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SCAPE land and design in the Upper Midwest

summer 17

The Awards Issue Best in Minnesota landscape architecture

PLUS Central High Transformation Reimagining Golf Landscaping for Health & Equity Minnesota’s Mining Range Tree Equity Publication of the Minnesota Chapter of the American Society of Landscape Architects


from the

CHAPTER PRESIDENT Carmen Simonet, ASLA | ASLA-MN President

I

n April, members of ASLA-MN and allied professionals participated in a day-long education conference on equity and designing for the 21st century. It was informative, inspiring, and gauging by the number of attendees, a topic people are interested in. Takeaways:

• • •

All stakeholders need a seat at the table to participate in discussion and decision making. Change can happen when there is public awareness and dialogue. Diversifying the profession adds a broader range of values and experiences to reflect more and varied stakeholders.

The value of these points ring loud and clear in the controversy that erupted over the artwork Scaffold, in the new Minneapolis Sculpture Garden. Despite good intentions by the Walker Art Center to raise awareness of racial injustice, they failed to include all the stakeholders in the decision-making process. Yet interestingly, the overall series of events that followed generated a productive conversation around a difficult subject.

In hindsight, it’s easy to see the faults – Why wasn’t the Dakota community at the table from the start? What’s the thought behind siting Scaffold in a garden designed for kids and mini golf? Red flags might have been raised with a more diverse team having greater cultural experience. Despite the mistakes, I see progress. The protests and community engagement that followed were constructive. The controversy raised public awareness and people are listening and discussing issues of equity. Moving forward, we continue to explore equity and design with this issue of _SCAPE including articles on community engagement, environmental justice, and landscaping for health equity. This issue also celebrates the accomplishments of award winning design and service for 2017. The design work of both the professionals and students is an outstanding display of the breadth of work our profession encompasses. Enjoy!

Scaffold replicates the gallows used in U.S. government sanctioned hangings – the largest execution was of 38 Dakota men in 1862 in Mankato, Minnesota. The sculpture was intended to spark conversation around the ethics of capital punishment. Instead, it sparked protests over cultural appropriation and exploitation of the Dakota people’s trauma. In response, the Walker acknowledged their oversight and asked the Dakota community to participate in determining the outcome of the sculpture. Removal and a ceremonial burning of Scaffold was the final decision.

Carmen Simonet, ASLA President ASLA-MN

Summer 2017 | Issue #25

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ASLA-MN is the Minnesota Chapter of the American Society of Landscape Architects (ASLA) which represents nearly 300 professionals in the landscape architecture profession through advocacy, education, communication, and fellowship. ASLA, the national organization, has more than 18,000 members and 48 chapters, representing all 50 states, U.S. territories, and 42 countries around the world. As a licensed profession in the state of Minnesota, landscape architecture encompasses the analysis, planning, design, management, and stewardship of the natural and built environments. Landscape Architectural projects range from academic campuses, conservation and natural areas, historic landscapes, parks and recreation, transportation corridors, urban design, water resources, and commercial and residential properties. To learn more about landscape architecture visit www.asla.org or www.asla-mn.org. ASLA-MN offers a variety of service projects, social events, networking and continuing education opportunities. An elected Executive Committee typically meets monthly on the first Thursday from 4-6pm at its International Market Square meeting space within AIA, to discuss, organize, and facilitate chapter activities. All ASLA-MN members are invited to attend these meetings.

_SCAPE EDITORIAL

EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE AND AT-LARGE MEMBERS

Madeline Peck Editor

Carmen Simonet, PLA President

Kathy Aro Executive Director

David M. Motzenbecker, PLA President-Elect

Brenna Pileggi Copy Editor JS Print Group Duluth, Minnesota Publisher

Jake Coryell Director of Programs

Gina Bonsignore, PLA Past President

Liz Hixson Director of Public Relations

Bryan Murphy, PLA Secretary

Jody Rader Student Chapter Liaison

Chris Behringer Treasurer

A. Graham Sones, PLA Historic American Landscape Survey (HALS) Liaison

Ellen Stewart, PLA Chapter Trustee

ON THE COVER

Mitch Workmon, PLA Director of Education & Professional Development

Jodi Refsland Co-Director of Awards & Banquet Emily Neuenschwander Co-Director of Awards & Banquet Nicole Peterson Director of Communications

Todd Wichman, PLA Fellows Representative Joan Nelson-MacLeod WILA-MN

Minnesota Military Family Tribute

Photo Credit: HGA Architects and Engineers _SCAPE is published twice each year by the American Society of Landscape Architects - Minnesota Chapter (ASLA-MN). _SCAPE is FREE (in limited quantity). To subscribe, go to www.asla-mn. org and click _SCAPE.

Send general ASLA-MN inquiries, including sponsorships, to:

Send general _SCAPE inquiries, letters to the editor, and article queries to:

ASLA-MN International Market Square 275 Market Street, Suite 54 Minneapolis, MN 55405 PH: 612.339.0797 F: 612.338.7981 communications@asla-mn.org

Madeline Peck, Editor 12224 Nicollet Avenue Burnsville, MN 55337 madelinepe@bolton-menk.com

Summer 2017 | Issue #25

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Chamberlain elevated to

Council of Fellows By the American Society of Landscape Architects

The designation of Fellow (FASLA) is conferred on individuals in recognition of exceptional accomplishments over a sustained period of time. Individuals considered for this distinction must be a current ASLA Full Member or International Member in good standing, have achieved at least ten continuous years of full membership at the time of nomination, have demonstrated exceptional contributions over an extended period of time, have made a significant positive impact on the public and the profession and have received recognition for those contributions from multiple sources. ASLA-MN would like to formally recognize the ASLA College of Fellows newest member representing Minnesota:

M

inneapolis, Minn. – The American Society of Landscape Architects has announced that Minnesota landscape architect, Bruce Chamberlain will be elevated to the Council of Fellows, among the highest honors it bestows on its members. The designation of Fellow is conferred on designers who have achieved exceptional and sustained accomplishments through the course of their careers. Chamberlain will be inducted in October at a ceremony in Los Angeles. Chamberlain’s professional impact is rooted in his systemic understanding of landscape and passion for community within it. Through a career spanning

nearly three decades, Chamberlain has been a leader in private, public and non-profit organizations. He carries a unique, almost singular ability to envision transformative ideas and go on to captain them through the implementation process. The selection jury says Chamberlain inspires new ways of thinking about public space and urban form. They go on to say he blends longterm vision with the emotional empathy of a mentor to inspire lasting impacts. In addition to his role as Founding Principal of the urban strategies practice, Loam, Chamberlain is Parks Fellow for the Minneapolis Parks Foundation and an adjunct professor with his alma mater, the University of Minnesota. He is also

past president of the Minnesota Chapter of the American Society of Landscape Architects and sits on various boards and committees.


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Transforming Central High School A New Chapter for Minnesota’s Oldest High School Britta Hansen, PLA

C

entral High School, the iconic white building perched on a hill at the corner of Lexington and Marshall Avenues in Saint Paul, is a wellknown landmark for anyone who has spent time in the historic neighborhoods just north of Grand Avenue. The unique style of the building could justly be described as “hulking” and “severe,” indicative of a different time and ethos in modern architecture. No doubt the intent was grandiose, but the remnants of that vision have sat sullen and ominous on this prominent corner for more than three decades. Furthermore, landscape-related policies implemented by the School and the District to provide security, enclosure, and ease of maintenance on the campus have contributed to a perpetually bleak atmosphere. For example, for many years the school was encircled by a barbed-wire fence, leading many students to joke that they were being educated in a prison. That, combined with the austere building façade, led the architectural critic, Larry Millet, to once comment that Central High School “suggests that education can only be viewed as a form of incarceration.” Despite outward appearances though, Central High School is an academically and artistically vigorous school. It is a Blue Ribbon School, with an International Baccalaureate program. And notably, it has produced more Rhodes Scholars than any other public high school in the country. Central is also the 5

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oldest high school in Minnesota, celebrating its 150th year in 2016. It is a diverse school, with students who reflect the great diversity of cultures and ethnicities within Saint Paul. The student body consists of 33% Caucasian, 34% Black, 28% Asian, 4% Hispanic, and 1% Native American students. Over 40 different languages are spoken at home by the students in the school. In many ways, it is a typical urban high school, with all of the inherent complexity entailed in such an institution. 51% of the students at Central receive free or reduced lunch, yet the school has a 90% graduation rate (better than the state and the city average), and over 30% of students are enrolled in AP classes each year. As a long-time resident of Saint Paul, I was very familiar with the Central High School façade, but I did not become closely acquainted with the school until I began working on a


project at Central along with my fellow landscape architects and engineers, at the invitation of the Transforming Central Committee. The Transforming Central Committee is a group of active parents and students, formed in 2011, with the mission to “reshape the urban landscape of Central High School in order to improve students’ daily experience and address the environmental impacts of our campus.” Their goal is to create a school environment, both inside and outside, that reflects the dynamism of the student body and the school community at large. They were instrumental in removing or replacing much of the unsightly fencing that once encircled the school, and one of their first projects was a school beautification effort to plant 500 flower bulbs on campus. High on the success of such simple and impactful changes to the school campus, they grew more ambitious. In 2012 they secured grant dollars from the Capitol Region Watershed District to analyze the feasibility of stormwater improvements on the campus. That was the opening for my firm’s involvement. Emmons & Olivier (EOR) Resources is an engineering and landscape architecture firm that specializes in sustainable design. When EOR began to analyze the runoff at Central, what we found was typical of a dense urban environment. There was a significant amount of concrete pavement on the site, and what greenspace remained was so compacted that it functioned as more impervious surface for all intents and purposes. Central High was contributing millions gallons of untreated water to the City of St. Paul storm sewer each year, which in turn was flowing directly to the Mississippi River. This water accounted for 3,500 pounds of total suspended solids (sediment) and almost 5 pounds of phosphorus each year. The vast impervious surfaces were not just contributing stormwater to the city infrastructure, they were also contributing to the bleak atmosphere of the campus and the sometimes maligned view of the school by outsiders. EOR’s team conceived of a stormwater plan that could use necessary stormwater improvements as a means to beautify and enliven the campus and to create a space which would foster pride in the students and provide them with opportunities to inhabit an exterior environment that consists of more than concrete slabs and trampled turf. After the stormwater analysis was complete, EOR assisted Transforming Central in securing approximately $400,000 in grant funds from the Capitol Region Watershed District to implement the stormwater plan to reduce runoff on the campus and improve the campus environment. The Committee was then able to almost double that amount through fundraising efforts and additional grant procurement. In 2015, design of a new, more sustainable campus kicked off with a series of design charrettes aimed at gleaning input directly from students, faculty, and staff at the school. From the beginning, EOR aimed to make this a design process that was guided by the most important stakeholders – the students. It was also understood that it was critical to get input from faculty, staff, and even neighborhood residents to ensure that the final design delivered what would be most valuable to each of these groups. The landscape architects did not attempt to declare goals or a

LOCAL

vision for the campus landscape before the desires of the stakeholders, especially the students, were clarified.

