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SCAPE land and design in the Upper Midwest



Making Natives Look Good: TRICKS OF THE TRADE


From Seed to Specification:

The Business of Growing


a publication of the Minnesota Chapter of the American Society of Landscape Architects

The border between the warmth of home and the earth’s rich soil. The path underfoot with the sky’s great energy overhead. Natural,timeless and supremely elegant. Discover strength,usefulness,and beauty in the shape of Anchor paving stones.

Anchor Paving Stone Shown: Charleston

Contact a dealer near you for your next paving stone project. Customer service: 1.800.410.3223

On the Cover: Sherburne National Wildlife Refuge in Zimmerman, MN, comes alive in spring with wildflowers, migrating birds, and trees just beginning to leaf out. Read about more spring hotspots in Fellow’s Top 5 photo by Adam Regn Arvidson, ASLA

__SCAPE is published quarterly by the Minnesota Chapter of the American Society of Landscape Architects (MASLA). __SCAPE is FREE. To subscribe, send a blank e-mail to, and type subscribeSCAPE in the subject line. Send general MASLA inquiries to: MASLA International Market Square 275 Market Street, Suite 54 Minneapolis, MN 55405 612-339-0797 FAX 612-338-7981 Send general __SCAPE inquiries, letters to the editor, and advertising requests to: Adam Regn Arvidson MASLA Director of Communications 4348 Nokomis Avenue Minneapolis, MN 55406 612-968-9298

SPRING 06 topics



issue #4


Native Knowledge

Art Treatment

A conversation with Jim Hagstrom, a 30 year veteran of the native plants movement.

A local artist/engineer uses duckweed to treat wastewater


whips The Forest for the Trees


Valued Places


by Regina M. Flanagan

Eloise Butler Wildflower Garden

Fellow’s Top 5





Now That’s Dedication!

Business Growth

The HKGi/Ingraham Associates 2005 Park Dedication Report

A local nursery changes with the times and gets creative about competing in a changing landscape

by Jonathan Pedersen

visiting spring with

Peggy Booth, FASLA

4 6

Valued Places Whitewater State Park In Other Words :Book


Cities in the Wilderness :Magazine The Next American City :Journal t/here

MASLA Executive Committee Bruce Chamberlain, president John D. Slack, past president Ellen Stewart, president-elect Sonia Walters, secretary Jean Garbarini, treasurer Jim Hagstrom, trustee Matthew Rentsch, director of public relations Mike Jischke, director of programs Richard Wiebe, director of academic affairs Bruce Lemke, co-director of awards and banquet Stephanie Grotta, co-director of awards and banquet Adam Regn Arvidson, director of communications issue #1


The Forest for the Trees editor’s note

Spring is, well, springing -- and a bit early this year. I don’t

2. Send me the name of ONE native plant (after getting

think any one is complaining. Ahh, the weather: bane of

inspired by our topic:nature article in this issue)

farmers, obsession of Minnesota newsmedia executives,

you think is an unsung hero of the Upper Midwest.

and tried-and-true conversation starter for generations of Upper Midwesterners.

3. Send me one or more things we’re NOT doing so well. You’ll have to be Midwestern Mean for this, but I can take it. Lob those critiques, the more pointed the

Speaking of conversations... Is there anyone out there? Is


anyone reading _SCAPE? I hear anecdotal evidence that you kind of like it, but the editorial inbox is so hollow

And here are some optional ones, but since you’re sending

it echoes. I have realized that a generalized approach to

me an e-mail anyway...

asking for letters to the editor is simply not going to work, because we midwesterners would rather say-something-

4. Send me an idea for a new section in _SCAPE. We’ll be

nice-or-say-nothing-at-all. But this is YOUR magazine:

launching another “whips” offering in the summer,

you who design with land; live on land; like to hike, bike,

and I am interested in expanding those easy-to-read

stroll, hunt, boat, ski, or whatever else on the land; and,

quick-hitter sections. I need your ideas.

above all, care about land. I want to make _SCAPE better for you.

5. Tell me how you would like to volunteer. I need writers, editors, graphic layout stars, book reviewers, interviewers, and whatever else you might dream up.

So: Here is some targeted participation. You have energy, right? It’s spring: time for new ideas, rebirths, activity,

Think you can handle that? Bloom up some new ideas for

etc. Resolve now, please, to do your part to make this a

me, will ya? After all, we wouldn’t want _SCAPE to be

better magazine. Here’s how:

reduced to just talking about the weather, would we?

1. Send me the name of ONE book, magazine, website,

Adam Regn Arvidson

journal, or lecture series you use regularly or just came in contact with. Just the title. We’ll handle the rest.


Valued Places In 2001, the Minnesota Chapter of the American Society of Landscape Architects published Valued Places: landscape architecture in Minnesota. This glove-box sized guidebook profiles 52 sites in the Land of Lakes, each of which has benefitted from design, care, or stewardship by landscape professionals. Here are a few samples...

Eloise Butler Wildflower Garden In 1907 Eloise Butler, together with three other botany

The core of the site is a tamarack bog, around which a

teachers, made a petition to the Minneapolis Park Board

2/3 mile pathway circulates on wooded slopes. In the

for the creation of a “wild garden.” This was to be a place

spring these same slopes are spread over with trillium,

where native plants could be tended and protected as

jack-in-the-pulpit, and wild ginger, offering one of the

representative flora of Minnesota. An undrained tamarack

best opportunities to view spring ephemeral flowers in

bog, meadow, and hillside in Glenwood Park (now Wirth

the city. A second path splits off to an upland prairie,

Park) were proposed as a location of particular merit.

where bur oaks stand like frayed exclamation points in

Under the directorship of Parks Superintendent Theodore

the middle of bluestem, wild indigo, and bergamot.

Wirth, and with a budget of $200, the site was preserved from development and established as the Wild Botanic

The front gate is located along Theodore Wirth Parkway


in Wirth Park, just north of I-394. by Jen Gabrys


The Eloise Butler Wildflower Garden is a wild landscape, left, in the midst of the city, which is home to Minnesota native ecosystems and plants, below, like False Solomon’s Seal, Trout Lily, and Trillium.

So began the Eloise Butler Wildflower Garden and Bird Sanctuary, as it was named after its curator and cofounder. Today, the garden presents a laboratory of native plant species, some of which originally occurred on site and others that Butler gathered from the surrounding metropolitan area. She managed the garden as part of her lifelong practice of botany, which she claimed “trains the eye to see, the hand to deftness of action, and the mind to an appreciation of the wonderful and beautiful in nature.”

issue #4


Fellow’s Top 5 Peggy Booth has spent her career as a landscape architect advocating better collaboration between people and the natural world. As a manager for the Minnesota Department of Natural Resources, Peggy works every day with metropolitan greenways, trout streams, and even the U.S. Army (on the Compatible Use Buffer around Camp Ripley). She sees a lot of nature, so, at a time of year whan nature gets particularly exuberant, we asked her:

What are the 5 best places in the Upper Midwest to see spring?

early spring on the prairie From my journal, Blue Mounds State Park, near Luverne, MN, March 29, 1994: I’ve discovered a new delicacy: icicles of syrup dangling from tips of huge drooping silver maples browsed by deer. Flurries are going by nearly horizontally, but my spirit is back in that sheltered forest enchanted by faceless bird songs. I am glad to be here at Blue Mounds on such a

2006 Lob Pine Recipient Peggy Booth, FASLA A W A R D go to for more award winners W I N N E R

solitary day amid the season’s first shy ducks, an awesome owl, a soaring hawk, and very strange robin-like birds with many white head and wing markings, that make quite

ephemerals of the big woods

a racket in the underbrush. I’m glad too that this place

For many of us, spring in central Minnesota is truly here

is so far from the city with its thin escarpment of oak and

when the native spring ephemeral flowers carpet the forest

hackberry, of red Sioux quartzite green with ancient lichen,

floors. Recently, I checked out some old favorite places

silhouetted against the prairie sky and farmland vistas. I

and was stunned at the absence of these wildflowers

hate to go home today. I look at the postcards I bought and

– who evidently have succumbed to relentless onslaughts

am disappointed. The colors of March and the walk through

of deer, earthworms, buckthorn, and garlic mustard.

