pratique dans la restauration de cette maison, en d’autres termes comment évaluer la pertinence de cette intervention réalisée par l’architecte Ridha Rekik4. Pour tenter de répondre a cette problématique le présent essai sera organisé en deux parties, la première dressera l’itinéraire du projet pilote de restauration de Dar el Wadi5 à Nefta et la seconde proposera un système d’évaluation de l’intervention basé sur les principes généraux de conservation des monuments en référence aux chartes internationales de restauration6. 1. Le projet pilote 1.2. Dar el Wadi, un patrimoine en péril Dar el Wadi est une grande demeure de 900m2 de surface représentative de l’architecture du Jérid, ayant appartenu à des notables locaux, elle est âgée de plus de deux siècles et a été abandonnée depuis plusieurs années. Le manque d’entretien et les pluies rares mais torrentielles ont ouvert des brèches dans sa structure et la dégradation a commencé .Son usage pour le tournage de certains films a contribué a la défigurer par les décors fantaisistes non enlevés après le tournage. Elle présente surtout des désordres statiques dans son enveloppe verticale avec une désolidarisation et déversement de certains murs constitués de deux rangées de brique pleine de part et d’autre et un remplissage en Fanker7 hourdé de mortier de terre. Les planchers en bois de palmier

recouverts d‘une épaisse couche de terre présentent plusieurs brèches d’où l’infiltration d’eau qui participe à détériorer les poutres en bois de palmier. Attaquées par les insectes, ces poutres perdent leur qualité portante et cassent sous le poids de la terre. 1.2. Trouver les matériaux de construction Pour trouver la brique pleine et le bois de palmier, il y a lieu de chercher leurs derniers fabricants. Les briqueteries sont devenues rares sous la pression des produits rouges, alors que le bois de palmier est déclassé par les dalles de béton armé. La fabrication de la brique, ainsi que la sélection et préparation du bois pour la construction obéissent à un long processus qui nécessite des années d’apprentissage. Etant tombés dans l’oubli, ces matériaux sont devenus inaccessibles, malgré la nouvelle demande créée par le tourisme. 1.3. Trouver les détenteurs du savoir faire constructif De même que pour les matériaux, il est devenu très rare de trouver les maîtres maçons capables de les mettre en œuvre eux qui ont été formés pendant de longues années. Les quelques maîtres désormais très âgés ont conservé ce savoir-faire alors que les entreprises ne maîtrisent que les techniques modernes. 1.4. Documenter et transmettre les savoir-faire traditionnels La rareté des personnes qui ont conservé ces savoir faire ancestraux induit à l’impératif de documentation et archivage des procédés de fabrication des matériaux traditionnels et leur mise en œuvre. C’est le rôle de l’université, qui à travers les chantiers pilotes et les cycles de formation se doit d’assurer la transmission de ces connaissances pour les générations futures afin d’assurer leur pérennité. 1.5. Bien intégrer les matériaux modernes Les savoir-faire traditionnels sont très utiles pour la remise en état des bâtiments à l’identique. Toutefois, ces techniques deviennent inopérantes devant les problématiques de désordres statiques comme le déversement des murs, le vieillissement des matériaux ou l’adaptation de ces bâtiments à une nouvelle fonction. Les matériaux et les techniques modernes peuvent être intégrés dans les bâtiments anciens dans une petite proportion et avec la précaution de ne pas altérer leur harmonie. 2. L’évaluation de la restauration Dans son cours de restauration, Giancarlo Palmerio8 a retenu les principes directeurs suivants pour guider les projets de restauration : L’intervention minimale , la réversibilité, la “distingabilité”, la compatibilité, l’authenticité et l’actualité expressive9 en application de la théorie de restauration développée par Giovanni Carbonara10 et déduite des principales chartes de restauration. Vu que l’authenticité est assurée par la réversibilité, et le minimum d’intervention, l’actualité expressive est assurée par la visibilité, je propose dans ce qui suit de retenir les quatre premiers principes en substituant la “distingabilité” par la visibilité et d’ajouter deux principes , la durabilité et la mise en valeur. Les six principes ainsi retenus forment une matrice d’évaluation de la pertinence de l’intervention de restauration. Un essai sera réalisé pour la restauration de Dar el Wadi en attribuant une évaluation allant de Bien Appliqué, Moyennement Appliqué à Pas Appliqué.

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ExpĂŠriences de rĂŠhabilitation intĂŠgrale en MediterranĂŠe Experiencias de rehabilitaciĂłn integral en el MediterrĂĄneo Experiences of integrated rehabilitation in the Mediterranean

- JOUFSWFOUJPO NJOJNBMF Entendue comme une condition de sauvegarde de l’authenticitĂŠ, il est impĂŠratif d’Êvaluer la proportion de l’intervention. Pour notre cas, l’intervention a consistĂŠ en une rĂŠhabilitation des façades avec enlèvement des dĂŠpĂ´ts de Lokaa11 et reconstruction d’une portion de façade ĂŠcroulĂŠe. L’intervention sur la toiture et après l’Êvaluation par un expert local de la tenue des poutres en bois de palmiers ZaĂŻza12 a constituĂŠ au remplacement de seulement quelques pièces dĂŠfectueuses suite Ă l’attaque d’insectes et la rĂŠfection de la forme de pente. Pour l’adaptation Ă la nouvelle fonction d’Êcole, des sanitaires ont ĂŠtĂŠ amĂŠnagĂŠs dans les anciennes cuisines et quelques ouvertures ont ĂŠtĂŠ rĂŠalisĂŠes dans le respect de l’organisation gĂŠnĂŠrale de la maison. Donc vu que les interventions sont minimes et ont respectĂŠ l’organisation de la maison, son image et son authenticitĂŠ, on peut conclure que le principe de minimum d’intervention a ĂŠtĂŠ bien appliquĂŠ. -B SĂ?WFSTJCJMJUĂ? Entendue comme la possibilitĂŠ de revenir Ă l’Êtat d’avant restauration pour la reprendre en cas d’erreur ou de l’Êvolution de la connaissance. Dar el Wadi, qui appartient Ă l’architecture du JĂŠrid, est caractĂŠrisĂŠe par la rĂŠversibilitĂŠ et la nĂŠcessitĂŠ d’entretien rĂŠgulier. Pour l’intervention nouvelle, les consolidations faites Ă l’aide de tirants horizontaux et connecteurs verticaux sont facilement rĂŠversibles ainsi que la passerelle et les escaliers de secours mĂŠtalliques. Donc le principe de rĂŠversibilitĂŠ a ĂŠtĂŠ moyennement appliquĂŠ. -B WJTJCJMJUĂ? ThĂŠorisĂŠe par Boito13 et reprise par la charte de Venise, la visibilitĂŠ est le fait de pouvoir distinguer les parties originales de celles reprises ou ajoutĂŠes. Ce principe a ĂŠtĂŠ respectĂŠ surtout dans les consolidations mĂŠtalliques laissĂŠes en vue dans le patio et Ă l’intĂŠrieur des pièces par les tirants modiďŹ ables selon les saisons. La reprise d’une portion de façade dĂŠcorĂŠe et ĂŠcroulĂŠe a ĂŠtĂŠ eectuĂŠe Ă la manière d’unanastylose14 et n’a pas ĂŠtĂŠ montrĂŠe clairement. En eet une discussion entre l’architecte et l’Êquipe tuniso- italienne de maĂŽtrise d’ouvrage a privilĂŠgiĂŠ cette solution pour ne pas altĂŠrer la lecture de la façade, par contre l’ensemble des ĂŠlĂŠments neufs est facilement visible. Donc la visibilitĂŠ de l’intervention a ĂŠtĂŠ partiellement appliquĂŠe, -B DPNQBUJCJMJUĂ? Elle mesure le degrĂŠ de compatibilitĂŠ physique et chimique des matĂŠriaux et techniques d’intervention avec l’original. Le recours aux matĂŠriaux traditionnels tel que la brique cuite, le bois de palmier dans les travaux de rĂŠhabilitation assure dĂŠjĂ une compatibilitĂŠ avec les matĂŠriaux existants. Des changements minimes ont ĂŠtĂŠ apportĂŠs Ă la composition de la forme de pente sur le conseil de l’ingĂŠnieur pour une meilleure ĂŠtanchĂŠitĂŠ. Les nouveaux matĂŠriaux introduits surtout pour les sanitaires ont ĂŠtĂŠ jugĂŠs incompatibles avec les murs en terres ce qui a nĂŠcessitĂŠ la construction de nouvelles cloisons pour recevoir les faĂŻences. Donc la comptabilitĂŠ plysico - chimique a ĂŠtĂŠ moyennement respectĂŠe. 2.5.La durabilitĂŠ L’architecture vernaculaire dans le JĂŠrid utilise des matĂŠriaux locaux poussĂŠs Ă la limite de leurs possibilitĂŠs. La pĂŠrennitĂŠ de cette architecture n’est assurĂŠe que par l’application d’un entretien rĂŠgulier.

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L’intervention sur Dar el Wadi a rĂŠussi Ă stabiliser le bâtiment et augmenter ses chances de survie par une restauration Ă la manière traditionnelle et l’introduction dans une mesure appropriĂŠe d’ÊlĂŠments modernes de confort et enďŹ n son adaptation Ă une nouvelle fonction. Donc, moyennant un entretien rĂŠgulier, l’intervention est durable dans le temps. 2.6.La mise en valeur La mise en valeur est entendue comme le degrĂŠ de rĂŠvĂŠlation de la valeur du bâtiment par l’intervention. Cette intervention en plus du traitement des problèmes de dĂŠsordre statique et de pathologie des matĂŠriaux, s’est attaquĂŠe Ă l’image. En eet le retour aux couleurs originales des maçonneries et surtout des portes traditionnelles après les dĂŠcorations arbitraires faites par le cinĂŠma, son ĂŠclairage artistique et l’intĂŠgration d’une nouvelle fonction ďŹ able pour longtemps qui est celle de la formation des techniciens et opĂŠrateurs de restauration du patrimoine vernaculaire participe Ă sa mise en valeur. Près de la maison, un eet induit a dĂŠjĂ commencĂŠ Ă se produire dans la mĂŠdina de Algma15. Donc cette intervention a contribuĂŠ Ă la mise en valeur de la maison et de l’architecture spĂŠciďŹ que du JĂŠrid. &WBMVBUJPO EF MB QFSUJOFODF EF MB SFTUBVSBUJPO .PZFOOFNFOU appliquĂŠ

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1SJODJQF d’intervention

#JFO BQQMJRVĂ?