From the beginning, this approach garnered buy-in and sowed excitement within the Central community, especially with the students. They made it clear in the meetings that they were eager to see their bleak campus disassembled and replaced with something more vibrant; a place they could inhabit. Multiple design charrette meetings were held right after school so students and faculty could attend. EOR created a variety of ways to gather input from attendees. At one such event, a visual preference survey was administered. Another time, EOR conducted a memorable charrette involving a “funny money” exercise where attendees were divided into groups; each group was given a defined

3D rendering of tree trench and permeable paver plaza.

amount of “funny money” to spend on campus improvements such as a water harvesting tank, seat walls, and a prairie installation. Each site element was assigned a monetary value. The groups had to make tough decisions because they did not have enough cash to secure everything on the list. Stakeholders’ priorities were readily apparent from the exercise. Students and faculty alike were very keen to see an outdoor classroom as part of the design. Students were particularly interested in getting seating integrated into a new campus plaza, so they would have a place to sit and gather with friends. And finally, most participants responded positively to the idea of more greenspace at the school. Most of us know that research has shown direct connections between the landscape and human health, but it is perhaps less well known that researchers have also determined that urban nature such as trees and water bodies have measurable, positive impacts on childrens’ school performance. Conversely, it has been shown that close proximity to highways and other urban blights have negative impacts (Kweon & Ellis, 2017). Central High School is located directly adjacent to Highway 94 in Saint Paul, thus it was critical for the design to mitigate the impacts of that proximity through enhanced landscape inputs that created a lush, green environment and a physical buffer from the freeway. This would not only improve the student Summer 2017 | Issue #25

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experience at the school, it would also have the ability to positively impact school performance across the entire student body. This was one way that the landscape architects actively designed with equity in mind. Central High School could not be moved away from the freeway to mitigate the negative impacts, but the situation could be managed through thoughtful and intentional design moves. During the summer of 2016, construction of the new campus at Central High School was completed in time for the school’s 150th anniversary. Stormwater features included myriad of techniques, such as permeable pavement, tree trenches, and a 50,000 gallon underground infiltration system. Now Central High School contains 90% of stormwater on site, meaning that only a small fraction of runoff, sediment, and phosphorus leave the site and enter the city storm sewer system. Since the backbone of the funding came from Watershed grant dollars to implement stormwater improvements, these achievements were critical to the success of the project. But what became the most visible achievements of the project were the landscape changes made above the surface that improved the character and usability of the campus for the students. An outdoor classroom and multiple seat walls were integrated into the redesigned plaza. The greenspace component of the campus was enhanced by adding trees, shrubs, and perennials, while reducing the overall amount of impervious surface on the plaza. In addition, improved circulation routes were provided to give students safe and defined pathways into and out of the school entry area. Finally, a learning component was added to the new campus by partnering with the watershed district to install monitoring equipment in the infiltration trench so teachers could integrate

learning about stormwater management into their curriculum. Educational signage about underground stormwater features was also added throughout the campus. The immense popularity of the Transforming Central project became apparent as soon as the campus renovations were complete. Students have commented that they love the new outdoor classroom; and when visiting the site, I have observed them utilizing the space in all the ways we intended. It has been a great success not just in terms of the functional stormwater goals that catalyzed the project, but also in terms of EOR’s ability to leverage those into a desirable campus experience for the students of Central High School. In light of the success of this project, I have begun to re-assess

watershed boundary

LEGEND Watershed Boundary (drainage area treated)

Underground Storm Sewer Stormwater Runoff

LEXINGTON AVENUE

(surface)

watershed boundary

CENTRAL HIGH SCHOOL

watershed boundary

MARSHALL AVENUE

(Above) Central High School Stormwater Plan

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what role landscape architects have to play in creating more opportunities for under-served communities to participate in the design process and benefit from well-planned landscape improvements. Like many, I entered the field of landscape architecture with the goal of improving the environment, whether that be the urban environment where people live and work each day, the suburban environment that needs some design help in improving on functionality and sustainability, or the overall environment, as in the health of our shared ecosystem. Unfortunately, as many designers come to realize, the stakeholders who most often benefit from thoughtful design are those with the funds to write big checks. I would argue though, that with Central High School as a guiding example, landscape architects have a larger role to play in finding creative ways to provide our tools and skill sets to often under-served communities as well as to our more affluent base clientele. One way we can do this is by getting tuned in to the public funds available through the Clean Water, Land, and Legacy Amendment in Minnesota. This was a constitutional amendment passed in 2008 in Minnesota that allocated a small percentage of tax funds to: • • • • •

protect drinking water sources; protect, enhance, and restore wetlands, prairies, forests, and fish, game, and wildlife habitat; preserve arts and cultural heritage; support parks and trails; and to protect, enhance, and restore lakes, rivers, streams, and groundwater.

formed a critical backbone for the Transforming Central project and were the springboard for the Transforming Central Committee to garner further grants and donations. If we look around at what many of our landscape architect and engineer colleagues are working on, we can find many examples of public funds being utilized to improve environmental outcomes. Landscape Architects are uniquely suited to take these projects to the next step, layering in place-making components that improve the user experience and alleviate some of the landscape-related issues that contribute to inequality among various communities. It will take extra work to identify funds, projects, and active community groups, but we must realize that this proactive option is there. And as a profession, it is time we seriously consider how we can work to promote equity in our communities, because if we are not working for it, we may very well be working against it.

Britta Hansen holds a bachelor’s degree

in studio art from St. Catherine University in St Paul, and an MLA from the University of Texas at Austin. She is a Landscape Architect at Emmons & Olivier Resources.

These funds are available and administered through various public agencies for a variety of reasons. For example, Clean Water Fund money was allocated for Central High School through the Capitol Region Watershed District. These funds

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Reimagining Golf Dissolving Boundaries and Designing for the 21st Century Parker Anderson, MLA/MS, PGA

A

dvances in technology and knowledge have opened the door for better understanding of how systems operate. This systems understanding allows designers to use the tools of landscape architecture to intervene in creative ways, making ripples of change throughout an entire system, achieving the greatest potential positive impact. With data and the ability to model alternative future scenarios, it is possible to compare different land uses based on selected metrics. At the University of Minnesota Les Bolstad Golf Course (UMGC), we are examining ways to utilize the golf course to add value to the community through research and outreach while still providing an exceptional golf experience. Equity, community engagement, human and ecological health, and economic sustainability are the metrics that lead to healthy, livable communities. Golf courses aren’t perceived to value these metrics, but the Science of the Green Initiative, a research project intended to examine the golf industry’s relationship to the environment, is demonstrating the importance of these metrics by reimagining golf.

these course closures as “market corrections”, a response to the overdevelopment of golf courses in the construction boom of the 1990s. Additionally, participation has been flat despite significant population growth in the U.S. These industry trends have inspired the USGA to propose a challenge statement to “improve the golfer experience by 20% while reducing critical resource consumption by 25% by 2025”.

The future of the golf industry is in jeopardy. In the last ten years, 5.9% of the approximately 16,000 golf courses in the U.S. have closed and been developed for other uses or in some cases been left abandoned. The industry describes

Critics of the golf industry may be pleased by these course closures and trends, excited to repurpose valuable urban land which they currently view to be inaccessible, an inefficient use of resources, and a threat to community health. Rather than courses

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Why should we focus so much attention on golf? When looking at the big picture, golf courses make up a substantial portion of urban green space. In the Twin Cities Metro Area (TCMA), 10% of the green space in Hennepin and Ramsey Counties alone are golf courses. In addition to this urban green space value, golf in Minnesota generates $2.4 billion in economic output and provides Minnesotans with almost 35,000 jobs. There are 455 golf courses in the state and 176 in the TCMA. Average golf course size is 150 acres, which equates to 26,400 acres of green space compared with 55,000 acres of parks in the TCMA. These impacts are not insignificant; what the golf industry does should hold your attention.


closing, are there innovative ways that the tools of landscape architecture can be utilized to still provide golfers with an exceptional experience, still continue to generate substantial economic output, all while adding value to the surrounding community, contributing to its health and the health of its residents? Golf courses cannot be partitioned off and isolated, so the industry must be reimagined to engage and benefit all members of the community. Golf participants have historically been disproportionately white, wealthy, and male. There are substantial differences in the golfing population compared with the total U.S. population, only 24% of all golfers are women (50.8% of total population), and only 19% of all golfers are non-white (28% of the total population). In the TCMA (Figure 1), it is predicted that white population will not grow in the next 30 years while other demographic categories will grow substantially. If the golf industry wants to be sustainable long-term, it needs to engage these demographics. Currently, non-white demographics are not as exposed to golf as the white population (Figure 2). Developing alternative programming and multiple uses of the

LAND USE

golf course will increase the reach of the golf course and engage populations that may not have the opportunity to experience golf otherwise.

This white male dominance needs to change. Participation in golf should be community-wide because participation in the sport adds value to the community. Research shows that participation in the First Tee Program, a junior golf program that focuses on teaching life skills through golf, not only develops participants to become better citizens but also shows that participants in the program graduate at a higher rate than participants of other youth programs. Additionally, according to a sports medicine journal, “results showed golf has beneficial health effects far beyond what we might think. According to the data, the death rate among golfers is 40 percent lower than the rest of the population, which equates to an increased life expectancy of five years.� Whether it is through junior golf programs, educational outreach projects, beekeeping, or urban agriculture, there are many ways to engage new users into golf. Engaging people that are traditionally non-golfers into a golf course will benefit the golf facility as well as the community. Designing the programming of a golf course and the invisible systems that are impacted by a golf facility are critical for the success of the golf industry in the future. Sustainable golf integrates the value-added of multiple uses of the standard golf course space as well as dissolves the boundaries of a golf course within a community to encourage the inclusion of all community members and species, and the utilization of ecosystem services and resource flows into

Figure 1: Demographic population projections for Twin Cities Source: Metropolitan Council

Figure 2: Demographic groups and golf participation Source: National Golf Foundation

Figure 3: Heat map of golfer GPS data at University of Minnesota Les Bolstad Golf Course. Red = high traffic, blue = low traffic, no color = unvisited. Source: USGA Resource Management Tool (rm.usga.org) Summer 2017 | Issue #25

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its management practices. On the average golf course, approximately 60% of land is managed for golf (irrigated turfgrass for tees, greens, fairways, and rough areas). The other 40% is often unmanaged and not designed for any other use. Because of this, and without dramatically changing golf courses, there are about 10,000 acres of land in the TCMA that could be designed to benefit the public without compromising the footprint of the golf course or the quality of playing conditions. Using GPS technology, we are able to track golfer behavior and identify which areas of the golf course are underutilized (Figure 3). This data allows managers to identify areas that could be repurposed and used for other functions like pollinator habitat, rain gardens, or agricultural fields. The way golf courses are operated has substantial social, environmental, and economic consequences. Great potential exists to showcase golf courses as necessary components of the human-created urban landscape because of their ability to serve as green spaces that mitigate stormwater concerns and pollution factors, provide habitat to beneficial species, grow food for local communities, demonstrate responsible use of natural resources, and encourage the growth and development of the community through youth programs and community engagement opportunities.

Golf Courses as Wildlife Sanctuaries Golf courses are also valuable sanctuaries for wildlife, providing critical habitat and migration stepping stones through urban environments for a wide variety of species. Smart golf course design can have a significant impact on the quality of habitat for pollinators. In Figure 5, three scenarios are presented for the UMGC. The impacts on the quality of pollinator habitat are shown in the heat maps on the right. The “Baseline” scenario is the pollinator habitat quality with no changes made to the property. The “Resource Conservation” scenario is a carefully designed, reduced footprint golf course, devoting more area to pollinator habitat. The “Suburb” scenario examines potentially redeveloping the property into housing. The comparison of these three scenarios with regards to pollinator habitat quality is shown in the graph. Raising honeybees on golf courses also benefits the ecosystem as a whole by providing pollination services to the surrounding area, benefiting local gardens and farms, and further serving as an indicator species of ecosystem health. In addition to these benefits, honeybees are a species of great interest (and importance) to the public; simply having honeybees on site

Golf Courses as Rain Gardens Golf courses are often an area’s largest rain garden and urban filter, acting as an urban kidney, capturing and filtering stormwater and retaining and absorbing nutrients before they enter our aquifers and drinking water. Increasing urbanization and development (Figure 4) increases the percentage of land covered by impervious surface, therefore increasing strain on the urban infrastructure. Also, golf courses, as urban green spaces, mitigate impacts of the urban heat island effect and contribute to human health by offering a natural setting for people living in urban areas. For these reasons, golf courses are valuable as urban filters of stormwater, and assets for water quality and human health in urban areas.

Honeybee colonies at home on a golf course Source: Anderson

Figure 4: Change in impervious surface surrounding a golf course (1963-2010) Source: Greener Golf: An Ecological, Behavioral, and Communal Study of the University of Michigan Golf Courses

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peaks people’s curiosity regarding environmental issues. When the members and users of a golf course express their interest in protecting honeybees on site, the superintendent will adjust their management strategy to ensure the protection of that species. Hosting honeybees at a golf course is often a gateway to more robust environmental stewardship.

Golf Courses as Agriculture Golf courses are ideal locations for agriculture. There is no denying the strength of the urban agriculture movement. Many facilities are converting small areas of their golf courses to agriculture in order to subsidize the needs of their clubhouse kitchens. These gardens are food sources, educational opportunities, and means of engaging the urban agriculture movement into the golf facility.

Golf Courses as Classrooms Golf courses are valuable educational tools, laboratories for innovation in precision irrigation technology, best practices for energy consumption, greenhouse gas sequestration, urban agriculture, and many more research opportunities. Additionally, youth education programs like the First Green use golf courses as classrooms for teaching science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM). Active learning opportunities, like those of the First Green (Figure 6), have been shown to increase student performance in understanding subject material. Because of the complexities of golf courses and their relationships to the ecology, economy, and community, the educational opportunities are endless. Also, by opening a golf facility to research opportunities, the golf course managers are exposing a range of new demographics to the golf facility, thereby simultaneously growing their potential customer base as well as gaining insight into their facility through research. Imagine the impact if all these additional values were adopted at every golf course.