the trees with blustery sky and year-old grass: that’s more of

Fortunately, these vernal treasures are still abundant in

what this place is to me than postcard pretty.

the very unique settings of Eloise Butler Wildflower and

Early spring on the prairie calls me back. I yearn to see the

Bird Sanctuary in Minneapolis – the nation’s oldest public

first blooms of pasque flower and prairie smoke at rugged

wildlife garden, Nerstrand-Big Woods State Park near

Prairie Coteau Scientific and Natural Area (SNA) near

Faribault (home of the rare dwarf trout lily), Hastings SNA

Pipestone. Then, I love to join over a hundred species

– with its limestone escarpments and rare snow trillium,

of shorebirds migrating through Salt Lake near the town

and at Falls Creek SNA – the unique old growth white

of Marietta, MN, along the South Dakota border. And,

pine forest near the St. Croix in New Scandia Township in

heading north with the flocks of pelicans, snowgeese, and

Washington County.

companions driven towards their homelands, I visit Sand Lake National Wildlife Refuge near Aberdeen, North

Find out more on SNAs and Nerstrand Woods at Read more about the Eloise Butler Wildflower Garden in “Valued Places” in this issue.

and Natural Areas (SNAs) along the Agassiz beach ridge. April 22-23 is birder weekend at Salt Lake, see For the Sand Lake National Wildlife Refuge, go to The 1100-acre Felton Prairie is an excellent SNA on the Agassiz beach ridge, see

SCAPE spring 06


Dakota. On the way home, I stop at some DNR Scientific


Mississippi River driftless area Watching the blush of green wash over the Mississippi River valley in the spring is enough reason to trek down Highway 61 from the Twin Cities to experience the

Door County, Wisconsin

dramatic landscape of the Driftless Area straddling the

Every Midwestern landscape architect should visit Door

Mississippi in Minnesota, Iowa and Wisconsin. First stop

County during their May Festival of Blossoms, when

– for tea or lunch – is Lake City’s Chickadee Cottage right

thousands of cherry trees color the landscape. Among

on Highway 61. Near Kellogg check out the vibrant wood

my favorite Door County places not on the typical tourist

carvings at Larks Toys or explore a unique bottomlands

circuit is the fascinating landscape of The Ridges Sanctuary

environment at Kellogg-Weaver Dunes SNA.

near Bailey’s Harbor which is part of a Festival of Nature:


inland along the Apple Blossom Scenic Drive and while

Exploring Wildflowers, Birds and Conservation.

you’re up top check out the vista from Great River Bluffs

Ridges are aptly named since over the eons Lake Michigan

State Park and the King’s and Queen’s Bluff SNA’s.

has created a series of parallel, thin sandy ridges of boreal

Consider rejoining Highway 61 at La Crescent and

forest alternating with bands of native wetland swales

heading to Iowa for a night at a B&B and exploration of

– accessible through trails and boardwalks. Also, visit

Effigy Mounds National Monument or the tulip festival

Jens Jenson’s Clearing near Ellison Bay with his most

in Pella on May 4-6.

spectacularly sited council ring.

I’d take back roads cross county on my trip home, going


For Door County general info, see The Ridges Sanctuary is at The Clearing is at

through Decorah and into Minnesota’s Amish country. If I had my bike along, I’d stop for a spin on the Root River State Trail. Or I’d head towards Beaver Creek State Park near Caledonia. About Beaver Creek, my friend LA-grad Michele Hanson – a trout fishing enthusiast – says: It’s an amazing experience to drive past quintessential farms on flat open dormant fields and then slip down into steep narrow valleys of the southeast Minnesota trout streams. Once you are down in the valleys the woods come alive with wild flowers. It is like a secret garden with a cold, crystal clear stream running through the valley at one point having sheer rock bluffs up tight on both banks. Birds, trout, and flowers: what more could you ask for?

Find out about the SNAs, state parks and the Root River State trail at The Apple Blossom Scenic Drive is at and the Pella Tulip Festival is at Effigy Mounds can be discovered at

the metro warbler wave

My most humbling spring expeditions come when joining expert birders identifying by song the droves of migrating warblers and summer resident birds arriving in our Metro forests. Check out the Ramsey County Urban Bird Festival (April 28-May 7, 2006) and John Moriarity’s brand new “A Guide to Birding Ramsey County.” I enjoy Mississippi

Peggy Booth (formerly known as Peggy Sand) has 30 years of professional experience in community planning, landscape architecture, urban forestry, and natural resource management. She has both a Bachelor and Master’s degree in landscape architecture. Early in her career, in 1978, she was the chief designer and author of the Minneapolis Boulevard Reforestation Plan that the City continues to use. In 1982, she joined the faculty of the University of Minnesota Department of Landscape Architecture, where for 10 years she taught and was director of the Center for Community Studies that facilitated participatory student work with urban and rural communities. While still at the University, Peggy led a $199,000 planting for energy conservation research project which was part of the state’s first $1.25 million legislative appropriation creating the ongoing Minnesota ReLeaf grant program. Then, in 1995, she became Minnesota’s State Urban & Community Forestry Program Coordinator. She has also participated in a national team who developed and led workshops on ecosystem approaches to planning and development. Since 1998, Peggy has held managerial positions at the Minnesota Department of Natural Resources. Currently, Peggy oversees the MnDNR’s Metro Greenways Program, Army Compatible Use Buffer (a cooperative project with the National Guard Bureau and Camp Ripley), Trout Stream Watershed Protection Initiative, Big Woods Heritage Forest, and other community assistance work. She is also the program manager for the Metro Conservation Corridors collaborative and on the Interim Leadership Team for the Regional Greenways Collaborative-Embrace Open Space Campaign. In addition, as a community volunteer, Peggy chairs her neighborhood’s Environment Committee which is proactive in air quality and community greening work, and she is Chair of the Minneapolis Tree Commission created in 2004. She was made Fellow of the American Society of Landscape Architects in 1996.

River gorge guided treks put on by The Friends of the Mississippi River. This year’s River Gorge Birding Hike is Saturday, May 6th.

The Ramsey County Urban Bird Fest is at Friends of the Mississippi River is at Dakota County Parks is at issue #4

2006 Environmental Awareness Award Friends of the Mississippi River

AWARD W I N N E R go to for more award winners


Valued Places

Whitewater State Park Located in the glaciated landscape of southeastern

Today, remnant oak savannah dominates most of

Minnesota and nestled below sculpted dolomite bluffs,

Whitewater’s upland areas, with “Big Woods” trees

the 2800-acre Whitewater State Park includes some of

including maples and basswood found on some north

the state’s most dramatic river scenery and handcrafted

and east facing slopes. The park also supports many

park landscape architecture. During the late 1800s, the

floodplain plant species as well as small pockets of

Whitewater River valley was extensively farmed and

wetlands and expanses of prairie. The park is home to

grazed by more than one hundred settler families. As in

over 49 different animals, including the timber rattlesnake

many of Minnesota’s agricultural lands, such disturbance

and the wild turkey. On any given day in the park, one

of existing woods, wetlands, and other drainage systems

might see any of 237 varieties of birds.

led to severe erosion that choked out the life in the river. The clear and cold spring-fed streams found in the valley In 1919, local efforts convinced the state legislature to

support an abundance of native brook trout. Nearly 11

appropriate funds to preserve the tranquil beauty and

miles of hiking trails provide park users with the opportu-

natural resources of the Whitewater Valley, thus creating

nity to explore the historic and natural features of the park.

Whitewater State Park. By the early 1920s, the state had

A variety of camping

acquired roughly 650 acres of land for the park. Yet, the

options from the semi-

true health of streams depended on the protection of their

modern campground

entire watersheds. In the 1940s, the state acquired another

to the primitive group

28,000 acres of land to create the Whitewater Wildlife

camp accommodates

Management Area adjacent to the park.

all levels and group sizes.

