SCAPE land and design in the Upper Midwest
Making Natives Look Good: TRICKS OF THE TRADE
DUCKWEED AND SEWAGE TREATMENT
From Seed to Specification:
The Business of Growing
a publication of the Minnesota Chapter of the American Society of Landscape Architects
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On the Cover: Sherburne National Wildlife Refuge in Zimmerman, MN, comes alive in spring with wildflowers, migrating birds, and trees just beginning to leaf out. Read about more spring hotspots in Fellowâ€™s Top 5 photo by Adam Regn Arvidson, ASLA
__SCAPE is published quarterly by the Minnesota Chapter of the American Society of Landscape Architects (MASLA). __SCAPE is FREE. To subscribe, send a blank e-mail to email@example.com, and type subscribeSCAPE in the subject line. Send general MASLA inquiries to: MASLA International Market Square 275 Market Street, Suite 54 Minneapolis, MN 55405 612-339-0797 FAX 612-338-7981 Send general __SCAPE inquiries, letters to the editor, and advertising requests to: Adam Regn Arvidson MASLA Director of Communications 4348 Nokomis Avenue Minneapolis, MN 55406 612-968-9298 firstname.lastname@example.org
SPRING 06 topics
A conversation with Jim Hagstrom, a 30 year veteran of the native plants movement.
A local artist/engineer uses duckweed to treat wastewater
whips The Forest for the Trees
by Regina M. Flanagan
Eloise Butler Wildflower Garden
Fellowâ€™s Top 5
Now Thatâ€™s Dedication!
The HKGi/Ingraham Associates 2005 Park Dedication Report
A local nursery changes with the times and gets creative about competing in a changing landscape
by Jonathan Pedersen
visiting spring with
Peggy Booth, FASLA
Valued Places Whitewater State Park In Other Words :Book
Cities in the Wilderness :Magazine The Next American City :Journal t/here
MASLA Executive Committee Bruce Chamberlain, president John D. Slack, past president Ellen Stewart, president-elect Sonia Walters, secretary Jean Garbarini, treasurer Jim Hagstrom, trustee Matthew Rentsch, director of public relations Mike Jischke, director of programs Richard Wiebe, director of academic affairs Bruce Lemke, co-director of awards and banquet Stephanie Grotta, co-director of awards and banquet Adam Regn Arvidson, director of communications issue #1
The Forest for the Trees editor’s note
Spring is, well, springing -- and a bit early this year. I don’t
2. Send me the name of ONE native plant (after getting
think any one is complaining. Ahh, the weather: bane of
inspired by our topic:nature article in this issue)
farmers, obsession of Minnesota newsmedia executives,
you think is an unsung hero of the Upper Midwest.
and tried-and-true conversation starter for generations of Upper Midwesterners.
3. Send me one or more things we’re NOT doing so well. You’ll have to be Midwestern Mean for this, but I can take it. Lob those critiques, the more pointed the
Speaking of conversations... Is there anyone out there? Is
anyone reading _SCAPE? I hear anecdotal evidence that you kind of like it, but the editorial inbox is so hollow
And here are some optional ones, but since you’re sending
it echoes. I have realized that a generalized approach to
me an e-mail anyway...
asking for letters to the editor is simply not going to work, because we midwesterners would rather say-something-
4. Send me an idea for a new section in _SCAPE. We’ll be
nice-or-say-nothing-at-all. But this is YOUR magazine:
launching another “whips” offering in the summer,
you who design with land; live on land; like to hike, bike,
and I am interested in expanding those easy-to-read
stroll, hunt, boat, ski, or whatever else on the land; and,
quick-hitter sections. I need your ideas.
above all, care about land. I want to make _SCAPE better for you.
5. Tell me how you would like to volunteer. I need writers, editors, graphic layout stars, book reviewers, interviewers, and whatever else you might dream up.
So: Here is some targeted participation. You have energy, right? It’s spring: time for new ideas, rebirths, activity,
Think you can handle that? Bloom up some new ideas for
etc. Resolve now, please, to do your part to make this a
me, will ya? After all, we wouldn’t want _SCAPE to be
better magazine. Here’s how:
reduced to just talking about the weather, would we?
1. Send me the name of ONE book, magazine, website,
Adam Regn Arvidson
journal, or lecture series you use regularly or just came in contact with. Just the title. We’ll handle the rest.
Valued Places In 2001, the Minnesota Chapter of the American Society of Landscape Architects published Valued Places: landscape architecture in Minnesota. This glove-box sized guidebook profiles 52 sites in the Land of Lakes, each of which has benefitted from design, care, or stewardship by landscape professionals. Here are a few samples...
Eloise Butler Wildflower Garden In 1907 Eloise Butler, together with three other botany
The core of the site is a tamarack bog, around which a
teachers, made a petition to the Minneapolis Park Board
2/3 mile pathway circulates on wooded slopes. In the
for the creation of a “wild garden.” This was to be a place
spring these same slopes are spread over with trillium,
where native plants could be tended and protected as
jack-in-the-pulpit, and wild ginger, offering one of the
representative flora of Minnesota. An undrained tamarack
best opportunities to view spring ephemeral flowers in
bog, meadow, and hillside in Glenwood Park (now Wirth
the city. A second path splits off to an upland prairie,
Park) were proposed as a location of particular merit.
where bur oaks stand like frayed exclamation points in
Under the directorship of Parks Superintendent Theodore
the middle of bluestem, wild indigo, and bergamot.
Wirth, and with a budget of $200, the site was preserved from development and established as the Wild Botanic
The front gate is located along Theodore Wirth Parkway
in Wirth Park, just north of I-394. by Jen Gabrys
COURTESY MINNEAPOLIS PARK AND RECREATION BOARD, LEFT; ADAM REGN ARVIDSON, REMAINDER
The Eloise Butler Wildflower Garden is a wild landscape, left, in the midst of the city, which is home to Minnesota native ecosystems and plants, below, like False Solomon’s Seal, Trout Lily, and Trillium.
So began the Eloise Butler Wildflower Garden and Bird Sanctuary, as it was named after its curator and cofounder. Today, the garden presents a laboratory of native plant species, some of which originally occurred on site and others that Butler gathered from the surrounding metropolitan area. She managed the garden as part of her lifelong practice of botany, which she claimed “trains the eye to see, the hand to deftness of action, and the mind to an appreciation of the wonderful and beautiful in nature.”
Fellow’s Top 5 Peggy Booth has spent her career as a landscape architect advocating better collaboration between people and the natural world. As a manager for the Minnesota Department of Natural Resources, Peggy works every day with metropolitan greenways, trout streams, and even the U.S. Army (on the Compatible Use Buffer around Camp Ripley). She sees a lot of nature, so, at a time of year whan nature gets particularly exuberant, we asked her:
What are the 5 best places in the Upper Midwest to see spring?
early spring on the prairie From my journal, Blue Mounds State Park, near Luverne, MN, March 29, 1994: I’ve discovered a new delicacy: icicles of syrup dangling from tips of huge drooping silver maples browsed by deer. Flurries are going by nearly horizontally, but my spirit is back in that sheltered forest enchanted by faceless bird songs. I am glad to be here at Blue Mounds on such a
2006 Lob Pine Recipient Peggy Booth, FASLA A W A R D go to www.masla.org for more award winners W I N N E R
solitary day amid the season’s first shy ducks, an awesome owl, a soaring hawk, and very strange robin-like birds with many white head and wing markings, that make quite
ephemerals of the big woods
a racket in the underbrush. I’m glad too that this place
For many of us, spring in central Minnesota is truly here
is so far from the city with its thin escarpment of oak and
when the native spring ephemeral flowers carpet the forest
hackberry, of red Sioux quartzite green with ancient lichen,
floors. Recently, I checked out some old favorite places
silhouetted against the prairie sky and farmland vistas. I
and was stunned at the absence of these wildflowers
hate to go home today. I look at the postcards I bought and
– who evidently have succumbed to relentless onslaughts
am disappointed. The colors of March and the walk through
of deer, earthworms, buckthorn, and garlic mustard.