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Minimum d’intervention

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RĂŠversibilitĂŠ

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VisibilitĂŠ

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CompatibilitĂŠ

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DurabilitĂŠ

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Mise en valeur

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/PO BQQMJRVĂ?

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Conclusion Cette intervention de restauration de Dar el Wadi Ă Nefta et son adaptation pour recevoir le siège du ÂŤ Centre pour Etude, Sauvegarde et Valorisation des Villes OasisÂť a dessinĂŠ les contours d’une attitude pertinente de restauration de l’architecture vernaculaire. Elle a rĂŠalisĂŠ en eet l’Êquilibre entre l’usage du savoir-faire traditionnel et les moyens techniques modernes d’une part, et entre la thĂŠorie et la pratique de la restauration pour la prĂŠservation de l’authenticitĂŠ, d’autre part. EnďŹ n, un outil d’Êvaluation de la pertinence de l’intervention a ĂŠtĂŠ expĂŠrimentĂŠ dans cette analyse critique de l’intervention, se basant sur les thĂŠories et chartes concernant la restauration des monuments et les travaux de Giancarlo Palmerio et Giovanni Carbonara. Il consiste dans l’Êvaluation de l’application des principes de minimum d’intervention, rĂŠversibilitĂŠ, visibilitĂŠ, compatibilitĂŠ, durabilitĂŠ et mise en valeur. Cet outil est certainement perfectible, moyennant une ĂŠvaluation de son eďŹƒcience en l’appliquant a un large corpus d’intervention, il pourra une fois amĂŠliorĂŠ par la critique et validĂŠ par l’expĂŠrience servir pour prĂŠvenir les dĂŠrapages possibles dans l’intervention sur le patrimoine vernaculaire vers la dĂŠďŹ guration ou la recomposition et en dĂŠďŹ nitive la perte de l’authenticitĂŠ. Mots clĂŠs: Savoir-faire, minimum, rĂŠversibilitĂŠ, visibilitĂŠ, compatibilitĂŠ, durabilitĂŠ, valeur.


Expériences de réhabilitation intégrale en Mediterranée Experiencias de rehabilitación integral en el Mediterráneo Experiences of integrated rehabilitation in the Mediterranean

#*#-*0(3"1)*& Boito, C. (2000) Conserver ou restaurer, les dilemmes du patrimoine, L’imprimeur, PARIS, Carbonara, G. (1997). Avvicinamento al restaro,Liguri Editore,Napoli Kharrat, F. Sauvegarde des villes oasis in Archibat N° 13 Déc 2006, p 76-77 Palmerio, G. (1993), G. Cours de restauration, Centro analisi sociale, Roma

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Nefta : Ville oasienne du sud ouest tunisien

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Jérid : palme, utilisé pour appeler la région des oasis du sud ouest tunisien

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Partenaire de l’ENAU : Ecole Nationale d’Architecture et d’Urbanisme, l’Università mediterranea di Reggio Calaria

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Architecte installé à Tozeur depuis 20 ans

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Maison traditionnelle à Nefta achetée par la famille el Wadi en 1916 de la famille Ziibi ancien gouverneur de Nefta (Gaed).

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Charte d’Athènes 1931, Charte de Venise 1964, Charte du patrimoine vernaculaire 1999

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Fanker: Moellon sablonneux et friable.

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Giancarlo palmerio, Architecte italien spécialisé dans la restauration des monuments

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Giancarlo palmerio , Cours de restauration,Centro Analsi sociale P35-45

Etat avant restauration

10 Giovanni Carbonara , Avvicinamento al restauro Liguri Editore, Napoli 11 Lokaa: Poudre récoltée du chott ou lac salé pour blanchir les façades lors des fêtes et les rafraîchir pendant l’été 12 Zaiza : Poutre formée par un demi tronc de palmier 13 Camillo Boito, ordre du jour du congrès des architectes et techniciens s’occupant de la restauration en 1883 14 Anastylose Selon la charte d’Athènes 1931, remettre en place les éléments originaux découverts. 15 Quartier Est de Nefta

Etat après restauration

Travail du bois de palmier

Travail de la brique

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ExpĂŠriences de rĂŠhabilitation intĂŠgrale en MediterranĂŠe Experiencias de rehabilitaciĂłn integral en el MediterrĂĄneo Experiences of integrated rehabilitation in the Mediterranean

Immeubles menaçant ruines (IMR) : La mÊdina de Kairouan

Loghmari Noureddine - �UBCMJTTFNFOU E PSJHJOF L’Association de Sauvegarde de la MÊdina de Kairouan Adresse postale : Sidi Abid El Ghariani Kairouan 3100 Tunisie Adresse de courrier Êlectronique : Haroun.samer@yahoo.fr /VN�SP EF U�M�QIPOF 00216 98932 036

ProblĂŠmatique et recommandations Combler le vide juridique par la promulgation des textes d’application du code du patrimoine, gage de son eectivitĂŠ. Entreprendre auprès des responsables une action pĂŠdagogique d’information. Celle-ci peut prendre plusieurs formes dont l’Êdition de circulaires interprĂŠtatives et de notes explicatives de la teneur des textes juridiques. Mettre ďŹ n au maquis juridique observable sur la mĂŠdina de Kairouan par l’actualisation des textes la concernant. Enclencher la procĂŠdure du plan de sauvegarde prĂŠvue au code du patrimoine sur les ensembles historiques et traditionnels. Utiliser l’ensemble des ressorts du droit pour mettre en place une forme de participation des habitants Ă l’action de rĂŠhabilitation DĂŠďŹ nir avec prĂŠcision les paramètres et les critères d’apprĂŠciation des autoritĂŠs administratives, en accĂŠlĂŠrant l’Êlaboration du cahier des charges en cours d’Êlaboration par l’A.S.M. S’inspirer du contenu des dĂŠcrets beylicaux de protection du patrimoine immobilier historique (notamment le D.B. du 18 octobre 1921 relatif Ă la prĂŠservation de certains quartiers de la ville) dans la conception du dit cahier des charges. L’absence dans prĂŠs de la moitiĂŠ des cas d’un consensus entre l’autoritĂŠ et les citoyens constitue une situation bien prĂŠoccupante qui peut engendrer d’importants dĂŠrapages menaçant la sauvegarde de l’authenticitĂŠ du tissu urbain de la MĂŠdina. MalgrĂŠ la vigilance de l’AutoritĂŠ Publique des actions anarchiques peuvent se multiplier. La tendance Ă la dĂŠsertion du centre historique peut s’accentuer menaçant Ă plus ou moins long terme l’intĂŠgritĂŠ mĂŞme de ce tissu. Un grand eort de sensibilisation de la population Ă l’intĂŠrĂŞt de la conservation du patrimoine et aux moyens d’y parvenir doit ĂŞtre consenti pour arriver Ă plus d’adhĂŠsion de la part des citoyens Ă la mission quasi sacrĂŠe de l’ASM et de l’INP de prĂŠserver un patrimoine dont la valeur est incontestable. Dans l’autre sens, l’eort reste Ă faire pour adapter des principes de conservation ĂŠtablis par l’ASM aux dĂŠsirs des habitants de la MĂŠdina de “moderniserâ€? leur cadre de vie et aux moyens dont ils disposent pour le faire (l’utilisation des matĂŠriaux et des techniques traditionnels de construction imposĂŠe par l’ASM implique des coĂťts de construction

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prohibitifs). Il est ĂŠgalement de la première prioritĂŠ qu’un cahier des charges spĂŠciďŹ que Ă la MĂŠdina de Kairouan soit ĂŠtabli et qu’il soit approuvĂŠ dans le cadre de l’instauration d’un pĂŠrimètre de sauvegarde. Un tel document qui aura force de loi aura le mĂŠrite de la clartĂŠ et de l’opposabilitĂŠ au tiers et simpliďŹ era les relations entre l’INP et les citoyens. Les sanctions aux infractions aux prescriptions du permis de bâtir sont graduelles: l’ordre de suspension des travaux, la saisie des matĂŠriaux et outils, l’apposition des scellĂŠs, la dĂŠmolition. Minutieusement rĂŠglementĂŠe, l’institution du permis de bâtir ne pose pas en soi de problèmes. Les problèmes sont plutĂ´t d’ordre logistiques, humains et psychologiques. Les agents municipaux verbalisateurs ne se trouvent pas en nombre suďŹƒsant pour procĂŠder au constat de toutes les infractions. Les moyens de contrĂ´le ne sont pas toujours assurĂŠs. EnďŹ n, l’infraction ne recouvre pas toujours le mĂŞme sens pour l’Administration et les particuliers. des extensions ou transformations internes au logement susceptibles de causer des changements de volumĂŠtrie, de proportions et de relation entre le vide et le plein et touchant Ă la typologie de base du logement traditionnel Kairouanais,les transformations de logements en hangars ou en dĂŠpĂ´ts (avec la dĂŠmolition de plusieurs murs intĂŠrieurs), Mettre Ă la disposition du citoyen un guide graphique des types d’ouvertures autorisĂŠs, des types de modiďŹ cations possibles dans le cas d’un besoin de rĂŠamĂŠnagement ou d’extension, Une assistance technique Ă la population de la part du service technique de l’ASM, pourrait les aider Ă concevoir les solutions techniques Ă leurs frĂŠquents besoins d’extension en hauteur. De nombreuses transformations non rĂŠglementaires ont ĂŠtĂŠ observĂŠes et les nombreux cas de litiges et de contentieux entre les citoyens, l’ASM et la MunicipalitĂŠ ne cessent d’augmenter. Par ailleurs, on note de nombreux dĂŠtournements de la rĂŠglementation. La demande d’une simple autorisation de travaux est une occasion de procĂŠder Ă des dĂŠmolitions non rĂŠglementaires sous prĂŠtexte que lors de la rĂŠalisation des travaux, le mur ou le logement dĂŠmoli s’est ĂŠcroulĂŠ de lui-mĂŞme. Aucune possibilitĂŠ de rĂŠcupĂŠration des parties dĂŠmolies n’est possible et les autoritĂŠs sont dans l’incapacitĂŠ de procĂŠder Ă des sanctions. Parallèlement Ă la nĂŠcessitĂŠ de renforcer les capacitĂŠs techniques de l’INP et de la MunicipalitĂŠ, leurs moyens de suivi et de contrĂ´le doivent ĂŞtre considĂŠrablement Tenir compte de l’Êquilibre volumĂŠtrique actuel de la MĂŠdina qui compte 60% de logements Ă RDC et 40% de logements Ă R+1; IntĂŠgrer des ĂŠquipements socio-colectifs et notamment culturels et de jeunesse par la rĂŠaectation de certains monuments et l’utilisation des terrains libĂŠrĂŠs par les constructions tombĂŠes en ruine ; Redynamiser les souks, rĂŠactiver les activitĂŠs artisanales et ĂŠviter la paupĂŠrisation des activitĂŠs de la MĂŠdina ; Canaliser et guider, dans une logique de prĂŠservation du patrimoine, les actions des investisseurs ; Lancer une action d’urgence pour la rĂŠhabilitation des IMR ; Entreprendre les rĂŠformes juridiques nĂŠcessaires pour palier les carences de la lĂŠgislation actuelle et lancer des actions pĂŠdagogiques d’information des autoritĂŠs chargĂŠes de la sauvegarde de la MĂŠdina ; Enclencher la procĂŠdure du Plan de Sauvegarde ; Étudier les solutions juridiques et institutionnelles permettant aux autoritĂŠs d’intervenir sur les immeubles vacants pour les prĂŠserver d’une dĂŠgradation certaine ;


