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FA15_SP17 COLLECTANEA


FA15_SP17 A15_SP17 COLLECTANEA COLLECT COLLEC TANEA COLLECTED COLLEC TED WORKS W OF Ashley Ashl Morgan gan Hastings Has M.Arch ch I Candidate Candidat


PERSONAL STATEMENT

It is both exciting and terrifying when one sits down with her own work. It is one thing to have strangers’ eyes on what has been pinned up on the wall, to have a jury of knowns and unknowns come together to critique and praise one’s efforts that have been labored on tirelessly ad ininitum, but it is another thing entirely to sit quietly, singularly, and with only one’s own thoughts, accummulated tales, and feelings. I would argue that the latter environment is much more daunting, but perhaps maybe even all the more rewarding. Personal growth that results from not only endless hours of physical and mental labor, but also from the moments of relection and sometimes painful jab of hindsight becomes exponentially valuable, especially when in the throes of a graduate education. While it has not been an easy or well-deined path thus far (nor would I want it to be such), my experience over the last two years of my architectural education has far surpassed any of my expectations. I continue to set higher and sometimes not-yetattainable goals for myself -- some that I can see immediately, and others that show themselves as subliminal manifestations of an overarching greater purpose. I constantly seek out the most eficient and disciplined order of things, though ironically I am not always able to execute in this manner. Yet. I believe in persistence, integrity, and excellence as core values in my personal and architectural endeavors, and see these same values being practiced in the industry, which helps me to realize that while it is often wrought with obstacles and frustration, the road I am on does in fact lead me home, and joyfully I see that that home is not a ixed place, but one that exists ephemerally around the world. My interests lie in the architecture of The City, developing its infrastructure, and beginning to interlace my core values with the design of the urban environment at large. From Making + Meaning during the summer of 2015 til now, I see myself and my work as having grown exponentially and, as hindsight is accustomed to do, moreso than I would realize or acknowledge at the time it is occurring. I am grateful to be in an environment that encourages rebellion and welcomes a challenge, as well as one that still maintains a deep lineage (albeit a distant link) to classical practice and pedagogy. I hope that the evolution of my work and abilities will be well-depicted in these pages, and well-remembered as I continue down the gauntlet, and into my inal year and thesis. Left: Cellular Automata (CA) code affecting frame from video of me shaking my head Photo Credit: Alessio Grancini

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CONTENTS ` REFLECTIONS BIG DUMB BUILDINGS: BLOCK PARTY EXCEPTIONAL VOLUMES DIPTYCHS + DUPLEXES ELEMENTS OF SPACE

3 7 39 71 97

THE ONE, TWO PUNCH ADVANCED CODING OTHER WORLDS TYPOGRAPHY: CONSTRUCTION + COMBINATION SMOKE: EXPANDING ON EXTRUDED GEOMETRY

119 139 155 167 177

DESIGN DEVELOPMENT ENVIRONMENTAL SYSTEMS II ENVIRONMENTAL SYSTEMS I MATERIALS + TECTONICS

187 199 207 219

TOMOGRAPHIC FIGURES

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HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE + URBANISM ARCHITECTURE CULTURE II ARCHITECTURE CULTURE I INTRODUCTION TO CONTEMPORARY ARCHITECTURE

237 241 247 253


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DESIGN STUDIO

SPRING_17 BIG DUMB BUILDINGS: BL OCK P PARTY BLOCK INSTRUC INSTRUCTORS er Trummer T Peter Andr Zago Andrew o Diaz-Granados Diaz-Gr Ramiro Emmett Zeifman

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DESIGN STUDIO

The following studies look at how the city of Los Angeles is affected by its two most important infrastructural aspects: its public transit, most speciically, the Gold Line, and its freeways. Both the freeway and Metro systems are historically rooted within the city and, while growth has often been slow to occur, serve as the most iconic and integral parts of how the city was formed and how it will continue to develop. Los Angeles’ freeway system began construction during the 1940s when the country was beginning to connect states and make travel and passage more acccessible and more eficient for all Americans, in both the public and private sectors. The development of these systems over time has caused signiicant impact on the city itself, both in regards to how it develops its population and how the population helps to develop the city. By analyzing and understanding these relationships, we are better equipped to propose projects that will positively impact the city at large, as well as take into consideration the future development of the urban environment on a global scale. Our studio project seeks to successfully integrate itself within the city’s infrastructure while also creating its own, occupying approximately three million gross square feet along the Los Angeles River, the city’s third most important infrastructural asset and one that is currently undergoing redevelopment. The building’s relationship to our site along the river, also looks at the relationship to the surrounding freeways and Gold Line, which cuts directly through the middle of the proposed site.

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1

A

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3 B

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7 C

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14 16 15

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DESIGN STUDIO

Left: Plan of Los Angeles + the Metro Gold Line

HISTORY

DATA •

LENGTH: 31 Miles

Daily ridership: 50,087 (July 2016 average weekday)

WIDTH: 2 tracks (one each way with Stanard track gauge (4’-8 1/2”)

HEIGHT: 2 subway stations, 17 atgrade stations, 8 elevated stations (rails approximately 21’-0” above ground)

Mostly at-grade in private right-of-way, with some street-running, elevated, and underground sections

Currently serving 27 stations in LA County, with additional ocnnections proposed to San Bernardino County

NOTABLE SITES 1

HIGHLAND PARK STATION

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2

SOUTHWEST MUSEUM

10 LITTLE TOKYO/ARTS

3

HERITAGE SQUARE

11 PICO/ALISO STATION

4

LINCOLN/CYPRESS STATION

12 LA COUNTY + USC MEDICAL

5

ELYSIAN PARK

6

DODGER STADIUM

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CHINATOWN

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UNION STATION (CONNECT HERE FOR BLUE, RED, PURPLE LINES, AMTRAK, METROLINK

DISTRICT STATION

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1885: Original right-of-way tracks through the San Gabriel Valley built for the LA and SGV Railroad, later becoming the California Central Railway

1889: CCR is sold and consolidated into the Southern California Railway

1906: The SCR is sold to Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe Railway -becomes known as the Pasadena and Los Angeles Electric Railway, that then becomes known as the Paciic Electric Railway Red Car Line

1990: First metro line -- the Blue Line -- introduced

1993: LA’s irst heavy rail line -- the Red Line -- opens connecting North Hollywood with Union Station

1995: The Green Line makes its debut running from Redondo Beach to Norwalk

2003: The Gold Line opens, connecting Pasadena with Downtown and parts of East Los Angeles

2006: LA’s other heavy rail line -- the Purple Line -- begins operation, running from Union Station to Wilshire/Western

2012: A momentous occasion -- the Expo Line now connects Downtown Los Angeles with the Westside

2016: The Gold Line Foothill extension is completed -- the previous terminus of Sierra Madre Villa has been extended east to Azusa Paciic University and Citrus College

2016: The Expo Line opens its remaining Westside stations -passengers can now use Metro to go from Downtown Los Angeles to Santa Monica

2016: Voters approved Measure M, a half-cent sales tax increase to fund transportation projects, including Metro Rail expansion

2019: The Crenshaw/LAX Line will connect passengers to Los Angeles International Airport

2020: The Regional Connector will create a more seamless connection between the Blue, Gold, and Expo Lines

2023: Phase One of the Purple Line extension will put Metro further into the Westside, reaching La Cienega Blvd by way of Wilshire Blvd

CENTER

13 SOTO STATION 14 INDIANA STATION

2

15 ATLANTIC STATION (TERMINUS)

16 GOLD LINE GARAGE

LEGEND

SCALE: .75” = 1 MILE 0

DOWNTOWN LOS ANGELES

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Metro Gold Line

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ENLARGED PLAN A

SCALE: 1” = 100’-0”

SECTION THROUGH N FIGUEROA STREET IN MOUNT WASHINGTON

ENLARGED PLAN B

SCALE: 1” = 100’-0”

SECTION THROUGH GOLD LINE AT LA RIVER

ENLARGED PLAN C

SCALE: 1” = 100’-0”

SECTION THROUGH GOLD LINE AT CHINATOWNN STATION


DESIGN STUDIO

SCALE: 1” = 50’-00”

SCALE: 1” = 50’-00”

SCALE: 1” = 50’-00”

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10 B 15 12

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DESIGN STUDIO

Left: Plan of Los Angeles + its Freeways

DATA

HISTORY

LENGTH: 527 miles (total within Los Angeles County)

WIDTH: 78’ TO 132’

HEIGHT: 13’-4” TO 14’-0”

Longest freeway sections in Los Angeles County include:

1895: Bureau of Highways created

1912: First state highway construction contract was awarded and signed -- this marked the beginning of construction of Highway 1, El Camino Real

I-10: Santa Monica (W) to Claremont (E) -- 47.13 miles

US-101: I-5 Interchange (S) to Westlake Village (N) -- 37.54 miles

1937: State Route 1 -- also known as the Paciic Coast Highway -completed

1940: The irst freeway in the Western United States, the Arroyo Seco Parkway, is opened -- it connects Los Angeles and Pasadena and runs alongside the Arroyo Seco river

1947: Comprehensive freeway plan produced for the city of Los Angeles, with major construction set to begin in the 1950s

1956: President Dwight D. Eisenhower signed the Federal Aid Highway Act of 1956 -- enabling the federal government to supply 90% of funding for interstate highways

1973: The California Department of Transportation (Caltrans) was formed

1990: A State Master Plan for Transportation is created, with a focus on redusing trafic congestion and an emphasis on increasing other public transit services instead of adding more freeways

2004: With only 61% of the original freeway master plan complete at this time, Los Angeles continues to experience problematic bottlenecks and excessive trafic

2015: Caltrans releases its 2015-2020 Strategic Management Plan, dedicated to increasing performace, eficiency, and innovation while considering sustainability and all modes of transportation

I-5: La Mirada (S) to Frazier Park (N) -- 87.36 miles

I/SR-110: San Pedro (S) to Pasadena (N) -- 31.91 miles I-405: Long Beach (S) to Los Angeles (N) -- 48.64 miles

NOTABLE SITES 1

FROGTOWN

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2

HIGHLAND PARK

10 LOS ANGELES CONVENTION

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MOUNT WASHINGTON

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MONTECITO HEIGHTS

5

CHINATOWN

6

ECHO PARK

7

SILVER LAKE

14 ARTS DISTRICT

8

WALT DISNEY CONCERT HALL

15 BOYLE HEIGHTS

STAPLES CENTER CENTER

11 MACARTHUR PARK 12 UNIVERSITY OF SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA

13 NATURAL HISTORY MUSEUM

16 EAST LOS ANGELES

SCALE: .75” = 1 MILE 0

1

2

LEGEND 3

Major Freeways

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ENLARGED PLAN A

SCALE: 1” = 100’-0”

SECTION THROUGH SR-110 AND METROLINK RAIL AT LA RIVER

ENLARGED PLAN B

SCALE: 1” = 100’-0”

SECTION THROUGH I-10 AND SR-60 AT LA RIVER

ENLARGED PLAN C

SCALE: 1” = 100’-0”

SECTION THROUGH I-710 AT LA RIVER TRENCH


DESIGN STUDIO

SCALE: 1” = 50’-00”

SCALE: 1” = 50’-00”

SCALE: 1” = 50’-00”

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DESIGN STUDIO

Left: Physical scale model of Universal Headquarters proposal (Credit: OMA) Below: Space planning proposals for typical loor plan (Credit: OMA)

Buildings create relationships as objects within (typically) an urban context. In this studio, we were tasked with introducing a massive entity into a highly developed industrial zone speckled with residential and commercial zoning plots. The method of drop a large mass onto a site requires extensive analysis and undertsanding behind just what makes a building BIG. In addition to their size, our projects were required to be a bit DUMB. This description can take on any number of meanings per deinition, and each would be relevant in its own way. The idea behind a dumb building could literally be one that does not ‘speak’ in terms of its contextual relationship with the surrounding urban environment. Or, the building could be ‘stupid’, in that it does nothing special and is simply a mass witout ‘smart’ design moves or aesthetic. Finally, the building could be understood to be ‘ridiculous’, where the actuality of the gigantic building simply becomes hilarious in terms of its relationship to the city and its people who begin to constantly ask ‘how did it get here in the irst place?’ In our precedent research, we undertook the analysis of approximately 100 buildings in order to better understand what it means to be BIG and DUMB. Two buildings I researched were: OMA’s proposal for a new headquarters for MCA, Inc., a multimedia, production, and theme park conglommerate that also included Seagram’s, a well-known liquor distributor; and Le Corbusier’s proposal for a hospital in Venice, Italy. Each of these buildings suggested loor areas greater than 500,000sf, but each had its own unique relationship with the ground in relation to the site -- the Universal Headquarters was to cut into the hillside in Studio City, California, and Corbusier’s hospital began on land and rested on pilotis over the water in Venice. Both proposals addressed speciic programming requirements, but also explored the opportunities for open planning and loor-speciic layouts. While neither project was built, each serves as a prime example of how effective a big, dumb building could be. Due to their relevant size and volumetric capability, these buildings become cities within the city itself. Whether mixed-use or programmatically rigid, each of these proposals successfully demontrates how the building can become more than just an object.v

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DESIGN STUDIO

Left: Program diagram of Fourth Floor Plan, Venice Hospital proposal by Le Corbusier

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DESIGN STUDIO

From Left to Right: Centre Pompidou (Rogers, Piano), Grand Central Station (Reed + Stem), Universal Headquarters (OMA), Freie Universität (Candilis, Josic, Woods + Schiedhelm), Venice Hospital (Le Corbusier), Vanke Center (Steven Holl). Diagramming to understand relationships -- massing, circulation, ground

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SITE BOUNDARY

CIRCULATION

MASSING

GROUP A

24 GROUP B COMBINATION


DESIGN STUDIO

Above: Diagram proposal of new generic Left: New Generic diagrams -- exploration in combining aspects of massing, circulation + ground

