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JOB ANALYSIS REPORT A human factors and ergonomics analysis of the job of a grill cook working in a fast casual restaurant chain

Image from the DailyMail.com

Ashwathi Shenoi Elizabeth Yang Theodore Russel

December 6, 2015 KIN/HUMF 5001


Table of Content BACKGROUND

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OBSERVATION

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Facility and Work Station Environment Overview Workstation Environment TIME & MOTION STUDY

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EVALUATION

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Macro-ergonomic Design Issues Micro-ergonomic Design Issues Performance Requirements RECOMMENDATIONS (CONCLUSION)

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REFERENCES

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APPENDIX A: Job Posting for Position as a Crew Restaurant Team Member

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APPENDIX B: HF/E Assessment Details

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BACKGROUND This job analysis report is aimed to provide a human factors and ergonomics (HF/E) evaluation of the work environment and job tasks performed by a grill cook worker at a well-known fast casual restaurant. In this report, we focused on the job tasks where the grill cook workers prepared and grilled the food just-in-time to serve fresh while also multi-tasking to keep their work stations clean and organized. This report will include a time and motion observation study, description of facility and workstation environment, macro- and micro-ergonomic job design features, performance requirements and demands of the job that may be of hazard based on Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) guidelines. For our evaluation, we first used OSHA’s Restaurant Safety eTool, which helped to broadly highlight potential risk factors. We also used CDIR’s Easy Ergonomics worksheet, which was used as a self evaluation tool to get employee feedback and then followed it by filling out Musculoskeletal Injury risk assessment worksheets to assess the specific parameters contributing to each risk factor. Additionally, this report will include recommendations and considerations for HF/E improvements based on our evaluation.

Approach The Food Service Warehouse describes fast casual restaurants as: consumer food options that retain the concept of fast food, but promote the comfort and atmosphere of casual dining and quality items that consumers crave. Food is made to order, not pre-assembled. The restaurant is comfortable and well-decorated, and the prices are more affordable than a typical casual dining restaurant. Some well-known examples of fast casual restaurants include Noodles & Company and Panera Bread. (Paral, 2015)

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Located in Minneapolis, our analysis began with a restaurant tour by a grill cook worker before the restaurant opened at 11 am. As part of the tour, we saw the physical facility and work stations and received an overview of the expectations of a grill cook worker. We then observed grill cook workers performing the job tasks before and after the restaurant opened. It’s important to disclose that permission for the analysis for this report was secured by a project team member who is employed as a grill cook worker by the restaurant. We thought that this selection would provide the team with detailed subject matter expertise in order to provide a thorough job analysis report. Permission was granted under the agreement that the restaurant’s name not be mentioned as well as the use of any photos showing their actual working environment in order to protect the confidentiality of the restaurant. To honor this agreement, this report will use overviews and examples of similar restaurants as appropriate.

OBSERVATION Facility and Work Station Environment Overview The restaurant facilities are typically 2,500 square feet with a seating capacity of about 50 people. There’s generally one or two main customer entrances and does not have a drive through. The location that we visited had one main customer entrance and an employee entrance in the back. Workstation Environment At the location that we visited, the layout of the restaurant consists of the front section for customers where there is a seating area and a self-service area for beverage, condiments, and utensils where customers can grab what they need and sit down to enjoy their food.

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In this report, we will solely focus on the back section of the restaurant for workers. The kitchen is composed of five major sections (figure 1 also shows the visual workstation layout for this analysis): 1.

Grill

2.

Line

3.

Preparation area

4.

Dish and stock area

5.

Walk-in fridge

Figure 1. ​ Visual workstation layout of the Grill/Cook area. The line and grill are in the middle of the restaurant. The preparation area is next to the grill directly behind the line, but extends further back. Behind the preparation area is the dishes and stock area and the walk-in fridge where most of the food is kept.

Grill The grill is a small hallway with the front wall (closest to the line) containing (from left to right):

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a sink to easily wash hands with a refrigerator underneath for meats and fajitas that are to be grilled; a large table with two heated storages underneath (for rices) for cutting meats; passing food to the line; mixing rice and wrapping cooked rice; and another sink that's used for washing vegetables and rice grains. The back wall of the grill, furthest from the line, contains (from left to right): a deep fryer for making tortillas and chips; a small table for holding grill tools; the large grill with two sections, one for meat and one for fajitas; a heated set of burners for boiling various foods; and a small table that holds the large rice cooker.

Line The line is composed of (from left to right in the direction customers move when ordering): a table with the tortilla fryer, bowls and lids, salad lettuce; a large table with heated pan indents for keeping the hot foods warm while on the line and for easy access while serving; a large cooled table of the same kind with a fridge underneath to keep vegetables and salsa cool while on the line; and, finally a table with the cash register.

Preparation Area The preparation area contains a heated station for storing premade online orders; two large tables for preparing salsas, marinating meats and cutting vegetables.

Dishes and Stock Area The dishes and stock area contains several adjacent sinks for washing dishes and a row of shelves for stacking clean dishes.