Expériences de réhabilitation intégrale en Mediterranée Experiencias de rehabilitación integral en el Mediterráneo Experiences of integrated rehabilitation in the Mediterranean

Utiliser l’excellente connaissance du terrain et le savoir faire de l’ASM pour les mettre à contribution dans le projet de réhabilitation ; Accélérer la mise au point du cahier de charges en cours d’élaboration par l’ASM et étoffer les moyens humains et matériels de celle-ci ; Fournir un grand effort de sensibilisation de la population à l’intérêt de la conservation du patrimoine, qui passe notamment par l’amélioration de leur conditions de vie ; Réexaminer les principes de conservation fixés par l’INP pour les adapter aux besoins et moyens de la population ; Apporter un appui technique à la population et mettre à sa disposition des vides architecturaux ; Evaluer le projet présidentiel dans ses divers aspects pour en retirer un enseignement pour le projet de réhabilitation ; Étudier les solutions adéquates pour réduire les aspects répulsifs de la Médina : la dégradation du bâti, l’insécurité, les difficultés d’accès et de stationnement...; Introduire des éléments de confort dans le logement traditionnel tout en sauvegardant les éléments architecturaux spécifiques à la Médina.

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ExpĂŠriences de rĂŠhabilitation intĂŠgrale en MediterranĂŠe Experiencias de rehabilitaciĂłn integral en el MediterrĂĄneo Experiences of integrated rehabilitation in the Mediterranean

La  maison laboratoire de Mahdia  un chantier lieu d’Êchanges et de concertation Salma Hamza Adresse de courrier Êlectronique : salmaamza@yahoo.fr /VN�SP EF U�M�QIPOF 00216 98932 036

PrĂŠsentation de la ville de Mahdia Ville millĂŠnaire et première capitale de la dynastie fatimide, Mahdia fut tour Ă tour attaquĂŠe, assiĂŠgĂŠe, bombardĂŠe pour ĂŞtre ďŹ nalement occupĂŠe et reconstruite par l’armĂŠe ottomane. Aujourd’hui elle est le chef lieu d’un gouvernorat de 200 000 habitants. Sa mĂŠdina historique qui s’Êtend sur une presqu’Île d’une cinquantaine d’hectares continue a assurer une vĂŠritable centralitĂŠ par rapport au reste de l’agglomĂŠration .Elle conserve encore ses fonctions rĂŠsidentielles et commerciales initiales. Cependant le rĂŠcent engagement de la ville dan le secteur touristique, la nĂŠcessitĂŠ de transformation et d’adaptation de l’habitat a des besoins nouveaux, la transformation des commerces et de leurs supports sont autant de menaces pour la dĂŠďŹ guration de son architecture et la perte d’harmonie et de cohĂŠrence de l’ensemble du tissu. La genèse du projet maison laboratoire A l’issue du colloque de l’Unesco ÂŤ petites et moyenne villes cĂ´tières Âťqui s’est tenu Ă Mahdia en juin 1999 ,une visite guidĂŠe dans la mĂŠdina menĂŠe par le conservateur du musĂŠe avec des enseignants de l’Êcole d’architecture de Nantes, fait dĂŠcouvrir au coin d’une rue une maison abandonnĂŠe vouĂŠe Ă la dĂŠmolition dont la façade accusait un devers qui penchait de manière inquiĂŠtante sur la rue . Ainsi ĂŠmerge l’idĂŠe de sauver la maison de la dĂŠmolition et d’en faire un chantier expĂŠrimental pilote qui pourrait servir d’exemple pour des constructions similaires dans la mĂŠdina de Mahdia. Très vite le projet reçoit le soutien du gouvernorat de Mahdia, du conseil gĂŠnĂŠral de Loire Atlantique, partenaire europĂŠen de la rĂŠgion de Mahdia, et de L’Unesco. Le projet maison laboratoire est nĂŠ .Le chantier ouvre ses portes en juin 2001.Ce chantier accueillie des ĂŠtudiants français et tunisiens en architecture mais aussi dans d’autres disciplines : en sciences humaines, en audio visuel, en beaux arts .La coordination du chantier est assurĂŠe par l’Êcole d’architecture de Nantes qui achevait un travail pĂŠdagogique sur la ville de Mahdia et la municipalitĂŠ a travers l’association de sauvegarde de la mĂŠdina(ASM)

Les objectifs du projet Le nom de  NBJTPO MBCPSBUPJSF  lui a ÊtÊ aectÊ dans le sens le plus large du terme c’est à dire expÊrimentation des techniques et Êchanges d’idÊes et d’expÊriences. II ne s’agit pas d’un chantier focalisÊ sur la

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restauration pure d’un bâtiment ayant une ÂŤ valeur patrimoniale Âť reconnue ( palais, monument..) mais la SĂ?IBCJMJUBUJPO d’une construction simple et ordinaire comme il en existe beaucoup dans la mĂŠdina de Mahdia. Cette rĂŠhabilitation donnait une large part Ă l’Êchange d’expĂŠriences au dĂŠbat et Ă la rÊexion sur les manière de faire vivre une mĂŠdina en transformation ,oĂš les matĂŠriaux , les techniques de construction et les manières d’habiter ont vĂŠcu de grandes ĂŠvolutions . Mais si la rĂŠhabilitation pose concrètement le problème des techniques et de l’adaptation des matĂŠriaux actuellement sur le marchĂŠ, il n‘en demeure pas moins que, faire du chantier VO MJFV E Ă?DIBOHF FU EF concertation avec les habitants les passant et les visiteurs de la mĂŠdina reprĂŠsente un important objectif du chantier ÂŤ aison laboratoire Âť. Les objectifs ďŹ xĂŠs ĂŠtaient pĂŠdagogiques techniques et sociaux : Objectifs pĂŠdagogiques De juillet 2001 Ă septembre 2006 une centaine d’Êtudiants a participĂŠ au chantier de ÂŤ la maison laboratoire Âť .le chantier est ouvert sur l’apprentissage des ĂŠtudiants aux techniques du relevĂŠ de bâtiments anciens, Ă l’analyse et la comprĂŠhension des techniques et matĂŠriaux locaux et traditionnels utilisĂŠs, la maitrise des mĂŠthodes d’Êvaluation et d’analyse des structures et de diagnostic. L’expĂŠrimentation, l’Êchange d’idĂŠes et l’Êcoute des savoir faire professionnels locaux ĂŠtaient au cĹ“ur du dispositif d’apprentissage. Objectifs techniques Au delĂ des enseignements et de l’apprentissage qui pourraient ĂŞtre gĂŠnĂŠrĂŠs par un chantier de rĂŠhabilitation, la remise en ĂŠtat du bâtiment lui-mĂŞme reste le principal objectif du chantier. La rĂŠhabilitation de la maison doit apporter des rĂŠponses techniques facilement rĂŠutilisables pour les problèmes d’humiditĂŠ, de dĂŠgradation des enduits de peinture, de consolidation de structures, d’ÊtanchĂŠitĂŠ et de changement de mode de vie que rencontre le citoyen ordinaire habitant la mĂŠdina. Objectifs sociaux Une dĂŠmarche participative faisant participer les riverains et des acteurs locaux a ĂŠtĂŠ tentĂŠe par l’organisation de visites guidĂŠes dans le chantier et l’organisation de dĂŠbat quotidiens durant toute la durĂŠe de la session sur les thèmes de la conservation de la sauvegarde et de la rĂŠhabilitation. Cette partie du chantier a ĂŠtĂŠ nommĂŠe le chantier invisible. Poursuivre les enquĂŞtes avec les habitants et les artisans s’avĂŠrait une mĂŠthode nĂŠcessaire et toujours enrichissante, dĂŠcouvrir et analyser des anciennes techniques Ă travers des relevĂŠs est aussi un travail d’une grande importance et qui pourrait alimenter les rĂŠponses du chantier de la maison laboratoire. Des rÊexions ont ĂŠtĂŠ menĂŠes sur les dĂŠtails d’exĂŠcution du projet ainsi que sur l’amĂŠnagement futur de la maison. Les Interviews, nous ont permis ĂŠgalement d’Êvaluer l’impact du projet sur les habitants et ont permis davantage aux citoyens de venir visiter le chantier. Certains viennent Ă la recherche de solutions et de conseils pour entretenir ou rĂŠhabiliter leurs maisons. Le programme : La conception du programme a ĂŠtĂŠ largement inspirĂŠe par les discussions et dĂŠbats qui ont eu lieu lors des premières sessions. La municipalitĂŠ a ainsi prĂŠvu de faire de l’Êtage un lieu de concertation et de recherche sur les techniques de rĂŠhabilitation ainsi que sur les modes d’habiter la mĂŠdina d’aujourd’hui. Les boutiques du rez de chaussĂŠe seront aectĂŠes en lieux de commerce et seront ainsi remises dans le tissu urbain des souks dont ils font partie.