Figure 5: Three scenarios for land management of the University of Minnesota Les Bolstad Golf Course property and the impact on pollinator habitat quality (red = high quality habitat, blue = poor quality habitat) Source: InVEST Model, University of Minnesota Institute on the Environment Natural Capital Project (Eric Lonsdorf)

Golf is considered an ancient game entrenched in tradition, one of the oldest games in the world, but with great potential for positive impacts through 21st century design considerations. Because of this long history and the tradition of the game, change is a challenge. The phrase “reimagining golf� results in many golfers getting defensive. They feel their golfing experience will be compromised in order to adopt additional environmental or social programs at a golf facility. In the golf industry, talks of implementing sustainable operations are often thought of as austerity measures that will compromise the product, but that is often far from the truth; great golf and sustainable management can be achieved simultaneously. In fact, the future prosperity of the golf industry depends on the ability of the industry to adapt to the challenges the earth is facing with growing population and increasing demand for natural resources. There are several local examples of golf course adaptations. Communities or golf course owners Summer 2017 | Issue #25

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Figure 6: The First Green – STEM youth education on a golf course Source: The First Green

profitable finances, and producing a net positive environmental impact. The focus of GolfLAB is built around responsible business practices and facility management, environmental stewardship, and education. There appears to be significant opportunity for the creation of shared value amongst these practices. Innovation and technology are utilized to develop a variety of options to engage in the golf course, all while maintaining the high-quality conditions expected from traditional golfers. This golf course laboratory will be operated as a daily-fee golf course, but also as a research facility, exploring the possibilities of what it means for a golf course to truly be sustainable. have either found added value or found greater community benefit in redevelopment. Parkview Golf Course (Eagan) was closed and developed into a housing subdivision due to high demand for housing. An assumption can be made that the ecosystem services of that site were reduced when converted into housing, but the demand for housing was significant enough to disregard that reduction in ecosystem value. Prestwick Golf Club (Woodbury) has increased their water capacity on site in order to capture the runoff from adjacent roads, decreasing the amount of water pumped from the municipal water utility. There may be challenges with water quality but this effort demonstrates the potential for capturing stormwater on a golf course rather than flushing it into the watershed. According to Richard Forman in Urban Ecology, “phosphorus and nitrogen in stormwater, or in effluent from secondary sewage treatment, can effectively replace the fertilizers and irrigation water added to golf courses. ‘Constructed wetlands’ on a golf course can reduce stormwater runoff and treat (i.e., clean) stormwater pollutants.” Braemar Golf Course (Edina) is currently under renovation converting its 27-hole facility to an 18-hole facility. The reduction in the footprint of the golf course has allowed for a substantial increase in the water capacity of the site and the creation of wetlands and native areas, significantly increasing the ecosystem service potential of that property. Hiawatha Golf Course (Minneapolis) has experienced challenges with flooding and the resulting negative impacts on turf quality. Many proposals have been made for improvements to the site. One proposal suggests converting the golf course into a wetland and community food forest, providing green space and a food source to the local community. The University of Minnesota is leading the way in the realm of sustainable golf course design, research, and management. As a significant educational resource to the university, the UMGC has become the first GolfLAB in the country. The Science of the Green Initiative has begun utilizing this historic golf facility to demonstrate how a golf course can become a laboratory for sustainability; focusing on engaging the community, achieving 13

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Recently, the University of Minnesota and the USGA embarked on the Natural Capital of Golf Courses project. This project is intended to identify and measure the ecosystem service attributes that a golf course contributes to a community. As the first step in this project, stakeholders of all interests and perspectives gathered to discuss the project and the potential for the future of golf. Pollinator advocates, golf course superintendents and managers, conservationists, local officials, engineers, hydrologists, urban agriculture advocates, and representatives from a wide variety of organizations engaged in open discussion regarding their interests and concerns as well as the ecosystem attributes of golf courses. This meeting was a huge success in engaging community organizations in reimagining what a golf course is to a community. The next step of the project is to use data modeling tools to develop a standard approach for evaluating the importance of golf courses in urban settings using the UMGC as a pilot and the TCMA as a case study (to follow the progress of this project, visit scienceofthegreen.umn.edu/natcap-golf-project). The practice of landscape architecture can address and solve many social, environmental, and economic issues by integrating and embracing the systems involved in a golf course through innovation and design. Innovation refers not only to adopting technological advancements but also thinking in unorthodox ways to address complex issues. The golf industry is positioned to adopt both of these strategies, that will ensure the long-term sustainability of the golf industry.

Parker Anderson is a Research Scientist at the University of Minnesota. Parker facilitates the Science of the Green Initiative, research focused on economic, environmental, and societal sustainability through golf. Science of the Green Initiative, Turfgrass Research Lab, Department of Horticultural Science, University of Minnesota. Website: scienceofthegreen.umn.edu Twitter: @ ScienceGreenUMN Email: ScienceGreen@umn.edu


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Not Just Pretty Landscaping for Health and Equity Joan MacLeod, ASLA, LEED AP & Nadja Berneche Equity. We hear presentations about it at conferences, read about it in blog posts, and discuss it in all-staff meetings. So, what is “equity” exactly? PolicyLink, a national research and action institute advancing economic and social equity, defines it as a “just and fair inclusion into a society in which all can participate, prosper, and reach their full potential.” In simple terms, equity means everyone gets shoes, but not just any shoes. Specifically, they get shoes that fit. The Minnesota Chapter of ASLA named “Equity—Designing for the 21st Century” as its theme for 2017; indeed, landscape architecture can be a tool to promote social, environmental, and economic equity. With this theme, we’ll explore innovation and best practices in design and community engagement to address the making of equitable, healthy communities.

With income inequality, changing demographics, and climate change all converging as factors shaping our future, let’s examine some of the important numbers that illustrate health equity challenges facing Minnesotans right now:

Much of the dialogue about equity is emerging as Minnesota grapples with the fact that—for people of color and indigenous communities—the state ranks last in the nation for economic and health outcomes (Metropolitan Council, 2016). This means that even as our white populations are flourishing, our communities of color are not sharing in the same health and prosperity. Yet, our diversity is an asset and closing racial gaps is not just good for communities of color, it is good for all Minnesotans. Equity is a win-win proposition for everyone in our state.

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• •

Poverty rates for children under 18 in Minnesota are twice as high for Asian children, three times as high for Hispanic/ Latino children, four times as high for American Indian children, and nearly five times as high for African American children, compared to white children. Unemployment is highest among populations of color, American Indians, and people who live in rural Minnesota. While 75% of the white population in Minnesota own their own homes, only 21% of African Americans, 45% of Hispanic/Latinos, 47% of American Indians, and 54% of Asian Pacific Islanders do. African Americans and Hispanic/Latinos in Minnesota have less than half the per-capita income of the white population. Low-income students are more likely to experience residential instability, as indicated by the frequency of changing schools, than their higher-income peers in every racial and ethnic category (Eliminating Health Disparities Report to the Legislature, Minnesota Department of Health, 2016).


Want to learn more? Search these additional resource:

Minnesota Food Charter Health Equity Guide Food is a great way to improve health equity. This resource offers tools, information, stories, and strategies for community-based organizations and individual decision-makers wishing to improve access to healthy food for their communities. Minnesota Compass Disparity Data Library Quickly access key measure data from throughout the site that show differences based on race, income, gender, and/or place of residence. The Neighborhland Handbook Community-Centered Design Minnesota’s Tomorrow: Equity is the Superior Growth Model (Policy Link) Voices for Racial Justice: Authentic Community Engagement: A Key to Racial Equity Gai’s Garden: Guide to Homestyle Permaculture

Making the Case Research reveals that who we are, where we live, and how much we earn are the biggest factors in how likely we are to have obesity and diet-related chronic disease. While fair economic, social, and environmental conditions for everyone can change this. The “Social Determinants of Health” provide a powerful frame to make the argument for the connection of the built environment to health. These conditions include housing, education, access to healthy food, safety, and security (World Health Organization). And, landscape architects can play a critical role in impacting

conditions in communities. The ASLA preamble states “The profession of landscape architecture, so named in 1867, was built on the foundation of several principles—dedication to the public health, safety, and welfare and recognition and protection of the land and its resources.” But what does equity look like within the profession of landscape architecture, and why is it so critical to incorporate equity principles? Landscape architecture design can improve air and water quality, create natural areas that improve mental health, reduce toxic stress, and design landscapes that produce healthy food in areas that lack access. Landscape architecture employs the principle of connectivity, designing cityscapes that allow people and communities to connect to these healthy spaces. Importantly, access to healthy food can have a ripple effect on other health outcomes. The Minnesota Food Charter Health Equity Guide notes “Food is a great way to improve equity-improving access to healthy food can reduce diet-related chronic disease for communities most affected.”

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Frogtown Park and Farm: A Case Study in Landscape Design Equity Frogtown Park and Farm occupies a 13-acre space with a history of different land uses and infrastructure. A truly diverse community, Frogtown residents are Hmong, Vietnamese, African American, African, Latino, and European American. The Frogtown neighborhood is a diverse and vibrant place but also has had equity challenges: the lowest amount of green space per capita among all St. Paul neighborhoods, a historically red-lined community, and some of the highest rates of health disparities in the city. Access to healthy food is also a challenge in the neighborhood (Frogtown Park and Farm: Reconnecting to the Land, To Our Food). In the late spring, the walking path at the Frogtown Park and Farm leads to the top of the hill, where you can see the fruit trees in bloom in the permaculture orchard. The smell of apple and cherry blossoms mingle with and air of freshly tilled soil. Asparagus and rhubarb stalks are just beginning to peek their heads up from the perennial beds. A mother with a stroller ambles along the path. You can hear the childrens’ laughter from the nature-based play space and catch conversations in several different languages as you walk the path. Across the way, the beauty and stillness of the oak savannah makes you forget that you are, in fact, in the middle of one of Saint Paul’s urban neighborhoods. Eartha Bell, Executive Director at Frogtown Farm, talks about the magnificent transformation that was nearly a decade in the making. It is the result of resident-driven community organizing, two major community design processes, and countless conversations with community members. The initial idea for a park and farm originated with a vision by four community organizers wanting to improve the health and beauty of Frogtown. They raised project awareness and funds to purchase 12.7 acres from the Wilder Foundation, where the farm resides. Purchased in partnership with the Trust for Public Land, the City of Saint Paul and the Amherst Wilder H. Foundation, the land is now city-owned. The complete story of how the farm came to be has been well-documented by the City of St. Paul’s Parks and Recreation Department. The community engagement and overall design was done in conjunction with the City of St. Paul and landscape architects from Rebar. The farm portion was designed with permaculture principles, by Ecological Design. The park/ farm arrangement also provides lessons in partnership and community engagement. “The farm is particularly important in this local and national moment because it brings people together across differences,” said Bell.* Bell continues “The park and farm has been accountable to the community from the beginning.” The Park Design Advisory Committee, composed of city staff and residents and facilitated by Rebar, was formed two years before breaking ground. The committee created community dialogue about the park, sought design ideas at neighborhood suppers in resident’s homes, open meetings at the local community center, on-site activities, and through a more traditional flyer. The community organized *Editor’s Note: For an additional article on Frogtown Park & Farm, see: Voit, J. (2014, Summer). Frogtown Park & Farm, Community Led Design. _SCAPE, Issue #19, pp. 13-16.

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a door-to-door bilingual canvassing program, created flyers in several languages to get feedback, and reported on the activities of the advisory committee. Stipends were used to hire community ambassadors, community leaders who could conduct targeted outreach and extend personal invitations. The local mosque, public library, and senior and public housing played critical roles in engagement. Community and advisory meetings open houses, and two design charrettes were held in prominent community locations, including the library and local elementary school. The park’s three-part land use plan is the result of this intensive community-led engagement process. The oak savannah is its passive stillness. There is an activated park space, with a nature-based playground and open field for sledding and sports play. And there is the farm, the centerpiece of the project. It’s 5.5 acres of certified organic land and a partnership that builds on the growing interest in neighborhoodbased food production. Bell notes, “Community members prioritized having lots of different points of access and engagement to connect back to the land and food traditions.” They clearly linked a connection with the land, community health, and economic development. They also advocated for safe transit, bicycle, and pedestrian access points so everyone in the community could get to the park.