the trees with blustery sky and year-old grass: that’s more of
Fortunately, these vernal treasures are still abundant in
what this place is to me than postcard pretty.
the very unique settings of Eloise Butler Wildflower and
Early spring on the prairie calls me back. I yearn to see the
Bird Sanctuary in Minneapolis – the nation’s oldest public
first blooms of pasque flower and prairie smoke at rugged
wildlife garden, Nerstrand-Big Woods State Park near
Prairie Coteau Scientific and Natural Area (SNA) near
Faribault (home of the rare dwarf trout lily), Hastings SNA
Pipestone. Then, I love to join over a hundred species
– with its limestone escarpments and rare snow trillium,
of shorebirds migrating through Salt Lake near the town
and at Falls Creek SNA – the unique old growth white
of Marietta, MN, along the South Dakota border. And,
pine forest near the St. Croix in New Scandia Township in
heading north with the flocks of pelicans, snowgeese, and
companions driven towards their homelands, I visit Sand Lake National Wildlife Refuge near Aberdeen, North
Find out more on SNAs and Nerstrand Woods at www.dnr.state.mn.us Read more about the Eloise Butler Wildflower Garden in “Valued Places” in this issue.
and Natural Areas (SNAs) along the Agassiz beach ridge. April 22-23 is birder weekend at Salt Lake, see www.madisonmn.info For the Sand Lake National Wildlife Refuge, go to sandlake.fws.gov The 1100-acre Felton Prairie is an excellent SNA on the Agassiz beach ridge, see www.dnr.state.mn.us/snas/
SCAPE spring 06
Dakota. On the way home, I stop at some DNR Scientific
Mississippi River driftless area Watching the blush of green wash over the Mississippi River valley in the spring is enough reason to trek down Highway 61 from the Twin Cities to experience the
Door County, Wisconsin
dramatic landscape of the Driftless Area straddling the
Every Midwestern landscape architect should visit Door
Mississippi in Minnesota, Iowa and Wisconsin. First stop
County during their May Festival of Blossoms, when
– for tea or lunch – is Lake City’s Chickadee Cottage right
thousands of cherry trees color the landscape. Among
on Highway 61. Near Kellogg check out the vibrant wood
my favorite Door County places not on the typical tourist
carvings at Larks Toys or explore a unique bottomlands
circuit is the fascinating landscape of The Ridges Sanctuary
environment at Kellogg-Weaver Dunes SNA.
near Bailey’s Harbor which is part of a Festival of Nature:
inland along the Apple Blossom Scenic Drive and while
Exploring Wildflowers, Birds and Conservation.
you’re up top check out the vista from Great River Bluffs
Ridges are aptly named since over the eons Lake Michigan
State Park and the King’s and Queen’s Bluff SNA’s.
has created a series of parallel, thin sandy ridges of boreal
Consider rejoining Highway 61 at La Crescent and
forest alternating with bands of native wetland swales
heading to Iowa for a night at a B&B and exploration of
– accessible through trails and boardwalks. Also, visit
Effigy Mounds National Monument or the tulip festival
Jens Jenson’s Clearing near Ellison Bay with his most
in Pella on May 4-6.
spectacularly sited council ring.
I’d take back roads cross county on my trip home, going
For Door County general info, see www.doorcounty.com The Ridges Sanctuary is at www.ridgesanctuary.org The Clearing is at www.theclearing.org
through Decorah and into Minnesota’s Amish country. If I had my bike along, I’d stop for a spin on the Root River State Trail. Or I’d head towards Beaver Creek State Park near Caledonia. About Beaver Creek, my friend LA-grad Michele Hanson – a trout fishing enthusiast – says: It’s an amazing experience to drive past quintessential farms on flat open dormant fields and then slip down into steep narrow valleys of the southeast Minnesota trout streams. Once you are down in the valleys the woods come alive with wild flowers. It is like a secret garden with a cold, crystal clear stream running through the valley at one point having sheer rock bluffs up tight on both banks. Birds, trout, and flowers: what more could you ask for?
Find out about the SNAs, state parks and the Root River State trail at www.dnr.state.mn.us The Apple Blossom Scenic Drive is at www.lacrescent.com and the Pella Tulip Festival is at www.pella.org Effigy Mounds can be discovered at www.nps.gov/efmo
the metro warbler wave
My most humbling spring expeditions come when joining expert birders identifying by song the droves of migrating warblers and summer resident birds arriving in our Metro forests. Check out the Ramsey County Urban Bird Festival (April 28-May 7, 2006) and John Moriarity’s brand new “A Guide to Birding Ramsey County.” I enjoy Mississippi
Peggy Booth (formerly known as Peggy Sand) has 30 years of professional experience in community planning, landscape architecture, urban forestry, and natural resource management. She has both a Bachelor and Master’s degree in landscape architecture. Early in her career, in 1978, she was the chief designer and author of the Minneapolis Boulevard Reforestation Plan that the City continues to use. In 1982, she joined the faculty of the University of Minnesota Department of Landscape Architecture, where for 10 years she taught and was director of the Center for Community Studies that facilitated participatory student work with urban and rural communities. While still at the University, Peggy led a $199,000 planting for energy conservation research project which was part of the state’s first $1.25 million legislative appropriation creating the ongoing Minnesota ReLeaf grant program. Then, in 1995, she became Minnesota’s State Urban & Community Forestry Program Coordinator. She has also participated in a national team who developed and led workshops on ecosystem approaches to planning and development. Since 1998, Peggy has held managerial positions at the Minnesota Department of Natural Resources. Currently, Peggy oversees the MnDNR’s Metro Greenways Program, Army Compatible Use Buffer (a cooperative project with the National Guard Bureau and Camp Ripley), Trout Stream Watershed Protection Initiative, Big Woods Heritage Forest, and other community assistance work. She is also the program manager for the Metro Conservation Corridors collaborative and on the Interim Leadership Team for the Regional Greenways Collaborative-Embrace Open Space Campaign. In addition, as a community volunteer, Peggy chairs her neighborhood’s Environment Committee which is proactive in air quality and community greening work, and she is Chair of the Minneapolis Tree Commission created in 2004. She was made Fellow of the American Society of Landscape Architects in 1996.
River gorge guided treks put on by The Friends of the Mississippi River. This year’s River Gorge Birding Hike is Saturday, May 6th.
The Ramsey County Urban Bird Fest is at www.co.ramsey.mn.us/parks Friends of the Mississippi River is at www.fmr.org Dakota County Parks is at www.co.dakota.mn.us/parks issue #4
2006 Environmental Awareness Award Friends of the Mississippi River
AWARD W I N N E R go to www.masla.org for more award winners
Whitewater State Park Located in the glaciated landscape of southeastern
Today, remnant oak savannah dominates most of
Minnesota and nestled below sculpted dolomite bluffs,
Whitewater’s upland areas, with “Big Woods” trees
the 2800-acre Whitewater State Park includes some of
including maples and basswood found on some north
the state’s most dramatic river scenery and handcrafted
and east facing slopes. The park also supports many
park landscape architecture. During the late 1800s, the
floodplain plant species as well as small pockets of
Whitewater River valley was extensively farmed and
wetlands and expanses of prairie. The park is home to
grazed by more than one hundred settler families. As in
over 49 different animals, including the timber rattlesnake
many of Minnesota’s agricultural lands, such disturbance
and the wild turkey. On any given day in the park, one
of existing woods, wetlands, and other drainage systems
might see any of 237 varieties of birds.
led to severe erosion that choked out the life in the river. The clear and cold spring-fed streams found in the valley In 1919, local efforts convinced the state legislature to
support an abundance of native brook trout. Nearly 11
appropriate funds to preserve the tranquil beauty and
miles of hiking trails provide park users with the opportu-
natural resources of the Whitewater Valley, thus creating
nity to explore the historic and natural features of the park.