During the 1930s, the Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC) set up a camp at Whitewater State Park. The camp was

by John D. Slack

located at the south picnic area and housed two companies, made up of about 100 men per company. The enrollees in these companies built well-crafted stone administration buildings, picnic shelters, the Highway 71 stone bridge, walking trails, and other numerous improvements.

SCAPE spring 06


The legacy of the Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC) is apparent at Whitewater. CCC crews built sturdy, beautiful picnic shelters, top, footbridges, above, and the stone Highway 71 bridge, left.

parc vue



Mary Sallstrom, Minneapolis Sales Office 800.480.3636 | 952.898.3230 | 952.898.3293 fax |

issue #4

topic: nature



Knowledge A conversation with a 30-year veteran of the native plants movement. Jim Hagstrom founded Savanna Designs in 1973, in


hopes of bringing environmentally appropriate design to residential and commercial projects across Minnesota. Having grown up amongst the trees and prairie remnants of his parents’ farm and grandfather’s tree farm, he has a deep seeded love of grasses and perennials and native trees -- a love he has complemented with technical experience by studying the works of Oehme and van Sweden, Joan Nassauer, and John Brookes. Today, as prairie plants are gaining wider acceptance and there seems to be increasing concern for the sustainability of the natural environment, Hagstrom’s work is more pertinent than ever. Uniquely, however, rather than considering himself a true restorationist, he is a designer


first, using native plants to accomplish the same effects (enclosure, lushness, lower maintenance, and beauty) that other designers are striving for with cultivated plants. And Savanna’s designs are known for looking fantastic with prairie plantings, but carefully composed, restrained compositions deliberately meant to be pleasing to the eye and useful to their owners. Recently, _SCAPE sat down with Hagstrom to talk about native plants... and making them look good.

SCAPE spring 06


-- not the tangle of grasses and flowers often associated

_SCAPE: How would you define a native plant?

manicured lawns. It has taken a lot of work to get around to understanding, and then trying to quantify,

Jim Hagstrom: Good question. I think it is a regional thing:

a native aesthetic.

a plant that is evolved in a regional sense. And I think of native being within a couple hundred miles

Aldo Leopold, Jens Jensen, and a few others, talk a lot

in terms of its native adaptation, because there is

about the native aesthetic that is based on the subtle-

species variation when you get beyond that. Also,

ties of fall color and grasslands, and forests, but I find

there has always been in the past -- like with global

that most people really don’t know what our native

warming now -- changes in climate, causing native

landscape is.

plants’ regions to change, so I’m not a real purist

about that. It’s a very fluid kind of thing.

_SCAPE: So how do you bridge that gap?

But the idea of regionally adapted plants is important,

Hagstrom: That’s what I’ve been struggling with for 30

so the ones native to this region -- within a couple

years. [Former University of Minnesota Landscape

few hundred miles -- is what I try and work with.

Architecture Department Head] Joan Nassauer,

_SCAPE: Why use natives in a highly designed smallscale landscape like a residence? Why bother?

FASLA, was particularly helpful with her research on perception and care. Farmers, people that mow and care for their lawns, people who have white painted fences and pretty annuals all around: that

Hagstrom: Well, I think natives have an inherent appro-

is all about cultural care of the landscape and has

priateness, and they speak to people on a different

absolutely nothing to do with ecological care. A lot of


good people who care about their landscapes don’t

Throughout my 30 year career, I’ve talked

about and learned about the scientific, ecological, sustainable, economic, and rational reasons why to use native plants, and there are a lot of good reasons. But the reasons that I think are most important are really aesthetic, in terms of teaching people about the place that they are in. And I think the living plant communities speak to people, and move people more than geraniums and yews and hosta.

The natives add a special sense of place. A lot of people aren’t aware of that, but when they get tuned in, it is really exciting to see them pick up on the native aesthetic.

_SCAPE: What is that native, or prairie, aesthetic? Hagstrom: In landscape history class, we learn about Italy and France and England and so our landscape tradition is rooted in the aristocratic landscapes of Western Europe, which are really landscapes of power and money and not of the people. They’re intentionally anti- or non-native. So our sensibilities about what a valued landscape is comes from that world view. So, having said that, a native landscape aesthetic, in our case, has to do with grassland, savanna, and forest. It does not have to do with clipped hedges or lawns or horticultural species or agriculture, really, but so many of our values and aesthetics come from those traditions: the importance of agriculture, neatness, issue #4


that like that in a prairie, because it looks neat. When

topic: nature

you start adding a couple dozen kinds of flowers, it makes some people really uncomfortable.

do native things. Early on, it was only “lazy hippies” that did natural landscapes, and they looked like hell and made property values go down. So there is a

_SCAPE: How do you take a wild native landscape

conflict between cultural norms, property values,

and have it be something that can still be looked at

human culture, and a sustainable native aesthetic

up close; that can still be an acceptable residential solution?

You have to communicate clearly. That has helped me a lot with my clients. Everybody I have ever worked

Hagstrom: That is a technical question, and it has to do

with, in the first sentence or two, says they want a

with design, maintenance, and management. Design-

natural, low-maintenance landscape.


wise, I’ve learned a lot of tricks. Framing, intention-

says that. But I always turn to images. I use pictures

ally bordering, having neat pieces of lawn or a fence

to show people some examples, and we discover they

or a building or a structure or a geometric pattern in

might really want something that looks like a country

the native beds helps a lot with people perceiving

club or a golf course or a northern Minnesota forest,

that this isn’t a weed patch or an unmowed thing,

or they may really want to do something native: a

that this is an intentional expression of landscape.

prairie or a wetland. It becomes about how wild a

Most people don’t know a native landscape if you

landscape people can stand -- what is their tolerance

stick it right in front of their face. They don’t know

for diversity and change?

what it is. They don’t know the names of the plants. I heard recently that young people can recognize

There’s a real psychological intolerance for high

10,000 corporate logos like Nike or McDonalds, but

levels of diversity, for example. Some people like

they don’t know more than ten native plant species

prairies that are a monoculture of one grass, maybe

by name. What you learn as a child becomes familiar

little bluestem or prairie dropseed or big bluestem:

to you, so there are very few people that are familiar

no flowers, no weeds. They like the monoculture,

with native landscapes. So that is why framing and

so it looks like a wheat field. There’s a lot of people

showing intentionality is important.


The second thing I learned back in the late ‘80s from the [landscape architecture office of] Oehme and van Sweden and [British perennial garden designer] John Brookes was how to design with perennials. I realized then how important it was to be able to design with the herbaceous layer. If you want to talk about sustainability or natives, you have to know what to do on the soil other than lawn. Most landscape architects


SCAPE spring 06

know a little about trees and a fair amount about shrubs, but when you get to the ground plane, if it’s not going to be lawn, what do you


do because there are hundreds of species. Jim van Sweden, in particular, was using a lot of big masses of grasses: very natural-looking, although technically not ecological communities nor native plants. But from a design perspective, it became clear to me that this style had enough layering, form, and pattern to be perceived as beautiful, and it was really the rage in the late ‘80s. So I studied those things and then tried to substitute our indigenous plants: Indian grass or local asters or geraniums or other species that would substitute and give that same effect.

_SCAPE: Are you seeing more acceptance or more ambivalence of natives in cultured settings?

Hagstrom: Well, I think I’m seeing more acceptance, particularly of the natives that really work well: dwarf bush honeysuckle, little bluestem grass, liatris, rudbeckia. I think their popularity has grown, sometimes even inappropriately, where you’ll see people using prairie plants in a little planter, or down a median in a street, where you might wonder whether this will ever really be a prairie?


Could you elaborate on instances where

natives might not be the best option?

Hagstrom: Wherever they don’t have what it takes to survive. For example, a sugar maple needs, in the long run, excellent soil conditions: it can’t be too wet and has to have a high level of organic matter and a large root mass. So, really, planting sugar maples in most construction sites or urban areas is really not a good idea and might even be unethical because they are not going to survive in the long run. A piece of prairie needs to have a certain amount of mass or space to be a replication of prairie. issue #1 #4

_SCAPE: What do you see right now as the biggest barriers to using native plants?