Design Goals for the Long Game and Historical Urban Challenges As one of the largest contiguous urban farms in the US, the goals of the project take a long view. For landscape designer Paula Westmoreland—who is also an agroecologist and permaculture designer—the first step was to develop a water design that worked with the topography and maximized water conservation. The Capitol Region Watershed District and Ramsey County Conservation District helped fund the innovative water management system. The next important focus has been bringing the land back to life, to hold moisture and to produce nutrient-dense, healthy food for the community. The design team faced challenges of buried infrastructure—from foundations of old buildings—with only a few inches of soil above the rubble. Water wouldn’t infiltrate and soil was incredibly compacted; there was very little biological soil life. To restore the photosynthesis cycle, water cycle, and nutrient cycle, the designers set up a plan to awaken the biology through cover crops, molasses spray, mushroom spawn, compost tea spray, and foliar feeds, taking place over several years’ time. Currently, several fields are getting intense rejuvenation treatment before they are put into production.

Community Engagement and Equity: Long-Term Relationships In addition to the intense community engagement in the planning and design of the park, community participation is ongoing as the space grows and expands. The farm now staffs skill-building workshops with community members, hosts a robust volunteer engagement program, and is getting ready to launch new food-related microenterprises with community food entrepreneurs. The production-oriented spaces provide cash flow to support the farm and programming and provide food for the neighborhood.


STER PLAN

As a result of community input, plants were intentionally chosen with an eye for economics. The perennials, including asparagus, aronia, raspberry, goji berry, serviceberry, black currants, apples, cherry, plum, peaches, and elderberry are high value and nutrient dense. They also have long-term production value and possibilities for value-added enterprise, including medicinal purposes. Signage plays an important role at Frogtown Farm—inviting particular uses of the space, welcoming foraging, gathering, or other activities. It provides healthy and inspiring messages, and serves as community education: telling what’s growing where and why. There are multiple, intentional layers of community engagement. Residents can gather in the new outdoor amphitheater space. The walking path and the unfenced perimeter food forest with fruit trees and berries both contribute to food access and activity. The community members can be intimately involved in the daily activities at the farm, and neighborhood partnerships continue to grow. The Farm is currently leading an initiative, with several other community organizations, to develop a community food plan, a year-long endeavor that has continued to involve residents as voices of wisdom. The community is learning as

Importantly, the park and farm is a place where residents can actively be outdoors and reconnect with land and food. Westmoreland notes, “In this environment we are living in right now, there is a lot of disconnect from the land—it’s very healing to be connected to land, soil, water, and food.” Maintenance for this kind of public space requires a different kind of management. Landscape managers can be trained in basic pruning, trellising, and integrated pest management. Maintenance also presents new opportunities for creative partnerships. Park systems may have staff who aren’t trained in managing food plots, while many community gardeners and urban farmers are trained in these areas. Contracting with trained community members can provide an economic development opportunity for community members to manage food spaces.

Common Themes in Equity Two other case studies from other areas reveal similar themes and visionary thinking. In Fayetteville, Arkansas, a group of students asked “What would our communities look like in twenty

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years if we included equitable food access in our design visions now?” Their award-winning “Food City” envisions a local foodshed on a municipal level, with creative food landscaping throughout the city (University of Arkansas Community Design Center, Fayetteville 2030: Food City Scenario Plan). Sewall Preschool at the Dahlila Campus for Health and WellBeing, a Denver-based project, includes aquaponics and an urban farm integrated into a community and childcare center, providing fresh food for families and featuring beautiful outdoor spaces to support residents as they gather, connect, cook, and play (Mental Health Center of Denver). All of these case studies offer the recurrent theme: Community Centered Design. They incorporate equity principles: community ownership, intentional relationships, meaningful motivators, and comfort with chaos. Community ownership means whoever the community is, you must involve them at every step, suspending your own biases and weighing their inputs equally with yours. Intentional relationships require you to be more focused with your goals, driving toward powerful relationships at the core. Meaningful motivators mean values, habits, rewards, and human behavior trump rules, strategy, and process. Lastly but perhaps most difficult, comfort with chaos requires that any powerful design process involves a certain amount of messiness (Context Partners, Community Centered Design for 21st Century Cities and Corporations).

landscape architects can elevate the thinking and change what we, as a society, think is beautiful. Demonstration projects and data from other projects around the region, state, and nation can mitigate fears of less traditional landscape solutions and highlight the beauty and possibility in a project. Landscape architects are in a position to ask creative and critical questions of clients and other design team members like “How can we build equity into this specific project?” Though the projects here are larger in scope, they all have aspects that could be used on smaller spaces. Schoolyards, neighborhood libraries, health clinics, “giving gardens” to supply fresh produce to local food shelves, salad tables in outdoor areas, and walking paths can create more equitable circumstances in communities. To translate these ideas from paper to projects, we also need to create dialogue about the potential design holds for addressing inequities. Understand the history and context of a space’s equity. Honor wisdom of community voices with authentic, reciprocal partnerships. Imagine a world where all designs, large and small, contribute to equity.

Beyond Trends to Legacies

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The Laurentian Vision Rebuilding Minnesota’s Mining Region Christine Carlson & John Koepke

T

he United States Environmental Protection Agency defines environmental justice as the “fair treatment and meaningful involvement of all people regardless of race, color, national origin, or income with respect to the development, implementation, and enforcement of environmental laws, regulations, and policies. In other words, your health should not suffer because of the environment where you live, work, play, or learn.” The definition is important for landscape architects. As the profession increasingly works among individual sites and larger landscapes mined for natural resources at a variety of scales – ores and precious minerals, soils through agricultural use, timber, and water – the landscape itself is deserving of fair treatment, a notion not directly stated in the above definition. As landscape architects, we embrace protection of the environment and its ecological systems. We believe that the essential integrity of a landscape is its own sense of place. Communities affected by its uses are of equal importance, and have a fundamental right to an attractive, livable landscape, as well as a responsibility for ensuring its care and protection. We see it as our vocation to facilitate these efforts. This article describes how the authors have used these two facets of environmental equity, i.e. the ecological integrity of a landscape and a community’s right to an attractive, livable 21

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landscape, in their decades-long work on taconite mines on Minnesota’s Mesabi Iron Range (‘the Range’). In the case of a landscape affected by an extractive mining economy such as that of the Range, the authors believe that current residents and future generations have a civil right to inherit a landscape that is healthy, productive, and attractive.

Introduction Northern Minnesota possesses rich natural, cultural, visual and wilderness landscapes used and beloved by residents and visitors alike. It also possesses rich iron ore and taconite deposits. Their extraction has created a long-standing mining industry and regional and political identity. Today taconite mining comprises a smaller percentage of the regional economy (although it still affects all other regional factors) and exciting discussions about new economies are taking place. Nonetheless, a certain mentality still prioritizes mining jobs and the extraction of local raw materials. As a result, mining’s long-term significance still plays a dominant role in discussions about the region’s economic and ecological future. Since the year 2000, University of Minnesota landscape architects have worked with Mesabi Iron Range mining companies, state and regional agencies, community organizations, and other stakeholders to explore how the


remaking of mined landscapes can create valuable physical infrastructure for the region. The initiative, called the Laurentian Vision (LV), focuses on designing new landscapes as the ultimate stage of the mining process for communal and ecological uses, as well as establishing the civic, political and financial capacity needed to develop these new landscapes. A central tenet of the project has been to create resilience against the boom or bust economic cycles generated by mining, and to use the mining process to reconstruct a landscape capable of generating its own sustainable economy, thus giving it a renewed sense of place. By “sense of place,” we mean the characteristics of the Northern Laurentian forest, such as unbroken swaths of pines, groves of paper birch and quaking aspen, granite rock outcroppings, dense under stories of native shrubs and wild flowers, seemingly endless lakes and wetlands, and small communities nestled among them. These natural and cultural features, and those adapted to the mine landscape make this place unique, and foster emotional attachment and a sense of belonging.

OUTSTATE place, or the visual product of a legacy industry continually devalued by extraction without meaningful reinvestment? The opportunity to plan for the former scenario is available today. But the process entails conscious land design by mine engineers in coordination with state agency specialists during the stages of mine planning, operation, and reclamation management. It also requires a more thorough commitment to the reestablishment of natural services, such as habitat, vegetation communities, and clean water, and to the development of implementation strategies for future uses in active collaboration with all stakeholders.

Each of the University’s Laurentian Vision efforts emphasizes the region’s physical and cultural landscape as its permanent economic base, rather than any specific resource, and encourages active participation by stakeholders and local communities in planning the long-term use of post-extraction landscapes. By circa 2070, a corridor along the Range’s primary transportation route, U.S. Highway 169, will consist of geometrically shaped surface stockpiles, deep open pits filling with water, and active and abandoned mine facilities. In addition, there will be ancillary buildings, roads, rail lines, and power poles for processing, transporting, and exporting taconite. Most of us will be gone but our children and their children will still live in the landscapes we leave behind. How do we want their local landscape to look and function? Do we want it to be an attractive, productive, and healthy

(Above) Residential development on future lake edges for Chisholm or Biwabik, MN. Credit: The Laurentian Vision Project Papers, Northwest Architectural Archives, University of Minnesota Libraries.

(Above) Mine ecology concept illustration from the Mined Lands field guide, by Chris Carlson and John Koepke (2014). Credit: The Laurentian Vision Project Papers, Northwest Architectural Archives, University of Minnesota Libraries. (Opposite Page) Potential commercial development concept - Virginia, MN (2001). Credit: The Laurentian Vision Project Papers, Northwest Architectural Archives, University of Minnesota Libraries. Summer 2017 | Issue #25

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Projects Mine engineers and landscape architects are both land shapers. Both professions construct new landscapes, whether because of the extraction of a resource or because of the insertion of new landscape elements. In either scenario, we make decisions that permanently change the landscape. Since every mine on the Range is a local landscape, especially those proximate to range communities, both professions have a choice to remove or add value to them as they evolve over time. We have used our arsenal of professional tools to build a series of land design projects that can work at different scales of magnitude, depending on the location of a mine and its duration of operation. Hopefully, we have also cultivated the people, common awareness and political will to ensure that the lands affected by mining will be returned to an attractive and livable landscape. Our overall strategy has been to encourage the mining companies to repair those natural resources affected by taconite mining – soil, rocks, water, landforms, vegetation, habitat – using techniques that reshape, replant or recycle them for future habitat, community uses, and visual and ecological beauty. Reshaping mine features through a modified reclamation approach affords many opportunities to create useable lakeshore and upland features. These modified landscapes can enable residential and community development, recreational facilities including land and water trails, and native or adaptive plant communities for habitat and resource harvest. For example, the Northshore Peter Mitchell Mine Framework

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Plan (see below) recommends the development of extensive littoral wetlands constructed on abandoned haul roads. Adjacent hiking trails and canoe landing points foster camping, fishing and bird watching. Our work is based on: • Professional practice with mining companies • Research on reclamation theory and numerous case studies, including other large-scale, altered land designs from throughout history • The science of ecology and design principles of landscape architecture • Working knowledge of taconite mining operations • Working knowledge of current MN state reclamation standards • Visual surveys of naturally regenerated mine features (e.g. former stockpiles, rock pile dumps, pit lake edges, facility roads unaffected by the implementation of state reclamation standards in 1980) • Study and dimensioning of regional natural features that can serve as templates for terrain, plant, aquatic, and upland habitat replication on former mine lands Major projects include: Design charrettes: Mining impacts are not necessarily shared across the Range. Visual and other inequities exist between those who experience them directly (i.e. adjacent communities) and those who may only register effects from afar. Our design charrettes highlighted three communities in specific relationships to


adjacent mines: active and former mines (Virginia, 2001); an active expanding mine (Hibbing/Chisholm, 2003); and a new mine about to be opened (Biwabik, 2007). Each workshop developed goals and challenges with stakeholders and devised feasible land designs responsive to their communal and environmental needs. Demonstration projects: Taconite mines include large-scale surface stockpiles visible within a variety of view sheds throughout the Range. We supplemented current Minnesota DNR reclamation standards with extensive native and adaptive plant palettes and planted them on stockpiles for habitat near large, undeveloped areas, and for more attractive views on piles adjacent to public roads. Plants were chosen for tolerance of highly compacted, deoxygenated soils, a capacity for regeneration, membership within a native or adaptive vegetation community, habitat value, and aesthetics such as blossoms, fall color, etc. “Landscape” engineering course: Our three-day participatory training seminar targeted mine engineers. We studied an open pit mine and presented it as an asset that can be shaped into new, valuable land. The seminar explored how principles and techniques of landscape architecture can: • Reshape reclamation conditions into ecologically functional or buildable land over time • Serve as important concepts and efficient practices in mine planning and operations • Become models for progressive thinking within company reclamation programs A Master Framework for a sixty-year mine (Northshore Mining Company Peter Mitchell Mine Framework Plan (20012-2014): The Framework includes a design process for examining each part of the mine as it matures and the use of “mine landscape” design concepts, bioengineering and other techniques to craft future lake, riparian, upland, and high wall habitat for fish, birds, and mammals. The framework includes a living lab for experimentation with adaptable vegetation and progressive configurations of littoral areas and surface stockpiles. It also includes long-term internal project implementation and management schedules for successive personnel. The project won the 2015 ASLA-Minnesota Merit Award in Planning. Mined Land: A Short Field Guide presents a variety of progressive reclamation concepts for the repair and reclamation of mine land features, including stockpiles, rock stockpiles, pit lake edges and high walls, soils, haul and service roads. Technically dimensioned and colored sections and diagrams, along with photos depicting desired future landscape character, illustrate the recommended practices. The guidebook’s pocket-sized format was designed for use in the field by mine engineers and equipment operators, and the concepts illustrate the practicality of integrating reclamation actions in mining and end-use planning. The project won the 2015 ASLA-MN Honor Award in Communication. All projects have included: • The development and application of more comprehensive Minnesota DNR standards for reclamation planning • Multi-purpose landscape repair goals integrated into mine planning and reclamation management on the

part of mining companies Active, responsible participation on the part of Range communities