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DESIGN STUDIO

Utilizing the new generic as a point of departure for my building design, I was most interested in the abundance of courtyards often associated with mat buildings, like Le Corbusier’s Venice Hospital. Mat buildings are low, lat, and expansive buildings that focus around circulation, and often have a signiicant relationship between inside and outside spaces. Referencing two of my favorite projects -- van Eyck’s Amsterdam Orphanage and Hertzberger’s Centraalbeheer -- I examined how corridors and courtyards impact these spaces. I n the instance of Corbusier’s hospital, for example, the corridors create void spaces within a volume with occupiable massing occuring on either side of the corridor. My proposal looks at the opposite -- instead utilizing the corridors as occupiable space that links massings together. The courtyards instead of being circulated around, are void space that are now circulated through by way of the corridor, or bridge. The corridors serve as a connection between inside and outside space, going into buildings and creating entryways into open plans. In his work, Aldo van Eyck observed the aesthetics of number and interval. Understanding how units of three or four connect together and introduce new types of linked spaces creates a powerful and endless array of cellular units. The building eventually becomes a type of city, simply by multiplying and making connections in either threes or fours. In the diagram to the left, each loof the ive-story proposal is shown. Odd-numbered loors are depicted as a conventional courtyard typology -- solid square with inner square removed -- whereas the even-numbered loors are shifted, but still align with the grid in a new way. This creates a different type of space and relationship to the courtyards scattered throughout the building. In addition to the courtyards and corridors, the third signiicant element of this proposal utilizes columns, or piloti similar to Corbusier’s hospital. The building is raised off the ground and elevated away from the urban fabric, but also developing a new connection with the metro line which crosses directly through the center of the expansive mat building. This new typology acknowledges the urban environment and its infrastructural implications. While the columns become excessive and over-played, there arises a new polemic dealing with the politics of the ground and surrounding neighborhood, though the original intent was more utopian at its foundation. Above: Floor diagram depicting all loors as composite, relationship of intervals Left: Project inspiration from Aldo van Eyck’s Amsterdam Orphanage + Herman Hertzberger’s Centraal Beheergebouw

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Below: Programming diagrams -- all loors combined, then separated by program type

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DESIGN STUDIO

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DESIGN STUDIO

Above: Diagrammatic rendering of building and surrounding massings (purple), circulation (orange), and ground (green)

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DESIGN STUDIO

First Floor Plan, 1:1600

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DESIGN STUDIO

Cross Section, 1:500

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DESIGN STUDIO

Left: Plan view of 1:2000 scale model on site Photo Credit: Ashley Hastings

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DESIGN STUDIO

FALL_16 ALL_16 CEPTIONAL VOLUMES VOLUMES EXCEPTIONAL INSTRUC INSTRUCTORS W Devyn Weiser Jenny Wu sell Thomsen Russell Kris Balliet Kristy STUDENT TEAM Alcorn Melanie Al Hastings Ashley ey Has

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DESIGN STUDIO

The idea of exceptional volumes proposes a challenge in its objective ability to be utterly vague and improbable to deine. What makes a volume exceptional? What makes anything exceptional? The mission here was to analyze and understand what it means to deine an object (or its voided counterpart) as being something not only noteworthy, but also aesthetically interesting and beautiful. In our design, we irst began by researching the Marbeuf Garage in Paris, an early twentieth-century showroom for CitroĂŤn that, unfortunately has since been renovated, though the interior maintains its original character. That was what we sought to do -- develop a building with character, or characters that would deine the spaces within this mixeduse commercial building. The volumes we introduced acted as solid iniltrators, ghostly voids, and hybrid piercings through which the building would react accordingly. Beginning with Marbeuf and ending with personality, we followed a path that helped us to deine our own style and approach to creating something exceptional

Left: Axonometric diagram depicting four volumetric elements introduced in our project

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Precedent Study: Marbeuf Garage Laprade and Bazin Paris, 1929

With the allure of the automobile piquing the interest of consumers around the world, the Citroën showroom erected on Rue Marbeuf in Paris drew new drivers in with its fullheight glass façade. Passersby could marvel not only at the newest models by the hottest French carmaker, but also at the architectural illusion of stacked, floating floors and inwardly-tiered floorplan designed by architects Albert Laprade and Léon-Emile Bazin.

The impressive transparency offered by the sixty-foot glass front elevation invited people to look into a space that seemed to recede infinitely, displaying scores of cars on each floor. Combining modern structure– steel columns, thick concrete floor plates–with a simple, stepped floor arrangement, Laprade and Bazin created an open space for circulation that also yielded a significant, implied volumetric form. Front Elevation

Exterior

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Interior


DESIGN STUDIO

Below: 90 Degree Axonometric, from below

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DESIGN STUDIO

Left: 90 Degree Axonometric, from above Below: Gridded Impact on Reverse Stacked Volume

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DESIGN STUDIO

Left: Gridded Imprint on Stacked Volume Below: Various iterations of formal exploration

(a) Axonometric, Distorted floor plate with extended and intersected pilotis

(b) Axonometric, Mirrored and distorted floor plate

(c) Axonometric, Distorted floor plate with slender extended intersection

(d) Axonometric, Mirrored and distorted floor

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DESIGN STUDIO

Left: Axonometric Extended pilotis Below: Comination of both techniques

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Site History HISTORY: 1906 EARTHQUAKE, FIRE, AND REBUILDING

NEIGHBORHOOD: FINANCIAL DISTRICT

Our site is located between 141 and 145 2nd Street in San Francisco’s Financial District, at the southwest end of the current $4 billion Transbay Transit Center project. The buildings situated on this block were all built in the wake of the devastating earthquake of 1906, one that practically razed parts of the city with its 7.7-7.9 magnitude, and damaged gas lines, causing them to rupture and water mains to break. The resulting destruction led to a four-day fire that burned whatever had not been destroyed during the earthquake.

During the late 1890s, the Financial District was home to the west coast’s first skyscrapers: the Chronicle Building and the Call Building (now the Central Tower); having survived the 1906 earthquake and fire, the two towering buildings served as prime examples of the resilience of large steel-framed structures. Prior to the Great Depression, there was an uptick in construction of high-rise buildings which included the Merchants Exchange Building, Humbolt Bank Building, Hobart Building, Standard Oil Building, Russ Building, Hunter-Dulin Building, Shell Building and Southern Pacific Building.

Damage calculated during that time was around $450 million -- somewhere between $8 and $10 billion today. The city suffered incredible loss, but out of the ashes and rubble came an era of rebuilding and urban revolution.

Statewide height restrictions and economic constraints brought on by the Depression yielded a slowing in the development of highrise buildings. The San Francisco Financial District would not see a resurgence of skyscraper construction until the late 1950s, wherein another high-rise boom would continue until the the late 70s. Labeled the “Manhattanization” of San Francisco’s Financial District, the rapid expansion of high-rise construction prompted local legislation to instill a city-wide height restriction on building construction in 1985. Due to the stringent rules on building height, most new high-rise construction and development was pushed to South of Market (SoMa) near the Transbay Terminal, and it still impacts the location of new construction to this day.

Above: Mission Street at 7th Street, Past and Present Right, Top and Bottom: Third Street at Minna Street, 1929 + 2016, Powell at O’Farrell, 1964 + 2016

HISTORY: ORIGINAL TRANSBAY TERMINAL On the precipice of global change, when global relationships were tenuous at best, the City of San Francisco ushered into existence a new idea of how communities could be connected instead of divided. The first Transbay Terminal was completed in 1939, just three years after the monumental Bay Bridge opened its roads and rails to the public. The Bay Bridge debuted two levels on which commuters could travel -the upper deck was allocated in both directions to automobiles, while the lower deck ran rail lines and allowed freight trucks. Serving as a toll road, the bridge collected money each day from drivers at a rate of $0.50 per automobile (approximately $7.75 per automobile today). These funds helped to pay for the construction of the original Transbay Terminal. As the primary transit hub in Northern California, the Transbay serviced the Bay Area and helped to facilitate connections to the rest of California as the state continued to grow at exponential rates after the Gold Rush years in the late 19th century, and well into the 20th century. Built to accommodate approximately 35 million passengers annually, the terminal could handle up to 17,000 commuters every twenty minutes at peak commuting times.

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DESIGN STUDIO

Live Journal NextSpace Coworking FitBit

Retargeter

Fraenkel Gallery

Albers Gallery

OpenTable

Zipcar Wikimedia Foundation Museum of the LinkedIn SF MOMA African Diaspora

Legend

Legend

Tech Company Art Institutions Site

Contemporary Jewish Museum Yelp Yerba Buena

100’ 120’ 150’ 250’ 300’ 340’ 350’

400’ 450’ 500’ 700’ 850’ 1000’ Site + TTC

Rackspace

Quantcast

Neighborhood Technology + Arts Citizen Space

Building Height Restrictions Above Left: Closeup of site and nearby tech companies Left: Larger mapped area, including Financial District and SoMa Above Right: Zoning map showing height restrictions of buildings Below: Graphic depiction of future buildings in the neighborhood

SITE SELECTION FOR PACE GALLERY + LINE

Legend Tech Company Site

Developmental Map: Emerging Tech Scene PROPOSAL: GRAND CENTRAL OF THE WEST In 2008, the proposal for a new Transbay Transit Center -- located across from the northeast façade of our site -- was issued in an effort to revitalize the Financial District and surrounding neighborhoods and reconnect San Franciscans in a more efficient, more effective way with Northern California, as well as the rest of the state. With the issue of High Speed Rail on the dockets and in the polls, the proposal for connecting San Francisco to Los Angeles and Southern California was now a more an important issue than ever in terms of recreating a culture of mass transit.

Nestled in the center of San Francisco’s Financial District, Line is a multinational tech company aimed at connecting people globally via a text messaging application. Having outperformed its startup status, Line is growing exponentially and requires a work environment reflective of its young, creative culture and is a great fit to this neighborhood. Innovation and culture envelope the site by way of the Academy of Art Institute and Yerba Buena Center for the Arts. The surrounding neighborhood is dotted with innumerable small, private galleries and massive public collections in museums like SF MoMA, making the Pace Gallery an excellent addition. Teamed with Line in our building, these two companieswill create more jobs and influence the growing urban landscape. Not only will Line’s presence affect the tech scene, but it will also prove to boost the local economy and serve as a point of interest, adjacent to the new Transbay Transit Center.

Estimated to accommodate upwards of 45 million passengers annually, the Transbay Transit Center will also be transforming a diverse mix of areas within the surrounding neighborhoods by offering services outside of transportation. Responding to San Francisco’s long history of surging demand for affordable housing 2,600 new homes will be built -- 35% of which will be affordable, affecting the local population by finally supplying some solutions to the high rent housing issue. A variety of townhouses, low- and mid-rise units, and tower units will be built in the area in order to accommodate a wider range of income levels and household sizes.

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DESIGN STUDIO

Left: Site Plan

Our precedent study was on the Marbeuf Garage, designed by architects Albert Laprade and Leon Bazin and built in 1929. The garage served as a showroom for French carmaker, Citroën and featured a six-story loor-to-ceiling open space with each loor loating and inwardly receding back toward the core. The tiered orientation of the stacked loor plates created an illusionary effect, one that elicits intrigue among passersby. Highlighting Laprade and Bazin’s vision for introducing simple construction methods to elicit big, seemingly impossible moves, we explored how the solid/void relationship in the space could create new volumes. The original showroom was an open, six story-high unencumbered space. This void was illed by the loating loor plates, following a tiered, recessed line, drawn from the glass windows at the front, to the core located at the back of the building. Additionally, we distorted the void between the loor plates, again looking at scale, as well as methods of intersection to yield new forms. The resulting allusions to ‘pilotis’ were then extended to create an illusion, referencing the ‘ininite’ view inward. In an effort to explore additional solid/void relationships, our approach depicts three ways in which voids became solid volumes, and then carved out new void spaces by either crashing into or growing out of our building envelope. We also integrated half of the original stepped form as two options for the envelope itself – the third option uses a simple, rectilinear form. The two stepped versions show us how the building can interact with the ground, as well as the Transbay Terminal next door.

Our that void The

building extends twelve stories, with three volumes interrupt the building envelope and either carve out spaces or create protrusions seen from the outside. total loor area is approximately 150,000 square feet.

The LINE ofices occupy approximately 30% of the total loor area between loors seven and twelve. The Pace Gallery is located between loors three and six, so the public can engage the building in this way. The void spaces created by our volumes guide circulation once on the third loor and higher – creating atria type spaces in these areas. Entry to the building is at ground level, located through a massive cutout created in the building envelope, located off of Second Street. Cores were placed in the center of the primary space of the building in order to maximize given loor area, as well as maintain utilization of the surrounding perimeter of the building. Maintaining our stepped approach and diagram, and also integrating the illusionary effects set forth by our precedent study, the focal points of the building reside in the forms that are most visible from either side, Second Street or from the Transbay Terminal. These movements in the building provide points of interest for commuters, while the envelope – we’re proposing a metal mesh for most of the envelope, while the primary volumes utilize a polycarbonate panel that provide translucency – maintaining company privacy by stepping away, inwardly recessing back toward 2nd Street. Ultimately, upon entry, employees and gallery attendees will appreciate the special moments created by the original stepped parti.

Our choice is for exploring an idea of the reversed step form – its relationship with the ground elicits a curiosity with how the building stands, as well as how it moves. As the voids appear to have emerged from solid volumes that crashed through the centroid of the building, the resulting atria, outdoor spaces and views created vary from loor to loor.

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1-3

1-2

UP

1-1

Ground Floor Plan

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DESIGN STUDIO

5-2

DN

5-1

Typical Floor Plan -- PACE Gallery

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10-3

10-2

10-1

Typical Floor Plan -- LINE Ofices

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DESIGN STUDIO

Left: Typical loor plan, LINE ofices Below: Programming diagram

Cores 1 + 2

Floor 12

Floors 8-11

Floors 4-7

Floors 1-3

Underground Floors 1-2

Underground Floors 3-4

Public Areas / Restaurant LINE OfďŹ ces / Auditorium PACE Gallery / Exhibition Area Infrastructure / Technology Ground Level Core Underground Parking

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DESIGN STUDIO

FAÇADE PROPOSAL Our design included the use of a polycarbonate panel system. This type of envelope provides excellent insulating properties, is useful in controlling an ample amount of daylight -- and with unencumbered perimeters, natural daylighting is not a problem, even on the north façades. The use of color in the volumetric elements occurs consistently within each panel, as the panel system may be customized by dyeing the plastic polymer during manufacturing. PIXELS Three levels of gradated panels serve to both aesthetically create a pixelated effect, as well as propose areas of natural ventilation and operable apertures within and around the building. The gradient visualized by the panels also creates varied levels of translucency, playing with the effects of natural daylight, as well as depicting an array of phenomenal transparency.

