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THE STABLE APPROACH MONITOR (SAM) Supporting Supporting ti Flightdeck Fli htd k Decision D i i Making M ki

Doug Glussich UNIVERSITY OF WATERLOO drglussi@uwaterloo.ca @


Background – The Stable Approach


WHAT IS A STABLE APPROACH? AIRBUS FOB Notes

Aircraft on correct flight path

Sink Rate of 1000 feet-per-minute (fpm) or less

Correct Airspeed

C Correct t LLanding di configuration fi ti

Why the need for an Stable Approach Monitor ?


Results of an UNSTABLE Approach


WHY LOOK AT THIS PROBLEM ?

Transport Canada CRM Workbook - 2002

41.4%

4%


OUTLINE OF METHODOLOGIES Information Gathering

Design

COGNITIVE TASK ANALYSIS

NATURALISTIC DECISION MAKING

Product

DISTRIBUTED COGNITION

SITUATION AWARENESS / GDTA

TASK / DESIGN / IMPLEMENTATION PROCESS


Methodology • Literature Review • Initial Concept Design • Questionnaire - Questions arising from the Literature Review

• Low Fidelity Prototype (LFP) - Focus Groups  “Did we get it right ?  Propose changes

• High Fidelity Prototype - Flight Simulator Scenario - In Context Evaluation


Information Gathering – Literature Review - 126 Conference Papers  HFES / ISAP

- 24 Aviation Accident Reports  NTSB / FAA / BEA / NASA  Using HFACS Methodologies

- Informal Conversations with Contemporaries


INFO GATHERING - CONCLUSIONS

T Target t Fi Fixation ti Low Input From PNF High Workload M Manual l Flight Fli ht


Questionnaire

• Demographics • Experience p observing g unstable approaches pp • Experience flying unstable approaches • Interactions with h other h crew member b • Alarm systems


OUTLINE OF METHODOLOGIES Information Gathering

Design

Product

Questionnaire COGNITIVE TASK ANALYSIS

NATURALISTIC DECISION MAKING

DISTRIBUTED COGNITION

SITUATION AWARENESS / GDTA

TASK / DESIGN / IMPLEMENTATION PROCESS


Airbus Industries – Primary Flight Display (PFD)