They have also stressed interaction between mining companies and communities to plan for futures that give the landscape greater time needs to repair itself. Without greater attention to the manifold impacts of mining upon the landscape, degradation will compound over time, gnawing away at the true wealth of the region – its essential sense of place. Summary: We appreciate the long physical, civic, and economic legacy mining has created on the Iron Range. Today the mining process affords exciting opportunities for new thinking about longterm reclamation that, over time, can help replace “nature as a warehouse for raw materials” with an attractive landscape that can serve as the “precious backdrop for an area’s living environment.” People value high quality living environments, especially as they become scarcer in the face of population growth and an increased demand for the very resources they represent. As we wrote at the beginning of this article, everyone has a civic responsibility to preserve the land’s ecological and scenic integrity and its ability to sustain us all. We believe these components are part of its essential sense of place and as much a part of environmental justice as is peoples’ health. Making the Range landscape beautiful and productive in diverse ways benefits everyone in the state and will increase the value of the entire region over time. Failure to recognize its essential integrity as a value in its own right leaves all Minnesotans liable for its demise.

Christine Carlson is the former Senior Fellow and Adjunct Professor in Landscape Architecture and the Project Manger of the Laurentian Vision. She is currently a Principal at Steve Durrant, LLC, Seattle WA. John Koepke has over 35 years of professional experience in both private practice and academia, serving for over a dozen years as Department Head for the Department of Landscape Architecture at the University of Minnesota. Along with his full-time responsibilities as a Professor in our Department he is a Principal in the firm Urban Ecosystems. Special thanks to Carson Koepke for editorial assistance. References: Berger, Alan, ed. Designing the Reclaimed Landscape. Taylor and Francis Group, 2008 ISBN 0-415-77303-2. Harvey, Adrian and Caroline Julian. A Community Right to Beauty: Giving communities the power to shape, enhance and create beautiful places, development and spaces. ResPublica Green Paper, 2015. Hester, Randolph. Design for Ecological Democracy. MIT Press, 2006 ISBN 0-2620851--5. Power, Thomas Michael. Lost Landscapes and Failed Economies. The Search for a Value of Place. Island Press, 1996 ISBN 1-55963-368-9 Relph, E. C. Place and Placelessness, Pion, 1976 and 2010 ISBN 0-85086-111-X Zube, E.H. “A new technology for taconite badlands.” Landscape Architecture, 56, 135-150.

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Trees A Shared Good with Unequal Access Nicole Peterson, ASLA

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n Sunday May 22nd, 2011, a spring storm system spawned an EF1 tornado with winds between 86 to 110 miles per hour. Tearing through North Minneapolis, the majority of the damage came from mature trees being uprooted and falling on houses and vehicles. Dozens were injured, and tragically; one man lost his life when a tree fell on his car. The storm could not have picked a more unfortunate place to wreak its havoc. North Minneapolis was already the city’s most economically depressed and dangerous area, and its Jordan neighborhood was hit hard. In this largely African-American pocket, 31% of the 60,000 residents live in poverty, and nearly 80% receive assistance from Hennepin County. Downed trees, snapped power lines and pieces of roofs littered streets and yards. The smell of natural gas led police to call people out of some homes. Roads were blocked and residents scrambled to find loved ones. It was a chaotic scene that made the local news, but was overshadowed by the deadly Jopin, MO tornado -- the deadliest tornado nationwide in 60 years – which was created by the same storm system. Minneapolis received no Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) money, and many affected residents were left homeless. The high rate of poverty and the health, safety, and welfare issues the neighborhood faced was called the “storm before the storm” by activists, and made the destruction from the skies, on that otherwise quiet Sunday in May, a nearly 25

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insurmountable challenge to overcome. Six years later, homes have been repaired and, where necessary, torn down. Vacant lots now dot the neighborhood and serve as a reminder of the destruction. Once lush with foliage before the storm, the area is now stripped bare, the swath of damage still visible in aerial photos (figure 1). Heatrelated illnesses disproportionately impact poor and minority communities, which tend to have less access to green space, and the reduction of mature street trees in North Minneapolis is contributing to these statistics. Just how much less access do disadvantaged communities have? A study conducted by Bill Jesdale, et al in 2013 discovered that non-Hispanic blacks were 52% more likely, non-Hispanic Asians 32% more likely, and Hispanics 21% more likely to live in heat risk-related land cover (HRRLC) conditions compared to non-Hispanic whites. The disproportionate amount of risk to these populations is more than an unfortunate fact – it is a serious issue of environmental justice. The primary cause of HRRLC conditions is a lack of trees, and an overall lower percentage of canopy cover in affected neighborhoods (heat risk-related land cover is just one type of health risk associated with lower tree canopy cover). Several studies have shown that low-income neighborhoods


ENVIRONMENT and neighborhoods with large minority populations have statistically fewer trees than wealthy areas and predominantly white neighborhoods. For example, in Los Angeles, tree canopy covers range from 3% in downtown to more than 50% in Bel Air-Beverly Crest. Data revealed that Los Angeles’ “treepoor” neighborhoods also tended to be its financially poor neighborhoods. Los Angeles is just one example of many. Poorer communities across the board are less likely to have trees, while richer communities not only have them but are often named after them. This condition is so prevalent that it can even be seen from space (figure 2). Within each racial group, HRRLC conditions increased with increasing degrees of metropolitan-area level segregation. Land cover was associated with segregation within each racial/ethnic group, which may be somewhat explained by the concentration of these groups into densely populated neighborhoods, located within larger and more segregated cities. Jesdale’s study also found that in metropolitan regions with greater levels of racial segregation, everyone, including whites, is more likely to live in HRRLC areas. This may indicate that integrated metropolitan areas perform better at mitigating heat for everyone. Jesdale says, “When you have an area that’s more racially stratified, where race really dominates how people live with each other, there’s less shared investment, people are not as concerned with the common good. And that shows up in trees.” Segregated places like these may be less likely to make collective investments, which are often the drivers of environmental improvements for entire communities.

what environmental justice is – and how it applies to their work. Careful thought should be given at every level to how the processes used to determine tree planting locations impact communities. What barriers are at play that may be influencing this – and how can those barriers be overcome? In Minneapolis, there is an effort to increase the urban canopy, and there exist city-wise resources and programs that aim to increase the urban tree canopy and make trees available to all residents. Tree Trust was created in 1976 to address two problems in our communities: the devastation of the urban tree canopy due to Dutch elm disease and the high unemployment and poverty rates for youth and adults at the

Well-meaning tree planting programs may unintentionally increase the discrepancy in tree cover between neighborhoods. Many programs operate by having residents request trees, and while this may increase the overall tree canopy in a given area, it Photo Credit: Per Square Mile, Inequality as Seen from Space, Google Earth Imagery does not necessarily put trees where they are needed. On the contrary, wealthier residents are more likely to have access to information time. This organization began combating these issues by hiring about these programs, thereby increasing participation in unemployed individuals and training them to plant trees and this demographic. Meanwhile, a poorer resident may wish to reforest the Twin Cities. Today, their mission is to improve the participate, but may not know about the program. Residents community environment by investing in people. in poorer areas are also more likely to rent, and therefore have less say about the environment that surrounds them. The City of Minneapolis works with Tree Trust to provide about Other challenges include local policy and funding availability, 1,000 trees to Minneapolis property owners each year at the and practical factors such as the physical availability of tree cost of only $25, and after the aforementioned tornado of planting sites in underserved communities. 2011, Tree Trust offered two free trees to homeowners who were affected. Since its inception in 2006, this program has Designers, policy makers, and planners need to be aware of planted more than 10,000 trees in Minneapolis. The program is Summer 2017 | Issue #25

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not a cure-all, however. Resources are limited, and in 2017 over 3,000 people vied for about 800 available trees through the Minneapolis tree sale lottery. Programs of this nature are an important step in improving our urban forests and ensuring green space is more equally accessible to the members of our community. However, these programs cannot fix the entire problem alone. We, as designers and policy-makers, must continuously promote expanded and improved green spaces though our work, advocacy, and community service. Encouragingly, the idea that landscape plays a role in justice and equity appears to be getting increased attention – at the recent American Society of Landscape Architects national meeting in October, 68% of the award-winning student designs focused on issues around environmental and social justice. It is my hope that this shift toward understanding issues of environmental justice – and using listening and professional practice to come up with new approaches to meeting the needs of communities – is underway across all urban design professions.

Nicole Peterson is the Landscape

Architecture and Engineering Technician at DeepRoot Green Infrastructure. She is passionate about urban forests other green infrastructure which promote sustainability and public health.

SOURCES: Badger, Emily. “The Inequality of Urban Tree Cover.” CityLab. N.p., 2013. Web. 01 Dec. 2016. Canopy Cover, Income, Race, and Ethnicity.” Environment and Behavior (2016): n. pag. Web. Dadigan, Marc. Jan. 13, 2011 Web Exclusive Print Share Subscribe Donate Now. “Tree Equity.” Tree Equity. N.p., 2011. Web. 01 Dec. 2016. De Chant, Tim. “Income Inequality, as Seen from Space – Per Square Mile.” Per Square Mile. N.p., 2016. Web. 29 Nov. 2016. “Free Trees Available to North Minneapolis Tornado-affected Properties.” Tree Trust. N.p., 31 July 2013. Web. 21 May 2017. Hudnall, David. “In Durham, Rich Neighborhoods Have Plenty of Trees. Poor Neighborhoods, Not So Much.” IndyWeek. June 8, 2016. Web. Jesdale, Bill M., Rachel Morello-Frosch, and Lara Cushing. “The Racial/Ethnic Distribution of Heat Risk–Related Land Cover in Relation to Residential Segregation.” Environmental Health Perspectives 121.7 (2013): 811-17. Web. “Minneapolis and the Urban Tree Canopy.” Minneapolis and the Urban Tree Canopy City of Minneapolis. N.p., n.d. Web. 21 May 2017. “Neighborhood Data & Trends for Near North.” Minnesota Compass. N.p., n.d. Web. 21 May 2017. Walsh, Paul, and Randy Furst. “Deadly Tornado Crashes through North Minneapolis.” Star Tribune. Star Tribune, 18 May 2012. Web. 21 May 2017. Watkins, S. L., S. K. Mincey, J. Vogt, and S. P. Sweeney. “Is Planting Equitable? An Examination of the Spatial Distribution of Nonprofit Urban Tree-Planting Programs by Canopy Cover, Income, Race, and Ethnicity.” Environment and Behavior (2016): n. pag. Web. Wheeler, Jacob. “North Minneapolis Tornado Victims Have Been Forgotten.” City Pages. City Pages, 23 Nov. 2011. Web. 21 May 2017.