Left: Front Elevation of building on site

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DESIGN STUDIO

Our building responded to the problem of extraordinary volumes presented in studio this semester through the addition of programmable space by the subtraction of mass. The removal of speciic areas of the building produces new volumes that both impact the inhabitation of the building, as well as the overall aesthetic. This was an evolution of our precedent study, the Marbeuf Garage. This project focused on the removal of one big chunk creating a central atrium -- we wanted to address this singular move and instead create multiple in order to better adapt to the urban setting in San Francisco. The method of taking one volume and manipulating it in multiple ways was a successful reinterpretation of this early modern approach. As a result, we experience the addition of programmable and occupiable space based on the subtraction of mass. In developing our own deinition of ‘exceptional’, we characterized the volumes that we introduced to our building mass. Each provided its own personality in its effect on the space: The Iceberg -- located at ground level, the Iceberg is only partially understood upon entering the building. It can best be seen in section, where half of the void space created is above ground, and half of it is below (resulting in the creation of the auditorium space). The Ghost -- located in the main atrium space, the Ghost is a void, open area that can only be experienced and not seen. It is an implied volume, that adds a signiicant amount of circulation space to the PACE gallery levels. The Spear -- when viewing the building from Second Street, the Spear occurs on the left side of the building. Its effect is twofold, in that it creates a physical addition to the exterior side of the building by pushing it out, while also creating an additional outdoor atrium space in the middle of the building. The Key -- located on the right side of the building near the top, the key subtracts massing from the building and replaces it with outdoor terrace space, accessible from the top loors.

Left: Perspective rendering of building on site

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Aluminum Round Sq uare Extrud ed Grid System

Polycarb onate Panel System - Comp onents: Extrud ed Aluminum Channels Neop rene Gaskets 40mm Cellular Structrual Polycarb onate Panel

Floor System - Comp onents: Sustainab le Flooring Material Vap or Barrier Plywood Sub oor Concrete Poured Slab Metal Comp osite Deck Wid e Flang e Beams Metal Framing Resilient Channels (Acoustic Treatment) Acoustic Insulation Panel Drywall

Concrete Core (Semi-Rig id Shear Wall Desig n)

Above: Detailed view of building systems, removed portion of building Left: Perspective view of super chunk drawing

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Both Pages: Perspective views of 1/16� study model on site

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Both Pages: Front and Back views of 3/32� section model

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Both Pages: Perspective views of 3/32� section model

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SPRING_16 DIPTYCHS + DUPLEXES INSTRUCTORS Emmett Zeifman Margaret Grifin Alexis Rochas

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Above: Diagrammatic studies of columns and core elements in Maison Planeix

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From Left to Right: Ground Floor, Mezzanine, First Floor + Second Floor plans of Maison Planeix

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Above: Cross and Longitudinal Sections of Maison Planeix

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Above: Front + Back elevations of Maison Planeix

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Across both of these pages lay printed works created by Eduardo Chillida, a Basque sculptor and painter who uses broad strokes of brush and block, as well as using the idea of extrusion in his raw materialed sculptures. Black and white. Steel and concrete. Big intentions. Asymmetrical symmetries. Repetition. Inspiration. Beautifully simple moves. 80


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Above: Primary inspiration for the duplex project, by Eduardo Chillida Left: Various works by Eduardo Chillida

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Above: Front Elevation

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Ground Floor Plan

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Second Floor Plan

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Third Floor Plan

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Above: Longitudinal section

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Both Pages: Cross sections of duplex project


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Situated atop a simple plinth, elevated from the streets of Venice, California, I approached the design of this duplex with broad strokes, big moves, and a love of simple beauty. Chillida’s paintings propose relationships -- energies between forms, the idea of the diptych. The main painting that inspired me put two block-like figures together on a page, facing each other as solids with void in between. The void, painted black, serves as the only disruption within the tight envelope of the painting. My project became one that looked at this relationship, the energy between the blocks. An energy that moves and interacts, one that stretches. This stretching is physical, it creates experiences, and exaggerates the ideas of form. Both houses incorporate details that have been enlarged or enhanced, then tested in multiple ways. While seemingly compact, my duplex incorporates physical, metaphorical, and ideal methods of stretching.

PHYSICALLY -- internally, there is a form that flows through the building, created from an extrusion (a nod to Chillida’s sculptural forms). The form creates both solids and voids in the houses: massing of walls on the interior (solid); directing circulation passively (void). This ‘interior solid’ subtracted from the form creates an ‘exterior void’. All of this (inter)action with the original extruded form happens multiple times throughout both houses.

METAPHORICALLY -- blocks reaching toward the center, towards each other, never touching. The massing of the block-like forms at the center create a courtyard, a shared area; again, here stretching but never touching. The massing is experienced multiple times, through inhabitation of the volumes as well as interaction with them outside.

IDEALLY -- the repeated relief forms created from a twodimensional projection of the extruded mass. The idea of stretching continues in the realized consistency of windows, pathways on the plinth, in the stairways and handrails... Stretching. Interaction. Experience of these elements multiple times.

Left: Final model, duplex proposal Photo Credit: Ashley Hastings

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FALL_15 ELEMENTS OF SPACE INSTRUCTORS Jenny Wu Anna Neimark Constance Vale Matthew Au

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Below: ‘Smoke’ by Tony Smith Photo Credit: Ashley Hastings


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Above: Singular ‘cell’ in plan and elevation from original ‘Smoke’ sculpture by Tony Smith Left: Color study using Albers’ palette on expanded ‘Smoke’ 2D drawing

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Left: Expanded ‘Smoke’ paper model Photo Credit: Ashley Hastings

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Looking at the repeated forms from Smoke, two basic two-dimensional projections could be found in looking at the plan or elevation views of these shapes. The hexagon and the four square grid could be seen in all of these iterations -- through this study, we were challenged to understand how to look for different persepctives. When combined, multiple wireframes showed that their intersections, too, showed the same hexagon or grid projections. It is with this hybrid wireframe that we moved from line (or edge) to surface models, expanding our views and understanding.

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Left: Wireframe models Left: Line drawing projections of wireframe models

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Above: Combined surface model, wrapping + intertwining of surfaces Left: Paper surface models, exploring wrapping of surfaces

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Both Pages: Surface + color studies of paper models

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Arlington Ave

W Florence Ave

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In the beginning, there was a wireframe line drawing, created by two-dimensional projections that came from a repeated array of cells in a sculpture called Smoke. The process is always so dull, but the geometry is intriguing.

Van Ness Ave

Two separate conditions were made from surfaces that came together at edges, meeting softly yet intently. As a result, an interior volume was formed from the wrapping of surfaces, not fully solid, yet interacting enough to infer massing. The other surface model yielded an obvious exterior condition -an envelope that could cradle and house the interior volume. These models fit perfectly together, yet did not align. They overlapped in areas and fell short in others. They shared walls that built up double thicknesses. When together, though perfectly snug, still created a misalignment, a misreading of a corner conditions and made unique the interplay of all of the surfaces together. Ultimately, this interplay -- the interlocking volumes -- immediately affected the program of this building project: the Miriam Matthews Branch of the Hyde Park Library in Inglewood, California.

Left: Site plan

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Above: Ground and First loor plans

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Above: Longitudinal and cross section cuts

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Above: Final section model, library proposal Photo Credit: Ashley Hastings

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SPRING_17 TWO PUNCH THE ONE, TWO INSTRUC INSTRUCTOR Kris Balliet Kristy

STUDENT TEAM W Wendy Cox ey Hastings Has Ashley

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It happens often in architecture that we become obsessed with the exterior and learn to focus the majority of our attention on the formal argument of a building -- but what about the interior? What happens on the inside? How are experiencing and changing based on our relationship with the inside space? Ninety percent of our existence is spent living, eating, sleeping, and thinking inside buildings, yet we recognize and acknowledge the built environment based on what we see on the outside, not what we experience inside. In this seminar, we sought to create an interior environment seemingly unrelated to its formal aesthetic. Similar to how Doctor Who’s TARDIS is ‘bigger on the inside’ by the illusionary effect of its envelope, so are these realized volumetric spaces. The focus begins with an evolved primitive form -- in our case, the comma -- and utilizes the replication of form in order to create interesting intersections, pockets, vast expanes between these objects. By utilizing 2D drawing techniques, coupled with 3D physical model building, and an exploration in 3D virtual space, new worlds are created within a relatively small physical environment. Aspects of color, geometry, texture, shadow, and lighting all come into effect in one place and are simply depicted through a photo -- we are less focused on the physical aesthetics of the exterior world, and need not even reference it for interior context. The photo becomes the successful medium by which these worlds come alive and expand further than assumed.

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Left: Study model of primitive form -- portion removed for interior viewing (not shown) Photo Credit: Ashley Hastings

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Left: Diagram showing multiplication and replication of primitive form to create volumetric space

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Left: Interior view, exploring light + texture Photo Credit: Ashley Hastings

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Left: Interior view, exploring volumes + shadow Photo Credit: Ashley Hastings

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Left: Wormseye line drawing depicting interior of physical model

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Left: Interior view, texture + shape Photo Credit: Ashley Hastings

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Left: Interior view, color + shape Photo Credit: Ashley Hastings

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Left: Interior view, geometry + shape Photo Credit: Ashley Hastings

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SPRING_17 ANCED CODING ADVANCED INSTRUC INSTRUCTOR oru Sugihara Sugihar Satoru

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import processing.opengl.*; import igeo.*; void setup(){ size(1200, 1200, IG.GL); //IG.duration(50); for(int i=0; i<100; i++){ MyAgent agent = new MyAgent(IG.v(i,0,0), IG.v(1,0,0). rot(i*0.03)); } IG.bg(0,0,0); } class MyAgent extends IAgent{ IVec pos, dir; MyAgent(IVec p, IVec d){ pos = p; dir = d; } void update(){ IVec pos2 = pos.cp(dir); IVec dir2 = dir.cp(); dir2.rot(IG.zaxis, IRand.get(-PI*0.4, PI*0.88)); if(IG.time()%50 < 10){ dir2.rot(IG.zaxis, PI/16); } else if(IG.time()%50 == 10){ dir2.lip(); } else if(IG.time()%50 < 30){ dir2.rot(IG.zaxis, PI/4); } else if(IG.time()%50 < 40){ dir2.rot(IG.zaxis, -PI/3); } else if(IG.time()%50 == 40){ dir2.lip(); } else{ dir2.rot(IG.zaxis, PI/8); dir2.mul(1.01); } new ICurve(pos,pos2).clr( 1-tan(IG.time()*0.4), sin(IG. time()*0.2), cos(IG.time()*0.03)*0.5, 0.3 ); new MyAgent(pos2,dir2); del(); } } 141


import processing.opengl.*; import igeo.*;

boolean branchL = IRand.pct(pctL); boolean branchR = IRand.pct(pctR);

void setup() { size(1280, 960, IG.GL); IG.duration(800); // left 100%, right 4.5% new LineAgent(IG.v(0,0,0), IG.v(2,0,0), 100.0, 80).clr(0); new LineAgent(IG.v(20,10,0), IG.v(2,1,0), 100.0, 60).clr(0); IG.bg(0); }

double lenL = dir.len(); double lenR = dir.len(); lenL*=0.995; //shrinking length lenR*=0.995; //shrinking length if (branchL && branchR) { //only when branching both if(IRand.pct(70.0)){ if (pctL < pctR) { lenL *= 0.9; } else{ lenR *= 0.9; }

static class LineAgent extends IAgent{ IVec pos; IVec dir; double pctL, pctR; boolean isColliding=false;

} else if(IRand.pct(6.0)){ if (pctL < pctR) { lenL *= 0.4; } else{ lenR *= 0.4; } } else if(IRand.pct(5.0)){ if (pctL < pctR) { lenL *= 4.0; } else{ lenR *= 4.0; } }

LineAgent(IVec pt, IVec dir, double pctL, double pctR) { pos = pt; this.dir = dir; this.pctL = pctL; this.pctR = pctR; }

} if (branchL) { //bend left IVec dir2 = dir.dup(); dir2.len(lenL); //update length dir2.rot(PI/6);

public void interact(ArrayList agents){ if(time()==0){ for(int i=0; i < agents.size() && !isColliding ; i++){ if(agents.get(i) instanceof LineAgent){ LineAgent a = (LineAgent)agents.get(i); if(a != this){ IVec pos2 = pos.cp(dir); IVec apos2 = a.pos.cp(a.dir); if(!apos2.eq(pos) && !a.pos.eq(pos) && //not sharing root IVec.intersectLine(a.pos,apos2,pos,pos2)!=null){ //intersecting isColliding=true; } } } } } }

if(branchR && pctR > pctL){//swap L/R% when branching both new LineAgent(pos2, dir2, pctR, pctL).clr(r,g,b); } else{ new LineAgent(pos2, dir2, pctL, pctR).clr(r,g,b); } } if (branchR) { //bend right IVec dir2 = dir.dup(); dir2.len(lenR); //update length dir2.rot(-PI/4); if(branchL && pctR < pctL){//swap L/R% when branching both new LineAgent(pos2, dir2, pctR, pctL).clr(r,g,b); } else{ new LineAgent(pos2, dir2, pctL, pctR).clr(r,g,b); }

public void update() { if(time()==0){ if(isColliding){ del(); return; } IVec pos2 = pos.dup().add(dir); new ICurve(pos, pos2).clr(clr());

} }

double r = red() + IRand.get(-0.45, 0.45); double g = green() + IRand.get(-0.25, 0.25); double b = blue() + IRand.get(-0.15, 0.15);