ExpĂŠriences de rĂŠhabilitation intĂŠgrale en MediterranĂŠe Experiencias de rehabilitaciĂłn integral en el MediterrĂĄneo Experiences of integrated rehabilitation in the Mediterranean

Le chantier La première ĂŠtape a consistĂŠ Ă la sĂŠcurisation du chantier, Ă l’Êtayage de toutes les toitures et la consolidation ainsi que la mise hors d’eau des toitures. La mise de tĂŠmoins sur les ďŹ ssures, le dĂŠcapage des enduits dĂŠgradĂŠs pour permettre aux murs de respirer a permis de connaitre la composition des murs en pierre, de vĂŠriďŹ er la qualitĂŠ du mortier utilisĂŠ. Le dĂŠcapage des enduits a ĂŠgalement permis la dĂŠcouverte d’anciens passages bouchĂŠs, des portes dĂŠplacĂŠes en rĂŠvĂŠlant l’histoire des transformations que la maison a connues, mais aussi de remonter Ă l’histoire du quartier et de la trame urbaine qui le structurait. Un diagnostic dĂŠtaillĂŠ faisant ĂŠtat d’une analyse approfondie des diÊrentes ĂŠtapes de constructions et d’Êvolution de la maison permis d’ organiseret de programmer les interventions sur la maison. Une première expĂŠrience de reconstruction de toiture plate a partir d’une dalle en CĂ?UPO EF DIBVY BSNĂ? QBS EFT GFVJMMFT EF QBMNJFS CSPZĂ?. Du point de vue expĂŠrimental cette technique a permis de connaitre les dosages et les diÊrents types de chaux a utiliser en ainsi que les pouvoir d’adhĂŠrence entre un matĂŠriau vĂŠgĂŠtal (les feuilles de palmier) et la chaux. Des essais en laboratoire ont permis de tester les diÊrents comportements Ă la compression dans des dosages diÊrents. Construction de toitures plates en bois La typologie rĂŠpond largement Ă celle des toitures plates de Mahdia. Après la reconstitution du chaĂŽnage La structure rĂŠalisĂŠe par des poutres porteuses (des solives) qui permettent la couverture par des lattes enchevĂŞtrĂŠes entre elles. Après le cloutage des lattes elles sont protĂŠgĂŠes par une couche d’ÊtanchĂŠitĂŠ et supportent une chape de chaux et de sable de 10cm d’Êpaisseur qui va servir Ă l’habillage de la structure et Ă la forme de pente. La couche de ďŹ nition de 2cm en moyenne sert Ă la ďŹ nition de la dalle. La confection des acrotères permet un bon ĂŠcoulement vers la descente des eaux de pluie en terre cuite. Construction de voĂťtes en briques Les voutes en pierre sont rarement utilisĂŠes Ă l’Êtages aďŹ n d’allĂŠger les surcharges. Pour cela le choix s’est ďŹ xĂŠ sur la couverture de deux pièces Ă l’Êtage, par des voutes croisĂŠes en briques creuses protĂŠgĂŠes par une chape lĂŠgèrement armĂŠe.

La façade L’intervention sur la façade s’est focalisĂŠe sur le redressement du mur en devers les principales interventions sont les suivantes : t %Ă? KPJOUBHF FU SF KPJOUBHF t %Ă?QPTF EF M FODBESFNFOU SFTUBVSBUJPO FU SFQPTF La dĂŠpose de l’encadrement a ĂŠtĂŠ une dĂŠcision diďŹƒcile, plusieurs opinions tournaient autours de la problĂŠmatique du gonement du mur. Les analyses et le diagnostic menĂŠs par les ĂŠtudiants et architectes et l’avis des maçons se sont orientĂŠs vers la dĂŠpose de l’arc et la restauration du mur de la façade. Un gabarit en contre plaquĂŠ a permis de mieux cerner la forme de l’arc et Ă remettre les pierres dans leurs positions initiales mais avant d’être posĂŠ l’arc a ĂŠtĂŠ montĂŠ Ă blanc sur le sol puis posĂŠ dĂŠďŹ nitivement. Les diďŹƒcultĂŠs et les perspectives Le ďŹ nancement du chantier est la principale diďŹƒcultĂŠ Ă surmonter la municipalitĂŠ a pu compter sur une aide du conseil General de Loire atlantique en France principal partenaire de la rĂŠgion de Mahdia. l’organisation du chantier dans sa forme de sessions ouverte aux ĂŠtudiants exige des coĂťts qui dĂŠpassent ceux du chantier proprement dit .L’hĂŠbergement des ĂŠtudiants, l’Êdition de documents, la rĂŠalisation de banderoles et aďŹƒches, le reportage vidĂŠo sont autant de composantes du projet qui nĂŠcessitent des budgets spĂŠciďŹ ques. La persistance des idĂŠes reçues sur le coĂťt de la rĂŠhabilitation et la symbolique acquise par le ciment comme signe de soliditĂŠ et de modernitĂŠ, vont Ă l’encontre de certain matĂŠriaux plus adaptĂŠs comme la chaux naturelle hydraulique qui a du mal a se faire une place dans le marchĂŠ des matĂŠriaux de construction. Cependant le projet maison laboratoire a jouĂŠ un rĂ´le de catalyseur dans la prise de conscience locale et essentiellement au niveau de certains ĂŠlus sur la nĂŠcessitĂŠ d’une prise en charge plus large de la mĂŠdina ainsi que la rÊexion sur les moyens a mettre en Ĺ“uvre pour une sauvegarde pĂŠrenne Ă l’Êchelle de l’ensemble de la mĂŠdina de Mahdia.

Consolidation des voĂťtes du rez de chaussĂŠe La restauration des voĂťtes, après ĂŠtaiement, nous a conduit tout d’abord Ă la dĂŠpose de la cĂŠramique au sol, dĂŠcaissement et remaillage des ďŹ ssures. Le procĂŠdĂŠ de restauration est le suivant : DĂŠcapage, dĂŠgagement de la ďŹ ssure, lavage, remaillage Ă l’aide de la pierre dure hourdĂŠe de mortier de chaux. Construction des linteaux : Les linteaux ont ĂŠtĂŠ construits en brique pleine, de couleur rouge, apportĂŠe de la ville de Jammel. Le mortier utilisĂŠ ĂŠtant un mĂŠlange de chaux et de sable. Les pièces sont montĂŠes par le maçon sur gabarit et posĂŠes en quinconce pour assurer la liaison et la stabilitĂŠ de l’arc. Restauration des murs : La restauration des murs consiste Ă un faire un remaillage des ďŹ ssures, liaisonner les parois qui ne sont pas solidaires et colmater les ďŹ ssures superďŹ cielles.

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ExpĂŠriences de rĂŠhabilitation intĂŠgrale en MediterranĂŠe Experiencias de rehabilitaciĂłn integral en el MediterrĂĄneo Experiences of integrated rehabilitation in the Mediterranean

Ormana Houses and Their Place in Mediterranean Architecture

Ayten Erdem, Rabia Ă–zakÄąn ":5&/ &3%&. &EVDBUJPO 2006- Assistant Prof. 1997-Phd. Degree in Architectural Restoration, Institute of Sciences, YTU, “GĂśynĂźk, The Historical Site, Religious and Civil Architecture Heritage Conservation Problems and Issues for New Buildingsâ€? 1983- M. A.Architecture in Architectural Restoration, Institute of Sciences, YTU, “Kula, The Historical Site, Civil Architectural Examples and Their Conservation Problemsâ€?. $BSFFS #BDLSPVOE 1982-1984 As an Architect, Research Centre For Islamic History, Art and Culture 1985-As a Research Assistant, YTU 3"#*" 0;",*/ Completed Istanbul YÄąldÄąz Technical University’s Architectural Faculty in 1985. She completed her Master’s degree in 1988 and her doctorate in 1995 in the same university’s Science Institute’s Architectural Restoration Program. In 1987 she began as a researcher in YÄąldÄąz Technical University’s The Vocational School Restoration Program and since 1996 has been an assistant professor. She is director of the Restoration Program. Address: ":5&/ &3%&. : YÄąldÄąz Teknik Ăœniversitesi MimarlÄąk FakĂźltesi Restorasyon Ana Bilim DalÄą, YÄąldÄąz KampĂźsĂź BeĹ&#x;iktaĹ&#x;- 34349 Ä°stanbul –TURKEY 3"#Ĺ’" ½;",*/ YÄąldÄąz Teknik Ăœniversitesi Maslak KampĂźsĂź Meslek YĂźksekokulu Restorasyon ProgramÄą BĂźyĂźkdere caddesi No:69 Maslak 34398 Ä°stanbul - TURKEY & NBJM BEESFTT aerdem@yildiz.edu.tr

rabia@yildiz.edu.tr

Telephone: +90 0212 259 70 70 (2370)

+90 0212 285 05 30 (122)