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awards celebration and gala CHS Field , St. Paul, Minnesota April 21, 2017

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2017

Awards Celebration & Gala CHS Field, St. Paul At its annual Awards Celebration and Gala, ASLA-MN acknowledged outstanding projects that represent the talented work of local professionals and students. Congratulations to all the award winners - your talent is a true testament of your leadership in landscape architecture, your engagement in our communities and your commitment to our environment. The Executive Committee looks forward to another successful year for Minnesota’s creative landscape architecture community. CHS Field: Securian Club

Service & Recognition

Communications

Lob Pine Award Gina Bonsignore

Community Design Excellence Award Robert Engstrom H.W.S. Cleveland Award Elizabeth (Liz) Hixon Wirth Award for Excellence in Parks Peggy Lynch Women in Landscape Architecture MN Student Leadership Award Alexandra Olson Women in Landscape Architecture MN Student Diversity Scholarship Award Norman Palacious Jr. ASLA Rising Star Advocacy Award Leslie Johnson

Analysis & Planning Honor Award Coen + Partners Washington Square Park

Merit Award Minneapolis Park and Recreation Board and Confluence South Service Area Master Plan Merit Award Perkins+Will Lake Calhoun/Bde Maka Ska - Lake Harriet Master Plan Merit Award WHR North Minneapolis Greenway Demonstration Project 31

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Honor Award Perkins+Will Minneapolis Downtown East

Merit Award Emmons & Olivier Resources, Inc. The Rose; Sustainable Design for All

Merit Award Urban Ecosystems The Lake Minnetonka Guide to Shoreline Gardens

Unbuilt Works

General Design

Merit Award Perkins+Will Boulder Lake Environmental Learning Center Master Plan

Merit Award Cuningham Group Eloise Butler Wildflower Garden Wetland Boardwalk

People’s Choice

Honor Award Damon Farber Associates Maple Grove Central Park

Merit Award Damon Farber Associates Fortune 500 Company Research & Development Building Merit Award HGA Architects and Engineers Minnesota Military Family Tribute Merit Award Ten x Ten Freedom Square

Residential Design

Honor Award D/O with Adam Regn Arvidson Twin Lake Merit Award Coen+Partners Arden Drive

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Merit Award Coen+Partners KAFD Environs Study

Kimley-Horn River of Birds

Student Design Awards

Merit Award Fei Liu Revive, Missouri Mines State Historic Site Merit Award Morgan Mangelsen Water Susurrus

Student Academic Awards University of Minnesota Honor Award Madeline Goldkamp Merit Award Ethan McKnight Merit Award Yuqi Yan


SERVICE & RECOGNITION

Lob Pine Award Gina Bonsignore

The Lob Pine Award is the highest honor given out by the Minnesota Chapter of the American Society of Landscape Architects. Recipients demonstrate outstanding leadership and mentorship for our landscape architecture community over an extended period of time. The name comes from the prominent pine trees, trimmed into a distinctive shape, to help voyagers find their way through lake country. This year’s winner was Gina Bonsignore. Gina has been a guide to many throughout the years – by helping community leaders and citizens shape their communities and by helping colleagues develop as leaders. Her ability to communicate information in a clear and easy way is at the core of her success. During her decade as a research fellow at the DCAUL (now called the MN Design Center) she worked with city officials and communities helping them envision the possibilities of nature as amenity. As an independent consultant she worked with the Regional Greenways Collaborative, Trust for Public Land Embrace Open Space - helping citizens and communities conserve natural areas and create green spaces. The Midtown Greenway between Hiawatha and the Mississippi River is a visible project shaped by our Lob Pine recipient. For many years now she has been implementing their vision for a corridor of native plant communities. Now a regional planner at MNDNR she leads projects at a state level - conserving and managing natural resources. Throughout her career she has also helped colleagues develop as leaders. She has been President of our chapter not once but twice, and is vice chair of the Livable Communities Advisory Committee of the Metropolitan Council. Gina works tirelessly to do quality work, to represent our profession, and to share her knowledge and experience with those around her. We are pleased to honor Gina Bonsignore with the Lob Pine Award for 2017.

Community Design Excellence Award Robert Engstrom

Community Design Excellence Award is given to a private developer, elected official or municipal employee/department—typically not a practicing Landscape Architect—who has recognized the role urban design and environmental excellence play in maintaining and enhancing the quality of life in Minnesota’s towns and cities. Recipients have shown a strong commitment to the work of landscape architects, sustainable design, and place making. This year, the Community Design Excellence award is given to Robert Engstrom, a leader in developing environmentally friendly conservation communities and healthy living communities. His current residential development, “Wildflower at Lake Elmo” is designed using healthy living principles - including sidewalks, parks with creative play areas, sitting areas, pollinator landscaping and abundant access to nature. Also a conservation development, it contains a 60 acre nature preserve with walking trails. Robert is a life trustee and former Vice President of ULI (the Urban Land Institute). He is also the developer of Summit Place, the landmark new construction and rehabilitation neighborhood on St. Paul’s Cathedral Hill.

H.W.S. Cleveland Award Liz Hixon

The HWS Cleveland Award (Horace William Shaler Cleveland) is given annually to an individual trained in landscape architecture who is not yet licensed. Recipients have shown through their work and service to ASLA-MN that they have the potential to be a leader in the profession. This year the winner was Liz Hixson. Liz has shown through her work and service to ASLA-MN as the Director of Public relations that she has great potential to be a leader in the profession. From the start she has always exceeded and provided exceptional professionalism when planning and executing PR events. She does an amazing job collaborating, coordinating, and representing the LA profession through her dedication to her PR role. Liz does her work with a positive attitude and is very thoughtful in everything she does. She has coordinated publicity for our chapter and professional activities and organized exhibits including displays and volunteer staff schedules for pertinent conventions and meetings. She stepped in to this position and has further defined it. Liz encourages members to become involved within our community and has built and fosters many relationships with other organizations. She continues with alerting press to chapter events including our awards gala, participating and building on National/World Landscape Architecture Month events. Liz is always dependable, efficient, and unfailingly punctual. She gives much attention to detail. Besides fulfilling her duties as our Director of Public Relations Liz also projects a warm, cheerful attitude to everyone, loves people, and works hard. ASLA-MN is pleased to honor her hard work and dedication with this award. Summer 2017 | Issue #25

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Wirth Award for Excellence in Parks Peggy Lynch

This award is provided by Joan Berthiaume of Minneapolis Parks Legacy Society. This award is given to an individual, group, organization, business, governmental or non-governmental agency who has been instrumental/influential in the planning, design, development, administration, maintenance or preservation of a historic site, an historic landmark or cultural landscapes in a park, park system, or wildlife preserve. The individual to be nominated may be a Landscape Architect, Park Planner, Architect, Park Historian, Engineer, Administrator, Writer, maintenance person, politician, etc. This year the award goes to Peggy Lynch, the “Conscience of the Parks.” For nearly 3 decades as Executive Director of the Friends of the Parks and Trails of St. Paul and Ramsey County, Peggy has helped develop and support the environment by promoting appreciation for parks and open space through quality parks, trails, and bikeways. Through educational, community, and corporate outreach programs, her organization has provided access to recreational opportunities to communities who otherwise may not have the opportunity to experience it. Peggy’s influence brought increased recognition and elevated the importance of preserving the great outdoors for present and future generations to come. Her work along with the Friends of the Parks and Trails of Saint Paul and Ramsey County are legacies that will live on in the organization’s work advocating for the environment in the Twin Cities.

Women in Landscape Architecture MN Student Leadership Award Alexandra Olson

Women in Landscape Architecture MN Student Diversity Scholarship Award

The WILA Student Leadership Award goal is to recognize the accomplishments of emerging women leaders in our field. The award competition is open to third year women master in Landscape Architecture students at the University of Minnesota who show extraordinary leadership beyond the classroom to effect change within our community. Alexandra Olson is the recipient of the 2017 WILA Student Leadership Award for her passion for connecting people to the outdoors. Throughout her time at the University, Alexandra has focused on exploring the relationship between education and play and worked with many school groups to expose young students to design projects and the profession of landscape architecture. As co-chair of Students for Design Activism while in the MLA program, Alexandra engaged in many projects including a pop-up park design competition in downtown Minneapolis that was installed in 2015. She has since entered and installed other public art pieces in Downtown Minneapolis through the Hennepin Theater Trust open calls. The WILA Student Diversity Scholarship Award for 2017 is awarded to Norman Palacious Jr.

Norman Palacious Jr.

ASLA Rising Star Advocacy Award Leslie Johnson

The ASLA Advocacy Awards Program recognizes chapters and members for outstanding achievements in furthering the advocacy objectives of the Society. This program provides an opportunity for ASLA to recognize exceptional efforts or initiatives that promote the organization’s advocacy agenda. Leslie Johnson, a student member of ASLA-MN was awarded the ASLA Rising Star Advocacy Award for her exemplary advocacy engagement for our chapter throughout the year. Leslie participated in the 2016 Advocacy Day in DC visiting legislative staff and advancing key issues for landscape architects. Continuing efforts to build relationships with our representatives, she organized a site tour of Heritage Park in Minneapolis, with Congressman Keith Ellison and wrote a follow-up article Heritage Park: The Lesson and Legacy for the winter 2016-17 issue of _SCAPE.

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Washington Square Park

Coen + Partners with El Dorado Architects, HR&A Advisors, and Kansas City Parks Department Analysis & Planning Award The Washington Square Park (WSP) vision represents many years of work via a collaboration of the Kansas City public body and the property’s stakeholders. The landscape architect navigated the planning process with the clear agenda: in order to create a great park, we need everyone to take ownership of the end result. The public/private relationship revealed a commonality wherein the park framework seamlessly supported the development framework within a contextually rich and programmatically dynamic site design. To create a great park, we need great ideas; it was clearly identified that people wanted an active park, with access to seasonal markets, play areas, places to walk and enjoy gardens and water features, as well as a place to host larger civic events. People also wanted the park to help generate jobs and offer additional housing. The project is notable for using a contextual planning framework with an emphasis on place-making, and innovative use of visualization for communication with the public. The jury commended the beautiful graphics and diagrams, and the clear planning vision and design elements. Ultimately, WSP will be a neighborhood park that offers programs for young and old; providing comfort and amenities; and supplying shared resources that embody the values of the KC community.

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HONOR AWARD

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South Service Area Master Plan

Minneapolis Park and Recreation Board and Confluence Analysis & Planning Award The South Service Area Master Plan is an ambitious effort to create a new vision for all the neighborhood parks in south Minneapolis. The two-year process included more than 100 community engagement events and led to designs for 32 park properties that feature new recreational features, environmental enhancements, and a shift in the athletic field and court sports mix in response to changing demographics and robust discussions around equity. Racial equity was placed at the forefront of the planning process in order to help envision meaningful change on the ground. The consensus built during the planning process has increased trust and will contribute to smoother implementation of park projects. The vision set forth will guide capital improvement for 30 years, gradually transforming the park system in the image of the community around it. The jury recognized the project for through public process documentation and could clearly see how community input was used in the final document. With: with PROS ConsultingRoise and Company, and Minneapolis Park and Recreation Board

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MERIT AWARD

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Lake Calhoun/Bde Maka Ska - Lake Harriet Master Plan Perkins+Will, Inc.

Analysis & Planning Award Lake Calhoun/Bde Maka Ska and Lake Harriet are easily the most heavilyused parks in the seven-county metropolitan area with an estimated five million annual visits. Originally designed by Horace W. S. Cleveland as part of the Minneapolis Chain of Lakes Regional Park, these two lakes are historically and recreationally significant. The project scope involved creating a visionary 25year master plan establishing priorities for implementing resilience measures, promoting sustainable public/private partnerships, and identifying potential funding resources. Strategic goals included the adoption of recommendations focused on improving environmental and natural resources, achieving equitable use and access to public land, addressing demographic recreational trends and demands, and preserving cultural resources. Perkins+Will, Inc.’s Master Plan report addresses safety and equity issues while clearly identifying implementable strategies. A thorough analysis was conducted and ecological aspects such as shoreline restoration, native plant communities, and stormwater were considered. The jury noted the document’s excellent graphics, diagrams, and analysis. The evocative graphics speak for themselves about what this already notable landmark could become, and it is easy to see how this report could be used for implementation. With: with Toole Design Group, Barr Engineering, ETM Associates, Hess Roise and Company, and Minneapolis Park and Recreation Board

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MERIT AWARD

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MERIT AWARD

North Minneapolis Greenway Demonstration Project WHR with Street Plans Collaborative

Analysis and Planning Award The North Minneapolis Greenway Demonstration Project is a great example of large-scale tactical urbanism in action. The WHR project team led the design, installation, and maintenance of a five block long pop-up park in North Minneapolis that included extensive community engagement and collaboration with the City of Minneapolis and community stakeholders. The project included logo design, traffic engineering, material selection, a nature play area design, and the installation and maintenance of the site. Features of the temporary greenway include designated paths and boulevards for walking and bicycling; traffic calming elements; flower planters; benches and tables to gather, relax, and eat; tetherball station and other protected play areas; and painted pavement art. This is a unique project from the planning perspective because it allows the community to test out and prototype the idea of a greenway for a full year on site. This gives residents and other key stakeholders a better sense of what works and what does not about proposed configurations and design elements of a permanent greenway. It is a form of action while planning that gives people a chance to move beyond conversation about an idea, and actually try out something in the real world to make an informed decision. The ability to ask for and integrate community input into a design, design a system that would be safe and welcoming for a full year, and to work across city departments to permit, implement and manage issues as they arose throughout the year, required a unique mix of expertise in community engagement, design, construction, and communication that has been a critical part of making this project possible. The jury felt the project was very unique, featured effective community engagement, and a used simple yet meaningful method of testing ideas prior to long-term implementation.