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} }


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import igeo.*; void setup(){ size(1000, 700, IG.GL); IG.bg(0); ICompoundField ield = new ICompoundField(); ICompoundField ield2 = new ICompoundField(); for(int i=0; i<50; i++){ IVec pt = IRand.pt(-100,-200,0,50,20,0); IAttractor att = new IAttractor(IRand.pt(-100,100,0,100,100,0)).intensity(800); ield.add(att); IGravity grv = new IGravity(pt, IRand.dir(new IVec(1,1,1)). mul(20)); ield2.add(grv); IPointCurlField cf = new IPointCurlField(pt, new IVec(2,2,1)).intensity(10); ield.add(cf); //ield2.add(aield); } // // // // // //

ICurve crv1 = IG.curve(0); //crv1.scale(new IVec(0,0,0), 2); new ICurveAttractorField(crv1).intensity(50); new ICurveTangentField(crv1).intensity(100); new ICurveCurlField(crv1).intensity(100);

for(int i=0; i<5000; i++){ new IParticleTrajectory(IRand.pt(-50,-50,0,100,100,0), new IVec(1,2,1)).fric(0.1).clr(1,IRand.get(0,1),0.4,0.7); } //new IGravity(0,0,-10); //new IAttractor(0,2,0).intensity(-10); //new IPointCurlField(new IVec(0,0,0), new IVec(1,1,1)); }

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Above: Multi-clock module code generated ‘urban’ environment

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Left: Digital manifestation of organic form Below: Screenshots of various attractor-point code renders, organic simulations

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Left: Cellular Automata (CA) code run on top of layered squares -- the resulting drawing looks at the replication of grids based on the irst generation

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import processing.opengl.*; import igeo.*; void setup(){ size(1200, 1200, IG.GL); //IG.duration(50); //we support that there is nothing completely natural //or completely artiicial in our world; //moreover; //what is natural for us is only an imagination; //an idea; //romanticized.duration(1000); //since the artiicial and the natural are constantly //bound with each other; //we reject that either exists in complete isolation from //the other; //or perhaps that either could exist at all; //except in the mind; //our work imagines a new type of movement sampled //from organic gestures; //and recognizable behaviors that could simulate for //us; //natural phenomena; //while others are irrational; //perpetual; //and mechanic;

}

//we seek to create a new complex multi.celled //organism of our own; //with language of both machine; //and nature;

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FALL_16 ALL_16 OTHER THER W WORLDS ORLDS INSTRUC INSTRUCTOR o Diaz-Granados Diaz-Gr Ramiro

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Below: Left: Silicone model forming -- casting small piggy bank in silicone

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Manufactured landscapes -- the world we virtually live in becomes increasingly blurred with each new approach to art, architecture, and technology. It is possible and likely to create whole new worlds based on the seemingly closed, solid form of a found object. In this course, we looked at taking the idea of the closed form and laying it open, lattening the supposed skin surrounding the object like an invisible envelope.

This new surface served as a blank canvas upon which the isocurves of natural occurences could be shown -- lines drawn over these new formations acted as reference curves that, once 3D scanned, could be used as cartographic quadrants. These quadrants allowed for seamless surfacing of tessellated or tiled geometry to occur and create the textured, manufactured landscape.

The goal here was to begin looking at everyday objects through the lens of, for example, Leonardo da Vinci or the Surrealists, and understand what it means to create a new topography by unwrapping it from something else. The technique used to execute this process is based on pelting, an action used in taxidermy and skinning of animals. There is a speciic strategy employed in order to achieve the best and most complete lattened version of what used to be an animal. Once skinned, the hide of an animal is lain lat and dried, allowing for moisture to dissipate and for some distortion to occur. It is this sort of distortion we were looking for: movements in our artiicial pelts that could then be understood as mountains, valleys, ridges, etc.

Rendering techniques using shaders and mapping methods in Maya resulted in the advent of a new world, seen through the distorted and refracted view of a glass sphere. The inished product ultimately lends itself to the beginning of the search for uncharted territory and the understanding of new processes.

In seeking an object, I chose the mostly rounded form of this small piggy bank. The irst part of the process required the object be coated in several layers of silicone. Once cured, the new â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;skinâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; was cut strategically in order to seek out these topographical manifestations -- upon unwrapping the pig, the new skin was then stitched to a piece of foam core in order to maintain the undulations and voluptuous nature of the distorted material. Upon securing it, the pelt was then coated in papiermachĂŠ material in order to create a uniied, smoothed surface.

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Above 3D model of physical model after 3D scanning into Rhino Left: Physical model of landscape pelt with isocurves

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Above: Final Rhino model of new landscape, prior to exporting to Maya Left: Preliminary Rhino model views of new landscape

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Left: Preliminary render of landscape with nCloth sky Below: Test renders of landscape with various nCloth sky effects

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Left: Final rendered view -- another world within a sphere, lost in space

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SPRING_16 CONSTRUC TYPOGRAPHY: CONSTRUCTION + COMBINA COMBINATION INSTRUC INSTRUCTORS Matthe Au Matthew Anna Neimark

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The beauty of typography and letterform is one that perpetuates throughout time and exists without residence. Humans have longed to communicate through written word or form for thousands of years. With the advent of the printing press in the 17th century, we enabled our idle hands with the ability to create and recreate series of letters that began to relate to each other, not only in terms of their alphabetical sequence, but also now in terms of their geometries. In these exercises, we examined the Paris Scientific Type or Royal Alphabet letterforms. Beginning with individual letters, these forms were explored as two-dimensional architectural drawings, focusing on the creation of specific, genuine forms. The arcs of a serif. The parallel lines of a staff. The grid upon which this linework lives and evolves. These are all elements of beauty -- elements that speak to each other and become more than representations of letters. They become forms. Building these line drawings, we also identified how an italic letter is created, and what it means to be italic. What it means to lean at an angle. What it does to the arcs that were circles that become ellipses. One form alone is beautiful. Two forms together are fascinating. Creating axonometric representations, we began to see how projections and extrusions of the geometry of each letter intersect and interact with each other. With each new iteration, the drawings evolve from twodimensional, strictly gridded and regimented representations into axonometric fields of projection. The intersection of forms created between the letters ‘h’ and ‘y’ were manipulated in ways outside of orthogonal projection -- through multi-axial rotations and folding of original gridded locations, the letters yielded a hybrid form. This hybrid can stand on its own -- it became more than the sum or best of its parents. It became almost monumental in its ease of existence. It is soft, yet strong. Subtle, yet bold.

Left: Final line drawing of hybrid letterform utilizing five layers of CMYK colors

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Both Pages: Rendered views of hybrid letterform, ‘h’ + ‘y’

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Above: additional line drawing of hybrid letterform created with zig-zagging parallel lines Opposite: final line drawing of hybrid letterform utilizing five layers of CMYK colors

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FALL_15 ALL_15 EXPANDING ON SMOKE: EXPANDING EXTRUDED GEOMETRY INSTRUC INSTRUCTORS Matthe Au Matthew Anna Neimark

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Left: Paper model of â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;broken armsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;, folded polyhedra Below: Diagrammatic line drawing of cutting + folding technique

Analyzing how cuts are made, bends are broken, and folds are flattened, we are challenged to create accurate two-dimensional representations of realistic, three-dimensional behavior. Using these broken arms, I used simple planes to slice through the body. These planes serve as a cutting tool as well as a placeholder, depicting original geometry. These movements require attention, not only intention. They create disruptions in otherwise uninterrupted forms. The extruded tetrahedron is a stable, solid structure -- upon slicing, it loses its strength and wants to fall; however, giving care to how the new bends react together, beautiful intersections and joints are created. These connections give strength and rigidity in a new way, a way that gives the form a way to respond, to speak for itself.

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Left: Exploring the power of grids -- layered extruded grids like this and adding color lends depth and illusion to otherwise banal lines

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Left: Schematic rotational drawings depicting travel path of faces of polyhedra Right: Additional schematic drawings of rotation

After breaking, cutting, slicing, and bending, architectural/ engineering best practices require that we analyze, understand, and then put back together. (Re)assembly demands direction and clarity -- clearly annotated references of movement. These drawings were generated out of real movements, precise and true, and can be the only exact lines to be created from a perfectly closed, solid tetrahedron. If any of the surfaces were even one degree off, the form would be incomplete. Each of these annotated rotations is a perfect 360 degree circle; however, each of the circles has been rotated on its own path, depicting the rotation of each surface. With this approach, it is possible to construct and deconstruct any solid and appropriately represent its geometry.

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Left: Rotation, rotation, rotation... Contoured line drawing. Adding definition, value, depth of field, and dimensionality through the use of lines and repetition. Form created by extrusion. Giving mass to lines using other lines.

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SPRING_17 DEVELOPMENT DESIGN DEVELOPMENT INSTRUC INSTRUCTORS Herwig Baumgartner Sc Uriu Scott Matthe Melnyk Matthew STUDENT TEAM Luiza de Souza ey Hastings Has Ashley Jackson Lukas W Abagael Warnars

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Our project combined both traditional and modern materials and methods in its faรงade system execution. The curtain wall is composed of double glazed panels and ceramic-fritted spandrel glass. The exterior ins are proposed as panelized aluminum wing-like extrusions that will be screwed with four pins on the structural layer below it. While the building has traditional layers, there are also moments of unique construction. The volumetric elements inside the heart of the building are created using FRP panels wrapped with a custom shingled glazing system supported by steel tubes. Custom systems combined with ubiquitous construction create a layered project, displaying multiple faรงade systems that illustrate complexity and depth. Utilizing several structural systems in order to fully express its unique form, our building proposal explores volumetric expression by challenging structural possibilities. Steel post and beam framing is used over the long spans. A custom aluminum and glass curtain wall is used for the exterior of the inner envelope, with additional custom steel columns offset from the glazing to provide additional support for the vertical loads. The horizontal loads of the building are trasnferred through the concrete lat plate looring and column system. Concrete shear walls make up the construction of the three separate cores within the building, made up of passenger and freight elevators as well as steel fabricated egress systems. One of the main concerns left in our building was the lack of structure within the large volume carved from the center. We were challenged with inding solutions to mediating the lack of columns used to transer loads, as well as dealing with the suspension of the volumes within the atrium. To maintain the architectural purity of this area, we located all columns along the curtain wall and spaced them ten to thirty feet apart, depending on the adjacent geometry of the building. These columns have a short span and do not angle greater than ifteen degrees. The kinks in the columns are located at loor plates and on the larger loor plates we have additional columns that branch off towards the interior to provide additional support along with the concrete cores. We feel that inding solutions like these would help us navigate any value engineering or any structural changes required in the project after the conclusion of the design development phase.

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T.O. ROOF 290'-6"

ARCHITECTURE Jaws Dhall 960 E 3rd St. Los Angeles, CA 90013 T: (813) 305-9436 F: (813) 305-9724 E: contact@jawsdhall.com W: www.jawsdhall.com

Tenth Floor 174'-4"

Contact: Abagael Warnars Ashley Hastings Jackson Lukas Luiza de Souza

ENGINEERING

Ninth Floor 162'-2"

Nous Engineering 527 W 7th St., Ste. 701 Los Angeles, CA 90014 T: (213) 627-6687 E: contact@nousengineering.com W: www.nousengineering.com

Eighth Floor 150'-0"

Issue

Seventh Floor 135'-0"

Date & Issue Description

Contact: Matthew Melnyk

By

Check

1

01/22/17 Issue For Review

AW

2

03/06/17 Mid Review

AH

HB/SU

3

03/26/17 Issue for Review

AH

HB/SU

HB/SU

4

04/01/17 Issue for Review

AH

HB/SU

5

04/10/17 Final Review

AW

HB/SU

Sixth Floor 120'-0"

Fifth Floor 105'-0"

Fourth Floor 90'-0"

Third Floor 60'-0"

Second Floor 45'-2"

PROJECT NAME

Buddy ARCHITECT OF RECORD

Herwig Baumgartner/Scott Uriu PROJECT NUMBER 17.00001.00

First Floor 33'-2"

FILE NAME

A16.0 - Building Elevation.3dm SHEET NAME

Ground 0'-0"

Building Elevation SHEET NUMBER SCALE:

1 A16.0

BUILDING ELEVATION SCALE: 1" = 1'-0"

190

0'

1'

2'

3'

A16.0


APPLIED STUDIES

1'X1' STEEL TUBE

ALUM VERT AND HORT SUN SHADING FINS (AIRWING CONSTRUCTION) DROP ACT CEILING W/ SEISMIC TIEBACKS AND TEGULAR GRID

1 A18.0

INTERIOR STRUCTURAL COLUMN W/ GYP BD FURRING

DBL PANE UNITIZED CW SYSTEM W/ LOW-E GLAZING

ARCHITECTURE Jaws Dhall 960 E 3rd St. Los Angeles, CA 90013 T: (813) 305-9436 F: (813) 305-9724 E: contact@jawsdhall.com W: www.jawsdhall.com

4'-0" D CATWALK W/ HORT STRUCTURAL BRACING BTWN INT AND EXT COLUMNS

Contact: Abagael Warnars Ashley Hastings Jackson Lukas Luiza de Souza

ALUM WRAPPED RIGID INSULATION SPANDREL PANEL w/ MTL FLASHING

ENGINEERING Nous Engineering 527 W 7th St., Ste. 701 Los Angeles, CA 90014 T: (213) 627-6687 E: contact@nousengineering.com W: www.nousengineering.com