Whitewater State Park. By the early 1920s, the state had
A variety of camping
acquired roughly 650 acres of land for the park. Yet, the
options from the semi-
true health of streams depended on the protection of their
entire watersheds. In the 1940s, the state acquired another
to the primitive group
28,000 acres of land to create the Whitewater Wildlife
Management Area adjacent to the park.
all levels and group sizes.
During the 1930s, the Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC) set up a camp at Whitewater State Park. The camp was
by John D. Slack
located at the south picnic area and housed two companies, made up of about 100 men per company. The enrollees in these companies built well-crafted stone administration buildings, picnic shelters, the Highway 71 stone bridge, walking trails, and other numerous improvements.
SCAPE spring 06
MINNESOTA HISTORICAL SOCIETY, LOWER LEFT; JOHN D. SLACK, OTHERS
The legacy of the Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC) is apparent at Whitewater. CCC crews built sturdy, beautiful picnic shelters, top, footbridges, above, and the stone Highway 71 bridge, left.
Mary Sallstrom, Minneapolis Sales Office 800.480.3636 | 952.898.3230 | 952.898.3293 fax | email@example.com
Knowledge A conversation with a 30-year veteran of the native plants movement. Jim Hagstrom founded Savanna Designs in 1973, in
hopes of bringing environmentally appropriate design to residential and commercial projects across Minnesota. Having grown up amongst the trees and prairie remnants of his parents’ farm and grandfather’s tree farm, he has a deep seeded love of grasses and perennials and native trees -- a love he has complemented with technical experience by studying the works of Oehme and van Sweden, Joan Nassauer, and John Brookes. Today, as prairie plants are gaining wider acceptance and there seems to be increasing concern for the sustainability of the natural environment, Hagstrom’s work is more pertinent than ever. Uniquely, however, rather than considering himself a true restorationist, he is a designer
first, using native plants to accomplish the same effects (enclosure, lushness, lower maintenance, and beauty) that other designers are striving for with cultivated plants. And Savanna’s designs are known for looking fantastic with prairie plantings, but carefully composed, restrained compositions deliberately meant to be pleasing to the eye and useful to their owners. Recently, _SCAPE sat down with Hagstrom to talk about native plants... and making them look good.
SCAPE spring 06
COURTESY SAVANNA DESIGNS, ALL
-- not the tangle of grasses and flowers often associated
_SCAPE: How would you define a native plant?
manicured lawns. It has taken a lot of work to get around to understanding, and then trying to quantify,
Jim Hagstrom: Good question. I think it is a regional thing:
a native aesthetic.
a plant that is evolved in a regional sense. And I think of native being within a couple hundred miles
Aldo Leopold, Jens Jensen, and a few others, talk a lot
in terms of its native adaptation, because there is
about the native aesthetic that is based on the subtle-
species variation when you get beyond that. Also,
ties of fall color and grasslands, and forests, but I find
there has always been in the past -- like with global
that most people really don’t know what our native
warming now -- changes in climate, causing native
plants’ regions to change, so I’m not a real purist
about that. It’s a very fluid kind of thing.
_SCAPE: So how do you bridge that gap?
But the idea of regionally adapted plants is important,
Hagstrom: That’s what I’ve been struggling with for 30
so the ones native to this region -- within a couple
years. [Former University of Minnesota Landscape
few hundred miles -- is what I try and work with.
Architecture Department Head] Joan Nassauer,
_SCAPE: Why use natives in a highly designed smallscale landscape like a residence? Why bother?
FASLA, was particularly helpful with her research on perception and care. Farmers, people that mow and care for their lawns, people who have white painted fences and pretty annuals all around: that
Hagstrom: Well, I think natives have an inherent appro-
is all about cultural care of the landscape and has
priateness, and they speak to people on a different
absolutely nothing to do with ecological care. A lot of
good people who care about their landscapes don’t
Throughout my 30 year career, I’ve talked
about and learned about the scientific, ecological, sustainable, economic, and rational reasons why to use native plants, and there are a lot of good reasons. But the reasons that I think are most important are really aesthetic, in terms of teaching people about the place that they are in. And I think the living plant communities speak to people, and move people more than geraniums and yews and hosta.
The natives add a special sense of place. A lot of people aren’t aware of that, but when they get tuned in, it is really exciting to see them pick up on the native aesthetic.
_SCAPE: What is that native, or prairie, aesthetic? Hagstrom: In landscape history class, we learn about Italy and France and England and so our landscape tradition is rooted in the aristocratic landscapes of Western Europe, which are really landscapes of power and money and not of the people. They’re intentionally anti- or non-native. So our sensibilities about what a valued landscape is comes from that world view. So, having said that, a native landscape aesthetic, in our case, has to do with grassland, savanna, and forest. It does not have to do with clipped hedges or lawns or horticultural species or agriculture, really, but so many of our values and aesthetics come from those traditions: the importance of agriculture, neatness, issue #4
that like that in a prairie, because it looks neat. When
you start adding a couple dozen kinds of flowers, it makes some people really uncomfortable.
do native things. Early on, it was only “lazy hippies” that did natural landscapes, and they looked like hell and made property values go down. So there is a
_SCAPE: How do you take a wild native landscape
conflict between cultural norms, property values,
and have it be something that can still be looked at
human culture, and a sustainable native aesthetic
up close; that can still be an acceptable residential solution?
You have to communicate clearly. That has helped me a lot with my clients. Everybody I have ever worked
Hagstrom: That is a technical question, and it has to do
with, in the first sentence or two, says they want a
with design, maintenance, and management. Design-
natural, low-maintenance landscape.
wise, I’ve learned a lot of tricks. Framing, intention-
says that. But I always turn to images. I use pictures
ally bordering, having neat pieces of lawn or a fence
to show people some examples, and we discover they
or a building or a structure or a geometric pattern in
might really want something that looks like a country
the native beds helps a lot with people perceiving
club or a golf course or a northern Minnesota forest,
that this isn’t a weed patch or an unmowed thing,
or they may really want to do something native: a
that this is an intentional expression of landscape.
prairie or a wetland. It becomes about how wild a
Most people don’t know a native landscape if you
landscape people can stand -- what is their tolerance
stick it right in front of their face. They don’t know
for diversity and change?
what it is. They don’t know the names of the plants. I heard recently that young people can recognize
There’s a real psychological intolerance for high
10,000 corporate logos like Nike or McDonalds, but
levels of diversity, for example. Some people like
they don’t know more than ten native plant species
prairies that are a monoculture of one grass, maybe
by name. What you learn as a child becomes familiar
little bluestem or prairie dropseed or big bluestem:
to you, so there are very few people that are familiar
no flowers, no weeds. They like the monoculture,
with native landscapes. So that is why framing and
so it looks like a wheat field. There’s a lot of people
showing intentionality is important.
The second thing I learned back in the late ‘80s from the [landscape architecture office of] Oehme and van Sweden and [British perennial garden designer] John Brookes was how to design with perennials. I realized then how important it was to be able to design with the herbaceous layer. If you want to talk about sustainability or natives, you have to know what to do on the soil other than lawn. Most landscape architects
SCAPE spring 06
know a little about trees and a fair amount about shrubs, but when you get to the ground plane, if it’s not going to be lawn, what do you
do because there are hundreds of species. Jim van Sweden, in particular, was using a lot of big masses of grasses: very natural-looking, although technically not ecological communities nor native plants. But from a design perspective, it became clear to me that this style had enough layering, form, and pattern to be perceived as beautiful, and it was really the rage in the late ‘80s. So I studied those things and then tried to substitute our indigenous plants: Indian grass or local asters or geraniums or other species that would substitute and give that same effect.
_SCAPE: Are you seeing more acceptance or more ambivalence of natives in cultured settings?
Hagstrom: Well, I think I’m seeing more acceptance, particularly of the natives that really work well: dwarf bush honeysuckle, little bluestem grass, liatris, rudbeckia. I think their popularity has grown, sometimes even inappropriately, where you’ll see people using prairie plants in a little planter, or down a median in a street, where you might wonder whether this will ever really be a prairie?