Walk-in Fridge The walk-in fridge holds several large shelves for stacking all meats and perishable foods to keep

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them fresh when not in use. TIME & MOTION STUDY After the tour of the restaurant facility, we observed two grill cook workers for two hours--​ before and ​ after ​ the restaurant opened. The observations of this time motion study is documented in the table in this section. To distinguish between the two workers, the main worker will be called Worker 1 and the secondary worker will be called Worker 2. After the first half hour, the sequence of steps were repeated from the start. Hence, to avoid redundancy, the table below comprises of the first half hour of our records. Though we primarily focussed our attention on Worker 1 who cooked and grilled various meats and vegetables, Worker 2 intermittently joined Worker 1 at the workstation to help out. For the duration of these brief interactions, the activities of Worker 2 were noted as well. Table 1. Grill Cook Worker Time & Motion Study

TIME

DURATION

DESCRIPTION

10:45 am

2 min

Worker 1 washed hands in small sink with soap Dried his hands with paper towels Put on latex gloves

10:47 am

3 min

Worker 2 put glove on got veggie tray from large fridge in the back Grabbed two pans (reached up and lifted down) Carried pans to grill and poured out some veggies Put back pans in small fridge by station Worker 1 seasons veggies cooking on grill and flips them with spatula

10:50 am

1 min

Worker 1 takes the rice bowl out of the sink (heavy, twist and turn movements) to get water to come out Grabbed paper towel to dry wet rice bowl

10:51 am

1 min

Worker 2 put the rest of the uncooked veggie from the pans in small fridge back to the big fridge in the back

10:52 am

1 min

Worker 2 brings the empty pans back from the fridge (carries at waist level) Grabs tongs to flip chicken meat on grill

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Note: Worker 1 is wearing an apron and is supposed to also wear a hat; but is not compliant by wearing a hat 10:53 am

1 min

Worker 1 re-arranges chicken meat with tongs (wrist action) Flipped veggies cooking on grill with spatula

10:54 am

1 min

Worker 1 washes hands with soap (scrubs fingers and palms) Uses paper towels to dry and tossed paper Puts on new latex gloves

10:55 am

1 min

Worker 1 opens carnitas (pork) meat package by tearing package with hands (on preparation station) Pours pork meat into pan on gas stove Pulls a part bigger chunks of carnitas meat to cook it faster on the stove Takes off gloves

10:56 am

1 min

Worker 1 scoops cooked veggies into a clean pan with spatula (wrist movement) Places pan on counter for front person to grab and put in food assembly line

10:57 am

1 min

Worker 1 puts on new latex gloves Scrapes grill to clean it with scraper (wrist and back and forth movement)

10:58 am

1 min

Worker 1 pulls out steak meat pan to place steak on grill Takes off glove Covers pan with remaining steak back up and places into small fridge by station

10:59 am

1 min

Worker 1 washes hands Grabs paper towels to dry hands Seasons steak on grill with salt Pours rice into rice cooker Put gloves on

11:00 am

1 min

Worker 1 flips steak meat with tongs Puts cooked steak into a clean pan and puts full pan on counter and covers it so it’s ready for the front person to grab

11:01 am

1 min

Worker 1 mixes carnitas meat in pan on gas stove with a spatula Goes back to get deep pans for rice

11:02 am

3 min

Worker 1 scoops cooked rice out with scooper into a clean pan Smashes rice with scooper to break it apart (Heat intensity from steam; lower back and core utilization)

11:05 am

1 min

Worker 1 fans cooked rice in pot to break down Stirs carnitas meat pot on gas stove

11:06 am

1 min

Worker 1 covers the carnitas meat pan and shakes (bit of hand movement)

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Pours cooked meat out into clean pan Sets on counter with tongs for front person to grab when ready 11:07 am

2 min

Worker 1 breaks up cooked rice in ban and the rest of the rice

11:09 am

1 min

Worker 2 is back to help by cleaning counter Washes hands with soap

11:10 am

1 min

Worker 1 covers rice and puts into small fridge by station

11:11 am

1 min

Worker 2 wears metal cut gloves to left hand Grabs knife to sharpen on sharpener with the right hand Cuts up chicken meat (cuts fast and is talking and not looking at cutting action with hands) Goes to the back (no longer in line of sight)

11:12 am

1 min

Worker 1 pours one pan of cooked rice into huge bowl for mixing (adds cilantro and seasoning) Stirs ingredients in with spatula Divvies up into smaller pans Stores in heater underneath counter

11:13 am

1 min

Worker 1 washes hands with soap Grabs paper towels to dry hands

The observations made in the table above lead us to clearly define 15 key tasks that were performed. A detailed self assessment of the 15 tasks and their performance requirements has been documented in the following section.

EVALUATION Macro-ergonomic Design Issues Macro-ergonomics pays attention to the external forces impacting the individual performing the job. In other words, the interdependence of larger work system components and how those components can be systematically and jointly analyzed in order to maximize performance and well-being of workers, groups, and organizations (Kleiner, 2006). Examples of those external forces, or work system components, can include personnel, internal physical environment, to

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organizational, political, economic, cultural, and legal factors (Kleiner, 2006). Another way to think about macro-ergonomics forces within a company culture. For this report, we discuss the impact on well-being on the job and personnel/organizational design. The Culture and Well-being on the Job The fast casual restaurant chain are company owned and describes its company culture as a comfortable work environment for everyone where employees work hard, have fun and enjoy their work. The fast casual restaurant chain generally employs between 25 and 30 people at a location. The restaurant does not hire for specific jobs. Instead, the company hires generalists for restaurant crew team member positions with the “right” attitude and the ability to:

● Develop positive working relationships with all restaurant employees and work as part of a team by helping others as needed or requested

● Speak clearly and listen attentively to guests and other employees ● Exhibit a cheerful and helpful attitude, and provide exceptional customer service ● Adapt to changing customer volume levels with a sense of urgency These qualities can be important in the restaurant industry when interacting with customers and providing service. To thoroughly assess the macro-ergonomic design impact on well-being on a job, a self assessment survey would be sent to all employees to rate their satisfaction levels so that a macro-level assessment could be made. Given the time constraints of this project, we interviewed Worker 1 by asking him to describe his satisfaction level and any potential stressful factors. Worker 1 described the work environment as “fun and lively” and stated that he enjoyed working there.

Stress Factors The main stressful factor highlighted was the busiest peak times where customer activities and interactions where highest, referred to as “rush hour.” Rush hour usually occurs daily between 11:30 am and 2:00 pm and 4:00 pm and 8:00 pm. During this rush, the restaurant may serve anywhere from 200 to 400 people with different food order combinations. That's as many as

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seven full pans of rice and three large trays of chicken in a single rush cycle.

For these reasons, there are usually two to three grill cook workers working together. It is not typical to be working alone on the grill during peak times when the job is most physically stressful. In addition, the job rotation and task variability for worker assigned to grill and cook almost never does dishes or preparation. This only occurs on days where the restaurant is understaffed and in need of workers doing multiple jobs. Downtime, or times when it’s not as busy, usually happen before the restaurant opens at 11 am when preparation is occurring and between 2:30pm-5:00 pm when there is not as many customers that come in. Personnel & Procedures Company policies and procedures are applicable to all employees and are not specific to only grill cook workers. During each shift, there are about 6 to 8 people, working in the back and in the front, serving customers. This includes crew members, a supervisor or lead, and a manager who is responsible for opening and closing the restaurant. Shift duration for grill cook workers varies, but a minimum of four hours is required to be worked. Occasionally, some may work up to 10 hours a shift. The break policy states that for every six hours worked, workers get a 30 minute break to eat and rest. New employees hired are also required to wear a set uniform provided by the company. The approved uniform consists of black shirts with the company logo, black pants, and a baseball hat to keep hair away. New employees are also required to purchase special, non-slip rubber footwear directly from the company. It’s important to note that during our observation, Worker 1 was not wearing a hat when grilling and cooking and not in compliance with company procedures.

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Training generally involves shadowing different crew team members conducting different jobs, watching instructional videos, and completing training modules over the course of several shifts with a new employee checklist that is used to guide the new hire on what to look for. There are safety policies and procedures available as required by law, however, there is no additional training provision for health and safety or a focus on ergonomics or postures during training. As part of the safety procedures, if there is an injury on the job, employees are trained to fill out a form for minor injuries on the job that is submitted to the company corporate headquarters for review. Headquarters then assesses what could be improved by reducing the turnaround time for such investigations and keeping statistics to be discussed in training for emphasis with new workers. Incentives are also provided to ensure that employees develop and grow with the company. The company incentivizes supervises via bonuses to promote employees underneath them, so they actively search out people who want to move up and then take time to train them. Additionally, supervisors can only be promoted themselves when they find their replacement, which again stresses that they develop their employees. Many of these macro-ergonomic design considerations can add significant stress to personnel, specifically a grill cook worker, because the job demands completion of many job tasks simultaneously, working with tools and materials that must be handled with caution amidst a highly dynamic environment, bustling with hungry people who are anxious to get their food order right and quickly. Given the time constraints of this project and these insights, the primary main macroergonomic design issues identified and recommendation for future further exploration are: 1. Further investigation and analysis of injury reports to understand common injuries occurring; 2. Customer complaints and the impact that has to personnel at different hierarchy levels; and 3. Group team dynamics and the ability to work effectively and efficiently together. When team

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members are unable to work together, what training or remediations are applied to the situation before an employee may be terminated. Micro-ergonomic Design Issues Microergonomics focuses on the design of each individual component of the individual’s system and optimization of every human-component interaction (Kleiner, 2006). As previously mentioned, individuals are hired as generalists and the specifically trained. Therefore, they must have the ability to complete multiple job tasks from the kitchen to the line. Examples include food prepping, providing customer service, operating a cash register, and grilling and cooking. An actual job posting of the position for hire can be found in Appendix A. An overview of the job tasks of a grill cooker is as follows: The cook at [restaurant] is responsible for organizing and arranging cooked foods and must know how to perform all station duties including grilling meats and veggies, cooking rice, making tea, boiling beans and other meats, mixing rice and keeping the kitchen running. A Cook must also communicate with the manager at all times as well as the on – duty servers to make sure that the processing of customer orders are going smoothly. Cooks are expected to perform all the delegated tasks as ordered by the management and must maintain the cleanliness and organization of the work station in accordance with the company’s operating standards. We observed that the grill cook worker requires considerable movement around the entire kitchen and storage space, between the grill to preparation areas. In this particular case, the job rotations require the same person to perform other activities in the restaurant as well, depending on the need. As mentioned earlier, this role involves handling of various kinds of tools, utensils, materials and storage spaces in order to successfully execute the task; each of which has to be evaluated with careful consideration. Given the expectations for a grill cook worker to multi-tasks simultaneously, a detailed analysis of every job is beyond the scope of this