2 A19.0

Contact: Matthew Melnyk

Date & Issue Description

By

1

01/23/17 Issue For Review

AW

10" X 6" VERT STEEL I-BEAM @ 8'-0" OC SUPPORTING SUN SHADING SYSTEM

2

02/06/17 Issue For Review

AW

HB/SU

3

03/05/17 Mid Review

AH/AW

HB/SU

CONCRETE FLOOR SLAB W/ CORRUGATED METAL DECK

4

04/09/17 Final Re

Issue

AH/AW

Check

HB/SU

HB/SU

STRUCTURAL STEEL WIDE FLANGE I-BEAM

CW ANCHOR CONNECTION

1'X1' STL TUBE SUPPORTING CUSTOM ALUM WRAPPED OVERHANG CUSTOM ALUM WRAPPED OVERHANG

4" PEDESTAL PAVER SYSTEM

DOMED FLOOR DRAIN FOR MUNICIPAL DRAINPIPE

PROJECT NAME

Buddy

2' X 2' CONCRETE PAVERS

ARCHITECT OF RECORD

Herwig Baumgartner/Scott Uriu PROJECT NUMBER 17.00001.00 FILE NAME

A17.0 - 2D Wall Section.3dm SHEET NAME

2D Wall Section

1 A20.0

1 A17.0

2D WALL SECTION SCALE: 1/4" = 1'-0"

KEY PLAN:

SHEET NUMBER

SCALE:

0'

4'

8'

12'

A17.0

191


PEDESTAL PAVER SYSTEM DRAINAGE LAYER VAPOR BARRIER GRASS PLANTS SOIL / GROWING MEDIUM CUSTOM STEEL FRAMED PLANTER FILTER SHEET WATERPROOFING LAYER 2' X 2' CONCRETE PAVERS RIGID INSULATION

ARCHITECTURE Jaws Dhall 960 E 3rd St. Los Angeles, CA 90013 T: (813) 305-9436 F: (813) 305-9724 E: contact@jawsdhall.com W: www.jawsdhall.com

Contact: Abagael Warnars Ashley Hastings Jackson Lukas Luiza de Souza

ENGINEERING Nous Engineering 527 W 7th St., Ste. 701 Los Angeles, CA 90014 T: (213) 627-6687 E: contact @nousengineering.com W: www.nousengineering.com

ALUM VERT AND HORT SUN SHADING FINS (AIRWING CONSTRUCTION)

1'x1' TUBE STL

Issue

4'-0" D CATWALK W/ HORT STRUCTURAL BRACING BTWN INT AND EXT COLUMNS

Date & Issue Description

Contact: Matthew Melnyk

By

Check

1

03/26/17 Issue For Review

AW

HB/SU

2

02/06/17 Issue For Review

AW

SU

3

02/19/17 Issue For Review AW/AH

HB

4

02/28/17 Issue For Review AW/AH

HB

5

03/06/17 Mid Review

6

03/26/17 Issue For Review

7

04/03/17 Issue For Review

8

04/08/17 Final Review

AW/AH HB/SU AH

HB/SU

AH

HB/SU

AW/AH HB/SU

ALUM WRAPPED RIGID INSULATION SPANDREL PANEL w/ MTL FLASHING CHANNEL MOLDING DRYWALL CLIP DRYALL GRID SYSTEM

STEEL FRAMED FLOORING SYSTEM

HANGER WIRE TO STRUCTURE

PROJECT NAME

Buddy ARCHITECT OF RECORD

GYPSUM BOARD

Herwig Baumgartner/Scott Uriu

EDGE BEAD

PROJECT NUMBER 17.00001.00 FILE NAME

A18.0 - 2D Detail.3dm SHEET NAME

2D Detail

1 A18.0

ENLARGED FACADE DETAIL @ ROOF SCALE: 1" = 1'-0"

SHEET NUMBER SCALE:

0'

192

1'

2'

3'

A18.0


APPLIED STUDIES

ARCHITECTURE Jaws Dhall 960 E 3rd St. Los Angeles, CA 90013 T: (813) 305-9436 F: (813) 305-9724 E: contact@jawsdhall.com W: www.jawsdhall.com

ALUM VERT SUN SHADING FINS (AIRWING CONSTRUCTION)

Contact: Abagael Warnars Ashley Hastings Jackson Lukas Luiza de Souza

ENGINEERING

10" X 6" VERT STEEL I-BEAM @ 8'-0" OC SUPPORTING SUN SHADING SYSTEM

Nous Engineering 527 W 7th St., Ste. 701 Los Angeles, CA 90014 T: (213) 627-6687 E: contact@nousengineering.com W: www.nousengineering.com

ALUM HORT SUN SHADING FINS (AIRWING CONSTRUCTION)

Issue

Contact: Matthew Melnyk

Date & Issue Description

By

Check

1

01/23/17 Issue For Review AW

HB/SU

2

02/06/17 Issue For Review AW

HB/SU

3

03/05/17 Mid Review

AW

HB/SU

4

04/02/17 Issue For Review AH

HB/SU

5

04/10/17 Final Review

HB/SU

AH

4'-0" D CATWALK W/ HORT STRUCTURAL BRACING BTWN INT AND EXT COLUMNS

ALUM WRAPPED RIGID INSULATION SPANDREL PANEL w/ MTL FLASHING

CW ANCHOR CONNECTION CHANNEL MOLDING DRYWALL CLIP DRYALL GRID SYSTEM

STEEL FRAMED FLOORING SYSTEM

PROJECT NAME

Buddy ARCHITECT OF RECORD

HANGER WIRE TO STRUCTURE

Herwig Baumgartner/Scott Uriu PROJECT NUMBER 17.00001.00

GYPSUM BOARD

FILE NAME

A19.0 - 2D Detail (Mid).3dm

EDGE BEAD

SHEET NAME

2D Detail (Mid) SHEET NUMBER SCALE:

1 A19.0

ENLARGED FAÃ&#x2021;ADE DETAIL @ SPANDREL PANEL SCALE: 1" = 1'-0"

0'

1'

2'

3'

A19.0

193


A

B

3 '-3 3 /4"

C

12'-4 13 /16"

E

D

1 1'-7"

28'- 1 1/ 8"

16'- 3 3/ 4"

F

G

11 '- 9 1 /2"

I

H

28'-7 1/4 "

1 2'-1 11/1 6"

J

1 6'-5 7/8"

19 '- 4 3/ 8"

STAIR CAPACITY

3'-11 "

2'-10 5/8 "

1

1

62'-1 1 3 /16"

1 DN

UP

STAIR 1 Minimum Width: 5'-9" Actual Width: 8'-0" Capacity: 228

2

STAIR 2 Minimum Width: 5'-9" Actual Width: 8'-0" Capacity: 228

2 2

LEVEL 8 - 21,467 SF Occupancy Type: B Occupancy Load: 215

3 9'-4 3/8"

1 A16.0

3

FREIGHT ELEVATOR

1 A15.0

3 15'-2 "

DN 1 A15.0

UP

MECHANICAL SYSTEMS FLOOR LEVEL 7 - 22,772 SF Occupancy Type: B Occupancy Load: 228

4 11'- 7 15 /16 "

4

5

1

2 21 '-11 7/8"

5

6 4'-2 9/1 6"

6

A

4 A10.0

B

C

D

E

F

G

H

I

LEVEL 6 - 20,721 SF Occupancy Type: B Occupancy Load: 208

J

Total Area: 17,223 SF Occupancy Type: B Occupancy Load: 173

THIRD FLOOR PLAN SCALE: 1" = 50'-00"

LEVEL 5 - 15,230 SF Occupancy Type: B Occupancy Load: 153

LEVEL 4 - 13,915 SF Occupancy Type: B Occupancy Load: 140

ARCHITECTURE Jaws Dhall 960 E 3rd St. Los Angeles, CA 90013 T: (813) 305-9436 F: (813) 305-9724 E: contact@jawsdhall.com W: www.jawsdhall.com

Contact: Abagael Warnars Ashley Hastings Jackson Lukas Luiza de Souza

ENGINEERING A

B

D

C

E

F

H

G

Nous Engineering 527 W 7th St., Ste. 701 Los Angeles, CA 90014 T: (213) 627-6687 E: contact@nousengineering.com W: www.nousengineering.com

I

003

6 '- 7 1 /2"

14'- 9 3/ 16"

14'-8 5/8 "

17'-7 3/8 "

2 5'-9 9/16 "

2 5'-11 "

12'- 8 3/ 4"

12 '-8 3 /4"

14'-5 15/ 16"

3'-1 1/1 6"

1 1

2 '-0 1 /8"

DN

UP 49'-1 "

UP

Contact: Matthew Melnyk

DN

2

UP

DN

2

27 -' 3 1 /16"

Issue 1 A15.0

1 A16.0

3 3

UP

DN

UP

THEATER ENTRANCE 4

4 DN

14'- 2 3/ 16"

DN UP

001

TYP

5 7'-4 1/4"

5 MAIN ENTRANCE

3 A10.0

B

C

D

GROUND PLAN SCALE: 1" = 50'-00"

E

F

G

H

HB/SU HB/SU

3

03/27/17 Issue For Review

4

04/01/17 Issue For Review

AH

HB/SU

5

04/08/17 Final Review

AH

HB/SU

Total Area: 13,521 SF Occupancy Type: B Occupancy Load: 136

ET RE ST

NA TO M

A

NA MIN

LEVEL 2 - 13,431 SF Occupancy Type: B Occupancy Load: 135

LEVEL 1 - 13,521 SF Occupancy Type: B Occupancy Load: 136

BUILDING ENTRANCE 3 ELEVATORS

PROJECT NAME

Buddy

BUILDING ENTRANCE 2 ND

BASEMENT PLAN SCALE: 1" = 50'-00"

Total Area: 22,402 SF Occupancy Type: A Occupancy Load: 306

STR

ARCHITECT OF RECORD

Herwig Baumgartner/Scott Uriu EE T

PUBLIC WAY ACCESSIBLE PATH

PROJECT NUMBER 17.00001.00 FILE NAME

A9.0 - Egress.3dm SHEET NAME

Egress SHEET NUMBER

1 A10.0

194

Check

AH AH

I

LEVEL 3 - 17,223 SF Occupancy Type: B Occupancy Load: 173

2 A10.0

By

02/27/17 Issue For Review 03/05/17 Mid Review

ST RE ET

A

Date & Issue Description

1 2

21'-3 1/2 "

1 A15.0

EGRESS DIAGRAM SCALE: 1/8" = 1'-00"

A9.0

AH

HB/SU


APPLIED STUDIES

B

3'-3 3/4"

C

12'-4 13/16"

E

D

11'-7"

28'-1 1/8"

16'-3 3/4"

F

G

11'-9 1/2"

28'-7 1/4"

I

H

12'-1 11/16"

J

16'-5 7/8"

19'-4 3/8"

3'-11"

A

C

B

E

D

I

H

G

F

003 WOMENS RR 315

316

COPY PRINT 309

MENS RR 317

2'-10 5/8"

JAN CL

1

1 6'-7 1/2"

CONF ROOM 312

OFFICE 313 FRIEGHT ELEV 314

ELEC

IT

STOR

311

310

308

BREAK RM 303

STAIR

001

305

14'-9 3/16"

14'-8 5/8"

17'-7 3/8"

25' -9 9/16"

25'-11"

12'-8 3/4"

12'-8 3/4"

14'-5 15/16"

3'-1 1/16"

STAIR

307

306

FREIGHT ELEV 015

DN

UP

006

ELEV LOBBY 301

ELEC

012

011

IT CL

JAN CL

010

009

1

MECH

005

FEMALE RR 007 OFFICE

ELEC

STOR

LOAD DOCK 014

304

STOR

DN MALE RR 008

DN

DN

UP

UP

UP

013

UP

JAN CL

004 DN

004

STAIR

IT CL

005 STAIR

ELEV LOBBY 006

UP

49'-1"

STAIR

FEMALE RR B04

FREIGHT ELEV B09

1 2'-0 1/8"

LEVEL 7 PACE GALLERY/OFFICE 22,772 SF (B) OCC LD - 228 PEOPLE WC - 5; LAV - 4; DF - 2; SS - 1

62'-11 3/16"

"

A

LEVEL 8 RESTATURANT 21,467 SF (B) OCC LD - 215 PEOPLE WC - 5; LAV - 4; DF - 2; SS - 1

6'-5"

5'-0

OVERALL 160,682 SQ FT 2,077 PEOPLE

4'-2 3/8"

6'-1"

6'-8"

DN

DN

UP

ADA

ADA

LOBBY

2

LEVEL 6 PACE GALLERY 20,721 SF (B) OCC LD - 208 PEOPLE WC - 5; LAV - 4; DF - 2; SS - 1

AREA OF REFUGE 30"X48"

2

B01

UP

DN

2

2

OTB

INFORMAL LOUNGE 302

320

RECEPT

LOBBY

015

016

003 27'-3 1/16"

LOUNGE

1 A15.0

DN UP

18"

15'-2"

1 A15.0

317

UP

OTB

UP

4

MECH

001

001

4

STOR

STOR

STAIR 017

319

019

ENTRY 020

5

MECH 005

002

018

B11

DN

THEATER STAIR B15

UP

001

MECH

TYP

B12

5 BAR/ CAFE B14

ARCHITECTURE

21'-11 7/8"

320

TYP

MAIN ENTRANCE

OPEN OFFICE

STAIR

7'-4 1/4"

5 5

COAT RM B13

DN

DN

UP

11'-7 15/16"

318

THEATER ENTRANCE 4

ENTRY

DN

UP

21'-3 1/2"

UP

DN

4

OTB

14'-2 3/16"

LEVEL 5 LINE OFFICE 15,230 SF (B) OCC LD - 153 PEOPLE WC - 4; LAV - 3; DF - 2; SS - 1

DN

3 THEATER STAIR 002

1 A15.0

DN STAIR

6"

12"

ADA

ADA

3

3

CL

B10

1 A16.0

3 1 A15.0

ACCESSIBLE SIGNAGE W/ RAISED BRAILLE, 5'-0" FROM GROUND TO CL OF SIGNAGE

THEATER

UP

1 A16.0

OPEN OFFICE 39'-4 3/8"

MAINTAIN STAIR WIDTH

LOUNGE 321

6 4'-2 9/16"

INSTRUCTIONAL SIGNAGE W/ RAISED BRAILLE 48"

6 A11.0

LEVEL 4 LINE OFFICE 13,915 SF (B) OCC LD - 140 PEOPLE WC - 4; LAV - 3; DF - 2; SS - 1

60"