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HONOR AWARD

Minneapolis Downtown East Perkins+Will, Inc.

Communications Award The Minneapolis Downtown East District is a convergence point of activity and vibrancy between the University of Minnesota and the Downtown core. Numerous civic, institutional and cultural facilities attract millions of visitors each year to the downtown area through this district. Completion of the plan preceded the complete development of a large corporate office headquarters, a new park open space, and the recently completed Vikings stadium. By creating well-connected open space, transit, streets, and bikeways, the entire district has an opportunity to grow while promoting livability, walkability, sustainability and vitality. The primary goal was to create an eye-catching, attractive, and interactive presentation to use for planned presentations and impromptu conversations with potential investors and businesses interested in moving to the area. Two years after completion, the interactive document continues to be shared within the public and private development community. This project tells a clear and cohesive story for the future of the Downtown East District and it will continue to be a model for future economic development tools in the region. The jurors commented on the clean, simple organization, ease of understanding the project scope, and the usefulness of the interactive PDF format which makes it an excellent tool. Lead Consultant: Ben Sporer Consultant: James Vos and Steve Dorgan - Cresa Partners and Greater MSP

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MERIT AWARD

The Lake Minnetonka Guide to Shoreline Gardens Urban Ecosystems

Communications Award

The Lake Minnetonka Guide to Shoreline Gardens is an illustrated manual that walks the reader through the process of creating beautiful gardens at the water’s edge. The full color guide provides pragmatic and practical guidance on the design, installation and maintenance of shoreline landscapes. It also demonstrates how shoreline gardens can be adapted to meet different aesthetic sensibilities, maintenance capacities, and site conditions. It is filled with explanatory graphics, example projects, and plant information of interest to property owners, landscape professionals, and ecologists. Beyond that, it provides an alternative approach for shorline restoration that is accessible to a wide array of homeowners. The book has successfully inspired many people to plant their own shoreline garden between green and blue, and has created a movement toward ecologically responsible landscapes within a highly developed watershed. Furthermore, the jury noted the beautiful and easily-understood graphics, and said the project was an excellent document that acts as a homeowner guide and great public education tool.

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Maple Grove Central Park Damon Farber Landscape Architects General Design Award Central Park is a 40-acre multi-activity urban park providing Maple Grove’s developing downtown civic, retail and residential core with a lush, energized green space that builds upon its extensive trail system and chain of lakes. Among the signature features is one of the most innovative and uniquely designed playgrounds in Minnesota. Central Park is garnering national press as an iconic regional outdoor destination providing passive and active recreational amenities including an expansive event lawn area, formal gardens, splash pad and pavilion building. Additionally, the park features a 25,000 SF outdoor refrigerated ice trail, the first of its kind in Minnesota. This reclaimed mining site is now a signature community park in the heart of Maple Grove, 30 years after being envisioned in the city’s comprehensive plan. The first conceptual plans for the park were sketched by the landscape architect team in 2008. From there, the process of designing Central Park included an extensive series of workshops with the Maple Grove Park Board, city government departments, and an involved public. Multiple concept plans and numerous programming options were studied and presented during the public meetings, eventually resulting in a preferred schematic design for the park. 47

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Throughout this process, the designers treated the residents as the expert. They listened early on and throughout and believe the final result is a far better and much more successful park due to this active and vocal role of the community. The design and construction effort required extensive collaboration across multiple disciplines including civil, electrical and mechanical engineers, architects and specialty playground, fountain and refrigeration consultants. These consultants worked together, led by the landscape architect, to ensure success in the development and long term functionality of the park. The jury felt that the project showed superior graphic presentation, and that the photography highlighted details and showed various events and uses of the space. They were pleased with how populated the photos were, showing just how popular this project is with Maple Grove residents. Consultants: U+B Architecture & Design Architects, Stantec Consulting, Sunde Engineering, Nelson-Rudie & associates, Water in Motion Inc., RJM Construction, Midwest Landscape and Irrigation, Landscape Structures Inc., Rink-Tec International Inc., Global Specialty Contractors Inc., and Maple Grove Parks and Recreation Board


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MERIT AWARD

Eloise Butler Wildflower Garden Wetland Boardwalk Cuningham Group Architecture, Inc. General Design Award The garden is the star; the design is simple; within the simplicity of the wetland boardwalk exist layers of complexity. Located in the Eloise Butler Wildflower Garden, the newly constructed boardwalk, with its unique curved modular system of four-footwide reclaimed wood segments and accompanying bridge, blends magically with its surroundings. The garden hosts 60,000 visitors annually and was in much need of a durable, safe and cost effective enhancement for the existing wetland pathways. The design is a thoughtful solution that complements the natural beauty and context of the historic garden while integrating durable and flexible materials. It is a delicate balance of form and function, offering generations of visitors a chance to discover the mysteries of flora and fauna along its gentle

curves. Beyond that, the design is a flexible system with only three segment types – curves, wyes, and gathering spaces. Modular seating, railing, and future descriptive signage elements were designed to bolt onto the bridge frame at any location along its length thereby adding to the design flexibility. The jury felt this project was award worthy given its delicate footprint, excellent reuse of materials and innovative modular approach providing future flexibility. Consultants: Meyer Borgman and Johnson Inc., Pierce Pini & Associates, Wickcraft Company, Trail Source, Conservation Corps Minnesota and Iowa, Arbor Wood, Intectural, Hillside Harvest LLC, Scheftel Construction, Project Technical Advisory Committee, and Friends of the Wild Flower Garden, Inc.

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Fortune 500 Company Research & Development Building Damon Farber Landscape Architects with Mainline Consulting General Design Award When a Fortune 500 Company, whose inventions impact nearly all lives around the world, tasks you with developing a project that recruits the next generation of talent, you respond with innovative design. This project for a Research and Development Building features clever manipulation of topography, a harmonizing palette of materials, and custom furnishings set across a handsome plaza that comfortably connects the pedestrian from the parking to the front door. The Landscape Architect was influential throughout the design process in organizing pedestrian and vehicular circulation, creating an original sense of place, and ensuring the property’s attraction factor. The project’s composition, careful proportioning, and attention to detail create an impactful design. This significant science building is now home to 700 researchers and scientists, recruits new talent for the company, and maintains the company’s vitality of innovation and technology. The jury noticed the clean details and material use, and commented on excellent implementation.

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MERIT AWARD

Minnesota Military Family Tribute HGA Architects and Engineers General Design Award The Military Family Tribute honors Minnesota’s families who serve in the armed forces – past, present and future. It recognizes the sacrifices and the support family members provide to our military personnel through three elements: a family walkway featuring a tree-lined allée that embraces each of the Veteran Memorials; story stones, as stone monoliths representing each of the state’s 87 counties with a personal story engraved on each stone; and the gold star table that recognizes the supreme sacrifice of our Gold Star Families, creating a place for gathering, reflecting and reliving memories. During the competition, the landscape architect’s oldest son was deployed to Iraq. This event provided a great sense of purpose and honor to win the competition and oversee the design and construction efforts. Currently, there are no other known Tributes that honor military families. It is the hope that other states will follow Minnesota so that no military family goes unrecognized.

Each of the Story Stones was hand selected and artfully placed as directed by the landscape architect. Eighty-four of the stone monoliths came from the excavation for US Bank Stadium, the new home of the Minnesota Vikings. Three of the Story Stones are Sioux Quartzite or Catlinite, otherwise known as pipestone. They were supplied by Rock County and used to represent three of the counties in southwestern Minnesota where the sacred stone originates (Lyon, Rock & Pipestone). The jury commended the project for nice details that told the story, and great installation photos that illustrated the project’s impact. Consultants: Meisinger Construction Co. Inc., Kamish Excavation Inc., Margolis Company, Northway Irrigation Inc., Bulach Custom Rock LLC, Choice Electric Inc., Stone & Steel Design, MC McGrath Inc., Gold Start Table Fabricator, Advantage Signs & Graphics Inc., Braun Intertec Corporation and Geotechnical Inspection Services

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FREEDOM SQUARE for the people & by the people

Freedom Square

10x10 with Juxtaposition Arts, Envirotech Construction, Radius Track Corporation, and West Broadway Business Area Coalition

General Design Award Freedom Square provides space to gather, protest, and play -- critical elements for democracy to work. Freedom Square is a temporary community plaza that was envisioned, built and programmed by local community artists and entrepreneurs. The project was built in partnership with a landscape architect-led design team as a part of public plaza demonstration project organized by West Broadway Area Business Coalition (WBC). The project provides adaptable components that transform a vacant lot into a vibrant place where the community can perform, host and gather. The success of the project has led to WBC’s current efforts to turning this place into a permanent plaza. Freedom Square expands the role of landscape architecture to address social equity and the importance for their facilitation in the development of civic infrastructure within the public realm. It challenges landscape architects to create catalytic design and installation processes that empower communities from ideation to implementation through creative partnerships. The space provides flexibility of use and installations that allow community to claim public space in multiple ways, and uses unexpected

FREEDOM FREEDOM SQUARE SQUARE

BUILT WORKS, 2017 and affordable materials to create beautiful ephemeral BUILT WORKS, Space to gather, protest, 2017 and play is critical for democracy to work. Freedom experiences. Square is a temporary community plaza that was envisioned, built and Space to gather, protest, and play is critical for democracyin topartnership work. Freedom programed by local community artists and entrepreneurs Square is a temporary community plaza thataswas envisioned, with a landscape architect-led design team a part of publicbuilt plazaand programed by local community artists and entrepreneurs in partnership demonstration project organized by West Broadway Area Business Coalition with a landscape architect-led design team as a part of public plaza (WBC). demonstration project organized by West Broadway Area Business Coalition (WBC). The project provides a series of adaptable components that transform a vacant lot into a vibrant place where the community can perform, host and The project a series of adaptable components transform a into gather. Theprovides Magic Shed deploys pulleys and winches tothat transform itself vacant lotcommunity into a vibrant place where the community perform, host and an active space with transaction counterscan and a performance gather. The Magic Shed deploys pulleys and winches to transform itself stage by day, becoming a glowing beacon of color-changing light at night.into an community with transaction counters and athat performance Theactive Diamond Cloud isspace a large light-reflective shade canopy animates the stage by day, becoming a glowing beacon color-changing wind and provides a unique spectacles of of light at all times oflight day.at night. The Diamond Cloud is a large light-reflective shade canopy that animates the wind and provides a unique spectacles of light at all times of day.

The jurors commended this project’s excellent diagrams and concept, and felt the concept and use of materials was a very innovative to create a functional community asset. Modularity and future flexibility were excellent foresight on the designers’, and they could see how this project could be replicated easily. & IMPLEMENT BY/WITH This project successfully proved to community partnersEXPERIMENT that there EXPERIMENT & IMPLEMENT BY/WITH is a need to have a permanent urban public plaza and how it could be programmed. Presently, the community partner is negotiating with City of Minneapolis to purchase the lot. Lights

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Equity: Designing for the 21st Century

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MERIT AWARD

FREEDOM SQUARE BUILT WORKS, 2017 Space to gather, protest, and play is critical for democracy to work. Freedom Square is a temporary community plaza that was envisioned, built and programed by local community artists and entrepreneurs in partnership with a landscape architect-led design team as a part of public plaza demonstration project organized by West Broadway Area Business Coalition (WBC). The project provides a series of adaptable components that transform a vacant lot into a vibrant place where the community can perform, host and gather. The Magic Shed deploys pulleys and winches to transform itself into an active community space with transaction counters and a performance stage by day, becoming a glowing beacon of color-changing light at night. The Diamond Cloud is a large light-reflective shade canopy that animates the wind and provides a unique spectacles of light at all times of day.