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report. Instead, we limited the scope to the grill cook worker in the kitchen/storage area and have indicated potential hazards that might be encountered in this area. It’s important to note that the shift supervisors, scheduling personnel for jobs, at this specific restaurant location does make an attempt to accommodate the physical demands of the position. As we learned during the interview, if a worker discloses specific pre-existing injuries, say a temporary back injury that occurred outside of work, the supervisor will accommodate by assigning the worker to a role that requires less to no lifting in order to not further provide injury. OSHA Restaurant Assessment Results OSHA’s restaurant assessment eTool was used as part of this analysis. Within the assessment, we considered the following jobs: cleaning, food prep, cooking and serving as well as general hazards. The checklist is shown in Table 2, followed by visual images that demonstrate the corresponding movement. “Yes” responses indicate that a potential hazard may exist and needs further attention. Table 2: OSHA Restaurant Safety Assessment Checklist.

ITEM Faulty electric appliance

Worn electric cords

Improperly wired outlets

COMMENTS N/A

N/A

N/A

PRESENT NO

NO

NO

Damaged equipment/infrastructure

Broken door on the floor level freezer

YES

Wet clean up process

Use of water and cleaning liquids for mopping and doing dishes

YES

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Unsafe clean up process

N/A

NO

Hot surfaces

High temperature grill surface, stove surface, exhausts that need handling

YES

Repetitive reaching

Grill scraping, seasoning, scooping without straight wrist (see Figure 3)

YES

Overreaching

Reaching to far end of grill and stove (see Figure 3 and Figure 5)

YES

Repetitive bending

Lifting cooking materials from floor freezer (see Figure 4)

YES

Repetitive twisting

Placing material from container to grill, and vice versa; bending/twisting of wrists (see Figure 7)

YES

Skin contact with cleaning solutions

Potential for slips/trips/falls

Handling sharp objects without appropriate protection

Use of liquid hand soap when washing

YES

hands Generator near back cold storage has wire running across corridor; Special non-slip rubber footwear are worn at all times N/A

YES

NO

Handling/moving boiling hot materials

Steaming rice carried to portioning table and divided into smaller containers while hot

YES

Inexperienced workers performing difficult tasks

Many of the difficult tasks require either heavy lifting or have strict food safety concerns for the customers

YES

Prolonged standing on hard surfaces

No support mats, only concrete floors (see Figure 2)

YES

Static postures

Depending on job (food prep and serving station) (see Figure 2)

SOMEWHAT

Awkward neck postures

Head constantly tilted down (see Figure 2)

YES

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Repeated lifting of arms/overreaching Open flames

Unattended flames/boiling material

Un-emptied grease traps

Dirty ducts

Non-straightforward flame/heat burner operation

Cleaning routine includes reaching overhead to exhaust ducts (see figure 5) N/A

N/A Grease trays when hot can be dangerous or slippery if spilled N/A

Deep fryer switch is provided

SOMEWHAT

NO

NO

SOMEWHAT

NO

YES

underneath the bench, is difficult to access and has low visibility. The switch on the open counter, merely lowers temperature of oil, but does not turn off the gas and heating

Improper storage of flammable items

N/A

NO

Poor housekeeping

Food safety concerns and physical slippage concerns

YES

Constant exposure to high temperature grill/stove

High temperature cooking/frying

YES

Lack of anti-slip solutions (footwear/gripmat)

Special non-slip rubber footwear were

Balancing/lifting multiple objects at the same time

N/A

Balancing/lifting heavy object above shoulder level

N/A

NO

worn NO

NO

Lifting large, heavy containers

Preparation of rice, carrying/overreaching meat or rice containers, pots

YES

Blind corners/stairs

Corner that turns into food prep area

YES

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from grill station Congested aisle/doorways/work area

Grill station aisle

YES

Several people working in single area

During rush hour up to 3-4 persons work in the cook station at the same time

YES

High level of noise

High level of noise due to buzz of customers combined with exhaust

YES

Low light environment

Adequate light with use of fluorescent

NO

light bulbs Employee abuse

N/A

NO

Referenced from OSHA’s restaurant tool, this section provides images of clear visual representations of some of the issues that were recorded in the table 2 above.

Figure 2​ . Awkward downward bent neck angle with constant standing.

Figure 3​ . Reaching the far end of the grill; usually requires reaching beyond recommended

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access area beyond 18 inches from the body.

Figure 4. ​ Bending to retrieve cooking ingredients.

Figure 5. ​ Elevated reach to demonstrate workers reach when working with the hot steaming

rice, which they mashed, mixed and portioned out (grill cook workers did not access cartons).

Figure 6​ . Improper wrist position during scooping and scraping the grill (recommendation is for a straight wrist).