A

A

LEVEL 3 LINE OFFICE 17,223 SF (B) OCC LD - 173 PEOPLE WC - 5; LAV - 4; DF - 2; SS - 1

ADA VERTICAL CIRCULATION SCALE: 1/4" = 1'-00"

6" MAX 18" MIN

42" MIN

E

F

G

H

I

C

D

E

F

G

H

I

J

THIRD FLOOR PLAN SCALE: 1' = 40'-00"

8 A11.0

GROUND PLAN SCALE: 1' = 40'-00"

9 A11.0

Contact: Abagael Warnars Ashley Hastings Jackson Lukas Luiza de Souza

ENGINEERING

BASEMENT PLAN SCALE: 1' = 40'-00"

Nous Engineering 527 W 7th St., Ste. 701 Los Angeles, CA 90014 T: (213) 627-6687 E: contact@nousengineering.com W: www.nousengineering.com

FREIGHT ELEVATOR

1

LEVEL 1 LOBBY/LOADING DOCK 13,521 SF (B) OCC LD - 136 PEOPLE WC - 4; LAV - 3; DF - 2; SS - 1

17"-19"

19" MIN

39"-41"

D

B

Contact: Matthew Melnyk

TYPICAL ELEVATOR BANK AND EGRESS

33"-36"

33"-36"

C

LEVEL 2 CAFE/LINE OFFICE 13,431 SF (B) OCC LD - 135 PEOPLE WC - 4; LAV - 3; DF - 2; SS - 1

39"-41"

36"

7 A11.0

B

Jaws Dhall 960 E 3rd St. Los Angeles, CA 90013 T: (813) 305-9436 F: (813) 305-9724 E: contact@jawsdhall.com W: www.jawsdhall.com

6

7"-9"

CL

LEVEL B THEATER/SERVICE 22,402 SF (A) OCC LD - 306 PEOPLE (FIXED) + 383 (STANDING) = 689 PEOPLE WC - 6 (M), 11 (F); LAV - 4; DF - 2; SS - 1

2'-0 1/16" MAX

Date & Issue Description

By

Check

1

02/27/17 Issue For Review AW

HB/SU

2

03/05/17 Mid Review

HB/SU

AW

3

04/02/17 Issue For Review AH

HB/SU

4

04/08/17 Final Review

HB/SU

AH

40" MAX

27" MIN

34" MAX

9" MIN

38"-48"

17"-25"

3'-6" CLR

Issue

8" MIN

ELEVATOR CAPACITY

6" MAX 11" MIN

5 A11.0

1

ADA RESTROOM ELEVATIONS SCALE: 1/4" = 1'-00"

BANK 1 Minimum Width: 5'-9" Actual Width: 8'-0" Capacity: 228

ADA SIGNAGE W/ RAISED BRAILLE

30"

SIGNAGE W/ INT'L SYMBOL OF ACCESSIBILITY MOUNTED 5'-0" ABOVE GROUND TO THE SIGNAGE CL

32"

ACCESS AISLE FOR VAN ACCESSIBLE PARKING W/ 45° GORE STRIPING

6"

18"

24"

56"

48"

CL

INT'L SYMBOL OF ACCESSIBILITY

24" 30"

48"

18"

CL

60"

ADA SINGLE USER RESTROOM PLAN SCALE: 1/4"= 1'-00"

MI

3'-0"

NN

A

ST RE ET

ET RE

A

ST

PROJECT NAME

Buddy

M

3 A11.0

NA TO

18' MIN

60"

ARCHITECT OF RECORD

Herwig Baumgartner/Scott Uriu

3'-0"

PROJECT NUMBER 17.00001.00 BUILDING ENTRANCE

FILE NAME 48"

A11.0 - ADA.3dm

30"

3 ELEVATORS

36"

24" 46'-0"

CL

96" MIN

2N D

18"

96" MIN

BUILDING ENTRANCE

60"

96" MIN

32"

ADA PARKING SCALE: 1/8" = 1'-00"

2 A11.0

ADA SHEET NUMBER

S TR

EE T

PUBLIC WAY ACCESSIBLE PATH

24"

56"

4 A11.0

SHEET NAME

ADA MULTI USER RESTROOM PLAN SCALE: 1/4"= 1'-00"

1 A11.0

ADA DIAGRAM SCALE: NTS

A11.0

195


1HR

2HR

3HR

196


APPLIED STUDIES

ARCHITECTURE Jaws Dhall 960 E 3rd St. Los Angeles, CA 90013 T: (813) 305-9436 F: (813) 305-9724 E: contact@jawsdhall.com W: www.jawsdhall.com

Contact: Abagael Warnars Ashley Hastings Jackson Lukas Luiza de Souza

ENGINEERING Nous Engineering 527 W 7th St., Ste. 701 Los Angeles, CA 90014 T: (213) 627-6687 E: contact@nousengineering.com W: www.nousengineering.com

7 A9.0

CONCRETE CORES AND FLOOR SLABS SCALE: NTS

CONCRETE SYSTEMS COMPONENT PRE-CAST PANELS CAST-IN-PLACE FOUNDATION TRANSFER SLAB SHEAR WALLS FLOOR PLATES PEDESTAL PAVER SYSTEM

DIMENSIONS 5' x 10'

LOCATION CORES

150' x 150' x 4' 150' x 150' x 5' RANGES RANGES 2' x 2'

GROUND LEVEL BASEMENT BASEMENT FLOOR PLATES ROOF/GROUND

6 A12.0

QUANTITY UNITS UNIT PRICE 5361 PC $ 275.00 3880 4791 12771 3668 22000

CU YD CU YD CU YD CU YD SF

$ $ $ $ $

200.00 250.00 200.00 120.00 55.00 SUBTOTAL

$

TOTAL COST 1,474,186.73

$ $ $ $ $ $

776,000.00 1,197,725.00 2,554,200.00 440,160.00 1,210,000.00 7,652,271.73

STRUCTURAL STEEL FRAMING SYSTEM SCALE: NTS

STRUCTURAL STEEL FRAMING COMPONENT STEEL WIDE FLANGE I-BEAM STEEL SUPPORT STRUCTURE STEEL STUD AND TRACK STEEL EXTERIOR COLUMNS EGRESS

DIMENSIONS W18 x 24 12" x 12" x 1/2" 3 5/8" X 2 1/2" W6 x 8 4' x 8'

LOCATION QUANTITY UNITS UNIT PRICE PRIMARY STRUCTURE 66954 LF $ 50.00 CATWALK SYSTEM 5665 LF $ 225.00 LATERAL STRUCTURE 69761 LF $ 75.00 EXTERIOR COLUMNS 17727 LF $ 110.00 CORES 2 PC $ 50,000.00 SUBTOTAL

5 A12.0

$ $ $ $ $ $

TOTAL COST 3,347,700.00 1,274,625.00 5,232,097.50 1,949,970.00 100,000.00 11,904,392.50

CURTAIN WALL SYSTEM SCALE: NTS

UNITIZED CURTAIN WALL SYSTEM COMPONENT UNITIZED SYSTEM INCL GLAZING ALUMINUM MULLIONS

DIMENSIONS

4 A12.0

LOCATION ENVELOPE

QUANTITY UNITS UNIT PRICE 197456 SF $ 125.00

$

TOTAL COST 24,682,000.00

SUBTOTAL

$

24,682,000.00

PAINTED STEEL FIN STRUCTURE SCALE: NTS

PAINTED STEEL FIN FAÃ&#x2021;ADE SYSTEM COMPONENT AIRFRAME 'WING' SYSTEM HORIZONTAL PIECES AVERAGE DEPTH VERTICAL PIECES AVERAGE DEPTH

DIMENSIONS 1 2' x 20 '

LOCATION ENVELOPE

38.0"

ENVELOPE

QUANTITY UNITS UNIT PRICE 49019 LF 77615 SF $ 100.00 99061

48.5"

SF

$

$

TOTAL COST 19,153,543.75

115.00 $

19,153,543.75

MECHANICAL SYSTEM COMPONENT MECHANICAL SERVICE

DIMENSIONS RANGES

LOCATION WHOLE BUILDING

QUANTITY UNITS UNIT PRICE 160682 SF $ 100.00 SUBTOTAL

$ $

TOTAL COST 16,068,200.00 16,068,200.00

ELECTRICAL SYSTEM COMPONENT ELECTRICAL SERVICE SECURITY SYSTEM PHOTOVOLTAIC PANELS

DIMENSIONS RANGES NA 77" x 39"

LOCATION WHOLE BUILDING WHOLE BUILDING ROOF

QUANTITY UNITS UNIT PRICE 160682 SF $ 75.00 NA NA $ 250,000.00 8000 SF $ 200.00 SUBTOTAL

$ $ $ $

TOTAL COST 12,051,150.00 250,000.00 1,600,000.00 13,901,150.00

PLUMBING SYSTEM COMPONENT PLUMBING SERVICE

DIMENSIONS RANGES

LOCATION WHOLE BUILDING

QUANTITY UNITS UNIT PRICE 160682 SF $ 75.00 SUBTOTAL

$ $

TOTAL COST 12,051,150.00 12,051,150.00

LOCATION QUANTITY UNITS UNIT PRICE ALL FLOORS 1150 PC $ 275.00 $ ALL FLOORS 384729 SF $ 2 0 .0 0 $ ALL FLOORS 2243 PC $ 200.00 $ ALL FLOORS 230 PC $ 125.00 $ ALL FLOORS 130 PC $ 200.00 $ GROUND FLOOR 1 PC $ 12,000.00 $ GROUND FLOOR 1 PC $ 8,000.00 $ BASEMENT/GROUND 1 PC $ 30,000.00 $ SUBTOTAL $

TOTAL COST 316,250.00 7,694,581.00 448,600.00 28,750.00 26,000.00 12,000.00 8,000.00 30,000.00 8,564,181.00

DIMENSIONS RANGES 6 1/2" x 96" x 3/8" NA NA 3'-0" X 6'-8"

Issue

Date & Issue Description

By

Check

1

03/31/17 Issue For Review

AH

HB/SU

2

04/09/17 Final Review

AH

HB/SU

ENVELOPE SUBTOTAL

INTERIOR FINISHES COMPONENT FURNITURE FLOORING LIGHT FIXTURES DOOR HARDWARE DOORS (TYPICAL) DOORS (REVOLVING) DOORS (ROLLUP) ARCHITECTURAL STAIR

TOTAL

2 A12.0

Contact: Matthew Melnyk

$ 226,835,024.88 $ 415,000,000.00

EXAMPLE OF 'BUDDY' PANEL SYSTEM SCALE: NTS

PROJECT NAME

Buddy ARCHITECT OF RECORD

Herwig Baumgartner/Scott Uriu PROJECT NUMBER

17.00001.00 FILE NAME

A12.0 - Construction Cost Estimating.3dm SHEET NAME

Construction Cost Estimating SHEET NUMBER

3 A9.0

'BUDDY' VOLUMETRIC SYSTEM SCALE: NTS

INTERIOR VOLUMETRIC UNITS -- 'BUDDIES' COMPONENT DIMENSIONS FIBERGLASS PANELS 12' x 20' BALSA WOOD INTERIOR 4'x 1' x 1/2" STEEL SQUARE EXTRUSION 12" x 12" x 1/2" STEEL TENSION CABLES 1 1/8" DIA

LOCATION CENTER ATRIUM CENTER ATRIUM CENTER ATRIUM CENTER ATRIUM

QUANTITY UNITS UNIT PRICE 528 PC $ 1,750.00 46147 PC $ 35.00 1264 PC $ 340.00 35 PC $ 225.00 SUBTOTAL

1 A12.0

$ $ $ $ $

TOTAL COST 924,000.00 1,615,152.00 429,865.40 7,762.50 2,976,779.90

'JACKET' STRUCTURE SCALE: NTS

INTERIOR VOLUMETRIC UNITS -- 'JACKET' COMPONENT ACRYLIC PANEL STEEL TUBE STRUCTURE

DIMENSIONS 4' x 8' x 1/2" 2" DIA

LOCATION CENTER ATRIUM CENTER ATRIUM

QUANTITY UNITS UNIT PRICE 1477 PC $ 425.04 15776 LF $ 75.00 SUBTOTAL

$ $ $

TOTAL COST 627,614.06 118,320.00 745,934.06

A12.0

197


APPLIED STUDIES

FALL_16 ALL_16 ENVIRONMENT SYSTEMS SYSTEMS II ENVIRONMENTAL INSTRUC INSTRUCTORS sell Fortmeyer Fortme F Russell Jeff Randy Jefferson

STUDENT TEAM Andr Dassin Andre ey Hastings Has Ashley Jackson Lukas Evan Shaner

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Bogotá, Colombia is sandwiched between the connection points of Central and South America, located near the equator. Due to its location, Bogotá, and more speciically our site at the heart of the city, receives mostly harsh overhead sun, twelve hours per day, year-round. This is not to say that it is always warm in Bogotá – on the contrary, it has a tropical climate with an average temperature of approximately 60 degrees Fahrenheit and 32.4 cubic inches of average annual rainfall (upper quarter percentile in the world). Since Bogotá is in a tropical, equatorial region, it experiences a relatively high level of humidity ranging anywhere from 50% at it’s lowest and 99% at it’s highest. The rainy seasons in Bogotá occcur during late spring and late fall - April/May and October/November. Rainstorms occur frequently and often without warning during these times - typical for this subtropical climate. Due to Bogotá’s relatively high elevation for an urban setting - 8,359ft above sealevel - high winds are a frequent climate factor. Sustained winds averaging around 10-15mph often occur at a cooler temperature, helping to maintain Bogotá’s pleasant climate. Speaking speciically about our chosen site for our building, there are solar factors that we must take into account. The east and west façades experience the greatest solar loads, though to a lesser degree than locations further north. To combat excessive and dangerous solar heat, we advise providing some sort of offset or envelope (either able or not able to be occupied) that separates programmed space from the parts of the façade and loorspace that receives direct solar heat.