Solar panel

EXPERIMENT & IMPLEMENT BY/WITH LOCAL PEOPLE

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FREEDOM RIDE & FREEDOM SQUARE

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FLASHLIGHT PARTY

REFLECTIONS

Summer 2017 | Issue #25

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Twin Lake D/O Architects Residential Design Award The Twin Lake home landscape is an innovative solution to managing rain water within a formal design context – respecting and enhancing the details of the California-Modern style home. The constructed design creates a landscape that both aesthetically and functionally completes the marriage of home and landscape. A series of stone terraces extend forward into the landscape to create outdoor living spaces. The surrounding limestone walls finish the composition of the house by stretching it horizontally and accentuating the vertical chimney. The indoor/outdoor transition is handled with unparalleled detail. New custom French windows open onto the terrace, creating a seamless transition. The floor of the terrace is exactly the same as that of the living room - a feature of California Modern homes often overlooked in the Midwest. Embedded within this modern landscape is a system that uses the aesthetic features - a recirculating fountain and a custom-designed rapid-prototyped gutter cascade - to treat rain water from all hard surfaces and half the home’s roof. This new water feature converts an existing planter near the front door into an upper pool, and creates a new lower pool at the terrace level. A steel weir drops water into the lower pool and when it rains, a custom spout from the roof gutter creates a tight, spiraling cascade that drops through the center of the pool. The rectilinear alignment of the terrace, drawn from the lines of the home, is expressed in the placement of the walls, the joints in the paving, the custom-fabricated lighting inset under each stone step, and the custom wood and metal seating and arbor. The jury commented that the detailing respects and enhances the style of the home, creating a landscape that seems as if it has always been there, and that the design geometry is perfect, with pavement joints, walls, custom furniture all aligning on a grid determined by the home’s geometry. This project was praised by the jury for its stunning graphics, photos, and design details. They lauded the incredible detail that went into the journey of water through the project and felt the design team had a very commendable approach and implementation.

Lead Consultant: Adam Regn Arvidson, FASLA Consultants : Nicholas Kramer Associate AIA & Ashley Mare Peterson Associate AIA General Contractor: Terra Vista


HONOR AWARD

Summer 2017 | Issue #25

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Arden Drive Coen + Partners Residential Design Award Arden Drive is foremost a family home, the landscape architect set out to create an active, sustainable, flexible, and contextually appropriate site on a compact residential lot in Beverly Hills. Minimalism and balance were an essential desire of the client; the site design is an extension of the interior architecture, providing an invitation to gather. The client’s diverse program requests were embedded in a series of refined exterior spaces, balancing scale with flexibility and function with elegance. The site framework approaches every intervention as art, as creating sculptural equilibrium of all components was crucial to the project’s success. The program was to create a series of minimal and elegant exterior spaces, which are an extension of the interior architecture, into places where family and friends gathered for contemplation, relaxation, regeneration, activity and exercise. They were modernist and wanted their project to provide edible food and series of sustainable principles within a sculptural framework. An active outdoor program for a young family was combined with a pure, minimalist aesthetic, and the designers also added innovative, meticulously crafted details to achieve a dramatically simple effect. Hard and soft materials are paired to create a layered entry sequence, presenting a welcoming street frontage that also creates a sense of privacy and enclosure. The jury was complementary of the graphics and photography, and felt the design was very clean and simple, complementing the architecture of the home. Detail of the swimming pool edge was impeccable and allowed for the clean lines to be maintained between materials.

Lead Consultant: Shane Coen Contractors: Richard Holz, Inc.


MERIT AWARD

Summer 2017 | Issue #25

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The Rose: Sustainable Design for All Emmons & Olivier Resources, Inc. with MSR Design, and AEON & Hope Community Residential Design Award The Rose is a mixed-income, sustainable, urban community on the edge of downtown Minneapolis. The former urban brownfield site was transformed into a network of vibrant gathering spaces, play areas, and stormwater treatment cells gathered around two new apartment buildings that provide housing at both market and affordable rates. The project provides 43 market rate units, 35 affordable housing units, and 12 units for formerly homeless people. The Rose boasts a community garden as a central design element which is available to residents of The Rose as well as to neighbors in the surrounding community. It is irrigated entirely with roof runoff collected from The Rose buildings and treated with a UV filter. Runoff that is not collected for garden irrigation is directed to a series of rain gardens adjacent to the buildings which infiltrate water on site. The gated courtyard provides a network of outdoor living spaces, and is actually an intensive green roof situated on top of the underground parking garage. The jury commended the designers on their great narrative and sustainable approach to material use and design. They commented that the design really captures the feeling of community and provides inclusive elements in a small space. Lead Consultants: Kevin Biehn & Brad Aldrich

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MERIT AWARD

Summer 2017 | Issue #25

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KAFD Environs Study Coen + Partners with Shubin Donaldson, ARUP, Guy Nordenson, Rider Levett Bucknall Unbuilt Works Award The King Abdullah Financial District (KAFD) Environs Study is a master plan and series of urban design concepts that leverages Riyadh, Saudi Arabia’s investment in KAFD to establish a vibrant and connected urban public realm. The concept creates an iconic, world-class urban model that celebrates the local context, environment, and culture, while creating new ideas for defining the public realm in Saudi Arabia. The project integrates an existing neighborhood with the newly completed King Abdullah Financial District, establishing a network of open spaces that offer residents and visitors an experience that is uniquely Saudi—a place to celebrate, to pray, and to be fully present in the best of both the urban and natural environments that Riyadh has to offer. A flagship park and open space system is developed on the Spine that brings a piece of the desert into the city and offers an opportunity to view both the urban spectacle and nature

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in one location. The Stardune Plaza and Wadi Parkway offer visitors the best of the urban and natural worlds. A series of Stardune canopies that shade visitors from the intense sun are inspired by the entirely unique form of sand dunes found in the Arabian Peninsula, and are paired with patterns found throughout Islamic culture. The design also incorporates dynamic strategies for the capture, storage, and reuse of stormwater and wastewater, serving as a guide for future development strategies in Riyadh. The jury found that the analysis and diagrams were very successful in breaking down the complexities of this project. The shading devices and design elements used to enhance the environmental comfort level was commendable. Owner: Arriyadh Development Authority


MERIT AWARD

Summer 2017 | Issue #25

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Boulder Lake Environmental Learning Center Master Plan Perkins+Will, Inc. with Gausman & Moore, and Jim Manning Unbuilt Works Award Located 18 miles from Duluth, Minnesota, the Boulder Lake Environmental Education Program focuses on full-scale natural resource management and ecological research education. As part of the landscape architect’s Social Responsibility Initiative (dedicated pro-bono hours for organizations in need), the master plan scope included a learning center to leverage the highest standards for green infrastructure and net-zero design principles. Aligned with its mission of being a knowledge conduit of environmental stewardship, conservation, and regenerative ideals for current and future generations, the master plan adapted the following design strategies: • •

The design principles followed to pursue the Living Building Challenge — the most stringent measurement of sustainability in the built environment. Flexibility to support multiple types of users: from school groups learning about Boulder Lake to corporate or

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• • •

• •

University retreats, or even as a warming hut during crosscountry ski race events Integrating the building and site with minimal impact in mind, integrating the most functional and environmentally solution possible Use of passive solar heating Design of an educational zone with opportunities for exhibits with numerous exterior doors that can be opened to provide ample access to the outdoors, as well as the teaching gardens beyond Teaching gardens that serve for farm harvesting, as well as for interpretive programs Capture daylight, natural ventilation and views to Boulder Lake

The jury was stunned by the beautiful graphics and thorough analysis for such an ambitious project. They commented that the design and materials palette stitches the building into the site in a very appropriate and sustainable fashion.


MERIT AWARD

Summer 2017 | Issue #25

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Location: St. Paul, Minnesota Client: River Balcony Prototyping Festival


PEOPLE’S CHOICE AWARD

River of Birds Kimley-Horn

People’s Choice Award River of Birds, an engaging temporary art installation, communicates the importance of the Mississippi River as a major flyway in North America. Strategically located along Robert Street, the colorful flock integrates art and site while enlivening this critical link between downtown Saint Paul and the river. Participants were engaged in the installation by folding over 300 origami shapes of birds common to the flyway and attaching them to the growing flock on an armature of wires and existing site elements. The landscape architects conceived and executed the project to generate excitement for the long-term “River Balcony” during an urban prototyping event. The exhibit was featured and celebrated in several local publications including MinnPost, The Line, and Minnesota Daily, fostering a broader understanding of the landscape architecture profession. Beyond that, River of Birds serves as an example of creative thinking and participatory urban prototyping that truly represents the breadth of landscape architecture.

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Revive, Missouri Mines State Historic Site Fei Liu

Deco

Student Work The design for Missouri Mines State Park Historic Site in St. Francois, Mo, is to restore and continue a mining culture heritage and to integrate new culture forms and traditions, transforming the abandoned post-industrial artifact into the culture center. The project transforms an abandoned post-industrial site to new economic driver, restoring local mining culture and synthesis with new art forms. The design reuses abandoned industrial infrastructure and abandoned material from site. The jury commended the excellent exploration through various media and techniques, and felt the photos of study models clearly showed how the design details progressed.

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MERIT AWARD

Large Perfor Capacity 85 Large Performance Event Capacity 850 to 1200

Program op Concert / Ou

Program options: Concert / Ourdoor Film / Festival fireworks

Large Performance Event Capacity 850 to 1200

The open space has created in front of signifacant historical Program options: building -Headshaft, and use Headshaft as background for Concert / Ourdoor Film / Festival fireworks large events. Art Exhibition/Farm Market Event

Large Performance Event Capacity 850 to 1200

Art Exhibitio Capacity 60

Capacity 600to 800

Program options: Concert / Ourdoor Film / Festival fireworks

onstructed Garden Headshaft

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Art Exhibition/Farm Market Event Capacity 600to 800

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Art Exhibition/Farm Market Event Capacity 600to 800

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Water Susurrus Morgan Mangelsen Student Work Water Susurrus attempts to change long-held perceptions of water localities by providing a poetic experience of water through both its presence and absence. The project redefines water locality in an urban context in Chicago, IL, tying the historical past of the former U.S. Steel South Works site to present demands. The project aims to provide a new way to experience water pattern and cycle, creating a dialogue between human and water movement. The design proposal revolved around three main ideas: to receive, respond, and record as it relates to water experience. Receiving water is about creating an environment that welcomes and embraces water. Respon kimley-hornding relates to the historical wall, and how it can become a potential device in the experience of water. Recording water occurs through water amounts but also water stains from rainfall events. The user experience is largely based on when water is or is not present, changing the shape and movement through a space.

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MERIT AWARD

Summer 2017 | Issue #25

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STUDENT RECOGNITION

The Student Academic Honor and Merit awards are given every year to student nominees who have demonstrated the highest level of academic scholarship and of accomplishments in the skills related to the art and technology of landscape architecture. Award winners have demonstrated an ability to respond and work with others, are self-motivated and responsible, and have recognized design abilities over their years of coursework pursuing a degree in Landscape Architecture. This year, the award winners exemplified excellence in exploration, discovery, synthesis, and representation.

Honor Award Madeline Goldkamp 0.0

Madeline’s background in engineering and her innate curiosity about ecological systems brought her to the field of landscape architecture. Throughout her education she has had the opportunity to research aging bridge and dam infrastructure, multi-functional agricultural landscape systems, and strategies for preserving and promoting green infrastructure. Her capstone project explores the past and future of climate change for Torrey Pines State Beach and lagoon in her hometown of San Diego, California. She aims to transition our relationship with the changing coastline by developing adaptation strategies for coastal retreat that promote regenerative processes, habitat restoration, integrated rainwater and transportation systems, and public accessibility and awareness of this vital cultural resource.

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CUYAHOGA RIVER INDUSTRIAL SOUTH Cleveland, OH

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Repurposing river edges to provide water access & habitat in a postindustrial environment.

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Merit Award Ethan McKnight Prior to pursuing a MLA degree from the University of Minnesota, Ethan studied history and philosophy at the University of Wisconsin-Madison. He attributes his interest in empathetic and expressive landscapes to growing up in the forested hills and pothole lakes of central Wisconsin, as well as to his family who showed him the importance of compassion for others and for our environment. His design work is driven by a desire to understand the complexity of relationships and histories that influence individuals, moments, and places. His work has focused on the social, material, and cultural realities of post-industrial sites throughout the Midwest. His capstone work focuses on a decommissioned coal plant in Chicago, where he is interested in how the memory of a post- industrial site can be leveraged to confront the social and cultural practices, as well as the inherent injustices, which lead to the rise and fall of such a place.

constructed sediment cliffs

Merit Award Yuqi Yan Yuqi is an international student from Shenyang, China. Living in multiple countries throughout her life has stimulated her interest in urban green space. Coming from a background in environmental art design, her focus now lies in the design of public social spaces. Over the last three years, Yuqi has pursued a Masters of Landscape Architecture at the University of Minnesota. This experience has ignited her interests in urban hydrological systems and ecologically-sensitive design. Her capstone project focuses on future climate change and flood risks in southwest Houston, Texas. Her site study explores potential green and gray stormwater strategies for flood mitigation in the Meyerland Neighborhood, with the intention of applying the same strategies to other communities, while integrating the need for urban recreation along Brays Bayou in Houston.

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