Could you elaborate on instances where
natives might not be the best option?
Hagstrom: Wherever they don’t have what it takes to survive. For example, a sugar maple needs, in the long run, excellent soil conditions: it can’t be too wet and has to have a high level of organic matter and a large root mass. So, really, planting sugar maples in most construction sites or urban areas is really not a good idea and might even be unethical because they are not going to survive in the long run. A piece of prairie needs to have a certain amount of mass or space to be a replication of prairie. issue #1 #4
_SCAPE: What do you see right now as the biggest barriers to using native plants?
Hagstrom: The biggest barrier is perception. Everybody likes the idea of native plants, and I mean everybody. People that don’t even know what they are just like the idea of being more “natural and sustainable.” But it’s important to show people, I believe, images of what it looks like, and more importantly, how it functions. A big barrier is management and maintenance of diverse, sustainable, ecological systems. It is antithetical to mowing a lawn. Mowing the lawn is a regime, where you use chemicals, water, and a lawnmower to keep things under control -- in monoculture -- and people really like landscapes that are under control. They like predictable, maintainable landscapes. If you are a building manager, a park manager, a golf course manager, that is the quality you are looking for. You do not want something that is reproducing by itself and moving around and changing, possibly even from one ecosystem to another.
2004 Merit Private Landscape Architecture Roy Residence Savanna Designs, Inc. go to www.masla.org for more award winning projects
AWARD W I N N E R Jim Hagstrom: The Roy Residence is one of the most
simple projects I’ve done and also one of the most successful. It also has very handsome prairie-style architecture by [architect] Mike McGuire, so the house sits so well on the land, and then the prairie comes right up to the house. There are also some very clearly defined areas of manicured lawn. It’s irrigated and sprayed -- a perfect green carpet for the grandchildren to play on, juxtaposed right up to the prairie with intentional edging, so there are crisp lines. It has the amount of human control and usefulness (the edging and the lawns) that most people associate with a cared‑for or valuable landscape, and then two‑thirds of the property is prairie.
Inherent in being natural and sustainable is a certain amount of uncontrollability that becomes problematic.
For most landscape architects, that sort of
sustainable, diverse, uncontrollability is appealing, but in the practical world, it’s awful. In terms of the visual images, it’s psychologically frustrating, and in terms of maintenance, it’s very difficult.
So you need people to manage these landscapes that understand them. They’re much less consumptive; however, it takes what I call native intelligence: a
_SCAPE: So do you feel that maintenance of those
native landscapes are harder or just different from what we’re used to?
Hagstrom: It’s a very different maintenance paradigm, and it requires understanding. It is more difficult, in a way, because it requires more knowledge and experience, but it is much less consumptive of gasoline and fertilizers and energy. It takes less time, and it takes less materials, but definitely more knowledge.
familiarity with what’s happening to these plants now, as well as what will happen to them in five or ten years.
SCAPE spring 06
_SCAPE: What needs to happen next? What’s the next step? The next level of understanding?
Hagstrom: I’ve been struggling with this for many years. I came out of school preaching the gospel of native plants and sustainability and nature. That was in the late ‘70s, and there hasn’t been a lot of change in some of that area, although we’re learning more about design and perceptions.
The next step is with the kids, and considering where they learn their landscape aesthetic.
new book by Richard Louv
Child in the Woods: Saving our Children from Nature Deficit Disorder, that says kids are not getting enough
the natural world. I think that’s what we’re fighting. We need to help kids acclimate themselves to a native aesthetic and to see the habitat connection between insects, birds, mammals, and the native landscape. I remember my son, when he was in eighth grade, was in our yard, and we have a lot of prairie, he’s grown up around that, but he said, “Dad, why can’t we have more of those cone-shaped, really perfect evergreen trees around our house like some of the other people?” They had nicer houses than us, some of his wealthier friends, so he’d seen that aesthetic at nice houses: clipped evergreens, spruce trees, lawn. He thought if we had more of these things, that would be better, and I wondered where that had come from. He had absorbed that non-native aesthetic somewhere. It’s a cultural thing. It isn’t right or wrong. It’s somehow just assimilated, and most people go through their whole life and never question it.
ST. JUDE MEDICAL
If kids can learn the names, that would be an important start. It starts with the names of native plants, then it continues with seeing them in association, then the next level is learning the associated habitat, the animals and birds that go with it, and then you get a real powerful thing going.
In the spirit of lifelong learning, _SCAPE will be premiering in the Summer 06 issue a section called “Plants Class.” Know of a native everyone should remember? E-mail firstname.lastname@example.org issue #4
This water treatment lagoon in Kochice, Poland, designed by Viet Ngo of Lemna, uses duckweed for biological treatment.
Art Treatment Artist/engineer Viet Ngo is cleaning up wastewater facilities around the globe using natural biological processes... and leaving behind works of art.
oland was admitted to the European Union on May
tions, offering an affordable alternative for a de-central-
1, 2004, because it was able, among other require-
ized, flexible, and less intrusive system of wastewater
ments, to meet tight environmental standards.
treatment. The key to this system is a series of treat-
This former Eastern Bloc nation had come a long way
ment lagoons around the countryside that use Lemna’s
since the 1980s, when it was suffering from ecologically
proprietary technologies: patented natural biological
disastrous levels of pollution due to years of infrastruc-
processes and (when an enclosed system is necessary)
ture neglect. A Minneapolis-based firm -- Lemna -- has
trademarked modular insulated covers. The lagoons are
been instrumental in the clean up, designing more than
easily and quickly constructed by digging holes in the
eighty wastewater treatment ponds in Poland during the
ground and lining them with geomembrane, so waste-
past fifteen years. Lemna is now the largest United States
water cannot seep into the surroundings. This “scattered
presence in the ecological field in Poland.
sites” approach has proven an economical alternative to a centralized urban solution based upon the mechanical
Viet Ngo, Lemna’s founder and CEO, says that Poland is a
or chemical processing of waste, which would require
predominantly rural country of villages located at regular
an expensive piping system and permanently installed
intervals of five kilometers apart and with populations
of around 5,000. Lemna adapted to these local condi-
SCAPE spring 06
REGINA M. FLANAGAN and LEMNA, ALL
by Regina M. Flanagan
go has pioneered a unique biological process for
These projects show the influence of an artist as well as an
treating wastewater that uses a floating aquatic
engineer. Ngo came to the United States from Viet Nam
plant: duckweed (or lemnaceae, from which his
to study civil engineering in 1970, but while studying for
firm takes its name), a species that thrives anywhere in
his master’s degree from the University of Minnesota, he
the world from cold climates to the desert. The plant takes
also took art classes, rented a studio space, and created
up nitrogen and phosphorus from the water and is later
large-scale sculptures. Ngo became increasingly inter-
harvested and used as fertilizer, completing the nutrient
ested in creating work that would address environmental
issues and merge his artistic sensibilities with problem solving. In creating Lemna, he aimed to transform waste-
Ngo first demonstrated the Lemna Duckweed Wastewater
water treatment facilities -- which are necessary pieces of
Treatment process at the Devil’s Lake, North Dakota,
infrastructure usually hidden away or disguised -- into
Municipal Treatment Facility, completed in 1987. Nine
interesting parts of the landscape.
serpentine channels covering an area of 89 acres filter
nearly 3.5 million gallons of water per day. Geotextile “curtains” or baffles guide wastewater through the lagoon. The surface plants provide an attractive continuous green zone. The Devil’s Lake project has received attention in both art magazines and scientific journals
go has also applied his creativity to the design of other water treatment system components. Often a covering system is necessary, to control
odor, heat loss, algae, and gas collection. While most of Lemna’s installations in Poland are aerobic, using oxygen
because the functional lagoon creates a beautiful form
and the Lemna duckweed process, some required an
in the landscape. Another example of Ngo’s system is a
anaerobic environment (without oxygen) to provide treat-
wastewater treatment facility in Cleveland, Georgia , in
ment. These projects use the LemTec™ Modular Insulated
the Blue Ridge Mountains of the southeastern United
Cover System that consists of individual casings that are
States. The lagoon follows the contours of the land and
laced together during installation to completely cover the
incorporates a rock outcropping. It appears as a lake in a
liquid in a lagoon, pond, basin, or tank. The casings are
park-like setting because existing trees and boulders were
composed of closed cell extruded polystyrene insulation
retained. The facility is a good neighbor, blending into the
sealed between two sheets of high-density polyethylene
landscape surrounding this tourist town.