Hagstrom: The biggest barrier is perception. Everybody likes the idea of native plants, and I mean everybody. People that don’t even know what they are just like the idea of being more “natural and sustainable.” But it’s important to show people, I believe, images of what it looks like, and more importantly, how it functions. A big barrier is management and maintenance of diverse, sustainable, ecological systems. It is antithetical to mowing a lawn. Mowing the lawn is a regime, where you use chemicals, water, and a lawnmower to keep things under control -- in monoculture -- and people really like landscapes that are under control. They like predictable, maintainable landscapes. If you are a building manager, a park manager, a golf course manager, that is the quality you are looking for. You do not want something that is reproducing by itself and moving around and changing, possibly even from one ecosystem to another.


topic: nature

2004 Merit Private Landscape Architecture Roy Residence Savanna Designs, Inc. go to for more award winning projects

AWARD W I N N E R Jim Hagstrom: The Roy Residence is one of the most

simple projects I’ve done and also one of the most successful. It also has very handsome prairie-style architecture by [architect] Mike McGuire, so the house sits so well on the land, and then the prairie comes right up to the house. There are also some very clearly defined areas of manicured lawn. It’s irrigated and sprayed -- a perfect green carpet for the grandchildren to play on, juxtaposed right up to the prairie with intentional edging, so there are crisp lines. It has the amount of human control and usefulness (the edging and the lawns) that most people associate with a cared‑for or valuable landscape, and then two‑thirds of the property is prairie.

Inherent in being natural and sustainable is a certain amount of uncontrollability that becomes problematic.

For most landscape architects, that sort of

sustainable, diverse, uncontrollability is appealing, but in the practical world, it’s awful. In terms of the visual images, it’s psychologically frustrating, and in terms of maintenance, it’s very difficult.

So you need people to manage these landscapes that understand them. They’re much less consumptive; however, it takes what I call native intelligence: a

_SCAPE: So do you feel that maintenance of those

native landscapes are harder or just different from what we’re used to?

Hagstrom: It’s a very different maintenance paradigm, and it requires understanding. It is more difficult, in a way, because it requires more knowledge and experience, but it is much less consumptive of gasoline and fertilizers and energy. It takes less time, and it takes less materials, but definitely more knowledge.

familiarity with what’s happening to these plants now, as well as what will happen to them in five or ten years.


SCAPE spring 06

_SCAPE: What needs to happen next? What’s the next step? The next level of understanding?

Hagstrom: I’ve been struggling with this for many years. I came out of school preaching the gospel of native plants and sustainability and nature. That was in the late ‘70s, and there hasn’t been a lot of change in some of that area, although we’re learning more about design and perceptions.

The next step is with the kids, and considering where they learn their landscape aesthetic.

There’s this

new book by Richard Louv




Child in the Woods: Saving our Children from Nature Deficit Disorder, that says kids are not getting enough



the natural world. I think that’s what we’re fighting. We need to help kids acclimate themselves to a native aesthetic and to see the habitat connection between insects, birds, mammals, and the native landscape. I remember my son, when he was in eighth grade, was in our yard, and we have a lot of prairie, he’s grown up around that, but he said, “Dad, why can’t we have more of those cone-shaped, really perfect evergreen trees around our house like some of the other people?” They had nicer houses than us, some of his wealthier friends, so he’d seen that aesthetic at nice houses: clipped evergreens, spruce trees, lawn. He thought if we had more of these things, that would be better, and I wondered where that had come from. He had absorbed that non-native aesthetic somewhere. It’s a cultural thing. It isn’t right or wrong. It’s somehow just assimilated, and most people go through their whole life and never question it.


If kids can learn the names, that would be an important start. It starts with the names of native plants, then it continues with seeing them in association, then the next level is learning the associated habitat, the animals and birds that go with it, and then you get a real powerful thing going.

In the spirit of lifelong learning, _SCAPE will be premiering in the Summer 06 issue a section called “Plants Class.” Know of a native everyone should remember? E-mail issue #4


topic: art

This water treatment lagoon in Kochice, Poland, designed by Viet Ngo of Lemna, uses duckweed for biological treatment.

Art Treatment Artist/engineer Viet Ngo is cleaning up wastewater facilities around the globe using natural biological processes... and leaving behind works of art.


oland was admitted to the European Union on May

tions, offering an affordable alternative for a de-central-

1, 2004, because it was able, among other require-

ized, flexible, and less intrusive system of wastewater

ments, to meet tight environmental standards.

treatment. The key to this system is a series of treat-

This former Eastern Bloc nation had come a long way

ment lagoons around the countryside that use Lemna’s

since the 1980s, when it was suffering from ecologically

proprietary technologies: patented natural biological

disastrous levels of pollution due to years of infrastruc-

processes and (when an enclosed system is necessary)

ture neglect. A Minneapolis-based firm -- Lemna -- has

trademarked modular insulated covers. The lagoons are

been instrumental in the clean up, designing more than

easily and quickly constructed by digging holes in the

eighty wastewater treatment ponds in Poland during the

ground and lining them with geomembrane, so waste-

past fifteen years. Lemna is now the largest United States

water cannot seep into the surroundings. This “scattered

presence in the ecological field in Poland.

sites” approach has proven an economical alternative to a centralized urban solution based upon the mechanical

Viet Ngo, Lemna’s founder and CEO, says that Poland is a

or chemical processing of waste, which would require

predominantly rural country of villages located at regular

an expensive piping system and permanently installed

intervals of five kilometers apart and with populations

concrete structures.

of around 5,000. Lemna adapted to these local condi-


SCAPE spring 06


by Regina M. Flanagan


go has pioneered a unique biological process for

These projects show the influence of an artist as well as an

treating wastewater that uses a floating aquatic

engineer. Ngo came to the United States from Viet Nam

plant: duckweed (or lemnaceae, from which his

to study civil engineering in 1970, but while studying for

firm takes its name), a species that thrives anywhere in

his master’s degree from the University of Minnesota, he

the world from cold climates to the desert. The plant takes

also took art classes, rented a studio space, and created

up nitrogen and phosphorus from the water and is later

large-scale sculptures. Ngo became increasingly inter-

harvested and used as fertilizer, completing the nutrient

ested in creating work that would address environmental


issues and merge his artistic sensibilities with problem solving. In creating Lemna, he aimed to transform waste-

Ngo first demonstrated the Lemna Duckweed Wastewater

water treatment facilities -- which are necessary pieces of

Treatment process at the Devil’s Lake, North Dakota,

infrastructure usually hidden away or disguised -- into

Municipal Treatment Facility, completed in 1987. Nine

interesting parts of the landscape.

serpentine channels covering an area of 89 acres filter


nearly 3.5 million gallons of water per day. Geotextile “curtains” or baffles guide wastewater through the lagoon. The surface plants provide an attractive continuous green zone. The Devil’s Lake project has received attention in both art magazines and scientific journals

go has also applied his creativity to the design of other water treatment system components. Often a covering system is necessary, to control

odor, heat loss, algae, and gas collection. While most of Lemna’s installations in Poland are aerobic, using oxygen

because the functional lagoon creates a beautiful form

and the Lemna duckweed process, some required an

in the landscape. Another example of Ngo’s system is a

anaerobic environment (without oxygen) to provide treat-

wastewater treatment facility in Cleveland, Georgia , in

ment. These projects use the LemTec™ Modular Insulated

the Blue Ridge Mountains of the southeastern United

Cover System that consists of individual casings that are

States. The lagoon follows the contours of the land and

laced together during installation to completely cover the

incorporates a rock outcropping. It appears as a lake in a

liquid in a lagoon, pond, basin, or tank. The casings are

park-like setting because existing trees and boulders were

composed of closed cell extruded polystyrene insulation

retained. The facility is a good neighbor, blending into the

sealed between two sheets of high-density polyethylene

landscape surrounding this tourist town.