The gallery system is very important, as the temperature in these spaces must be carefully regulated in order to protect the exhibits and artwork. The proposed system incorporates internal air temperature regulation and almost never deals with any exterior temperature tampering. Cool, fresh air lows through the bottom loor plate via a louvered spandrel panel into a perimeter fan that then maintains the temperature as it is pushed into the gallery space. Additionally, air may pass through the ceilings via beams or light ittings and return to the temperature regulation cycle. The key to the ofice system is a double glazed window paneling that allows heat to be collected between glazing panes and then repurposed into the HVAC system. Simultaneously, cold air from the interior ofice lows through a vent at the edge of the inner glazing. This allows the cavity between the outer and inner windows to behave as a chimney. The cavity uses the cooler air from the occupied ofice lowing through the vent at loor level to create a pressure relief valve allowing fresh air to enter the interior ofice spaces. Hot air lows to the HVAC unit and functions as pre-heating or pre-cooling, depending on the outside air temperature. These abilities make this high performance facade system effective in Bogota’s moderate climate. These strategies help to mitigate the energy consumed by the HVAC system.

By rotating the building 45 degrees (so that the southeast and southwest façades receive the highest solar load), the sunlight is spread over a greater distance – or greater area – and thus the temperature per unit of area decreases. Our building proposes two façade systems: one façade scheme for the gallery spaces and another high performance façade system for the ofice spaces. These systems use a combination of natural ventilation and active mechanical heating and cooling. Implications of the cooler weather may lead to designing eficient systems focused on radiant heating in order to accommodate a ‘comfort zone’ around 72 degrees Fahrenheit. Programming within the building will accommodate a gallery/exhibition space, as well as administrative ofices. Left: Aerial view of Bogotá, Colombia

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The façade utilizes a double skin strategy to mitigate heat gain and maximize visibility, as well as a brick cladding which responds to the vernacular of our site, Bogotá. Bogotá is located on the equator in Colombia. The sun passes directly over our site, so the roof is the surface of the building that takes on the most solar heat gain. All façades receive a relatively equal amount of sun throughout the year, and if the building is rotated 45 degrees from its normal north/ south axis, the sun distributes more evenly throughout the year. Bogotá itself is located in a subtropical highland climate. Its location—approximately a mile and a half above sea-level—lends itself to moderately cooler temperatures during the day, with even chillier temperatures at night. Rainy seasons occur in late spring and late fall, while wind remains moderate throughout the year. Wind and rain did not pose as signiicant variables in terms of the façade design. Our initial proposals for the façade imagined a system where the double-glazing traps heat between the glass panels, and then repurposes the heat in the HVAC system. However, we have rejected this system for several reasons. First, because all façades of the building receive similar amounts of heat gain throughout the year, and also because the heat gain is minimized due to the rotation of the building. The façade therefore does not need a high-performance system since solar heat gain on the façade is not high. Second, the payoff of building the double skin system which repurposes heat gain through the mechanical system and utilizes a double slab system for looring would be too costly to build. Clients may not see proit from such an investment in construction for up to 70 years. Therefore, we rejected this system and considered an alternative that would better accommodate the forces in our site.

Our inal proposal for the façade comprises a layer of double glazed Low-E coated visibility glass. The inside is an operable, double-layered insulated glass unit. Between the two, heat is captured and ventilated out of the top of the Low-E coated unit. In the interest of visibility, the façade is not constructed with a third layer that would act as a rain screen or an obstruction of the sun. We rejected cantilevering the roof or perforated panels that cover the building to maintain visibility. The opaque area of the façade between each loor is made from prefabricated brick panels that extend from the top and bottom of each Low-E glazing unit. This undulating layer of brick wraps around the entire building and is most massive on the 2nd, 3rd and 4th gallery loors which have no glazing (in order to preserve wall space, prevent UV damage to artwork, minimize humidity, etc.). The gallery loors should have drywall where the ofice loors have windows, because gallery spaces need to be optimized for humidity control and exhibition wall space. The brick does not screen the sun. It’s a cladding that blends in with the myriad brick and masonry buildings in Bogotá. The cladding also acts as a rain barrier. It blocks water from touching the building, creates a cavity between it and the building to allow moisture to escape and helps deal with pressure caused by wind. Rain contacts this layer before hitting the building’s primary moisture barriers. Weep holes within the Low-E coating mullions and the cavity between the two glazing units allow moisture to escape through the louver.

We imagined that we could still trap heat within the double skin and use louvers to let the heat escape through the top of the outer glazing. The core is located in the center of the building and since Bogotá does not experience risks of earthquakes, a single central core is acceptable and not susceptible to seismic forces. The central core accommodates our gallery/ofice program well. Ofices occupy the perimeter of the building which receives light from the façade. Gallery space is also free and unobstructed around the perimeter.

Left: Preliminary render study of parametric brick façade

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Radiation AnalysisBOGOTA_COL1 JAN 1:00 - 31 DEC 24:00

Radiation AnalysisBOGOTA_COL21 JUN 12:00 - 21 JUN 13:00

Radiation AnalysisBOGOTA_COL21 DEC 12:00 - 21 DEC 13:00

Radiation AnalysisBOGOTA_COL1 JAN 1:00 - 31 DEC 24:00

Radiation AnalysisBOGOTA_COL 21 JUN 12:00 - 21 JUN 13:00

Radiation AnalysisBOGOTA_COL21 DEC 12:00 - 21 DEC 13:00

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Solar Insolation Studies AS3123 Environmental Systems II

Bogotá, Colombia Summer Solstice

Bogotá, Colombia Winter Solstice

Bogota, Columbia Winter Solstice

Bogotá, Colombia Summer Solstice

Bogotá, Colombia AS3123 Environmental Systems II

Sun Path - 9:00 AS3123 Environmental Systems II

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Sun Path - 9:00

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W T Restaurant

Administrative Offices

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Administrative Offices 12,000 10,000 8,000 6,000

Holding Storage, Offices

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Galleries

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Entry, Auditorium, Cafe, Gift Shop

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rainwater Su

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Occupancy Bogotá, Site Plan

AS3123 Environmental Systems II

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return air duct double low e glazing

exhaust air louver

louver operator

prefabricated brick panels air exhaust cavity

sprinlker

conduit

IT box

diffuser diffuser moisture barrier

insulation panel anchor

floor/slab standoff

primary panel bracing

operable window mullion

chilled beams

Gallery + Office Sections

Façade Section Detail

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AS3123 Environmental Systems II

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APPLIED STUDIES

Plumbing Riser Diagram + Fire Sprinkler Diagram

HVAC + Electrical Diagram

AS3123 Environmental Systems II

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DOWN UP

Typical Office Floor Plan AS3123 Environmental Systems II

DOWN UP

municipal

Façade Proposal AS3123 Environmental Systems II

Typical Gallery Floor Plan AS3123 Environmental Systems II

Andre Dassin, Ashley Hastings, Jackson Lukas, Evan Shaner

Left: Final presentation board including proposed plans, sections, HVAC diagram, plumbing riser diagram, façade exploration + environmental diagrams for Bogotá

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SPRING_16 ENVIRONMENT SYSTEMS SYSTEMS I ENVIRONMENTAL INSTRUC INSTRUCTORS Mazzol Ilaria Mazzoleni sell Fortmeyer Fortme F Russell

STUDENT TEAM Luiza de Souza a Harutyunyan Harutyuny Tamara ey Hastings Has Ashley Rat Elishah Ratansi W Abagael Warnars

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Right + Opposite Page: Sketches of ixture ideas

In our lighting design, we proposed to address ‘relectivity’ through the perspective of materiality. In our lighting design, our intent was to incorporate different materials, colors, and a hybrid of speciic materials and colors together. Our approach was to create a loor luminaire, approximately six feet tall, in the form of a square tower. The tower body will be made out of metal—either aluminum or steel— that would have openings approximately eight inches tall that span the width of each face of the ixture. Within these openings, the inside of the metal body would be lined with the material of our choosing. The location of each material would be organized in such a way that it creates a controlled approach to how the light is delivered, or received in the space. Within the tower body of the luminaire, we proposed a pulley system for the lamp and ballast. This pulley system would provide a manual method of interaction, much like controlling how window shades are raised and lowered. As the lamp is lowered, it would interact with each section’s material and/or color, create a different type of relectivity. Looking at our precedent studies, we found that the use of certain materials combined interestingly with a light source proved to be most important in these design projects. We decided to use this idea of materiality to pursue a design based on a calculated combination of aesthetics and form. Each of our precedents utilized the concept of relectivity in different ways, either by literally shining light on mirrors, or by using the material components of its pieces coupled with a light source to instead create a phenomenal sense of relectivity. We wanted to pursue both avenues of design in this way, in the hopes of inding a way to create a literal and phenomenal sense of relectivity. The interactivity component of this project introduced a few options for us -- either in a literal approach to interacting with the ixture itself, or looking at how the lamp interacts with its envelope and/or materials in order to create a relationship outside of the human-object connection. In this way, our intent was to have both. We liked the idea of a slower process or action, one in which a person could interact for any varied amount of time with the ixture and achieve a variety of lighting options. It is also important here that we create the relationship of the object with itself -- rather, how will the light interact with the ixture? Ivan Navarro’s piece, This Land is Your Land, utilizes a sense of verticality to play into his approach to relectivity. We proposed incorporating a similar method by using height and different levels as a way to further interact with the ixture. Design should be playful, thoughtful, and beautiful -- with these words in mind, we deined both relectivity and interactivity in fun and interesting ways. 209


Below: Mock-up of materials with study model, light tests Right: Sample swatches of materials used at each level

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Below: Process photos of study model, steel fabrication, and inal ixture

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1/8" STEEL SHEET -8" SQUARE CUT PIECES FOR SHADES 3/8" STEEL PLATE -12" SQUARE CUT PIECES FOR BASE

5’-0"

5'-6 5/16"

3/8" SQUARE STEEL RODS FOR MODULE LEGS

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ISOMETRIC VIEW SCALE: 1/8" = 1'-0"

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1/4” ROUND STEEL ROD -BENT TO HOLD PULLEY

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1/8” STEEL SHEET -WELDED TOGETHER TO CREATE MODULAR CLIP REMOVABLE PULLEY SYSTEM WITH TIEBACKS TO WRAP LAMP ELECTRICAL CORD

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3D PRINTED PULLEY SYSTEM -ABS PLASTIC, TO BE PAINTED BLACK

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FRONT ELEVATION SCALE: 1/8" = 1'-0"

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DETAIL SCALE: 1/8" = 1'-0"

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PULLEY DETAIL SCALE: 1/8" = 1'-0"

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During our design process and precedent research, the idea of materiality was discussed extensively. It was our intent to use raw, uninished materials for the body of the ixture in order to convey not only an industrial style and aesthetic, but also to use these materials in a way to control the levels of relectivity that we hoped to produce from the interior of each unit. Initially, we thought about using a casting or forming method to create the four-sided shades; however, the reality of using concrete in this capacity was not feasible. We instead looked to metalworking, speciically using a heavy gauge steel. To maintain this approach to a raw sensibility, we decided to use 1/8” steel plates, cut to size per our drawings -- 8” x 8” -- and TIG weld the plates together with a 3/8” square steel rod at each corner. As a result, the ixture is broken down into three main components: the base (a ixed house welded to a 1/4” steel plate), the house (primary body module), and the clip (a steel rod and plate combination that holds the pulley and lamp housing). The design is simple and, most importantly, maintains our desire for a fully modular ixture -- one that can be easily customized with any number of ‘houses’. Each ‘house’ unit is comprised of the four steel plates and rods, plus whatever interior material is used for each level of relectivity. The modular capability coupled with a well-executed selection of materials has given us not only an effective dimmable light source, but also a beautiful and intriguing design. Our proposal was based on precedents that focused on a geometrical or geodesic body, providing transparency in terms of how materials are used. The interactivity of the ixture is based on simple actions that anyone can take. Our proposed intended use locations included: Keck Hall at SCI-Arc, inside the living room area of one of our apartments, and also within a local bar. The varying levels of relectivity in our project will successfully provided ample lighting in all of these spaces.

Left: Light ixture installation inside living room Photo Credit: Ashley Hastings

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Left: Fixture installation at Resident, local bar in the Arts District, Los Angeles Photo Credit: Ashley Hastings

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FALL_15 ALL_15 TERIALS + TECTONICS TECTONICS MATERIALS INSTRUC INSTRUCTOR Pav Pavel Getov

STUDENT TEAM ey Hastings Has Ashley Jackson Lukas W Abagael Warnars

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Oscar Niemeyer’s master plan for Brasilia as the new capital of Brazil defined a new generation for not only South America, but also the rest of the world. During the 1960s, the modernist movement spread widely and quickly, and the rise of architects like Niemeyer, Le Corbusier, Johnson, and Mies van der Rohe was almost instantaneous. In partnership with engineer, Lucio Costa, Brasilia is a young city with ancient roots. The entire city was planned and built in four years. Niemeyer’s work spans across the city in the form of twenty-eight buildings, sixteen of which were built from the late 1950s to late 1960s. He is primarily known for his love of curvature and non-orthogonal forms. For this group project, we focused on the Museu Nacional (National Museum), part of the Complexo Cultural da Republica (the Cultural Complex of the Republic). The museum is recognized immediately for its domed structure -- in contrast to other well-known domes, namely Buckminster Fuller’s geodesic designs, the Museum is much more hemispheric instead of being spherical and raised above the ground on a sort of plinth. We wanted to take the idea of the dome as a habitable space, an interior without corners, an exterior without recognizable features... and re-form it. We created elevational studies of a sphere, and raised and lowered it from ground level. The resulting potential elevations -- shown at 10%, 30%, 60%, and 90% -- show us how the typical form of a dome can go from being completely occupiable, to completely unoccupiable. At human scale and greater, a domed structure that is 10% above the ground is impossible to stand comfortably inside. With each iteration, it becomes more possible to move from the exterior to the interior. These opportunities create new relationships with the space in and around the dome. Looking to the interior, the dome introduces a space without corners. This can be disorienting for occupants -- corners give definition, provide scale, allow for orienting oneself inside a space; on the other hand, a rooms or halls without corners also become volumes without end, volumes that give the illusion of infinity. Domes provide contrast. Our everyday worlds are filled with orthogonal, gridded geometries. Niemeyer’s architecture worked against the routine building, and gave the world complexity in its simplest form. Left: 3D printed models showing dome + ground relationships Photo Credit: Ashley Hastings