(HDPE) geomembrane. With an insulation R-factor from 10 to 30, the cover functions particularly well in cold climates to retain heat and improve treatment rates. The floating cover is engineered for a custom fit with openings The tiny duckweed (Lemnaceae spp.) has become the namesake of a ground-breaking company that has completed more than 250 infrastructure projects in 30 countries, and currently has $2.5 billion worth of projects under development.
A Devil’s Lake, North Dakota, facility, above, that first demonstrated the use of lemnaceae plant in wastewater treatment is an achievement recognized in both the art and science communities. The LemTec™ Modular Insulated Cover System for wastewater treatment, right, is composed of casings of closed cell insulation between two sheets of durable geomembrane
for mechanical equipment and walkways, and hatches to access submerged equipment. Designed to accommodate fluctuating water levels, the cover can rise and fall while still conforming to the basic geometry of a lagoon, pond or structure.
go considers himself a multi-faceted artist who receives personal fulfillment through projects that are environmentally responsible
and make a contribution to society. He is a patient person and recognizes that some of his projects may take ten or twenty years before the long–term results (such as a cleaner environment) become apparent. But achieving these results is the most meaningful kind of art to him, as well as the foundation of a business philosophy that has led to international success.
In Slovenia, Lemna covered existing tanks, facilitating the recovery of bio-gas, which can be used as fuel.
Learn more at www.lemnatechnologies.com
Regina M. Flanagan, MLA, ASLA, is an artist and landscape designer in St. Paul who writes about the intersection of public art and design with social and environmental issues.
Editor’s Note: This article first appeared in the July/August 2004 issue of Fabric Architecture, a publication of the Industrial Fabrics Association International.
LemTec Gas Collection System, left, shown during installation, is custom designed to conform to the wastewater treatment lagoon’s geometry, and enables bio-gas to be collected and used as fuel.
Lemna’s patented biological processes and cover systems have quantifiable positive impacts on the environment. The biological process requires no chemicals and the cover system, which prevents sunlight from reaching the water surface and thereby eliminates the growth of algae, means that less chlorine is necessary to treat potable water in a reservoir. Another product, the LemTec™ Gas Collection
Editor’s Note: This article first appeared in the July/August 2004 issue of Fabric Architecture, a publication of the Industrial Fabrics Association International.
System, a variation of the modular cover system, traps and contains the gases that are the result of the biological treatment of effluent from industrial processes. This “biogas” is collected in a duct system and is either flared off or used in place of natural gas or fuel oil. In Slovenia, Lemna covered existing tanks, facilitating the recovery of bio-gas, which can be used as fuel.
SCAPE spring 06
Now, Thatâ€™s Dedication! Each year, Hoisington Koegler Group, Inc. surveys Minnesota cities to determine how they exact park dedication. Here are the 2005 results.
innesota is known for the quality of its parks,
residential dedication requirements is that businesses and
trails, and open spaces. Paying for new parks,
employees use parks and trails and the businesses benefit
trails, and natural areas, however, can be a
by having an attractive and functional park, trail and
challenge in this age of tax sensitivity. Many cities and
open space system. Cities typically update their per unit
some counties use park dedication as a tool to acquire
dedication fees (fees in lieu of land dedication) annually.
and build a park system. Park dedication is when local
Some cities determine fees on a case-by-case basis.
governments require developers to dedicate land or pay a
fee for new parks and recreation facilities.
ince 1997 Ingraham & Associates/Hoisington Koegler Group (merged in 2005) has surveyed
Park dedication fees have risen steadily over the last 10 years as the cost of land has increased and as construction costs have risen. Developers, in an effort to control their
Minnesota cities to determine their park dedication
requirements. The average per unit fee for park dedication has increased approximately 140% since 1997. This
own costs, are sensitive to increases in park dedication
increase closely mirrors the increase in land and construc-
requirements. On the other hand, many developers recog-
tion cost that occurred during that same time period.
nize the value that parks, trails, and open space have for
Park dedication will continue to be an important tool for
their developments and push park departments to â€œget
local governments. The fees need to keep pace with rising
that park built ASAP.â€?
costs while being fair and equitable.
Minnesota statutes allow cities and counties to require
On the following pages are the results of the 2005 survey.
from new developments a dedication of land or payment
The survey was distributed to 116 cities in Minnesota.
of a fee in lieu of land. The basic idea is that new growth
Forty-seven cities responded, and their requirements are
should pay for or provide the facilities (such as parks and
tabulated here, along with a comparison of 1997 and 2005
trails) necessitated by that growth, and that dedication
should be roughly proportional to the demand created by the new growth.
The 2005 HKGi Park Dedication Survey is also viewable on line at www.hkgi.com.
So the issue boils down to who pays and how much. Dedication requirements should be based on a calculation of park, trail, and open space needs along with estimates of growth within the community. Many cities have dedication requirements for both residential and non-residential development. The rationale behind nonissue #4
2005 Park Dedication Survey 2005 Park Dedication Survey City Andover Bloomington Brainerd Buffalo Champlin
Crystal Duluth East Grand Forks Edina Eden Prairie Faribault Fridley Glencoe
Residential Dedication land up to 10% of the area, or fixed rate per type of dwelling unit
Single F $/unit
Multi F $/unit
cash or land up to 10% of land value/area - fixed rate per type of dwelling unit (sets upper limit)
cash in lieu of land
fixed rate per type of dwelling unit plus a $250 surcharge
$400+ $200 per add'l bedroom
land equal to 10% of land area if park needed, or fixed rate per dwelling unit
Other: land equal to 10% of land area partial credit on steep slopes, etc. No credit for tree preservation areas or fixed rate per type of dwelling unit & Recreation fee when land is dedicated at 150/unit
fixed rate per type of dwelling unit None Other: $3.00 per fron foot with a $250 min. to be adjusted every 5 years
cash or land equal to 7% of the land value/area (presently 5,500 per acre)
City Lakeville Little Canada Lino Lakes Mankato Maple Grove Mendota Heights Minnetonka Moorhead
Mound New Brighton
density/acre: 0-1.9=9%, 2-3.5=11%,3.65.9=13%, 6-10=15%, 10+=add .6%per Residential Dedication unit over 10 fixed rate per type of dwelling unit
fixed rate per acre of land None
fixed rate per acre of land 1200
$1200 (<3 units) $800 (>3 units)
2200 F Single $/unit 3665
1650 2x $/unit 2879
1100 T.H. $/unit 2879
1100F Multi $/unit 2879
Mobile.H. $/unit 2879
fixed rate per type of dwelling unit
land equal to based upon density/acre: 02.5 = 11%, 2.6-5=12%, 5.1-7.5=13, 7.610=14, 10.1-12.5=15, 12.6-16=16 percent of net area. None - in process of implementing an ordinance
fixed rate per type of dwelling unit
$398 per (Hotel) $199 per 1000 sq. ft. 1000 sq. ft. of of bldg. bldg.