(HDPE) geomembrane. With an insulation R-factor from 10 to 30, the cover functions particularly well in cold climates to retain heat and improve treatment rates. The floating cover is engineered for a custom fit with openings The tiny duckweed (Lemnaceae spp.) has become the namesake of a ground-breaking company that has completed more than 250 infrastructure projects in 30 countries, and currently has $2.5 billion worth of projects under development.

A Devil’s Lake, North Dakota, facility, above, that first demonstrated the use of lemnaceae plant in wastewater treatment is an achievement recognized in both the art and science communities. The LemTec™ Modular Insulated Cover System for wastewater treatment, right, is composed of casings of closed cell insulation between two sheets of durable geomembrane

issue #4


topic: art

for mechanical equipment and walkways, and hatches to access submerged equipment. Designed to accommodate fluctuating water levels, the cover can rise and fall while still conforming to the basic geometry of a lagoon, pond or structure.


go considers himself a multi-faceted artist who receives personal fulfillment through projects that are environmentally responsible

and make a contribution to society. He is a patient person and recognizes that some of his projects may take ten or twenty years before the long–term results (such as a cleaner environment) become apparent. But achieving these results is the most meaningful kind of art to him, as well as the foundation of a business philosophy that has led to international success.

In Slovenia, Lemna covered existing tanks, facilitating the recovery of bio-gas, which can be used as fuel.

Learn more at

Regina M. Flanagan, MLA, ASLA, is an artist and landscape designer in St. Paul who writes about the intersection of public art and design with social and environmental issues.

Editor’s Note: This article first appeared in the July/August 2004 issue of Fabric Architecture, a publication of the Industrial Fabrics Association International.

LemTec Gas Collection System, left, shown during installation, is custom designed to conform to the wastewater treatment lagoon’s geometry, and enables bio-gas to be collected and used as fuel.

Lemna’s patented biological processes and cover systems have quantifiable positive impacts on the environment. The biological process requires no chemicals and the cover system, which prevents sunlight from reaching the water surface and thereby eliminates the growth of algae, means that less chlorine is necessary to treat potable water in a reservoir. Another product, the LemTec™ Gas Collection

Editor’s Note: This article first appeared in the July/August 2004 issue of Fabric Architecture, a publication of the Industrial Fabrics Association International.

System, a variation of the modular cover system, traps and contains the gases that are the result of the biological treatment of effluent from industrial processes. This “biogas” is collected in a duct system and is either flared off or used in place of natural gas or fuel oil. In Slovenia, Lemna covered existing tanks, facilitating the recovery of bio-gas, which can be used as fuel.


SCAPE spring 06

topic: law

Now, That’s Dedication! Each year, Hoisington Koegler Group, Inc. surveys Minnesota cities to determine how they exact park dedication. Here are the 2005 results.


innesota is known for the quality of its parks,

residential dedication requirements is that businesses and

trails, and open spaces. Paying for new parks,

employees use parks and trails and the businesses benefit

trails, and natural areas, however, can be a

by having an attractive and functional park, trail and

challenge in this age of tax sensitivity. Many cities and

open space system. Cities typically update their per unit

some counties use park dedication as a tool to acquire

dedication fees (fees in lieu of land dedication) annually.

and build a park system. Park dedication is when local

Some cities determine fees on a case-by-case basis.

governments require developers to dedicate land or pay a


fee for new parks and recreation facilities.

ince 1997 Ingraham & Associates/Hoisington Koegler Group (merged in 2005) has surveyed

Park dedication fees have risen steadily over the last 10 years as the cost of land has increased and as construction costs have risen. Developers, in an effort to control their

Minnesota cities to determine their park dedication

requirements. The average per unit fee for park dedication has increased approximately 140% since 1997. This

own costs, are sensitive to increases in park dedication

increase closely mirrors the increase in land and construc-

requirements. On the other hand, many developers recog-

tion cost that occurred during that same time period.

nize the value that parks, trails, and open space have for

Park dedication will continue to be an important tool for

their developments and push park departments to “get

local governments. The fees need to keep pace with rising

that park built ASAP.�

costs while being fair and equitable.

Minnesota statutes allow cities and counties to require

On the following pages are the results of the 2005 survey.

from new developments a dedication of land or payment

The survey was distributed to 116 cities in Minnesota.

of a fee in lieu of land. The basic idea is that new growth

Forty-seven cities responded, and their requirements are

should pay for or provide the facilities (such as parks and

tabulated here, along with a comparison of 1997 and 2005

trails) necessitated by that growth, and that dedication

survey results.

should be roughly proportional to the demand created by the new growth.

The 2005 HKGi Park Dedication Survey is also viewable on line at

So the issue boils down to who pays and how much. Dedication requirements should be based on a calculation of park, trail, and open space needs along with estimates of growth within the community. Many cities have dedication requirements for both residential and non-residential development. The rationale behind nonissue #4


topic: law

2005 Park Dedication Survey 2005 Park Dedication Survey City Andover Bloomington Brainerd Buffalo Champlin

Cottage Grove

Crystal Duluth East Grand Forks Edina Eden Prairie Faribault Fridley Glencoe

Ham Lake

Residential Dedication land up to 10% of the area, or fixed rate per type of dwelling unit

Single F $/unit

2x $/unit

T.H. $/unit

Multi F $/unit

Mobile.H. $/unit






cash or land up to 10% of land value/area - fixed rate per type of dwelling unit (sets upper limit)






cash in lieu of land








fixed rate per type of dwelling unit plus a $250 surcharge



$400+ $200 per add'l bedroom

land equal to 10% of land area if park needed, or fixed rate per dwelling unit






Other: land equal to 10% of land area partial credit on steep slopes, etc. No credit for tree preservation areas or fixed rate per type of dwelling unit & Recreation fee when land is dedicated at 150/unit











fixed rate per type of dwelling unit None Other: $3.00 per fron foot with a $250 min. to be adjusted every 5 years

cash or land equal to 7% of the land value/area (presently 5,500 per acre)

City Lakeville Little Canada Lino Lakes Mankato Maple Grove Mendota Heights Minnetonka Moorhead

Mound New Brighton

density/acre: 0-1.9=9%, 2-3.5=11%,3.65.9=13%, 6-10=15%, 10+=add .6%per Residential Dedication unit over 10 fixed rate per type of dwelling unit






fixed rate per acre of land None

fixed rate per acre of land 1200


$1200 (<3 units) $800 (>3 units)



2200 F Single $/unit 3665

1650 2x $/unit 2879

1100 T.H. $/unit 2879

1100F Multi $/unit 2879

Mobile.H. $/unit 2879









2075 4000

fixed rate per type of dwelling unit


land equal to based upon density/acre: 02.5 = 11%, 2.6-5=12%, 5.1-7.5=13, 7.610=14, 10.1-12.5=15, 12.6-16=16 percent of net area. None - in process of implementing an ordinance













fixed rate per type of dwelling unit

$398 per (Hotel) $199 per 1000 sq. ft. 1000 sq. ft. of of bldg. bldg.

cash or land equal to 4% of land value

fixed rate per acre of land

fixed rate per type of dwelling unit cash or land equal to 5% of land value/area fixed rate per type of dwelling unit land equal to 10% of land area / fixed rate per type of dwelling unit fixed rate per type of dwelling unit cash o land equal to 10% of the land value/area cash o land equal to 10% of the land value/area

Other Method

cash or land equal to 4% of the land value/area

fixed rate per type of dwelling unit

New Ulm

n/a 4000














1200 gross Fixed rate per acre of land 1500 gross acre Industrial Commercial/Industrial Commercial acre Dedication $/acre $/acre Other Method fixed rate per acre of land 5940 3520 5% of land value or 10% of acreage. fixed rate per acre of land 2175 2175 cash or land equal to 5% of land n/a value/area fixed rate per acre of land 7500 5950 Cash or land equal to 10% of N/A N/A land value/area fixed rate per acre of land 5700 5475 none