SPD

LOC G/S

CAT III DUAL

180

030 10

10

160

025 00 140

10 120

IJS 109.1

10

020

30.10 QNH


SPD

LOC G/S

CAT III DUAL

180

030 10

10

160

025 00 140

10 120

IJS 109.1

10

020

30.10 QNH


SPD

LOC G/S

CAT III DUAL

180

030 10

10

160

025 00 140

10 120

IJS 109.1

10

020

30.10 QNH


SPD

LOC G/S

CAT III DUAL

180

030 10

10

160

025 00 140

10 120

IJS 109.1

10

020

30.10 QNH


SPD

LOC G/S

CAT III DUAL

180

030 10

10

160

025 00 140

10 120

IJS 109.1

10

020

30.10 QNH


SPD

LOC G/S

CAT III DUAL

180

030 10

10

160

025 00 140

10 120

IJS 109.1

10

020

30.10 QNH


SPD

LOC G/S

CAT III DUAL

180

030 10

10

160

025 00 140

10 120

IJS 109.1

10

020

30.10 QNH


SPD

LOC G/S

CAT III DUAL

180

030 10

10

160

025 00 140

10 120

IJS 109.1

10

020

30.10 QNH


SPD

LOC G/S

CAT III DUAL

180

030 10

10

160

025 00 140

10 120

IJS 109.1

10

020

30.10 QNH


SPD

LOC G/S

CAT III DUAL

180

030 10

10

160

025 00 140

10 120

IJS 109.1

10

020

30.10 QNH


SPD

LOC G/S

CAT III DUAL

180

030 10

10

160

025 00 140

10 120

IJS 109.1

10

020

30.10 QNH


SPD

LOC G/S

CAT III DUAL

180

030 10

10

160

025 00 140

10 120

IJS 109.1

10

020

30.10 QNH


SPD

LOC

G/S

CAT III DUAL

180 80

030 10

10

160

25 00 140

10 120

IJS 109.1

10

020

30.10 QNH


SPD

LOC

G/S

CAT III DUAL

180 80

030 10

10

160

25 00 140

1

10 120

IJS 109.1

10

020

30.10 QNH


SPD

LOC

G/S

CAT III DUAL

180

030 160

10

10

25 00 140 2

120

IJS 109.1

10

10

020

30.10 QNH


SPD

LOC

G/S

CAT III DUAL

180

030 160

10

10

25 00

140

3

120

IJS 109.1

10

10

020

30.10 QNH


SPD

LOC

G/S

CAT III DUAL

030 160

10

10

025 140

00

020

120

10

10

100 IJS 109.1

30.10 QNH

4


SPD

LOC

G/S

CAT III DUAL

030 160

10

10

025

140

00 120

020 5

10

10

100

IJS 109.1

30.10 QNH


SPD

LOC

G/S

CAT III DUAL

180

030

160

10

10

140

025 00

120

020 6

10

10

100

IJS 109.1

30.10 QNH


SPD

LOC

G/S

030

160

140

CAT III DUAL

10

10

025 00

120

020 100

IJS 109.1

10

7

10

30.10 QNH


SPD

LOC

G/S

CAT III DUAL

180 160

10

10

025

140

00 020

120

100

IJS 109.1

10

10

9

015 30.10 QNH


SPD

LOC

G/S

CAT III DUAL

180 160

025 10

10

140

020 00 120

10 100

IJS 109.1

10

015 10

30.10 QNH


SPD

LOC

G/S

CAT III DUAL

180 160

025 10

10

140

020 00 120

10

10

015

100

IJS 109.1

10

30.10 QNH


SPD

LOC

G/S

CAT III DUAL

180

025

160

10

10

140

020 00 120

015 10

10

100

IJS 109.1

10

30.10 QNH


SPD

LOC

G/S

180

CAT III DUAL 025

160

10

10

140

020 00

120

015 10

10

100

10

010 IJS 109.1

30.10 QNH


SPD

LOC

G/S

CAT III DUAL 025

180 160

10

10

140

020 00

120

015 10

10

100

010 IJS 109.1

30.10 QNH

10


SPD

LOC

G/S

CAT III DUAL 025

180 160

10

10

020

140

015

00

120

10 100

IJS 109.1

10

010

30.10 QNH

10


SPD

LOC

G/S

CAT III DUAL 025

180 160

020 10

10

140

015 00 120

10 100

IJS 109.1

10

010 10

30.10 QNH


SPD

LOC

G/S

CAT III DUAL

180

020

160

10

10

140

015 00 120

010 10

10

100

IJS 109.1

10

30.10 QNH


SPD

LOC

G/S

CAT III DUAL

180

020

160

10

10

140

015 00

120

010 10

10

100

IJS 109.1

10

30.10 QNH


SPD

LOC

G/S

CAT III DUAL

180

020

160

10

10

140

015 00

120

010 10

10

100

IJS 109.1

10

30.10 QNH


SPD

LOC

G/S

180

CAT III DUAL 020

160

10

10

140

015 00

120

010 10

10

100

10

005 IJS 109.1

30.10 QNH


SPD

LOC

G/S

CAT III DUAL

180 160

10

10

140

015 00

120

010 10

10

100

005 IJS 109.1

30.10 QNH

10


SPD

LOC

G/S

CAT III DUAL

180 160

10

10

015

140

00 010

120

10 100

IJS 109.1

10

005 30.10 QNH

10


SPD

LOC

G/S

CAT III DUAL

180 160

015 10

10

140

010 00 120

10 100

IJS 109.1

10

005 10

30.10 QNH


SPD

LOC

G/S

CAT III DUAL

180 160

015 10

10

140

010 00 120

100

10

10

005 10

IJS 109.1

30.10 QNH


SPD

LOC

G/S

CAT III DUAL

180 160

015 10

10

140

010 00 120

100

10

10

005 10

IJS 109.1

30.10 QNH


SPD

LOC

G/S

CAT III DUAL

180

015 160

10

10

140

010 00

120

005 10

10 10

100

IJS 109.1

30.10 QNH


SPD

LOC

G/S

CAT III DUAL

180

015 160

10

10

010

140

00 120

005 10

10 10

100

IJS 109.1

30.10 QNH


SPD

LOC

G/S

CAT III DUAL

180

160

10

10

010 140