Overall, the initial assessment shows several areas that require further attention and detailed analysis. However, due to the time constraints of this project, we have not delved further into all highlighted issues and make a recommendation for further research. We consider in detail, only the specific tasks, requirements and hazards pertaining to cooking of food, as performed by Worker 1. Performance Requirements

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The key abilities that are crucial to successful completion of a grill cooker worker job are:

● Lift and carry heavy containers of meat/rice (chicken pan can weigh up to 30 pounds when full, rice cooker pan can weight up to 40 pounds when full, many other pans of foods weight within the 15-25 pound range)

● High degree of movement of wrist, elbow and shoulder joints - cutting, season, flip, toss, mash, turn heavy bowls of rice

● High dexterity of fingers - shredding, cutting ● Frequent removal and wearing of gloves, washing hands (every 5-10 minutes) ● Long periods of standing ● Work in a high temperature environment ● Frequent clean up of work station (every 20-30 minutes ) ● Work across wide grill and stove (need to reach across over 18 inches) ● Bending ● Twisting ● Constant gripping of one or the other tool used in the process (pot handle, spatula, tongs, scoopers, knife, etcetera) To better comprehend the extent of demand placed on the worker, pertaining to these abilities, we reviewed a self assessment worksheet with Worker 1. CDIR Assessment Results The components of self evaluation were adapted from an ergonomic assessment tool published

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by the California Department of Industrial Relations (CDIR) in consultation with OSHA. This tool provides a simple measure of determining an employee’s judgement about the job. It requires the employee to answer the following two questions about every task that comprises the job, and provide scores in accordance with the scale shown below: Table 3. CDIR’s Rating Scale for Self Assessment of Job How hard is this task?

Score

How often is it done?

Score

Very easy

1

Few times a week

1

Easy

2

Few times a day

2

Somewhat hard

3

Every 2 hours

3

Hard

4

Every half hour

4

Very hard

5

Every 10 minutes or less

5

The total score is then obtained by multiplying the two individual scores: Total Score for the task = Score for “how hard” x Score for “how often” First, we consolidated our time and motion study into 15 key tasks that were repeated in various sub-cycles to form the half hour single cycle. These were tabulated as shown in Table 4 so that for each task, the posture and abilities could be captured alongside Worker 1’s assessment of the difficulty level and frequency of performance of each. Table 4: Employee Self Assessment Worksheet TASK

POSTURE/ABILITY

HOW HARD?

HOW OFTEN?

TOTAL SCORE

Lifting rice

Standing straight lifting heavy to the chest level

4

2

8

Washing rice

Standing bent forward about 30 degrees, lifting moderate weight and turning motions with hands

3

2

6

Cooking rice

N/A, rice cooker

1

2

2

Portion cooked rice

Standing bent forward about 30 degrees pushing, pulling, lifting,

2

2

4

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moderate to light weights Bring out veggies/meat from the back

Walking, lifting moderate to heavy weights and carrying 20-30 feet

2

4

8

Lifting veggies/meat to be cooked

Bending over about 70 degrees, lifting moderate to heavy weights

3

5

15

Cooking veggies/meat

Twisting motions, shaking motions, bending forward up to 40 degrees

2

5

10

Portioning cooked veggies/meat

N/A, very little motion required

1

5

5

Clean counter

Bending over 20-50 degrees, circular hand motions and pushing

1

4

4

Clean grill

Bending over 40-50 degrees and pushing down and at an angle with strong resistance

4

2

8

Clean stove/burners

Lifting moderate weight, washing with circular hand motions

3

1

3

Clean exhaust

Reaching above head and pulling motions, washing with circular hand motions

2

1

2

Turn on fryer

Squat low and twisting motion with hands

1

1

1

Turn off fryer

Squat low and twisting motion with hands

1

1

1

Housekeeping (wash hands, change gloves, sign sheet)

Low impact and low intensity hand motions

1

4

4

JOB TOTAL

81

The employee self assessment indicated the key areas that needed attention were lifting and carrying heavy containers, repetitive wrist, and hand motions involved in cooking food and bending at awkward positions to complete cleaning tasks. The following section identifies the key risk factors and provides an assessment of all the contributing parameters of each risk

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factor, to give a more comprehensive view of specific target areas for HF/E recommendations. Detailed Human Factors & Ergonomics Assessment Our detailed HF/E assessment was informed by the use of different assessments that enabled the group to identify potential hazards and the self-perceived difficulty of the tasks required for this job. OSHA’s eTool allowed us to broadly identify issues encompassing all kitchen duties (that are performed by all employees due to the job rotation characteristic). CDIR’s assessment tool then allowed us to get a self evaluation of one specific job - cooking - from the employee, Worker 1, to get a sense of which tasks in this particular job require attention from a user perspective. This thorough approach aided our job analysis and the degree of manual labor that the job requires. From this, risk factors were identified and then further analyzed with respect to tasks involved under the job title of cooking. The Musculoskeletal Injury Risk Assessment Worksheets were used for this detailed HF/E assessment. These worksheets were created by WorkSafeBC in order to ensure compliance with OHSA. The six risk factors and their corresponding worksheets are as follows.

● Awkward postures and repetitive motion with overreaching (Table 1 in Appendix B) ● Various types of forceful exertions (lift/lower; push/pull; grip) (Tables 2in Appendix B ● Local contact stress and pressure points (Table 3 in Appendix B) ● Environmental conditions (temperature, noise, lighting) (Table 4 in Appendix B) ● Layout and workstation considerations (space constraints) (Table 5 in Appendix B) Appendix B provides the further details about our assessment and specific recommendations.