Page 1 of 3








fixed rate per acre of land

3800 1500


$500 (3 $500 (3 units units or or less) not less) not to to exceed exceed $5,000 $5,000



none, considering policy for 2006


fixed rate per acre of land






$500(<5000 sf) $1,050 (50009999sf) $1,575 (10,000-24,999 sf) $2,100 (25,000 sf +)

fixed rate per acre of land

Industrial: land equivalent to 2% of of the gross area for trails Commercial: 5% of gross area for parks, trails and openspace n/a



90% of existing park land & trail acreage, divided by the city population (I.e. 90% x 1,338 acres / 65,894 = 0.183)





Prior Lake

Cash or land equal to 10% of land area, or combination of cash and land (or) Fixed rate per type of dwelling unit.






fixed rate per acre of land

cash or land equal to 10% of land area / fixed rate per type of dwelling unit

New Hope


cash or land equal to 10% of the land value/area cash or land up to 10% of land value/area - fixed rate per type 597 per 1000 of building square footage (sets sq. ft. of bldg. upper limit) cash or 5% of the value/area 1000

Industrial $/acre

none cash/land = to 8% of land value/area

2005 Park Dedication Survey Other: Fixed rate or land per(Preliminary Results 11/2/05) Hastings

Commercial $/acre


cash/land = to 8% of land value/area cash or land equal to 10% of land area / fixed rate per type of dwelling unit Cash or land equal to 7% of the land value/area Other: $1500 per lot in subdivision, $750 per lot split

Commercial/Industrial Dedication


10% of existing park land & trail acreage, divided by the number of jobs within the city (I.e.: 10% x 1,338 acres / 51,712 jobs = .0026 acres per capita)



Cash or land equal to 10% of land value/area (or) combination of cash & land (or) Fixed rate per type of dwelling unit.



SCAPE spring 06

2005 Park Dedication Survey 2005 Park Dedication Survey

City Richfield Rochester Rosemount Roseville Savage

Single F $/unit n/a

2x $/unit

T.H.. $/unit

Multi F $/unit

Mobile.H. $/unit






fixed rate per type of dwelling unit






cash/land =to 10% of land area/value (or) fixed rate per type of dwelling unit






Residential Dedication none cash or land equal to 10% of land value/area cash or land equal to 1/25% of land of an acre per dwelling

none none






St. Louis Park

fixed rate per type of dwelling unit






other: land or cash =1.1 acres of land per 4 persons/ 4 persons/ 100 persons unit unit percentage of cash or land based on dwelling units per acre value /area: 2 units / acre = 9%, 2-4 units/acre = 11%, 46 = 13%, 6-8 = 15%, 8-10 = 17%, more Vadnais Heights than 10 = add 1% for each dwelling unit per acre beyond 10 up to a max of 20%. (and/or) Sites of 20 lots/units or less must dedicate $1500 per lot/unit. More than 20 lots/units is based on the above formula. cash or land equal to 6% of land Victoria 1550 1550 value/area or fixed rate per type of dwelling unit. St. Peter

Wilmar Woodbury Worthington

cash or land equal to 10% of land value/area / fixed rate per type of dwelling unit.












none - done by negotiation with developers fixed rate per type of dwelling unit

Commercial $/acre n/a

Industrial $/acre







cash or land equal to 10% of land value/area cash or land equal to 5% of land value/area cash/land =to 7% of land area/value or fixed rate per acre of land. none none cash or land equal to 5% of the land value/area cash or land= to 5% of gross land area

Cash or land equal to 6% of land value/area or fixed rate per acre of land Cash or land equal to 10% of land value/area - based on fair market value as established by county

Based on purchase price

$325 for each 1000 S.F.

$325 for each 1000 S.F.







$220/1000 sf for warehousing or low labor manufacturing and assembly, hotels 250 per unit

none 2000

fixed rate per acre of land

2006 rate 4000

None Average of all cities with per unit or per acre fees


Average of Twin City metro area cities with per unit or per acre fees


The survey was sent to 116 cities in Minnesota in October, 2005.

47 cities responded to the survey.

Assumed an average single family density of 2.5 lots per acr

Page 3 of 3

Comparison of Cities with Per Unit Fees - Average Rates Single Family Residential fee per lot - Twin Cities Single Family Residential fee per lot - All Commercial fee per acre Industrial fee per acre

1997 $1,070 $1,000 $2,770 $2,525

2005 $2,600 $2,500 $5,000 $4,050

Notes: Some different city respondents between 1997 and 2005 surveys. All represents all Twin City municipalities and a few Greater MN cities.

issue #4

Other Method


Sleepy Eye South St. Pau

West St. Paul

Commercial/Industrial Dedication none


topic: business

Bu s i n e s s G r o w t h The story behind the Endless Summer ® Hydrangea: a local nursery finds new ways to compete in a rapidly changing landscape. by Jonathan Pedersen


ike many industries in the US economy, the nursery

A younger consumer – aged 25 to 50 – is driving our

industry is in the middle of some of the largest

business, just like they are in many other industries,

changes in history. Why? Well, there are many

Today’s homeowner has little time between kids, soccer,

factors driving the changes, including labor and immigra-

and work, and as such the choices for their leisure time

tion, the rise of mass merchants as a shopping culture, and

are at a premium. The baby boom generation was a real

the changing of our key demographic consumer away

“do it yourself” generation. This younger group is more

from the baby boomers. Like many nurseries within the

of a “do it for me” generation. Landscapers are doing well

industry, Bailey Nurseries Inc. (headquartered in St. Paul,

for this very reason, as the term “gardening” has moved

Minnesota) has grown through the years – celebrating

from leisure activity to “work.”

their centennial in 2005 – and now has growing area covering over 5000 acres from Oregon to Minnesota.

Our challenge here at Bailey Nurseries and, truthfully, industry-wide is to find new ways to sell to these fast-

For the last three years, however, the retail market has

moving consumers: either by marketing to those that will

seen little growth across the country, with some statis-

specify and install plants for their yards, or by appealing

tics actually showing a decline in sales. At the same

in a new emotional way directly to those consumers

time sales within the landscape market have increased


on average over 10% per year. There are many reasons


The primary driving force behind this shift, I believe, is demographics. Bailey Nurseries’ 280-acre Container East facility, below left, is one of three container operations in Minnesota (there is another in Oregon). During spring peak shipping weeks, Bailey loads more than 50 semi trucks per day, below right.


s an industry we have always been somewhat complacent. As spring approached we would take a “don’t worry they will come” attitude,

and, to some degree this continues to be true. In the last ten years, however, the marketplace has become increasingly competitive with the market share of the mass

SCAPE spring 06


why and some, like the weather, are out of our control.

merchant retailers (Home Depot, Menards, Wal-Mart,

architects and contractors. This is a retail channel that is

etc.) changing the way consumers purchase products --

(for lack of a better word) confusing to us nursery types.

including plants.

At Bailey Nurseries we grow many a tree or shrub that ends up in a landscape architect’s plan set, but we don’t

The majority of all plants sold in the USA go through

actually cross paths as industries all that often. We have

two channels of distribution: Retail sales direct to the

our own trade shows, magazines, and associations. We

consumer (with an approximate 60-40 split between mass

are starting a few initiatives to try to be more helpful to

merchants and the local independent garden center) or the

design professionals, which I will describe at the end of

wholesale channel with sales to the landscape market. At

this article.