Ormana is a historical village found in the Toros Mountains of southern Turkey. It is a municipality in its own right and is attached to the Ibradi district in Antalya province. It is surrounded by mountains and consists of 4001 dwellings and a population of 2000. It is characterized by both Mediterranean and inland climates. The sources of income of the townspeople consist of animal husbandry, agriculture, viniculture, and the cultivation of forest products2. Historical Development Ormana is located in a region known as Psidia in ancient times. The

region has played host to various empires, namely the Hittite, Hellenic3, Roman, Byzantine, and Turkish. One can still ďŹ nd archaeological relics at Hisar Tepe4 of the city of Erymna5, an important city-state during the Roman period, located to the south of Ormana. The region fell under the sovereignty of Anatolian Seljuks6 (1226), the KaramanlÄą and IlhanlÄą Principalities and the Ottoman (1471)7. During the Turkish Republican period, Äąt was named for a time as “ArdĹçpÄąnarâ€?. Features of the Traditional Texture Ormana is surrounded by hills. The orchard and garden areas of the village spread out towards the northern, eastern, and southern hills. The deep valley in the west that separates KaradaÄ&#x; and the residential area of the village provides a natural barrier to further residential development. The most important axis of the village is Cumhuriyet Avenue, located on a somewhat sloped area. This avenue, which stretches from the southwest towards the north, separates the village into two unequal parts, with the majority of buildings remaining to the east of the street. The shopping district, Municipality Building, ÇarĹ&#x;Äą Mosque, and AĹ&#x;aÄ&#x;Äą Mosque run along this line. The focal point of the settlement is Harman Yeri (area for harvesting) located south of AĹ&#x;aÄ&#x;Äą Mosque. To the northeast of Harman Yeri one ďŹ nds an elementary school. KayaÄ&#x;Äąl, YukarÄą, YokuĹ&#x; and Orta Mahalle are the neighborhoods of the village, within which are located three renewed mosques and one tomb8. Today, 49 historical houses are registered in the village9. The two-story houses, organic narrow streets, stone walls, wooden oriels and etc. are made up of elements of the settlement’s fabric10. The old houses harmonize with the garden walls in terms of scale, materials, texture and color. In addition, surprising ďŹ nds such as dead-end streets, wells, and cisterns can all be seen within the traditional composition. Traditional Houses The two-story houses were usually built as independent structures but sometimes as attached each other. The stories were functionally constructed to mirror the needs of the household. In general, they have a double-casement entry door on the ground oor. The ground oor consists of a wide entrance (ahÄąraltÄą/evĂśÄ&#x;nĂź), one or two stables, a hay storage unit, and depot areas. Daily life is lived on the upper story. As a result of the climate, this story was planned with summer and winter divisions. The winter section comprises the rooms and pantry while the summer section features the spacious hall and the big balcony /ayazlÄąk. In the regional dialect, a room is called “içeriâ€? (inside), the kitchen is referred as“cille , aĹ&#x;lÄąk (soup place)â€?, pantry11 here becomes “gilerâ€?; the oriel is named the more archaic word “Ĺ&#x;ahniĹ&#x;ir,â€? while the hall/sofa is called “kĂśĹ&#x;kâ€? (kiosk). In all rooms there are divans lining the walls for sitting, large cupboards for mattresses and blankets, cabinets for plates and bowls, ďŹ replaces for heating, and bathrooms/gusulhane for washing. The wooden workmanship used with the ďŹ replaces, cupboards, doors, and ceilings lends an enriching atmosphere to the houses. The hall, which often passes in front of or between rooms, is not only a passageway but also a living space. It extends the length of the house. The oriel has been placed at one end of the hall that stretches the entire length of the façade and the kitchen with ďŹ replace on the other end. The pantry is connected to the rooms, but located behind them. The ayazlÄąk is always located in front of the hall. It has a divan to dry vegetables and fruits and the sink and toilet spaces. The plans of the Ormana houses are of three types: outer, inner and

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Expériences de réhabilitation intégrale en Mediterranée Experiencias de rehabilitación integral en el Mediterráneo Experiences of integrated rehabilitation in the Mediterranean

outer or inner halls (Figure: 1). The plan with the outer hall is found in old historical houses and the rooms are arranged behind the hall that overlooks the garden and the pantry in the back of the rooms (Figure: 2). The arrangement with inner and outer halls includes a hall at the outside border that lies on the middle axis; entrance to the two adjacent rooms is provided the inner hall. In the inner hall plan, the two rooms lie on either side of the hall. This means that the rooms face one another and thus provide a wide space for the hall to stretch across, with one or two eyvans in the middle axis of the long sides of the hall. Materials and Construction System Because they are built on stone, these houses could not be built too deeply into the ground. All the ground floor and the partly upper floor walls were built from unhewn stone without mortar. This technique, known as dry stone walling or pole walling creates a wall thickness of approximately 50-70 cm. The inner and outer walls, which are interwoven with a mixture of large and small stones, are filled with 6x8 and 7x8 cm intersecting wooden beams with spaces of 30-40 cm between each one. These beams are joined together with 8x8 cm wooden lathes (piştuvan). The points of these lathes burrow 10-30 cm both into and out of the wall. The outer façade of the stone walls are left plaster-free. However, houses from later periods show the use of lime mortar containing broken tiles. The inner faces of the stone walls first were covered with mud mortar mixed with straw then with what is called “white dirt12”. The walls of the hall and ayazlık are framed in wood. The beams supporting the oriel extend the length of the bay and they are supported by a wooden brace and buttresses. The ayazlık is supported by wooden pillars and beams located in front of the ground-level stone wall. All the wood used in these constructions came from the cedar tree, called katran. Façade Characteristics The most important aspect of the facades of the Ormana houses is the wooden-beamed stone walls. While the ground floor is made totally of stone and closed to the outside except the wooden entrance door and upper level is vibrantly characterized by the wooden oriels, wooden buttresses, shutters, lattice works and knotted grilles (Picture: 1). The main doors of the houses are located either in a corner or in the middle of the front end of the house, usually according to the hall. The most important element of the exposed part of the house is the oriel jutting out over the entrance door. In houses that have an outer hall, the oriel is a corner that juts out towards the road and the garden, while in inner sofa houses the oriel generally goes out towards the street (Picture: 2). These oriels, which are among some of the most beautiful examples of wood handiwork, have their own roofs, generally at a level lower than the eaves of the house, or a triangular pitched roof that is of the same height as the eaves. The rectangular windows on the upper floor are latticed from the outside but are closed with coverings from the inside and are either sash type or winged. Most of the houses feature hipped roofs with tiles, although houses of the inner sofa type have saddle roofs. In the past the roofs were covered only with a combination of a type of thin wood called “pedavra” and stones, which often caught on fire. Also, the roofs have authentic cone-shaped chimneys, but they are rarely seen today.

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Conclusion The Ormana houses, which utilize a wall technique in their structure dating back to the Hittites in Anatolia, retain an authentic style to the region. Notwithstanding some differences in architectural dimensions and local characterizations between Ormana and nearby villages such as Ibradi, Ürünlü and Akseki, one can easily see the same construction technique is used. The traditional houses found in the mountainous regions of the Mediterranean region are structurally different from the coastal houses in Mediterranean Turkey. Climate, geological structure, and production ways and lifestyles of the population are all factors that contribute to these differences. Though there has been damage to some historical buildings, the village has retained a startling degree of homogeneity and continuity. Urgent action is needed for the “Ormana Conservational Development Plan”. It will be useful for preserving traditional fabric. In conclusion, Ormana, with its combination of stone and wood in its traditional structures, archaeological finds, and natural beauty, remains an authentic and rare jewel of settlement in the Mediterranean region.

1

In the census of 1935 the village recorded 476 houses and 2,058 people. Mithat Karabıyık, Akseki-Ormana Village, Antalya, 1938, p.3.

2

Traditional handicrafts such as facade-work, ironwork, bag-making, and carpentry have largely diminished in importance in our modern era.

3

There are Hellenistic period relics at Çukurviran Village, located 11 km from Ormana. In addition, an epigraph found at the Çataloluk Fountain in Ormana belongs to the Hellenistic period. Mustafa Enhoş, Akseki and Those from Akseki, Istanbul, 1974, p.280.

4

Outside of Erymna, according to antique period maps, there were two city-states called Etenna (Ivgal) and Gotenna (Gödene). The port of these city-states was located in modern-day Side. Mustafa Enhoş, op.cit. p.16; Antalya Region Almanac, 1967, p.51.

5

The sign that proved the existence of the ancient city of Erymna showed remnants of structures similar to cisterns and other construction tools on the surface of the area. The city’s necropolis remains are located on the rocky mountain slopes surrounding Ormana. Mustafa Enhoş, op. cit., p.289.

6

Ormana was on the main road leading from the Anatolian Seljuk capital of Konya to the Mediterranean region. The dilapidated Tol Inn found on the Eynif Plains is from this period. Antalya Region Almanac,1973, p.126.

7

It is thought that Turks coming from the Oğuz clan during the Ottoman period actually settled Ormana Village. Kemal Özkaynak, Akseki Kazası, Ankara, 1954; M.Nihat Özbal, “Ormana Houses”, Ormana Postası, January-February 2003(4), 4-9.

8

In the past Ormana had 5 mosques, 2 small mosques (mescit), 1 madrassa, 1 inn, 1 tomb, and 1 elementary school. The Aid and Reconstruction Foundation of Ormana 1948-1998.

9

The Ministry of Culture and Tourism, Antalya Cultural and Natural Heritage Protection Foundation Board decision number 321, 03.25.2005.

10

Between the years of 1914-1967 Ormana underwent six fires, although the destroyed houses were re-built using similar methods. However, the modernization effort of the 1980s proved too strong a force on the village’s traditional architecture.

11

A pantry here refers to a storeroom for keeping and rationing food .

12

The term “white dirt” used in the region actually originates from the loamy dirt brought from the Eynif plains and softened in water and used like whitewash.


Expériences de réhabilitation intégrale en Mediterranée Experiencias de rehabilitación integral en el Mediterráneo Experiences of integrated rehabilitation in the Mediterranean

Plan Types

Ormana Mehmet Nuri Yucel House.

Ormana Osman Balci (Tufekci) House

Ormana Nuri Dogan House

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La rĂŠsidence de ÇakÄąr AÄ&#x;a Ă Birgi

Aynur Çiftçi Assistante de recherche Ă la FacultĂŠ d’Architecture de l’UniversitĂŠ Technique de YÄąldÄąz, DĂŠpartement de Restauration. Le titre de la thèse de doctorat est: ÂŤ L’Architecture Militaire de L’Etat Ottomane au XIX ème Siècle et Les Batiments Militaires d’Istanbul Âť. Adresse postale: Cemil Topuzlu Cad. HacÄą Mehmet Efendi S. Meltem Apt. 31/3 Feneryolu 81030 KadÄąkĂśy-Ä°stanbul, Turquie Adresse courrier ĂŠlectronique: cifci@yildiz.edu.tr, acifci@hotmail.com TĂŠlĂŠphone: + 90 216 360 70 00