cash or land equal to 4% of land value
fixed rate per acre of land
fixed rate per type of dwelling unit cash or land equal to 5% of land value/area fixed rate per type of dwelling unit land equal to 10% of land area / fixed rate per type of dwelling unit fixed rate per type of dwelling unit cash o land equal to 10% of the land value/area cash o land equal to 10% of the land value/area
cash or land equal to 4% of the land value/area
fixed rate per type of dwelling unit
1200 gross Fixed rate per acre of land 1500 gross acre Industrial Commercial/Industrial Commercial acre Dedication $/acre $/acre Other Method fixed rate per acre of land 5940 3520 5% of land value or 10% of acreage. fixed rate per acre of land 2175 2175 cash or land equal to 5% of land n/a value/area fixed rate per acre of land 7500 5950 Cash or land equal to 10% of N/A N/A land value/area fixed rate per acre of land 5700 5475 none
Page 1 of 3
fixed rate per acre of land
$500 (3 $500 (3 units units or or less) not less) not to to exceed exceed $5,000 $5,000
none, considering policy for 2006
fixed rate per acre of land
$500(<5000 sf) $1,050 (50009999sf) $1,575 (10,000-24,999 sf) $2,100 (25,000 sf +)
fixed rate per acre of land
Industrial: land equivalent to 2% of of the gross area for trails Commercial: 5% of gross area for parks, trails and openspace n/a
90% of existing park land & trail acreage, divided by the city population (I.e. 90% x 1,338 acres / 65,894 = 0.183)
Cash or land equal to 10% of land area, or combination of cash and land (or) Fixed rate per type of dwelling unit.
fixed rate per acre of land
cash or land equal to 10% of land area / fixed rate per type of dwelling unit
cash or land equal to 10% of the land value/area cash or land up to 10% of land value/area - fixed rate per type 597 per 1000 of building square footage (sets sq. ft. of bldg. upper limit) cash or 5% of the value/area 1000
none cash/land = to 8% of land value/area
2005 Park Dedication Survey Other: Fixed rate or land per(Preliminary Results 11/2/05) Hastings
cash/land = to 8% of land value/area cash or land equal to 10% of land area / fixed rate per type of dwelling unit Cash or land equal to 7% of the land value/area Other: $1500 per lot in subdivision, $750 per lot split
10% of existing park land & trail acreage, divided by the number of jobs within the city (I.e.: 10% x 1,338 acres / 51,712 jobs = .0026 acres per capita)
Cash or land equal to 10% of land value/area (or) combination of cash & land (or) Fixed rate per type of dwelling unit.
SCAPE spring 06
2005 Park Dedication Survey 2005 Park Dedication Survey
City Richfield Rochester Rosemount Roseville Savage
Single F $/unit n/a
Multi F $/unit
fixed rate per type of dwelling unit
cash/land =to 10% of land area/value (or) fixed rate per type of dwelling unit
Residential Dedication none cash or land equal to 10% of land value/area cash or land equal to 1/25% of land of an acre per dwelling
St. Louis Park
fixed rate per type of dwelling unit
other: land or cash =1.1 acres of land per 4 persons/ 4 persons/ 100 persons unit unit percentage of cash or land based on dwelling units per acre value /area: 2 units / acre = 9%, 2-4 units/acre = 11%, 46 = 13%, 6-8 = 15%, 8-10 = 17%, more Vadnais Heights than 10 = add 1% for each dwelling unit per acre beyond 10 up to a max of 20%. (and/or) Sites of 20 lots/units or less must dedicate $1500 per lot/unit. More than 20 lots/units is based on the above formula. cash or land equal to 6% of land Victoria 1550 1550 value/area or fixed rate per type of dwelling unit. St. Peter
Wilmar Woodbury Worthington
cash or land equal to 10% of land value/area / fixed rate per type of dwelling unit.
none - done by negotiation with developers fixed rate per type of dwelling unit
Commercial $/acre n/a
cash or land equal to 10% of land value/area cash or land equal to 5% of land value/area cash/land =to 7% of land area/value or fixed rate per acre of land. none none cash or land equal to 5% of the land value/area cash or land= to 5% of gross land area
Cash or land equal to 6% of land value/area or fixed rate per acre of land Cash or land equal to 10% of land value/area - based on fair market value as established by county
Based on purchase price
$325 for each 1000 S.F.
$325 for each 1000 S.F.
$220/1000 sf for warehousing or low labor manufacturing and assembly, hotels 250 per unit
fixed rate per acre of land
2006 rate 4000
None Average of all cities with per unit or per acre fees
Average of Twin City metro area cities with per unit or per acre fees
The survey was sent to 116 cities in Minnesota in October, 2005.
47 cities responded to the survey.
Assumed an average single family density of 2.5 lots per acr
Page 3 of 3
Comparison of Cities with Per Unit Fees - Average Rates Single Family Residential fee per lot - Twin Cities Single Family Residential fee per lot - All Commercial fee per acre Industrial fee per acre
1997 $1,070 $1,000 $2,770 $2,525
2005 $2,600 $2,500 $5,000 $4,050
Notes: Some different city respondents between 1997 and 2005 surveys. All represents all Twin City municipalities and a few Greater MN cities.
Sleepy Eye South St. Pau
West St. Paul
Commercial/Industrial Dedication none
Bu s i n e s s G r o w t h The story behind the Endless Summer ® Hydrangea: a local nursery finds new ways to compete in a rapidly changing landscape. by Jonathan Pedersen
ike many industries in the US economy, the nursery
A younger consumer – aged 25 to 50 – is driving our
industry is in the middle of some of the largest
business, just like they are in many other industries,
changes in history. Why? Well, there are many
Today’s homeowner has little time between kids, soccer,
factors driving the changes, including labor and immigra-
and work, and as such the choices for their leisure time
tion, the rise of mass merchants as a shopping culture, and
are at a premium. The baby boom generation was a real
the changing of our key demographic consumer away
“do it yourself” generation. This younger group is more
from the baby boomers. Like many nurseries within the
of a “do it for me” generation. Landscapers are doing well
industry, Bailey Nurseries Inc. (headquartered in St. Paul,
for this very reason, as the term “gardening” has moved
Minnesota) has grown through the years – celebrating
from leisure activity to “work.”
their centennial in 2005 – and now has growing area covering over 5000 acres from Oregon to Minnesota.
Our challenge here at Bailey Nurseries and, truthfully, industry-wide is to find new ways to sell to these fast-
For the last three years, however, the retail market has
moving consumers: either by marketing to those that will
seen little growth across the country, with some statis-
specify and install plants for their yards, or by appealing
tics actually showing a decline in sales. At the same
in a new emotional way directly to those consumers
time sales within the landscape market have increased
on average over 10% per year. There are many reasons
The primary driving force behind this shift, I believe, is demographics. Bailey Nurseries’ 280-acre Container East facility, below left, is one of three container operations in Minnesota (there is another in Oregon). During spring peak shipping weeks, Bailey loads more than 50 semi trucks per day, below right.
s an industry we have always been somewhat complacent. As spring approached we would take a “don’t worry they will come” attitude,
and, to some degree this continues to be true. In the last ten years, however, the marketplace has become increasingly competitive with the market share of the mass
SCAPE spring 06
BAILEY NURSERIES, ALL
why and some, like the weather, are out of our control.
merchant retailers (Home Depot, Menards, Wal-Mart,
architects and contractors. This is a retail channel that is
etc.) changing the way consumers purchase products --
(for lack of a better word) confusing to us nursery types.