Bailey Nurseries we don’t supply the mass merchants of

Aerial view of the Bailey Nurseries Container West facility: the large buildings in top left comprise our bareroot storage, which are the largest in the world at more than 11 football fields in size.

the world and our main retail customers are independent garden centers (IGCs). We are very spoiled within the Twin Cities market in having some of the strongest IGCs in the nation. We will not, however, reach all consumers through garden centers.


ltimately, we are beginning to feel that we need to make an appeal directly to the end consumers, even if they don’t plan to visit a garden center

but will rather hire someone to make that trip for them. The nursery industry needs to start getting consumers to demand a particular plant, whether they buy it themselves

With the increasing value of homes and planned

or request it in a plan.

communities, our landscape sales have remained strong. Consumers are hiring out their gardening, either to

Yes, branding is hitting our industry, and there is one

landscape design/build companies or to landscape

prime example on which I would like to elaborate: the

issue #4


Branding 101 is really the same for any product, it all

topic: business

needs to start with a product that has something identiEndless Summer® Hydrangea, which hit the retail shelves

fiable: uniqueness, enduring quality, or a perceived

with overwhelming success in 2004.

emotional connection. With Endless Summer we felt we could lay claim to all three, but the underlining factor was

Branding is new to our industry – mostly within the last

and still is today the uniqueness of the plant compared

10 years – and as with Endless Summer has been very

with its peers (the every-year bloom). The plan to market

successful in helping drive demand at the retail level.

the plant was in full swing by 2002.

Bailey Nurseries has introduced well over 80 plants that today makeup some of the staple items used within our

This required other growers to get involved to help cover

industry, including certain species of Dogwoods, Maples,

all of North America, as, even though Bailey Nurseries is

Roses and everything in between. Yet Endless Summer

one of the largest growers in the country, we were going

has the most interesting story of any plant, it’s a true rags

to need help in covering the wide market potential of this

to riches tale.

hydrangea. One of the things we learned from getting test


plants to other quality growers across the country and ound in a Bailey employee’s neighbor’s yard

into Canada was that we had a plant with larger market

in the Twin Cities some 25 years ago (most new

potential than we thought. With the ability to bloom on

ornamental plants today are still found, not bred),

new growth, the plant could rebloom in warmer climates

an odd hydrangea specimen was planted into a test field. What attracted that employee’s keen eye was something unusual for a Hydrangea macrophylla planted in Minnesota: it bloomed every year. At the time, Bailey Nurseries was a tree grower and not really in the business of introducing Hydrangeas, and the plant sat in that very test field in Minnesota happily blooming every year. In 1998, renowned plantsman Dr. Michael Dirr happened to visit.

He was interested in

hydrangeas and was curious to see a hydrangea blooming in Minnesota. Upon hearing the story of the plant, Dr. Dirr took the plant back to Georgia for testing and was very suprised to learn the secret of the plant’s blooming abilities. What makes Endless Summer so different from other Hydrangea Macrophylla varieties is its unique ability to bloom on new growth. All other macrophylla or “Bigleaf”

The Endless Summer Hydrangea: the first “branded” plant to be marketed extensively direct to the end consumer.

Hydrangea varieties bloom on old growth – last year’s wood. What causes the occasional lack of bloom in cold climates is that the wood is usually dead at the start of the season or the buds get nipped by a frost in early spring. Either way you end up with a hydrangea “green bush” for the season – little to no blooms at all.

– in California the plant blooms from April through November – which other bigleafs do not. This impacted

This is where, unlike many plants that get introduced

the consumer demand as we now had a plant that

every year without consumer awareness, Bailey’s decided

covered well over 60 million homes with a unique selling

to do something radical: market the plant directly to the


end user, the consumer. This is very common outside our industry as most consumer products are launched

It was decided that we needed to get this plant out in

this way, from breakfast cereals to the iPod, but this is a

front of the consumer and “pull” sales through the retail

revolutionary idea within horticulture. As growers we

channel rather than the usual push method. This involved

typically grow the plants and leave the marketing to the

a plan that included having a network of the best growers


in the industry working together to launch a plant en


SCAPE spring 06

masse. We decided that consumer advertising would be

that was required to supply all the other growers with

necessary and, in the introduction year, spent in excess of

plants. Baileys produced over 600,000 starter plants in

one million dollars on the marketing of Endless Summer.

2003 all from that one original plant found in a neighbors

This was and still is at the very top of the spending curve

yard. Which, of course, begs the perennial nurseryman’s

for a single plant ever (though still a pittance compared to

question: What’s in your yard?

the launching of other consumer products). Today, Endless Summer remains a top woody ornamental The other major thrust of our efforts was getting the

plant with sales over one million projected again this

plant to the gardening press, and this was achieved by

year. We have also launched the brand internationally

supplying garden writers across the country with plants

in Europe, Japan, and Australia and so far all consumers

to test in their own gardens. We actually went out of our

have responded well to the Hydrangea in the “Blue” pot.

way to make it easy for them to get a plant, and at the

It seems that marketing for the most part in the western

Garden Writers National Convention we not only brought

world is relatively the same with just a few language

over 500 plants with us, we made a carrying box to help


writers get them home on the plane. This was the break-


through we needed as the plant and the box got to their destinations and the box had another important feature: it housed a CD with press releases and photos for the writer in a hurry for a story. Between the summer of 2003 and the end of 2004 we were able to get the advertising

hough this article focuses on Bailey Nurseries (because that’s what I know), it is really meant to discuss and enlighten the design profession -

- a group, as I mentioned earlier, that we rarely interact with -- on what goes on behind the nursery gate. And

equivalency of over thirty million dollars in free editorial

we’d like to get some advice on how to do better for

and that made all the difference. Endless Summer was an

you. Basically, we’re trying to predict the future market

instant hit at retail stores across North America.

potential of each and every one of the over 10,000 items we grow. In doing this we look at where we believe the plant’s potential is and what channel of distribution has the biggest impact on the numbers, size, and price. This is a complex and sometimes crystal-ball-like operation. A tree of a typical caliper used on a job today was planted over ten years ago; a new rose introduced today was bred (at a minimum) 7 years ago. While we continue to work hard to keep exciting new plants coming to market, I would welcome your input and suggestions as to how we in the nursery business can positively effect your designs with the versatility and

Bailey Nursries will be introducing this summer (in limited quantities) the first progeny from the Endless Summer breeding work led by Dr. Dirr at the University of Georgia. Endless Summer® Blushing Bride (PPAF) is the first plant in more that 40,000 controlled crosses to keep that all important “blooming on new growth” characteristic. Like The Original, Bailey will be aggressively marketing this new plant, in hopes of creating the same demand and awareness.

beauty of quality plant material. Coming this spring we will be launching our new Internet Plant Library at, so you will be able to search specific plant features from zone hardiness to fall color, and then print a spec sheet with image and specific plant information and descriptions. Check it out and let us know what other features (or plants) would be of interest and help to you. Thanks for your time, and keep up the good work!

This was a first for our industry, to have a plant be so successful in the first year, and I would be remiss if I didn’t say that even we were surprised by the response that this plant elicited from the buying public. One of the other important factors in the Endless Summer story is the work

Jonathan Pedersen is Marketing Manager at Bailey Nurseries, a family-owned wholesale nursery with home offices in St. Paul, Minnesota. Bailey provides industry members throughout the U.S. and Canada with a full line of bareroot and container-grown plants from Bailey’s properties in Minnesota, Oregon, and Washington.

within Bailey Nurseries from a production standpoint issue #4


whips decisions, the federal government should be involved

In Other Words

in regional and national land use policy. But, with little actual legal mandate, that takes some creativity. The bulk of the book chronicles examples of how Babbitt and his staff used the Endangered Species Act, the Antiquities Act, public forums, the press, and partner-

Items of interest in the broader printSCAPE...

ships with the Army Corps of Engineers to wrangle major land set asides and land use plans for the southwest, the California coast, the Chesapeake Bay, and, of course, the


Cities in the Wilderness by Bruce Babbitt

published by Island Press, August, 2005 review by Adam Regn Arvidson, ASLA

Everglades. He tells these stories in an understated way that seamlessly mixes the language of ecological science, law, and politics without tooting his own horn. This, as you might expect, is a pleasant surprise. On occasion, Babbitt expounds his own land use beliefs,

To be completely honest, I

but in general the book is

was not looking forward to

about the back stories of such

reading this book -- I read it

flashpoint Interior issues of the

because I felt I had to. In the

1990s like the spotted owl and

seemingly endless array of

the Grand Staircase-Escalante

tomes by ex-politicos, I, as a

National Monument.

good liberal and frequent user

overarching message, though,

of public land, figured I at least

is the one that is in the title.

better read the one by the most

Babbitt takes time to describe

recent Democratic Secretary of

the land use policies that have

the Interior.