La rĂŠsidence de ÇakÄąr AÄ&#x;a Ă Birgi Birgi, petite ville d’İzmir-Ă–demiĹ&#x; est situĂŠe en Anatolie de l’Ouest. Au 14ième siècle Birgi fut le centre des AydÄąnoÄ&#x;ullarÄą avant de passer sous la souverainetĂŠ Ottomane au 15ième siècle. La rĂŠsidence (“konakâ€?) de ÇakÄąr AÄ&#x;a Ă Birgi, par ses caractĂŠristiques architecturales et ornementales est un des plus beaux exemples de l’architecture civile parvenu jusqu’à nos jours. La rĂŠstauration du konak eectuĂŠe entre 1977-1983 avec des mĂŠthodes en grande partie encore inĂŠdites en Turquie est un cas qui attire l’attention. A) L’histoire du bâtiment La date de construction du konak n’a pu ĂŞtre dĂŠterminĂŠe avec exactitude. Diverses sources le datent du 18ième et de la première partie du 19ième siècle. D’après Renda, la construction du konak a ĂŠtĂŠ commencĂŠe par Abdullah AÄ&#x;a (mort en 1818) et achevĂŠe par Ĺžerif Ali AÄ&#x;a (mort en 1837). Les peintures murales du konak (surtout celle de la caserne historique) indiquent bien que le konak a ĂŠtĂŠ construit après 1828. Riefstahl, historien amĂŠricain de l’art, l’a visitĂŠ en 1929 et l’a rĂŠpertoriĂŠ pour la première fois. La Ministère de l’Education Nationale a fait l’expropriation du konak habitĂŠ jusqu’en 1950. Le bâtiment a ĂŠtĂŠ classĂŠ le 07.07.1988 comme bien culturel Ă sauvegarder. B) CaractĂŠristiques architecturales du bâtiment Son plan: Le konak est une construction Ă 2 ĂŠtages en forme de “Uâ€? possĂŠdant deux portes d’entrĂŠe sur la façade de l’Ouest. A l’Est du konak il y a une cour intĂŠrieure. A l’origine le rez-de-chaussĂŠe ĂŠtait composĂŠ d’un vestibule “taĹ&#x;lÄąkâ€? et de pièces abritant ĂŠcurie, cuisine etc... Au premier et deuxième ĂŠtage il y a le “sofaâ€? extĂŠrieur (“hayatâ€?) en forme de “Lâ€?. Au milieu et Ă chacune de l’extrĂŠmitĂŠ Est des “sofaâ€?, du cĂ´tĂŠ cour, se trouve un encorbellement. Au deuxième ĂŠtage dans chaque aile l’on remarque un renfoncement “eyvanâ€? et quatre pièces. Les pièces sont pourvues d’un foyer, d’une niche et de placards. Au deuxième ĂŠtage la pièce au Sud-Ouest du sofa est appelĂŠe “salon d’İstanbulâ€? en raison d’une vue imaginaire d’İstanbul. La reprĂŠsentation d’İzmir peinte dans

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le “salon d’İzmirâ€? pièce au Nord-Ouest du sofa est quant Ă elle plus proche de la rĂŠalitĂŠ. Le premier ĂŠtage reproduit le plan de l’Êtage supĂŠrieur. Ses plafonds sont plus bas. Les plafonds en bois sont dĂŠcorĂŠs de lattes et de ciselures qui reprĂŠsentent des motifs gĂŠomĂŠtriques. -FT GBĂŽBEFT Au dernier ĂŠtage, sur la façade Ouest se trouvent trois encorbellements chacun soutenu par quatre consoles. La façade a ĂŠtĂŠ peinte en lui donnant l’aspect d’un parement en pierre sur lequel on distingue des motifs peints d’arbres et de paysages. Au-dessus des fenĂŞtres rectangulaires aux contrevents et parapets en bois se trouvent des fenĂŞtres hautes arquĂŠes. Les fenĂŞtres du premier ĂŠtage, ĂŠgalement rectangulaires sont munies de treillage. Les encorbellements de la façade Ouest du konak, les façades donnant sur la cour, les “eyvanâ€? ainsi que les murs du “sofaâ€? sont dĂŠcorĂŠs de motifs de plantes, de paysages, de nature morte, de bâtiments de couleurs variĂŠes. Les poteaux en bois porteurs de l’“eyvanâ€? et des “sofaâ€? sont arquĂŠs du style de Bursa. Le konak est entourĂŠ par un avant-toit en bois d’une largeur d’environ 120 cm. Techniques de construction et matĂŠriaux: Les gros murs du rez-dechaussĂŠe et des ĂŠtages supĂŠrieurs sont construits en mĹ“llons, les ĂŠtages supĂŠrieurs et les “sofaâ€? extĂŠrieurs ont une charpente en bois et certains des murs sont en brique de pisĂŠ. Pour les porteurs et la menuiserie on a utilisĂŠ du bois de peuplier et de marronnier. Les gros murs extĂŠrieurs du rez-de-chaussĂŠe ont une ĂŠpaisseur de 90 cm environ. Les plafonds et les planchers sont constituĂŠs de poutrelles en bois. Les murs extĂŠrieurs et intĂŠrieurs sont recouverts de plâtre. Les murs en lattis ont d’abord ĂŠtĂŠ recouverts de torchis, puis d’un mortier de chaux et de poussière de marbre. D’autres murs ont d’abord ĂŠtĂŠ enduits de poudre de brique (mortier dit “d’Horasanâ€?) puis d’un mortier de chaux et de poussière de marbre, enďŹ n d’une mince couche de chaux avant d’être peints. La toiture du konak est en tuiles creuses (dites “alaturkaâ€?). C) Restauration du bâtiment Des dĂŠformations du cĂ´tĂŠ cour ont provoquĂŠ ça et lĂ des aaissements du bâtiment. Les lattis en bois des murs ont pourri, les enduits extĂŠrieurs et intĂŠrieurs se sont eritĂŠs. Le bois des parapets, des treillis et d’autres ĂŠlĂŠments s’est cassĂŠ ou abĂŽmĂŠ. Certains motifs peints des façades extĂŠrieures ont disparu par le temps. Les relevĂŠs du konak datant de 1948 ont ĂŠtĂŠ publiĂŠs en 1977 par S.H. Eldem. La restauration commencĂŠe en 1977-78 par la Ministère de la Culture a ĂŠtĂŠ poursuivie en 1979 par la Direction Technique des RelevĂŠs et Monuments d’İstanbul et s’est prolongĂŠe jusqu’en 1983. Des mĂŠtrages et estimations ont ĂŠtĂŠ faits et les ĂŠlĂŠments qui devaient ĂŞtre remplacĂŠs ont ĂŠtĂŠ numĂŠrotĂŠs et inclus dans le projet. EnďŹ n un projet d’Êtayage et d’Êchaaudage a ĂŠtĂŠ prĂŠparĂŠ. a) Restauration eectuĂŠe entre 1978-1981 En premier lieu la charpente en bois du konak a ĂŠtĂŠ ĂŠtayĂŠe. Des inĂŠgalitĂŠs observĂŠes dans les planchers des ĂŠtages ont ĂŠtĂŠ arasĂŠes Ă l’aide de vĂŠrins. C’Êtait lĂ une mĂŠthode de restauration utilisĂŠe en Turquie pour les premières fois. Des consolidations partielles ont ĂŠtĂŠ rĂŠalisĂŠes au moyen de bois de marronniers et de peupliers qui poussent dans la rĂŠgion. Les parties des fenĂŞtres, contrevents, treillis en bois, escaliers, planchers et avant-toit qui devaient ĂŞtre remplacĂŠes l’ont ĂŠtĂŠ. Le toit a ĂŠtĂŠ impermĂŠabilisĂŠ, les tuiles abĂŽmĂŠes remplacĂŠes par des vieilles tuiles des environs et les gouttières en zinc rĂŠparĂŠes. Un socle en bĂŠton a ĂŠtĂŠ conlĂŠ sous les porteurs en bois du “hayatâ€? qui


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ont été renouvelés. Des drains ont été posés dans la cour. Ce qui était autrefois la fosse sceptique a été comblée et une nouvelle canalisation a été construite. Après ces travaux un expert a été amené d’Allemagne afin qu’il examine l’état des enduits et des ornements. Mais par manque de moyens financiers l’analyse de certaines pièces n’a pu être faite. Puis une équipe de la faculté des Beaux-Arts de l’Université d’İzmir, composée d’un sculpteur, d’un peintre et d’un graphiste a étudié les décorations du konak. Les échantillons prélevés ont été envoyés au laboratoire de l’Université Technique du Moyen Orient à Ankara (O.D.T.Ü). Cette équipe a restauré certains ornements. b) Restauration effectuée entre 1981-1983 En 1982 l’on a surtout restauré les enduits et les décorations de la construction. Les enduits qui se détachaient ont été refixés. Lors du remplacement des lattis en décomposition l’on a, avec une méthode alors inédite en Turquie, d’abord prélevé soigneusement l’enduit existant avant de le remettre à sa place. Les enduits défectueux ont été remplacés par un mortier d’argile et de chaux mêlée de plâtre. Dans le jardin l’on a construit un bassin utile en cas d’incendie et une guérite de gardien. Certains aménagements qui permettraient d’organiser des expositions ont été faits.

des constructions anciennes attendent une restauration respectant leur tissu historique.

#Œ#-Œ0(3"1)Œ& Kuyulu, İnci. “Çakırağa Konağı”, #JSHJ 5BSJIJ 5BSJIÔ $PţSBGZBT WF 5àSL %ÚOFNJ "O UMBS prép. Rahmi Hüseyin Ünal, T.C. Kültür Bakanlığı Yayınları/2573, Yayımlar Dairesi Başkanlığı, Sanat Eserleri Dizisi/309, Ankara, 2001. 3ÚMÚWF ** #JSHJ ±BL S "ţB ,POBţ , Devlet Güzel Sanatlar Akademisi Yüksek Mimarlık Bölümü Rölöve ve Restorasyon Kürsüsü Yayını, İstanbul, 1977. Archives de la Direction Technique des Relevés et Monuments d’İstanbul: Les rapports du 09.11.1981, 24.07.1983 et du 1983 de l’architecte Numan Abanozoğlu, de conservateur Rıdvan İşler, de Prof. Doğan Kuban (avec ingénieur Erkan Onaran, conservateur Rıdvan İşler et Dr. Fikri Berksun). Archives de la Direction du Musée d’Ödemiş. Entretien du 24.04.2007 avec l’architecte Hüsrev Tayla. Entretien du 23.04.2007 avec l’architecte Numan Abanozoğlu.