RECOMMENDATIONS (CONCLUSION) Our recommendations cover design issues that are considered macro- or micro-ergonomic factors. A few of our recommendations may also seem to overlap as they are independently

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correlated. Given the time constraints of this project, our recommendations primarily focus on findings from the HF/E assessment and recommendations for future exploration based on the design issues that were identified in this report. First of all, as we analyzed the macro-ergonomic design issues, we found that the company’s job descriptions did not specifically mention the physical demands required to perform primary tasks that we observed for a grill cook worker. Examples include the ability to lift heavy objects that could weigh up to 20 pounds, the ability to stand for long periods of time, or repetitive bodily movements using the torso, wrists, and arms. We believe it is important to state this as part of the job description so that individuals applying are aware of the physical demands of the job. The primary main macro-ergonomic design issues identified and recommended for future further exploration are: 1. Further investigation and analysis of injury reports to understand common injuries occurring; 2. Customer complaints and the impact that has to personnel at different hierarchy levels; and 3. Group team dynamics and the ability to work effectively and efficiently together. When team members are unable to work together, what training or remediations are applied to the situation before an employee may be terminated. Lastly, our HF/E change recommendations we recommend to alleviate potential risks for each of the factors below:

● Awkward Postures ○ Fatigue mats for floors ○ Shoes with cushioned insteps and soles ○ Height adjustable work stations ○ Administrative solution - break policy, worker posture awareness training, yoga

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for employees

● Repetitive Motion ○ Administrative solution already in place - providing task variability. However current method is based on organization need. If this can be modified to take into consideration an “ergonomics cycle” for optimal workload on employees that would ideal.

○ Individual solution - knowing when to take pauses - awareness of one’s own needs and sensations in the arms - yoga, exercises etc.

● Forceful exertions - lift/lower; push/pull; grip ○ Ergonomic cart on wheel, so that things can be lifted to/from the cart… but they don’t need to be carried over long distances

○ Improved handles on utensils, soft handles with grips for more comfortable lifting

○ Re-design of grill dimensions - making it less wide to reduce overreaching, and increasing length (left to right) to retain the area, also increase space for two people working side by side.

● Local contact stress/pressure points ○ Fatigue mats on floors (kneeling) ● Environmental conditions - temperature, noise, lighting ○ Custom freshness booth for those working at the grill to take few seconds of “cool off” breaks

○ Employee education about importance of drinking tons of fluids and staying

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hydrated while working in a high temperature environment

○ Uniforms designed from textiles that keep you cool ● Work station layout and overall safety ○ Fixing broken door of floor freezer (urgent need) ○ Administrative solution - incorporating a proactive approach to finding and fixing faults such as above

○ Rearranging generator wires ○ Re-organizing the current soda pop etc. kept at the mouth of the kitchen, to free up the kitchen entry, make it less of a blind corner and give more breathing space for employees in the grill area.

○ Re-design on/off switch of deep fryer to make it more accessible and straightforward In conclusion, this analysis provides recommendations that will positively impact employee’s quality of life at work and reduce their risks of MSI. The future steps should be to implement recommended changes and do a post-change job analysis to compare before and after scores. The scores in an absolute sense, thus have little significance and are of value for quantifying the improvements seen due to various HF/E solutions. Ultimately, the goal is to enhance the well being and safety of the workers.

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REFERENCES Bridger, R. (2009). Introduction to ergonomics (3rd ed.). Boca Raton: CRC Press. Education and Training Unit. Cal/OSHA Consultation Service. California Department of Industrial Relations. (1999). ​ Easy Ergonomics, A Practical Approach for Improving the Workplace​ . Retrieved from ​ https://www.dir.ca.gov/dosh/dosh_publications/EasErg2.pdf Hendrick, H.W. and Kleiner, B. (2005). Macroergonomics: Theory, Methods, and Applications. Retreived from https://books.google.com/books?id=HJMoO6YKaqEC&pg=PA260&lpg=PA260&dq=macroerg onomic+assessment+table&source=bl&ots=SQh8Cguvnc&sig=gXURcBpOpShTB2j0EOczDiP P_6s&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjFlb602MjJAhWBox4KHYoABIUQ6AEIQDAF#v=onepage &q=macroergonomic%20assessment%20table&f=false Kleiner, B.M. (2006, March 15). International Encyclopedia of Ergonomics and Human Factors. Retrieved from https://books.google.com/books?id=qFBAv_ib0VYC&lpg=PA154&ots=wpiOJ4YhTS&dq=defi ne%20macroergonomics&pg=PA154#v=onepage&q=define%20macroergonomics&f=false Occupational Safety and Health Administration. ​ Young Worker Safety in Restaurants ETool​ . Retrieved from ​ https://www.osha.gov/SLTC/youth/restaurant/cooking.html Parpal, M. (2015, July 16). What is a fast casual restaurant? Retreived from http://www.foodservicewarehouse.com/blog/fast-casual-restaurant/ Work Safe BC. (2013). ​ Musculoskeletal Risk Assessment Worksheets​ . Retrieved from http://www.sd71.bc.ca/hs/Health%20and%20Safety/Section%204%20-%20Hazard%20Ide ntification%20Process/Appendix%202%20-%20Musculoskeletal%20Injuy%20Risk%20Ass ess.%20Worksheets.pdf