I was thankful,

made Las Vegas, Phoenix,

then, that the table of contents

and San Diego “Cities in the

promised a mere 180 pages,

Wilderness.” Though it may

and, after staring at the cover

seem strange to point out those

for a few weeks, I delved in with

three burgs as good examples,

a little trepidation.


But after

Babbitt’s point is that while

the first chapter, “Everglades

maybe not the best models of

Forever,” I was hooked.

urban design, each member of this arid trio is literally was

surrounded by the openness

recently profiled in Landscape



and darkness of the desert,

Architecture Magazine (1/06),

unlike the Midwest and the

served as President Clinton’s

eastern seaboard, where the

Interior Secretary for the entire

landscape is pockmarked with

8 years of that administration – something a little unusual

sometimes marginal farms and outlying townlets. In his

for a lower level cabinet secretary. Before that he was

view, “cities on the land should be visualized like an archi-

governor of Arizona. He, self-admittedly, had a strange

pelago, as islands surrounded by a sea of open landscapes.

take on what Interior’s role was. Historically, his prede-

[They] should be compact, self-sustaining, with discern-

cessors had occupied themselves with the management

ible outer boundaries, beyond which the landscapes are

of a scattered mosaic of public lands and administration

devoted to agriculture and the preservation of space and

of several old environmental laws and policies. Babbitt

biological diversity.” Not really a novel idea, perhaps,

actually tackled the larger issue of land use on a national

but what is interesting about this book is not so much the

scale. He shares in the book that while he believes the little

idea, but how Babbitt, in some places, helped to make it

decisions (“where to place a shopping mall”) are still local

real. And that makes for some fascinating stories. SCAPE spring 06





A treasure trove of landscape supplies and design inspiration.


The Next American City review by Adam Regn Arvidson, ASLA Some titles just scream groundbreaking. They sum up in a few words the progressive position of their creators. They inherently tout optimism, futurism, and urbanism. They seem firm in their resolve that something better can be done, that there is somewhere to go from here. The Next American City is one of these titles. It forces the reader to simultaneously say “ahh, that sounds wonderful,” and ask “what, pray tell, is The Next American City.” Even just a skim through the well-researched articles in this quarterly magazine will answer that question: The Next American City is, in fact, today’s American City, only better.

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Adam Gordon, one of the magazine’s founders and currently its editor-in-chief, recalls that in the early COURTESY THE NEXT AMERICAN CITY

2000s, the urban and suburban development model was still deeply rooted in the 1950s. It was becoming out of touch with the reality of a nation (and world) that was much more populous and connected. He and two other co-founders, he recalls, thought “why don’t we start a publication that articulates a vision of what COULD be going on.” issue #4



In Other Words JOURNAL

It was a whirlwind beginning. Gordon sent an e-mail to some like-minded colleagues and the internet whipped the idea into a frenzy. Articles started coming in. The first issue came out in 2003 and got a lot of media coverage. They now have about 1,000 subscribers, sell another 2,000 issues on magazine racks, and have an astonishing 70,000 on-line readers.


published by the College of Architecture and Landscape Architecture at the University of Minnesota review by Adam Regn Arvidson, ASLA In just two words, this journal is smart and clever. No,

The format is strong and factual: the writing is to-the-point and meaty, the images are judiciously used, and the issues are themed. Number nine, the most recent in print, is called “Segregation and Integration,” and includes articles on Somerville, MA, a model diverse city now threatened by homogenous development; the corporate invasion of the ghetto (Starbucks in South Central LA); Chicago’s famed Gautreax settlement which led to the well-known “scattered-sites” affordable housing program in that city;

this is not a redundant description. On the first count, the articles contained in this second issuing of the annual student-run journal of the College of Architecture and Landscape Architecture at the University of Minnesota are well researched, deep with content, and enlightening. On the second count, the editors, a group of third year Masters students who have been working on this issue for well over a year, have dreamed up a title and organizational scheme that is best described as, well, clever.

and many others. (Minnesota even makes an appearance in an examination of the skyway system as quasi-public space.) The next issue, due out within the month, is on transportation, and will discuss the phenomenon of the Aerotropolis (urban design centered on airports), how local governments are considering transportation and climate change in the absence of a national policy, and the massive “fast track” light rail system recently approved by voters in Denver. Number 11 will be about the future of suburbia, which, Gordon says, “may be a harsh reality check to most of our readers.” And what’s next for The Next American City (the host several events designed to “get people from different backgrounds talking together for an evening.”

So, it

seems, The Next American City is about to move off the printed page and onto the streets of today’s American cities. Subscriptions to the magazine are $29 for four issues. Visit to subscribe and to read some of the content on line.

Refuse. That’s the title. Or is it Refuse, or Refuse. This is one of those strange words in English that make new learners cringe: it means three things, and is pronounced three ways, with exactly the same spelling. Words like

Care to alert us to a book, newsletter, website, magazine, or lecture series you find interesting? Read something recently that we should all know about? Send recommendations to

this make me want just a few French accents or a German umlaut to distinguish their meanings. But for this issue of t/here, the ambiguity is, I think, intentional. The book (yes, it is really more a book than a journal: perfect bound, weighty) is divided into three sections per the aforementioned meanings -- that which is cast aside as worthless,


to reject or cast-off, and to fuse together again – but the SCAPE spring 06


magazine)? Gordon plans to expand online content and

articles within each one offer hints to the others. Aaron Kapphahn’s excellent and entertaining article (one of


my favorites) called “trash, trucks and tubs” discusses how junk is disposed of, but also describes the Hennepin Energy Recovery Center, which effectively makes something useful from the cast-offs. In “the eddy next door,” Sonja Sudheimer interprets a set of terms developed by Steven Flusty to describe waste urban spaces. There are great words here, like stealthy, slippery, crusty, and prickly which are meant to describe the thrown-away, but Sudheimer goes on to speak of the “magic of an eddy” and the possible rebirth of these areas as a new Twins Ballpark and rebuilt neighborhood. The potential site of TwinsTown, known as RapidPark, permeates this issue of t/here. This again is appropriate to the title: RapidPark is a waste place (where city waste is taken) that may be reborn -- re-fused onto the community. Clever. Though there are a couple of articles that made this nonacademe’s head spin, and the journal has a few examples of departmental group-think, it is truly a quality tome. This is even more remarkable considering the final-year schedules of its thesis-busy editors. But there is an interesting (clever) system in place: each graduating class gets a crack at their own issue on a rotating schedule. As first years they watch and learn, as second years they start their

9/52 !$ (%2%

fall semester by selecting a theme and soliciting content, as third years they spend the summer editing and writing and the fall laying out the issue for publication around the first of the year. There are always two issues in the works and nobody works on more than one (no burnout). To get a copy ($18), send an e-mail to and request an order card. Refuse is on the shelves right now and the next issue – on design and identity, a selection motivated by major changes within the college – is in the works. You can also pick up a copy at the Weisman Museum Bookstore. A FEW MORE... MENTIONED ELSEWHERE IN THIS ISSUE

to advertise in


Fabric Architecture $44 for six issues

Last Child in the Woods: Saving our Children from Nature-Deficit Disorder by Richard Louv Algonquin Books, March, 2006 issue #4


The Andrews Residence: one of many Savanna Designs that use natives in an aesthetically powerful and pleasing way. Read about more projects and learn some tricks in topic:nature photo courtesy Savanna Designs


4HE-INNESOTA#HAPTEROFTHE !MERICAN3OCIETYOF,ANDSCAPE!RCHITECTS for a calendar of events, chapter newsleďż˝er, board members, award winning projects, membership information, and more, visit the oďŹ&#x192;cial website:


_SCAPE 2006 Spring  
_SCAPE 2006 Spring