c) Problèmes rencontrés durant la restauration La rénovation du konak est l’une des premières restaurations importantes et de grande envergure réalisée avec le financement de l’Etat, mais les subventions étant faibles et insuffisantes, elle a duré longtemps. Divers problèmes se sont posés. Ainsi les matériaux n’avaient pu être analysés, des matériaux nécessaires et certains experts (conservateurrestaurateur, etc...) n’avaient pu être trouvés. De plus, dans ces annéeslà, on ne se conformait pas encore vraiment en Turquie aux principes en vigueur dans les domaines de la conservation et de la restauration. Les bois des porteurs remplacés dans le “hayat” s’est brisé ou craquelé car le bois employé n’était pas sec. Les étais des encorbellements donnant sur la cour ont été mal placés sur les porteurs et leur forme n’est pas celle des étais d’origine. La façade Sud-Est, qui a l’apparence d’un mur de pierre a été enduite d’un badigeon blanc. Les encorbellements de la façade Nord-Ouest donnant sur la cour ne sont pas répertoriés dans les documents dont on dispose. Les escaliers conduisant à l’étage sont défectueux, la hauteur des marches ayant été mal calculée. Les nouvelles lattes des treillis en bois des fenêtres n’ont pas la même apparence ni les mêmes dimensions que les originaux. De plus des treillis ont été placés là où, d’après les documents il n’y en avait pas. Les vides laissés par les enduits détachés ont été bouchés hâtivement par du plâtre. Le sulfate contenu dans l’enduit de plâtre a attaqué les surfaces attenantes qu’il aurait fallu protéger. Le konak a été restauré à nouveau en 1992. Durant cette restauration les escaliers et les parties en bois de certaines fenêtres ont été renouvelés et une part importante des peintures murales a été nettoyée. La cour intérieure située à l’Est du bâtiment a été réaménagée. La toiture a été refaite en 2006 mais il y a toujours un problème d’humidité provenant du rez-de-chaussée, en particulier sur la façade Ouest. Le konak de Çakırağa, devenu musée, a été ouvert au public en 1995. Le nombre de ses visiteurs a augmenté depuis qu’une agence de tourisme d’İzmir propose des visites organisées du konak. Une autre maison située en face du konak, transformé en musée ethnographique, a été ouverte au public par son propriétaire. Comme le konak de Çakırağa qui avec d’autres édifices de Birgi constitue un pôle d’attraction, bien

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La façade Ouest du konak avant la restauration

La façade Est du konak pendant la restauration

La façade Est du konak et vue du sofa extérieur “hayat” après la

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La représentation de la ville d’İzmir peinte dans une pièce du konak


ExpĂŠriences de rĂŠhabilitation intĂŠgrale en MediterranĂŠe Experiencias de rehabilitaciĂłn integral en el MediterrĂĄneo Experiences of integrated rehabilitation in the Mediterranean

From shelter to housing: An EastMediterranean example to the traditional twig-knitted timber constructions: The Hug house

Hale Tokay and Selcen Yalcin Z. Hale Tokay is an associate professor at Mimar Sinan Fine Arts University, Istanbul at the department of restoration. She took part in the Traditional Architecture in Cukurova Region, Hug House� project in 2002. B. Selcen Yalcin is a research assistant at Mimar Sinan Fine Arts University, Istanbul at the department of restoration. Address: Meclis-i Mebusan cad., No:24, 34427 Findikli, Istanbul Turkey & NBJM BEESFTT zhtokay@msu.edu.tr

yselcen@yahoo.com

Telephone: +90-212-2521600-extension:294

Introduction In Anatolia where many civilizations have risen, dierent traditions and beliefs have lived side by side during centuries. Each region has developed an individual housing architecture due to its climate, the topographical features of the area, local materials and the socio-cultural atmosphere. The traditional architecture subject to this paper has a long past set in Anatolia. This architecture built by timber, reed and mud-based organic materials is today still in use in Central and Eastern Blacksea Region, Trache, the Balkans and Cukurova Basin in eastern mediterrenean region. The ďŹ nds from surveys and archeological excavations prove that this architecture has always been used since ancient times. At the excavations directed by professor Onder Bilgi (Istanbul University) in the Ikiztepe Tumulus located in Central Blacksea Region, architectural layers from BC. 3000s (the ďŹ rst Bronze Age) have been discovered. It is understood that the buildings in Ikiztepe were made out of wood without any stone or earth foundations. Trunks of various dimensions which hadn’t gone through any process were used for the construction of these buildings and these have been covered with clay exteriorly and interiorly. Under the scope of ‘Thrace Archeological Project’ directed by Professor Mehmet Ozdogan(Istanbul University) the remains of the buildings with no foundation have been revealed on each building layer between the years BC. 5500 and 4000. The buildings examined had load bearing poles cut o from trees and between the poles there were walls knitted with binding tiny twigs which had built a structural system generally called “twig-knittingâ€?. These kinds of buildings are still being used for dierent functions in

this region today. 1. The Hug House 1.1. History The Hug House belongs to a traditional house typology common around Adana, Mersin, Tarsus within the Cukurova Region and East Mediterranean Basin (known as Cilicia during ancient times). It is built out of timber, reed and mud which are natural building materials of this area. The Hug House is the oldest house planning typology known in Adana and Mersin. Its history dates back 9000 years. This data has also been conďŹ rmed by the ďŹ nds of archeological excavations in Mersin Yumuktepe Tumulus. Yumuktepe holds a unique position in Asia Minor. This tumulus consists of ruins of 30-40 settlements which had been founded during thousands of years (from Neolithic to Islamic age). Therefore, Yumuktepe Tumulus is an outstanding example witnessing the profound past of Mersin (Sevin, 1995). In 1936 the british archeologist John Garstang started the excavations which continued until 1947 with some intervals. In 1992 archeologist Veli Sevin (Istanbul University) took over the excavation again (Koroglu, 1993). The excavations are still being carried out by the cooperation of Rome La Sapienza University and Mimar Sinan Fine Arts University. The ďŹ nds belonging to the houses were all built by ‘Hug’ technique. It was discovered with the help of the ďŹ nds of the excavation in 1998 that this housing technique had been used by Hittites during the second millennium B.C. It is clear that these houses had been built in cottage forms with circular plans, without any foundations and with loadbearing timber poles–as we learn from the traces on the ground and carbonized wood pieces. It was obvious that like the shelters of ancient times, these houses were made of wooden poles as construction and tiny twigs and reeds knitted like a basket which had been placed between the poles to act as used as walls of the building. The façade had most probably been plastered with a simple mud plaster(Acar, 1996). 1.2. Building Technology and Material Hug that can be pronounced as “Kuhâ€? in Arabic means a ‘shelter gathered at random’. These buildings are made of quicksand bulrush, reed, twigs of myrtle tree (murt), zanzalak (zirinzak) tree (Zanzalak is a local tree. When dried, it gets very hard and strong), eucalyptus tree and clayey soil mixed with straw. It can be stated that Hug structures are the ďŹ rst houses in Mersin. These houses with their primitive elevations built out of reeds obtained from the canes growing on marshy lands are examples for the rural architecture before urbanisation. Reeds that spontaneously grow in nature are cut o during winter and stored to be used either in the construction of these houses and storages (sheep-fold, loft, depot, wc, etc.) as constructive elements or between garret beams as roof cover. Reed is today still in use as a building material in the construction of shelters of the immigrants and seasonal craftsmen with lower income. Foundations: As the buildings of this region are built of light materials like timber and mortar, they are not heavy structures. Therefore, they don’t need

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continuous or deep foundations. In most cases a continuous foundation is prepared to support the exterior. Sometimes instead of a continuous foundation, only a hole is dug for each wooden pole of the system. The supporting poles, are placed into holes with a diameter of 50-60 cm and a depth of 30-50. These cavities which are supported by pebbles and stones are afterwards filled with wet earth(mud) and compressed (Picture 1). Floors: After adjusting the uneven ground, the floors are formed by compressing on the ground a 5-10 cm thick earth layer. Then a straw mat is laid on the floor.The thickness of the floors may get higher when they are later renewed as maintenance. Walls: Large (~ø 20 cm) and small sectioned (~ø 10-15 cm) trees and tiny twigs (~ø 4-5 cm) are used as the construction material of the walls of the Hug houses, as well as reeds, bulrush and shrub. The main poles of the structure are chosen from zanzalak, eucalyptus or katran trees which are more resistant and common in this region. Between the poles, trees with smaller sections are placed and combined. Afterwards they are consolidated with horizontal beams. Finally, the wall structure is composed by ‘knitting’(filling) between the main supporting elements and partition walls with reed, supple myrtle; oleander or poplar-tree materials. The empty space within the skeleton is also filled with earth mortar(mud) both from the exterior and interior. The thickness of the wall is variable between 20-25 cm. The traditional method of preparing mud plaster is not easy. The clayey soil is dampened and left to rest. The humus layer on the surface is taken away. Then, a ditch is opened and the clayey soil that has become sticky is laid inside this ditch. Pieces of chopped weed, straw, cotton and other materials are added and mixed until the mixture becomes homogeneous. The top of the ditch is covered not to be affected by natural conditions. On the day that the mortar is to be used, the amount needed is diluted again or mixed with straw until it reaches the required density. The walls are filled with this mortar until the skeleton is completely covered. Then, a smoother surface is obtained by applying another layer of mortar. Roofs: The roofs of Hug houses have either one or two direction slopes according to the formation of the building. The roof with one way slope is built with or without truss –only with a central post. Reed or tiny twigs are knitted and bunches of rye, straw or a local herb called “topuk otu” are laid above them. These bunches arranged in a row are tied up with a bond made of bulrush or grass (Figure 2). As a result of the undurable material, few of the original roof covers have survived today and materials like tile, zinc and cement have unfortunately taken their place. 1.3. Examples Although most of the Hug buildings usually have one floor, there are also few two-storey examples which have survived today (Figure 3, 4). 2. The Conditions Today – Conclusion This vernacular architecture and traditional building technique have continuously been developed and used until the 20th century, but

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unfortunately they have decreased very much in number, because of the rapid urbanisation. Hug houses and the buildings constructed with this technique can only been seen in some suburbs of the city, gardens nearby the sea and in some villages, and they also face the threat of extinction day by day. The immigration from different parts of the country to Cukurova Basin and uncontrolled development of the region result in the extinction of this vernacular architecture. The few examples of this architectural typology which have survived today should be evaluated in a systematic way.They should be examined, registered and taken under protection. The only registered Hug house so far is the one-storey building next to Mersin Yumuktepe Tumulus. Unfortunately the rest haven’t still been taken under protection yet. There are lessons to learn from this architectural typology and building technique. How people who built these houses used technology when solving the problems of their age, should be taken as a reference to the contemporary architecture of today.