00 005

120

10

10 10

100 IJS 109.1

000 30.10 QNH


SPD

LOC

G/S

CAT III DUAL 015

180

160

10

10

010

140

00 005

120

10

10 10

100 IJS 109.1

000 30.10 QNH


SPD

LOC

G/S

CAT III DUAL

180

160

10

10

010

00

140

005 120

10

10

000 IJS 109.1

30.10 QNH

10


SPD

LOC

G/S

CAT III DUAL

180 180

160

10

10

00

140

120

010

005

10

10

000

IJS 109.1

30.10 QNH

10


SPD

LOC

G/S

CAT III DUAL

180 180

10

10

010

160

00 005

140

120

IJS 109.1

10

10

000

30.10 QNH

10


SPD

LOC

G/S

CAT III DUAL

180 180

10

10

010

160

005

00

140

10 120

IJS 109.1

10

000

30.10 QNH

10


SPD

LOC

G/S

CAT III DUAL

180 180

010 10

10

160

005

00

140

10

10

000

120

IJS 109.1

30.10 QNH

10


SPD

LOC

G/S

CAT III DUAL

180

180

010 10

10

160

005 00

140

10

10

000 10

120 IJS 109.1

30.10 QNH


SPD

LOC

G/S

CAT III DUAL

180

180

010 10

10

160

005 00

140

10

10

000 10

120 IJS 109.1

30.10 QNH


SPD

LOC

G/S

CAT III DUAL

180 200

CAUTION 010 180

10

10

005 00

160

140

10

10

000 10

120 IJS 109.1

30.10 QNH


SPD

LOC

G/S

CAT III DUAL

180 200

CAUTION 010 180

10

10

005 00

160

140

10

10

000 10

IJS 109.1

30.10 QNH


SPD

LOC

G/S

CAT III DUAL

180 200

CAUTION 10

010 10

180

005 00 160

140

10

10

000 10

IJS 109.1

30.10 QNH


SPD

LOC

G/S

CAT III DUAL

180

CAUTION

010

200

10

10

180

005 00

160

10

10

000 10

140

IJS 109.1

30.10 QNH


SPD

LOC

G/S

CAT III DUAL

180

CAUTION 200

10

010 10

005

180

160

10

10

00

000 10

140 IJS 109.1

30.10 QNH


SPD

LOC

G/S

CAT III DUAL

180

CAUTION 200

10

010 10

005

180

160

10

10

00

000 10

140 IJS 109.1

30.10 QNH


SPD

LOC

G/S

CAT III DUAL

180

010

WARNING 200

10

10

005 00

180

000

160

10

10 10

140 IJS 109.1

30.10 QNH


SPD

LOC

G/S

CAT III DUAL

180

010

WARNING 200

10

10

005 00

180

000

160

10

10 9

140 IJS 109.1

30.10 QNH


SPD

LOC

G/S

CAT III DUAL

180

WARNING 200

10

010 10

005 180

160

10

10

00

000 8

140 IJS 109.1

30.10 QNH


THR

TOGA

TOGA

CAT III DUAL 015

180

WARNING 010 200

10

10

005 00

180

160

10

10

000

140 IJS 109.1

30.10 QNH

7


THR

TOGA

TOGA

CAT III DUAL 015

180

WARNING 010 200

10

10

005 00

180

160

10

10

6

000

140 IJS 109.1

30.10 QNH


THR

TOGA

TOGA

CAT III DUAL

200 180

WARNING 200

10

010 10

005 00

180

160

5

10

10

000

140 IJS 109.1

30.10 QNH


THR

TOGA

TOGA

CAT III DUAL

200 180

WARNING 200

10

010 10

005 00

180

4

160

10

10

000

140 IJS 109.1

30.10 QNH


THR

TOGA

TOGA

CAT III DUAL

180

WARNING

010

200

10

10

180

005 00 3

160

10

10

000

140 IJS 109.1

30.10 QNH


THR

TOGA

TOGA

CAT III DUAL

180

WARNING 200

010 10

10

180

005 00 1

160

10

10

000

140

IJS 109.1

30.10 QNH


THR

TOGA

TOGA

CAT III DUAL

180

WARNING 200

10

10

010 2

180

00 005 160

10 140

IJS 109.1

10

000 30.10 QNH


THR

TOGA

TOGA

CAT III DUAL

180

WARNING

200

10

10

010 3

180

00 005

160

10 140

IJS 109.1

10

000 30.10 QNH


THR

TOGA

TOGA

CAT III DUAL

180

WARNING

200

10

10

010

4

180

00 160

005 10

10

140

000 IJS 109.1

30.10 QNH


THR

TOGA

TOGA

CAT III DUAL

180 200

WARNING 10

10

5

010

180

00 160

005 140

10

10

000 IJS 109.1

30.10 QNH


THR

TOGA

TOGA

CAT III DUAL

180 200

180

WARNING 10

6

10

010 00

160

005 140

10

10

000 IJS 109.1

30.10 QNH


THR

TOGA

TOGA

CAT III DUAL

180 200

015

WARNING

7

180

10

10

010 00

160

005 140

10

10

000 IJS 109.1

30.10 QNH


THR

TOGA

TOGA

CAT III DUAL

180 200

WARNING 180

10

015

9

10

010 00

160

140

IJS 109.1

005 10

10

30.10 QNH


THR

TOGA

TOGA

CAT III DUAL

180

WARNING

10

015

180

10

10

010

160

140

10

IJS 109.1

10

00

005

30.10 QNH


SPD

LOC

G/S

025 CAT III DUAL

180 10

WARNING 180

10

10

015

160

010 00 140

10

IJS 109.1

10

005

30.10 QNH


Phase 2 – Focus Groups

“Did we get it right” If Not – What are some of the challenges we missed or could improve on


Phase 3 – High Fidelity


Phase 3 – High Fidelity


Questions?

Doug Glussich  

Doug Glussich UNIVERSITY OF WATERLOO @ drglussi@uwaterloo.ca S ti Fli htd k D i i M ki ti Fli htd k D i i M ki Supporting Flightdeck Decisio...

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