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APPENDIX A: Job Posting for Position as a Crew Restaurant Team Member Job Description - Crew Restaurant Team Member Building the perfect burrito- and having fun doing it - is the first step to building your career at [restaurant]. Sharpen your customer-service and teamwork skills, learn to make great food and get ready to grow. Whether you have experience as a cashier, server, cook, prep cook, dishwasher, housekeeper, bartender or no experience at all, this could be the opportunity to develop into a restaurant manager position. We can offer part time or full time schedules depending on what you are looking for and the needs of the restaurant. We promote most of our managers from within and are looking for that next generation of leaders to apply now. Our Crew members take pride in preparing and serving [restaurant]’s delicious food. They know that in order to do this right, they need a clean and organized work area. By consistently following the proper recipes and procedures, and adhering to [restaurant]’s high standards regarding food preparation, cleaning and sanitation, teamwork and customer service, they help to ensure that the [restaurant] customer experience is always the best it can be. Crew members get to learn about and work at a variety of stations: Tortilla, Salsa, Prep, Grill, Expo, and Take-Out. In each area they’re greeting and interacting with [restaurant]’s customers directly, making their meals, while portioning out the ingredients to our standards. Crew members’ responsibilities require them to be on their feet working while clocked in, unless on break. If they are not busy, they are expected to take on tasks they see that need to get done, and pitch in to help their teammates. In addition to following [restaurant]’s policies and procedures, principal responsibilities include, but are not limited to: Food Prep

● Following recipes accurately and maintaining food preparation processes such as cooking, marinating, seasoning, and grilling meats; chopping herbs; dicing, cutting, and slicing vegetables

● Completing hot and cold food preparation assignment accurately, neatly, and in a timely fashion

● Preparing food throughout the day as needed, anticipating and reacting to customer volume

● Maintaining appropriate portion control and consistently monitoring food levels on the line

● Maintaining proper food handling, safety, and sanitation standards while preparing and cooking food Customer Experience

● Providing friendly, quality customer service to each [restaurant] customer ● Working toward understanding and articulating Food With Integrity Miscellaneous

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● Consistently and accurately using prep sheets, Road Maps, cleanliness list, and station checklists

● Following [restaurant] sanitation standards including washing cookware and utensils throughout the day

● Cleaning equipment, as assigned, thoroughly and in a timely fashion according to [restaurant] sanitation guideline The ideal candidate will:

● Have the ability to develop positive working relationships with all restaurant employees and work as part of a team by helping others as needed or requested

● Have the ability to speak clearly and listen attentively to guests and other employees ● Have the ability to maintain a professional appearance at all times and display a positive and enthusiastic approach to all assignments

● Be able to exhibit a cheerful and helpful attitude, and provide exceptional customer service

● Be able to adapt to changing customer volume levels with a sense of urgency ● Have the ability to demonstrate a complete understanding of the menu ● Be able to follow instructions for recipes and sanitation guidelines ● Have the ability to be cross-trained in all areas of the kitchen and line ● Have the ability to communicate in the primary language(s) of the work location ● Have a high school diploma At [restaurant] we don't have multiple job titles for our entry level employees but all of our crew will play the role of dishwasher, cashier, server, host, bartender, cook, prep cook, etc. so be prepared to learn a lot and work hard if you join the team. Most of the jobs that we are hiring for are entry level positions. If you are interested in interviewing for a restaurant general manager or assistant restaurant manager position and have previous restaurant management experience you can search our careers page for more opportunities as we may have some of those positions available. Most of these management positions are filled internally but there are some exceptions.

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APPENDIX B: HF/E Assessment Details Musculoskeletal Injury Risk Assessment Results The following tables are a result of those assessments. Each parameter has been rated on a three point scale where 1 = low risk, 2 = moderate risk and 3 = high risk. Descriptions have been included to explain what each level of risk represents. The scores will allow us to quantify the impact of any changes implemented when a post-recommendation evaluation is carried out. Table 1 looks at the risk factors associated with awkward postures of upper body extremities. Outcomes of the assessment is high. The duration and exposure pattern is also high, resulting in a high cumulative risk. Table 1. Awkward Postures Risk Factors Parameters

Description

Risk Level

Score

Neck Posture

● Bent forward more than 30 degrees ● Side bending more than 30 degrees ● Twisting 10-20 degrees

High

3

Trunk Posture

● Forward bending more than 45 degrees ● Squatting or kneeling

High

3

Shoulder Posture

● Arm raised from shoulder in front of body 0 - 45 degrees

Low

1

Wrist Posture

● Wrist bent towards palm more than 30 degrees ● Wrist bent backward more than 30 degrees ● Wrist bent towards pinkie 15 - 20 degrees ● Wrist bent towards thumb - 5- 10 degrees

High

3

Forearm Posture

Forearm rotation so palms face all the way down

High

3

Fingers

In line with hand but curled around tool most of the time

Moderate

2

Frequency

Posture held for more than 30 seconds at once with many repetitions

High

3

Duration

51 - 100% of shift

High

3

Exposure pattern

Daily - continuous

High

3

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Subtotal

24

Table 2A looks at risk factors associated with forceful exertion when lifting, lowering, or carrying objects. Our analysis focused on large cold containers with food. Assessment outcomes show that this type of load presents high potential for MSI since they are carried over a relatively large distance. Certain tasks also involve twisting and carrying small loads, but the resulting asymmetric posture presents a high risk. Table 2A. Forceful Exertion (lift/lower/carry objects) Risk Factors Parameters