#*#-*0(3"1): ACAR, E., 1996. “Anadolu’da Tarihoncesi Caglardan Tunc Cagi Sonuna Kadar Konut ve Yerlesme” Tarihten Günümüze Anadolu’da Konut ve Yerleşme–Habitat II, Beykan. M(ed.), Tarih Vakfı Yurt Publishing, Istanbul AKMAN,A., 1995. “Kerpicin Arastirilmasi ve Niteliklerinin Gelistirilmesi Uzerine” Yapi Dergisi 169, Istanbul ERES, Z., 1999. Tarihoncesi Kazı Yerlerinin Koruma, Restorasyon Sergileme Sorunu ve Cözümüne Yönelik Bir Uygulama Kırklareli–Asagi Pınar Ornegi, ITU Mimarlık Fakültesi, unpublished master thesis. ERIC, M., 1979. “Geleneksel Türk Mimarisinde Malzeme Secimi ve Kullanımı”, Yapı 33: (42-45) ERIC, M., 1980. “Kerpic Eski Eserlerin Onarımı ve Kullanılmasında Bir Arastirma” III. Uluslararası Kerpic Koruma symp, Ankara, ERIC, M., 1982. “Geleneksel Turk Mimarisinde Malzeme Açısından Cephe Kurulusu” Yapı 45 GOKCE, G., 1979. “Geleneksel Mimaride Struktur” Yapı Dergisi 33 KAZMAOGLU, M., TANYELI, U., 1979. “Anadolu Konut Mimarisinde Bölgesel Farklılıklar”, Yapı33 KOUREMENOS, K.E., the Sarakatsani, Mellisa Publishing House, Athens KURUL, N., ERES, Z., BOROTAV, A., 1982. “Kırklareli’nde Deneysel Arkeoloji, Bir Neolitik Cag Evinin Yeniden Yapılısı”, Arkeoloji ve Sanat 82: KOMURCUOGLU, E.A., 1962. Yapı Malzemesi Olarak Kerpic ve Kerpic İnsaat Sistemleri, ITU, Mimarlık Fakultesi Yayını, İstanbul KOROGLU .K., 1993. 5. Yılda Yumuktepe, Eskicag Bilimleri Enst. Yayını, İstanbul. 1978. Mersin Evleri, TC. Kultur Bakanlığı Yay. Tanıtma Dizisi: 63 OZDOGAN A., 1984. Tarih Oncesi Avrupa Dal Orgu Yapılarının Gunumuz Orneklerine Gore Tumleme Onerileri, Istanbul University, unpublished master thesis. OZDOGAN,M., 1996. ”Kulubeden Konuta: Mimarlıkta Ilkler”, Tarihten Gunumuze Anadolu’da Konut ve Yerlesme-Habitat II, s.19-30, Beykan. M. (ed.), Tarih Vakfı Yurt Publishing, Istanbul SEVIN V., 1995. “Yumuktepe”, Icel Art Society Bulletin, 40 VURAL S., “HUG The oldest Mersin structure” Data without a date.


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A socio-cultural and historical overlook to Istanbulian konaks on Ottoman architecture: the myth & the reality

Zafer Sagdic, Aysun Aydin Zafer SAGDIC, PhD. Aysun AYDIN, BArch. Yildiz Technical University Fac. of Architecture Dept. Of Architecture History of Architecture Branch Istanbul-TURKEY & NBJM BEESFTT ;BGFS 4"(%*$ zafersagdic@hotmail.com "ZTVO ":%*/ mimar_aysun@hotmail.com

1. General DeďŹ nitions: Ottoman period’s Turkish family and household systems are not very well known subjects. Besides studies on deďŹ nitions and dierent meanings of family (aile) and household (hane) in Turkish and some related words with them such as konak, kiosk (kĂśĹ&#x;k), kashane (kaĹ&#x;ane), malikhane, and etc. are also quite few. Also, number of studies having conclusions on the rules of these systems and architectural space organization related with these systems are not enough. According to Faroqhi, “ 17th and 18th centuries are ‘dark ages’ of Ottoman social history. Registrations of these ages are either in bits or having limited knowledge of some deďŹ nite areas (Faroqhi, 1977). Thus, the paper is having the period between the beginning of 19th century till the beginning of 20th century (1940’s). It is seen that Istanbulian konaks are not only located on Beyazid and Suleymaniye in Historical Peninsula, but also generally on Haskoy, Haznedar, Haseki, Cerrahpasha, Zeyrek, Okmeydani, Uskudar, Moda, Kadikoy, Bakirkoy, and Prince’s Islands. 2. Terminology: Konak means “perfectly organized and very-well decorated houseâ€? or “a big house type in Turkish civil architectureâ€? (Develioglu, 2001; Divan-i Lugat-i Turk; Islam Ansiklopedisi, 2002; Sagdic, 2006). It is very interesting to see that the second meaning of kashane, which means “a perfect houseâ€? in Persian, is “excellent and perfectly beautiful konakâ€? (Turk Lugati, 1943; Kamus-i Turki, 1997; Sagdic, 2006). With a general view, it can be said that konak is dierent than the other OttomanTurkish houses not only with its enormous size, but also with very well ornamented multi-storey facades, big rooms and other well organized architectural peculiarities. According to general references (Eldem, 1986; Altiner, Budak, 1997; Kuban; 1993), konak is a mansion of a big family on countryside, where grandparents, parents and grandchildren are living together with a dozen of servants. It is seen that konaks are spreaded on either central cities of Ottoman Empire, such as Tselonika, Izmir, Ankara, and, etc. or cities, which are on

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one-to-one socio-economical relation with central cities of Ottoman Empire, such as Amasya, Mersin, Adana, and, etc. It is also known that Istanbul, which is capital city of Ottoman Empire, had numerous konaks. 3. Typology and Architectural Space Organization of 19th Century Konaks in Istanbul: A general typology of Ottoman-Turkish house is found on a very well known reference of Eldem (1986). Here, it should not be forgotten that making schemes of typology is something theorical and more than this speculative, which is changeable according to accepted datas. Thus here, it is believed that instead of using any typological explanation, main peculiarities of Istanbulian konaks should be given. Traditional Ottoman-Turkish house has segmental structure. All rooms (hane) are re-touched and thus the main house (hane) is structured. These rooms are located exibly; therefore, they can be added or isolated within eachother easily. ‘Hayat’ is the main sofa (central hall) of this system. However, it is seen in 19th century Istanbulian konaks1 that, these buildings have kitchens, wc and shower units inside; corridors instead of traditional hayat parts; modern furnitures and timber cornices for chairs on walls instead of traditional sedirs (cedars). 4. The Myth and The Reality of “Istanbulian Konakâ€?: According to Yucel (2000), “Contrary to popular opinion, in Ottoman society, housing was much less based on the population of the household as a traditional, patriarchal ‘large family’ than claimed. However, in 19th century Istanbul, especially during the second half and towards the end, the rise in the break-up of large families and the necessity for smaller scale in housing design let to new household proďŹ les, which is a fact that should be considered as well. This fact, when combined with the rise in the urban population and the legal data on the land property, is a signiďŹ cant one, critically eecting the spreading out, the overcrowding, and in the long run, the physical texture and the housing forms of the city...â€?. Some similar datas can be found on Duben’s (2002) studies of Ottoman population census in 1885 and 1907. The number of persons in a household was 3,9 in 1885 and 4,2 in 1907 without servants and long period guests. Another important data taken from these studies is that, only 4 % of these households had traditional 3 generations patriarchal families. Thus it can be said that, Istanbul’s population was structured by small family units. It is understood that, 46 % of all households had number of 3 persons or less and 60 % of main population was living on this modest surrounding as demographically. According to Duben and Behar (1998), the typical household had core-families in the beginning of 20th century. 5. Rehabilitation Principles of “Istanbulian Konaksâ€?: Istanbulian konaks must be rehabilitated carefully to not to change their original characteristics. Municipalities determine general rehabilitation criterias. All of the rehabilitation projects should be designed according to these criterias. New parts or units should not be added unless they are professionally designed as contemporary architecture examples. Istanbulian konaks can be passed through to the new generations by giving new functions to them such as museums, libraries, arts and cultural centers, art schools and boutique hotels.


ExpĂŠriences de rĂŠhabilitation intĂŠgrale en MediterranĂŠe Experiencias de rehabilitaciĂłn integral en el MediterrĂĄneo Experiences of integrated rehabilitation in the Mediterranean

6. Conclusion: It is understood from population census in 1885 and 1907 that Istanbul was not surrounded by huge and mythical konaks between the beginning of 19th century and the beginning of 20th century. Therefore, it is also understood that core-family was the typical Turkish household in Istanbul on this period. Thus, it can be said that the existence of huge and monumental Istanbulian konaks is only a myth with 12% and the reality is that core-families living in modest houses have the big amount of the population with 40% of all population.

3&'&3&/$&4 Altiner, Budak, (1997) Konak Kitabi, Tepe Yayinlari, Istanbul. Develioglu, (2001) Osmanlica-Turkce Sozluk, Dogus Limited Sti. Matbasi, Ankaral. Divan-i Lugat-i Turk Duben and Behar (1998) Istanbul Haneleri, Iletisim Yayinlari, Istanbul. Duben’s (2002) Kent, Aile, Tarih, Iletisim Yayinlari, Istanbul. Eldem (1986) Turk Evi, Turkiye Anit Cevre Turizm Degerlerini Koruma VakďŹ , Ankara. Faroqhi, (1977) “Rural Society in Anatolia And the Balkans During the 16th Century, Iâ€?, Tursica; Revue d’Etudes Turques, 9: 162-195. Islam Ansiklopedisi, (2002) Kamus-i Turki, (1997) Kuban; (1993) Turk Hayatli Evi, TC Ziraat Bankasi, Istanbul. Sagdic, (2006) Osmanli Saraylarinda Islev ve Mekan Baglantisi, YTU Dr. Tezi, Istanbul. Turk Lugati, (1943) Yucel (2000) “Istanbul’da 19.yy.in Kentsel Konut Bicimleriâ€?, Tarihten Gunumuze Anadolu’da Konut ve Yerlesme, Habitat 2 Yayini, Istanbul.

A konak in Beyazid, Istanbul (Altiner, Budak, 1997) .

A Konak in Haskoy, Istanbul (Altiner, Budak, 1997).

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