At Bailey Nurseries we grow many a tree or shrub that ends up in a landscape architect’s plan set, but we don’t
The majority of all plants sold in the USA go through
actually cross paths as industries all that often. We have
two channels of distribution: Retail sales direct to the
our own trade shows, magazines, and associations. We
consumer (with an approximate 60-40 split between mass
are starting a few initiatives to try to be more helpful to
merchants and the local independent garden center) or the
design professionals, which I will describe at the end of
wholesale channel with sales to the landscape market. At
Bailey Nurseries we don’t supply the mass merchants of
Aerial view of the Bailey Nurseries Container West facility: the large buildings in top left comprise our bareroot storage, which are the largest in the world at more than 11 football fields in size.
the world and our main retail customers are independent garden centers (IGCs). We are very spoiled within the Twin Cities market in having some of the strongest IGCs in the nation. We will not, however, reach all consumers through garden centers.
ltimately, we are beginning to feel that we need to make an appeal directly to the end consumers, even if they don’t plan to visit a garden center
but will rather hire someone to make that trip for them. The nursery industry needs to start getting consumers to demand a particular plant, whether they buy it themselves
With the increasing value of homes and planned
or request it in a plan.
communities, our landscape sales have remained strong. Consumers are hiring out their gardening, either to
Yes, branding is hitting our industry, and there is one
landscape design/build companies or to landscape
prime example on which I would like to elaborate: the
Branding 101 is really the same for any product, it all
needs to start with a product that has something identiEndless Summer® Hydrangea, which hit the retail shelves
fiable: uniqueness, enduring quality, or a perceived
with overwhelming success in 2004.
emotional connection. With Endless Summer we felt we could lay claim to all three, but the underlining factor was
Branding is new to our industry – mostly within the last
and still is today the uniqueness of the plant compared
10 years – and as with Endless Summer has been very
with its peers (the every-year bloom). The plan to market
successful in helping drive demand at the retail level.
the plant was in full swing by 2002.
Bailey Nurseries has introduced well over 80 plants that today makeup some of the staple items used within our
This required other growers to get involved to help cover
industry, including certain species of Dogwoods, Maples,
all of North America, as, even though Bailey Nurseries is
Roses and everything in between. Yet Endless Summer
one of the largest growers in the country, we were going
has the most interesting story of any plant, it’s a true rags
to need help in covering the wide market potential of this
to riches tale.
hydrangea. One of the things we learned from getting test
plants to other quality growers across the country and ound in a Bailey employee’s neighbor’s yard
into Canada was that we had a plant with larger market
in the Twin Cities some 25 years ago (most new
potential than we thought. With the ability to bloom on
ornamental plants today are still found, not bred),
new growth, the plant could rebloom in warmer climates
an odd hydrangea specimen was planted into a test field. What attracted that employee’s keen eye was something unusual for a Hydrangea macrophylla planted in Minnesota: it bloomed every year. At the time, Bailey Nurseries was a tree grower and not really in the business of introducing Hydrangeas, and the plant sat in that very test field in Minnesota happily blooming every year. In 1998, renowned plantsman Dr. Michael Dirr happened to visit.
He was interested in
hydrangeas and was curious to see a hydrangea blooming in Minnesota. Upon hearing the story of the plant, Dr. Dirr took the plant back to Georgia for testing and was very suprised to learn the secret of the plant’s blooming abilities. What makes Endless Summer so different from other Hydrangea Macrophylla varieties is its unique ability to bloom on new growth. All other macrophylla or “Bigleaf”
The Endless Summer Hydrangea: the first “branded” plant to be marketed extensively direct to the end consumer.
Hydrangea varieties bloom on old growth – last year’s wood. What causes the occasional lack of bloom in cold climates is that the wood is usually dead at the start of the season or the buds get nipped by a frost in early spring. Either way you end up with a hydrangea “green bush” for the season – little to no blooms at all.
– in California the plant blooms from April through November – which other bigleafs do not. This impacted
This is where, unlike many plants that get introduced
the consumer demand as we now had a plant that
every year without consumer awareness, Bailey’s decided
covered well over 60 million homes with a unique selling
to do something radical: market the plant directly to the
end user, the consumer. This is very common outside our industry as most consumer products are launched
It was decided that we needed to get this plant out in
this way, from breakfast cereals to the iPod, but this is a
front of the consumer and “pull” sales through the retail
revolutionary idea within horticulture. As growers we
channel rather than the usual push method. This involved
typically grow the plants and leave the marketing to the
a plan that included having a network of the best growers
in the industry working together to launch a plant en
SCAPE spring 06
masse. We decided that consumer advertising would be
that was required to supply all the other growers with
necessary and, in the introduction year, spent in excess of
plants. Baileys produced over 600,000 starter plants in
one million dollars on the marketing of Endless Summer.
2003 all from that one original plant found in a neighbors
This was and still is at the very top of the spending curve
yard. Which, of course, begs the perennial nurseryman’s
for a single plant ever (though still a pittance compared to
question: What’s in your yard?
the launching of other consumer products). Today, Endless Summer remains a top woody ornamental The other major thrust of our efforts was getting the
plant with sales over one million projected again this
plant to the gardening press, and this was achieved by
year. We have also launched the brand internationally
supplying garden writers across the country with plants
in Europe, Japan, and Australia and so far all consumers
to test in their own gardens. We actually went out of our
have responded well to the Hydrangea in the “Blue” pot.
way to make it easy for them to get a plant, and at the
It seems that marketing for the most part in the western
Garden Writers National Convention we not only brought
world is relatively the same with just a few language
over 500 plants with us, we made a carrying box to help
writers get them home on the plane. This was the break-
through we needed as the plant and the box got to their destinations and the box had another important feature: it housed a CD with press releases and photos for the writer in a hurry for a story. Between the summer of 2003 and the end of 2004 we were able to get the advertising
hough this article focuses on Bailey Nurseries (because that’s what I know), it is really meant to discuss and enlighten the design profession -
- a group, as I mentioned earlier, that we rarely interact with -- on what goes on behind the nursery gate. And
equivalency of over thirty million dollars in free editorial
we’d like to get some advice on how to do better for
and that made all the difference. Endless Summer was an
you. Basically, we’re trying to predict the future market
instant hit at retail stores across North America.
potential of each and every one of the over 10,000 items we grow. In doing this we look at where we believe the plant’s potential is and what channel of distribution has the biggest impact on the numbers, size, and price. This is a complex and sometimes crystal-ball-like operation. A tree of a typical caliper used on a job today was planted over ten years ago; a new rose introduced today was bred (at a minimum) 7 years ago. While we continue to work hard to keep exciting new plants coming to market, I would welcome your input and suggestions as to how we in the nursery business can positively effect your designs with the versatility and
Bailey Nursries will be introducing this summer (in limited quantities) the first progeny from the Endless Summer breeding work led by Dr. Dirr at the University of Georgia. Endless Summer® Blushing Bride (PPAF) is the first plant in more that 40,000 controlled crosses to keep that all important “blooming on new growth” characteristic. Like The Original, Bailey will be aggressively marketing this new plant, in hopes of creating the same demand and awareness.
beauty of quality plant material. Coming this spring we will be launching our new Internet Plant Library at www.Baileynurseries.com, so you will be able to search specific plant features from zone hardiness to fall color, and then print a spec sheet with image and specific plant information and descriptions. Check it out and let us know what other features (or plants) would be of interest and help to you. Thanks for your time, and keep up the good work!
This was a first for our industry, to have a plant be so successful in the first year, and I would be remiss if I didn’t say that even we were surprised by the response that this plant elicited from the buying public. One of the other important factors in the Endless Summer story is the work
Jonathan Pedersen is Marketing Manager at Bailey Nurseries, a family-owned wholesale nursery with home offices in St. Paul, Minnesota. Bailey provides industry members throughout the U.S. and Canada with a full line of bareroot and container-grown plants from Bailey’s properties in Minnesota, Oregon, and Washington.
within Bailey Nurseries from a production standpoint issue #4
whips decisions, the federal government should be involved
In Other Words
in regional and national land use policy. But, with little actual legal mandate, that takes some creativity. The bulk of the book chronicles examples of how Babbitt and his staff used the Endangered Species Act, the Antiquities Act, public forums, the press, and partner-
Items of interest in the broader printSCAPE...
ships with the Army Corps of Engineers to wrangle major land set asides and land use plans for the southwest, the California coast, the Chesapeake Bay, and, of course, the
Cities in the Wilderness by Bruce Babbitt
published by Island Press, August, 2005 review by Adam Regn Arvidson, ASLA
Everglades. He tells these stories in an understated way that seamlessly mixes the language of ecological science, law, and politics without tooting his own horn. This, as you might expect, is a pleasant surprise. On occasion, Babbitt expounds his own land use beliefs,
To be completely honest, I
but in general the book is
was not looking forward to
about the back stories of such
reading this book -- I read it
flashpoint Interior issues of the
because I felt I had to. In the
1990s like the spotted owl and
seemingly endless array of
the Grand Staircase-Escalante
tomes by ex-politicos, I, as a
good liberal and frequent user
overarching message, though,
of public land, figured I at least
is the one that is in the title.
better read the one by the most
Babbitt takes time to describe
recent Democratic Secretary of
the land use policies that have
I was thankful,
made Las Vegas, Phoenix,
then, that the table of contents
and San Diego “Cities in the
promised a mere 180 pages,
Wilderness.” Though it may
and, after staring at the cover
seem strange to point out those
for a few weeks, I delved in with
three burgs as good examples,
a little trepidation.