Description

Risk Level

Score

Weight of object

Less than 17lb

Low

1

Distance load is away from body

More than 10 ft

High

3

Location of load at start or end of lift

Between hip and shoulder height

Low

1

Asymmetry

Shoulders turned more than 45 degrees, uses 1 hand

High

3

Size and shape of object

Small compact load

Low

1

Load condition

Slippery, wet, extremes of temperature (cold/hot), unpredictable

High

3

Weight distribution of load

Liquids/semi-liquids, shifting centre of gravity

High

3

Hand coupling

Hand is able to flex 90 degrees around the object, handles or holds are less than optimal

Moderate

2

Carry

Carries 8 kg or less, across 10 - 20ft

Moderate

2

Frequency

Occurs infrequently (more than 60 minutes pass)

Low

1

Duration

26 - 50% of shift time

Moderate

2

Exposure pattern

Daily - intermittent

Moderate

2

Subtotal

24

Table 2B looks at forceful exertion when pushing or pulling. This is useful in representing the force used to scrape residue off the grill for cleaning purposes. The scraping motion in a cramped space, results in repetitive jerks on the arm and elbow, which presents a high risk for

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MSI. However, given the moderate exposure pattern, it does not pose an urgent issue. Table 2B. Forceful Exertion (push/pull modified to suit grill scraping) Risk Factors Parameters

Description

Risk Level

Score

Distance travelled

Less than 2 m

Low

1

Force required

Moderate force required (equivalent of 9kgf)

Moderate

2

Handle height

Worker is able to keep elbow bent at comfortable angle

Low

1

Surface smoothness

Smooth surface, uneven due to residue

Low

1

Asymmetry

Uses 1 hand in front of body, but body is not twisted

Moderate

2

Condition of equipment

Well maintained

Low

1

Hand - arm vibrations/jerks

Repeated, short bursts of pushing that require heavy force

High

3

Space considerations

Small space

High

3

Frequency

1 push or pull every hour

Low

1

Duration

Less than 25% of shift

Low

1

Exposure pattern

Daily - intermittent

Moderate

2

Subtotal

18

Table 2C looks at the forceful exertion when gripping. Outcomes show that the grip forces required are moderate, low and do not pose any immediate risks. However, the long duration and exposure pattern make this a significant risk. Essentially, Worker 1’s job involves constantly gripping either a kitchen tool or a container during a shift. Table 2C. Forceful exertion (gripping) Risk Factors Parameters

Description

Risk Level

Score

Wrist posture

Wrist in partial flexion or extension

Moderate

2

Gloves

Good fitting, poor friction, no custom sizes

Moderate

2

Grip type

Mostly power grips, occasional pinch grip but with palm contact

Moderate

2

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Grip span

Small to medium

Low

1

Grip effort

Medium worker effort

Moderate

2

Object temperature

Very cold/very hot objects

High

3

Object surface

Smooth, not very high friction

Moderate

2

Frequency

Varying styles of gripping for more than 30 seconds at a time, with repetitions every few minutes

High

3

Duration

51 - 100% of shift time

High

3

Exposure pattern

Daily - continuous

High

3

Subtotal

23

Table 3. Local Contact Stress/Pressure Points Risk Factors Parameters

Description

Risk Level

Score

From an object

â—? Workers report some pressure is exerted on skin â—? Tool has contoured handles

Moderate

2

Uses hand/body part to impact

Hand rested on rounded edges/smooth surfaces for support

Low

1

From kneeling or resting body weight elsewhere

Leans on hard surface without cushioning

High

3

Frequency

Occurs infrequently (more than 60 minutes passes)

Low

1

Duration

Less than 25% of shift

Low

1

Exposure pattern

Daily - intermittent

Moderate

2

Subtotal

10

Table 4. Environmental Conditions Risk Factors Parameters

Description

Risk Level

Score

Lighting conditions

Appropriate lighting for task

Low

1

Ventilation

Exhaust and ventilation systems in good condition but fumes from work process still exist

Moderate

2

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Ambient temperature

Working temperature is frequently high but worker is still comfortable

Moderate

2

Temperature of objects handled

Object is very hot but there is no direct contact with skin Precautionary measures exist and are used

Moderate

2

Noise levels

Noise levels are frequently high but do not result in distraction

Moderate

2

Exposure patterns

Daily - continuous

High

3

Duration

More than 50% of shift

High

3

Subtotal

15

Table 5.​ Layout and Workstation Factors ​ Risk Factors Parameters

Description

Risk Level

Score

Standing work height

● Work heights are within guidelines but awkward postures of neck, shoulder or trunk do occur

Moderate

2

Standing horizontal reach

● Horizontal reach within guidelines but awkward postures do occur

Moderate

2

Work area characteristics

● Small tight work space ● Worker needs to get around personnel and objects

High

3

Floor surfaces

● Stands/walks on non-resilient surfaces ● No footrest/fatigue mats

High

3

Duration

51 - 100% of shift

High

3

Exposure pattern

Daily - continuous

High

3

Subtotal

12

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Quick Service Restaurant Job Analysis Report  
Quick Service Restaurant Job Analysis Report  
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