Babbitt’s point is that while
the first chapter, “Everglades
maybe not the best models of
Forever,” I was hooked.
urban design, each member of this arid trio is literally was
surrounded by the openness
recently profiled in Landscape
and darkness of the desert,
Architecture Magazine (1/06),
unlike the Midwest and the
served as President Clinton’s
eastern seaboard, where the
Interior Secretary for the entire
landscape is pockmarked with
8 years of that administration – something a little unusual
sometimes marginal farms and outlying townlets. In his
for a lower level cabinet secretary. Before that he was
view, “cities on the land should be visualized like an archi-
governor of Arizona. He, self-admittedly, had a strange
pelago, as islands surrounded by a sea of open landscapes.
take on what Interior’s role was. Historically, his prede-
[They] should be compact, self-sustaining, with discern-
cessors had occupied themselves with the management
ible outer boundaries, beyond which the landscapes are
of a scattered mosaic of public lands and administration
devoted to agriculture and the preservation of space and
of several old environmental laws and policies. Babbitt
biological diversity.” Not really a novel idea, perhaps,
actually tackled the larger issue of land use on a national
but what is interesting about this book is not so much the
scale. He shares in the book that while he believes the little
idea, but how Babbitt, in some places, helped to make it
decisions (“where to place a shopping mall”) are still local
real. And that makes for some fascinating stories. SCAPE spring 06
COURTESY ISLAND PRESS
A treasure trove of landscape supplies and design inspiration.
The Next American City review by Adam Regn Arvidson, ASLA Some titles just scream groundbreaking. They sum up in a few words the progressive position of their creators. They inherently tout optimism, futurism, and urbanism. They seem firm in their resolve that something better can be done, that there is somewhere to go from here. The Next American City is one of these titles. It forces the reader to simultaneously say “ahh, that sounds wonderful,” and ask “what, pray tell, is The Next American City.” Even just a skim through the well-researched articles in this quarterly magazine will answer that question: The Next American City is, in fact, today’s American City, only better.
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Adam Gordon, one of the magazine’s founders and currently its editor-in-chief, recalls that in the early COURTESY THE NEXT AMERICAN CITY
2000s, the urban and suburban development model was still deeply rooted in the 1950s. It was becoming out of touch with the reality of a nation (and world) that was much more populous and connected. He and two other co-founders, he recalls, thought “why don’t we start a publication that articulates a vision of what COULD be going on.” issue #4
In Other Words JOURNAL
It was a whirlwind beginning. Gordon sent an e-mail to some like-minded colleagues and the internet whipped the idea into a frenzy. Articles started coming in. The first issue came out in 2003 and got a lot of media coverage. They now have about 1,000 subscribers, sell another 2,000 issues on magazine racks, and have an astonishing 70,000 on-line readers.
published by the College of Architecture and Landscape Architecture at the University of Minnesota review by Adam Regn Arvidson, ASLA In just two words, this journal is smart and clever. No,
The format is strong and factual: the writing is to-the-point and meaty, the images are judiciously used, and the issues are themed. Number nine, the most recent in print, is called “Segregation and Integration,” and includes articles on Somerville, MA, a model diverse city now threatened by homogenous development; the corporate invasion of the ghetto (Starbucks in South Central LA); Chicago’s famed Gautreax settlement which led to the well-known “scattered-sites” affordable housing program in that city;
this is not a redundant description. On the first count, the articles contained in this second issuing of the annual student-run journal of the College of Architecture and Landscape Architecture at the University of Minnesota are well researched, deep with content, and enlightening. On the second count, the editors, a group of third year Masters students who have been working on this issue for well over a year, have dreamed up a title and organizational scheme that is best described as, well, clever.
and many others. (Minnesota even makes an appearance in an examination of the skyway system as quasi-public space.) The next issue, due out within the month, is on transportation, and will discuss the phenomenon of the Aerotropolis (urban design centered on airports), how local governments are considering transportation and climate change in the absence of a national policy, and the massive “fast track” light rail system recently approved by voters in Denver. Number 11 will be about the future of suburbia, which, Gordon says, “may be a harsh reality check to most of our readers.” And what’s next for The Next American City (the host several events designed to “get people from different backgrounds talking together for an evening.”
seems, The Next American City is about to move off the printed page and onto the streets of today’s American cities. Subscriptions to the magazine are $29 for four issues. Visit www.americancity.org to subscribe and to read some of the content on line.
Refuse. That’s the title. Or is it Refuse, or Refuse. This is one of those strange words in English that make new learners cringe: it means three things, and is pronounced three ways, with exactly the same spelling. Words like
Care to alert us to a book, newsletter, website, magazine, or lecture series you find interesting? Read something recently that we should all know about? Send recommendations to email@example.com.
this make me want just a few French accents or a German umlaut to distinguish their meanings. But for this issue of t/here, the ambiguity is, I think, intentional. The book (yes, it is really more a book than a journal: perfect bound, weighty) is divided into three sections per the aforementioned meanings -- that which is cast aside as worthless,
to reject or cast-off, and to fuse together again – but the SCAPE spring 06
COURTESY COLLEGE OF ARCHITECTURE AND LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTURE, UNIVERSITY OF MINNESOTA
magazine)? Gordon plans to expand online content and
articles within each one offer hints to the others. Aaron Kapphahn’s excellent and entertaining article (one of
my favorites) called “trash, trucks and tubs” discusses how junk is disposed of, but also describes the Hennepin Energy Recovery Center, which effectively makes something useful from the cast-offs. In “the eddy next door,” Sonja Sudheimer interprets a set of terms developed by Steven Flusty to describe waste urban spaces. There are great words here, like stealthy, slippery, crusty, and prickly which are meant to describe the thrown-away, but Sudheimer goes on to speak of the “magic of an eddy” and the possible rebirth of these areas as a new Twins Ballpark and rebuilt neighborhood. The potential site of TwinsTown, known as RapidPark, permeates this issue of t/here. This again is appropriate to the title: RapidPark is a waste place (where city waste is taken) that may be reborn -- re-fused onto the community. Clever. Though there are a couple of articles that made this nonacademe’s head spin, and the journal has a few examples of departmental group-think, it is truly a quality tome. This is even more remarkable considering the final-year schedules of its thesis-busy editors. But there is an interesting (clever) system in place: each graduating class gets a crack at their own issue on a rotating schedule. As first years they watch and learn, as second years they start their
9/52 !$ (%2%
fall semester by selecting a theme and soliciting content, as third years they spend the summer editing and writing and the fall laying out the issue for publication around the first of the year. There are always two issues in the works and nobody works on more than one (no burnout). To get a copy ($18), send an e-mail to firstname.lastname@example.org and request an order card. Refuse is on the shelves right now and the next issue – on design and identity, a selection motivated by major changes within the college – is in the works. You can also pick up a copy at the Weisman Museum Bookstore. A FEW MORE... MENTIONED ELSEWHERE IN THIS ISSUE
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Fabric Architecture $44 for six issues www.ifai.com/content/view/73/96/
Last Child in the Woods: Saving our Children from Nature-Deficit Disorder by Richard Louv Algonquin Books, March, 2006 issue #4
The Andrews Residence: one of many Savanna Designs that use natives in an aesthetically powerful and pleasing way. Read about more projects and learn some tricks in topic:nature photo courtesy Savanna Designs
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