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Left: Museo Nacional de la RepĂşblica en Brasilia Below: Process photos depicting 90% dome creation

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Above: Layered elevation diagram of domes and their relationship to ground + humans Left: Plan and Elevation diagrams of domes at different levels of exposure

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Above + Left: Final plaster model -- one side is smooth and the other left uninished to show material aesthetic and process

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WORKSHOP

FALL_16 ALL_16 OMOGRAPHIC FIGURES TOMOGRAPHIC INSTRUCTOR INSTRUC Curime Batliner

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In this introductory workshop, students will use a worklow combining 3D scanning equipment with industrial robots to recreate a contemporary device similiar to the chronophotographic gun by Ă&#x2030;tienne-Jules Marey. Students will operate an industrial robot, 3D scan a human body and coordinate robotic motion with a sequence of images on a latscreen using long exposure image capturing. The inal outcome will be a series of tomographic images of the human igure in motion, captured and redrawn in space using light as a medium. -- Curime Batliner, Instructor + Robot Master

Left: Body in motion Photo Credit: Eadweard Muybridge

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Left: Tomographic representation of body in back bend Below: Process photos showing utilization of robots, Maya, and photography

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Left: Tomographic representation of body at rest Below: Tomographic representations of all classmates in workshop

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HISTORY + THEORY

SPRING_17 ORY OF ARCHITECTURE ARCHITECTURE + URBANISM HISTORY

INSTRUC INSTRUCTOR John May

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HISTORY + THEORY Short essay in response to Peter Sloterdijk’s ‘Cell Block, Egospheres, Self-Container’ (Spheres III: Foams, 2016), Spring 2017 The often-subconscious act of self-pairing occurs as one attempts to intimately (re)deine one’s relationship with oneself. In Sloterdijk’s essay, Cell Block, Egospheres, Self-Container, he posits that out of the two most successful architectural innovations of the 20th century, the apartment serves as a model environment for one to explore activities of the self and to seek deeper understanding of one’s individualism. The apartment becomes the place where one is able to ‘reunite’ with oneself – during this time in the 20th century, the advent of the diary or personal journal becomes quite popular in advancing inward-looking relections of the self, advancing one’s knowledge of his own actions, behaviors, and relationships. Also at this time, the mirror begins to serve as the physical manifestation of actual self-relection and introduces itself into one’s daily routine, introducing a new self-activity, that of ‘self-adjustment’. The mirror ‘emphasized the contribution of this paradigmatic, ego-technological device in the transition from sensual relection in the other to so-called self relection’.

Without self-pairing, there can be no development of the egosphere, both in tangible and intangible ways. The egosphere as a physical environment is motivated by these selfrelationships that can only occur when one is self-aware. While the act of self-pairing and the cultivation of self-relationships may seem lonely or require one to be ‘partnerless’ or alone, the reality of the egosphere is that one will never be alone when one has successfully self-paired; on the contrary, the relationship with oneself via the apartment (or similar) yields a solid foundation upon which one may build his/her life with others.

Self-pairing deals with the relationship of one to oneself, and in the understanding of Sloterdijk’s egosphere, is the primary act of the ego navigating and negotiating itself with the surrounding environment. In its entirety, the apartment serves as the modern monk’s quarters, a cellular living unit that encompasses all requisites for single human existence. One person with one room, one cooking area, one lavatory, one mirror, and one intimate sexual relationship with oneself – these are all elements that serve to further one’s healthy, positive, modern existence in the larger, collective environment. In Sloterdijk’s words, the apartment acts as an atomic or elementary ‘egospheric’ form, or cellular world bubble – wherein the self experiences liberation from the collective and may seek to nurture these self-relationships. In an effort to nurture these relationships, the apartment ‘is simultaneously a cave and a stage, [and it] provides accompaniment for the debut of the individual as it does for his return back into irrelevance.’ Here, one understands the dual responsibility of the apartment as an active environment that acts not only as one that invites others in, but also as one that keeps others out in order to maintain a self-sanctuary. Self-pairing and other self-relationships can only occur and be sustained when the apartment behaves as a sanctuary, or cave in this case, so that the privacy and dignity of the individual as he seeks to develop these associations is protected and cultivated.

Left: Kosmisk Rum, Tróndor Patursson, 2003 Photo Credit: Ashley Hastings

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HISTORY + THEORY

FALL_16 ALL_16 ARCHITECTURE CULTURE CULTURE II ARCHITECTURE INSTRUCTOR INSTRUC Alex ex Maymind

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HISTORY + THEORY Complete essay, ‘Total Space: How Modernism Idealized Urban Planning Through Two Schools of Thought, Old and New’, Fall 2016 There is an innate satisfaction and deep sense of pleasure in identifying symmetrical elements in an often-classiied-as chaotic world: the particular arrangement of toiletry items around a vanity sink; the horizontal and vertical alignments of frames along a gallery wall; the perfectly rectilinear and spatially proportionate loor plan of a Palladian villa. Each of these idiosyncratic moments offers a sense of order and acts as a symbol of seamless union. Symmetry in architecture provides a basis for formal comparison, not only for the physical characteristics of a building or its architectural elements, but also for evaluating diagrammatic pieces of a project’s functional program. In the case of diagramming, a typical understanding of symmetry may not be obvious, but the byproduct of symmetrical design will be: perfectly proportioned geometry, uniication, and order. Similar to how symmetrical design can instill a sense of coherence, peace, and understanding, pattern recognition in both diagrammatic and actual built elements seeks to produce a comparable experience, and acts as a catalyst in terms of revising how architects approach city planning. While the Modernist movement is known to have thumbed its nose at Tradition and its archaic approval of a symmetrical aesthetic, it is through the concept of producing order, equality, unity, and a more democratic method of design that architecture and urban design were propelled from the latter half of the 1800s into a modern twentieth century. As a result of this move into modernism, two seemingly alike yet altogether divergent organizations formed, (consecutively, one out of the other) offering potential solutions to the problems affecting European cities in both pre- and post-war times by utilizing functional and rational design methods. The projects developed by the architects within CIAM and Team 10 during the 1900s were borne out of a common mission to create better cities; however, each organization offered opposing answers to the question of ‘how’ this mission would be fulilled. The proposals—some built, some unbuilt—addressed the iniltration and integration of modernism in urban design by comparing conceptual towers and mid-rise apartments, discrete city centers and sprawling infrastructure, integrated greenspace and community gardens, and the rise of mass transportation in contrast to consideration for the individual. In 1928, the Congrès Internationaux d’Architecture Moderne (CIAM) formed and became the most inluential gathering of Europe’s leading modern architects. With Le Corbusier,

Left: Mat Building Diagram, Piet Blom

Hendrik Berlage, and Siegfried Giedion (as secretary and resident historian) at the forefront, CIAM set the standard and wrote the manifestoes for how the world would be impacted by the modern architecture movement. CIAM was comprised of twenty-eight architects primarily from Switzerland, Germany, Italy, France, the Soviet Union, and the Netherlands. Over the course of nearly thirty years, the group held conferences around Europe to relect on issues addressing their work and current projects, as well as how to further the grander scheme of developing ‘The Functional City’. Similar to his approach of creating a ‘machine for living’ with his residential projects, Le Corbusier and the other twenty-seven members of CIAM sought to mechanize the city at large and impact the realm of urban planning through a rational tactic of categorizing, or zoning, areas of the city for distinct elements of life. This deductive grouping of living essentials directly relected a simpliied version of human life, in both urban and rural capacities, and offered a basis for developing compelling and thoughtfully constructed cities—CIAM identiied these categories as: dwelling, work, recreation, and transportation. As a prime example of these distinctions, Le Corbusier offered his concept of Ville Radieuse (The Radiant City) to serve as a tabula rasa for new urban design. While completely logical, there is a cold, almost sterile read in the understanding of Le Corbusier’s proposal. Mid-rise apartment towers next to highrise corporate towers in the center of the city serve as uniform living spaces for the masses, answering the call of a new social housing contract. Thousands of people—large and small families alike—would be able to live and comfortably operate in these ifty-meter-tall towers, as they not only provided physical shelter. Each of the towers, or unités, would house a community space, kindergarten, pool, and other similar amenities in order to accommodate the immediate needs of growing families, small children, and also the comfort of childless tenants. This approach to consolidated design creates a kind of repeatable, vertical village, in a sense. In this way, Le Corbusier aimed to develop uniformity and order outside the immediate city center, but still within the greater metropolitan area—because of this approach to urban expansion, geometry then experiences no limits. Due to its tessellated architectural features, the city begins to grow not only horizontally, but also extensively into the sky. The new city begins to radiate, physically and metaphorically. Its radiance, additionally, is expressed through its order and geometric alignments, equity

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of space, appropriated gardens, and mechanization of the city through increased utilization of mass transportation. As stated in his foreword in The City of Tomorrow and its Planning : Geometry is the means, created by ourselves, whereby we perceive the external world and express the world within us. Geometry is the foundation. It is also the material basis on which we build those symbols which represent to us perfection and the divine. It brings with it the noble joys of mathematics. Machinery is the result of geometry. The age in which we live is therefore essentially a geometrical one; all its ideas are orientated in the direction of geometry. Despite all of their proposed work and conferences, CIAM disbanded, and some of its members came together in a newer, younger, and wilder group of architects: Team 10. Founded foggily out of the dissolution of CIAM XI in Otterlo, the Netherlands in 1959, the members of Team 10 referred to themselves as a small family group of architects who have sought each other out because each has found the help of the others necessary to the development and understanding of their own individual work. Team 10’s modus operandi focused on a similar approach to CIAM’s method of urban planning; however, with the ‘core’ members including Jacob Bakema, Aldo van Eyck, Alison and Peter Smithson, Georges Candilis, and Shadrach Woods, a freer design aesthetic was encouraged, and while still impeccably logical, Team 10’s less rigid planning approach began to take shape in the form of mat buildings. Mat buildings are repeatable units, designed to be easily manipulated (by rotation in the x direction), and have all of their layouts, accesses, daylighting conventions, and ventilation requirements solved —as the focus is on perfecting the functional elements of the unit, the formal interest and language can be read on how the assembly of pieces occurs in plan. While in 1924 Ville Radieuse proposed perfectly geometric forms and layout, the Smithsons developed an urban plan for the Berlin Hauptstadt competition in 1957. This plan differed from Le Corbusier’s in that it focused primarily on the idea of connection in the city through transportation and mobility, as well as the integration of mat buildings as the primary architectural element. This approach to urban planning

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looked at creating systems, or buildings as organisms with the ability to ‘grow’ and expand in ways that would not disturb the initial agglomeration of units; this system of architectural elements would offer a less rigid, less Brave New World segregation of areas, but still a mechanized, modern plan for cities. Mat buildings responded to a highly-interwoven structure that was supposed to be able to grow in space in a potentially unlimited way and to be modiied in the course of time, adapting to the multiple contingencies that would take place. In the case of the Berlin Hauptstadt competition entry, Peter and Alison Smithson designed the city plan with mat buildings, in a way that would act as a cellular structure. The cellular design would allow for “the feeling of change, so that buildings, roads and services can develop freely according to their own laws without compromising the development as a whole.” Similar to how Le Corbusier wanted to allocate speciic urban functions to speciic areas of the grid, the Smithson’s Hauptstadt plan was instead divided into corridors with discrete functional purposes for both pedestrians and automobiles. This notion of addressing the city in a horizontal, cellular way, as well as developing verticality through layers of these functions maintains with it a deep relationship with the individual—in place of the rigid and sterile mechanization of the city à la mode du Corbusier, the Smithsons’ proposal addresses how individuals can help to create their cities by determining the extent of function, instead of vice versa. Other prime examples of this low-rise, mat building plan can be seen in the Smithson’s Freie Universtät Berlin (the Free University in Berlin; seen above, Fig 5) and, on a smaller scale, in Aldo van Eyck’s Municipal Orphanage in Amsterdam. Nicolai Ouroussoff discusses Team 10 in his article for the New York Times, “In the group’s ability to slip so casually between scales—embracing both narrow urban alleys and sprawling neighborhoods—its work anticipates the freewheeling computer-generated designs of today.” Similarly divided into functional sectors, the orphanage was designed to accommodate children of all ages, and would house them in units comprised of sleeping quarters, a kitchen, laundry room, gymnasium, library, and administrative spaces. Van Eyck considered this project as a small urban study. Most notably at this time, in van Eyck’s essay ‘Steps Toward a Conigurative Discipline’, he states that “a house must be like a small city if it’s to be a real house, a city like a large


HISTORY + THEORY

house if it’s to be a real city.” Here we come to understand the personal relationship developed between housing and the larger urban context, one that Team 10 sought to further develop and understand, more so than their contemporaries in CIAM. In this way, we see the successes of radial symmetry paired with distinct pattern recognition of repeatable facilities in modern architecture. Architect Jacob (Jaap) Bakema, a colleague of van Eyck’s in Team 10, summarized these ideas under the terms architecturbanism and total space. These terms helped to deine how Team 10’s approach to urban design expanded on the unité concept, and created neighborhood units and residential districts within the larger metropolitan area that would directly impact a city’s infrastructure. During the early-to-mid-1900s, the conceptual framework of modernism evolved due to the devastating effects of two world wars—priorities shifted from economic eficiency, rationalization, standardization, existence minimum, and the disavowal of history, to totalities, integration, relationships, neighborhoods, communities, socio-geographic differentiation, identity, and history; from physical needs to spiritual aspirations, from idealism to reality as it is, from top-down rationalist methods to more empirical bottom-up processes, from universalism to a modern architecture that existed in a particular physical, social, and historical context, a postwar modern architecture that was based on the core values they could agree on: particularity, integration, and change. No longer only a matter of sustaining physical needs, the modernist movement took on the added responsibility of nourishing the hierarchical needs of the people in order to create a semblance of utopic urban life. Both the members of CIAM and the members of Team 10 sought to further the proposed ideal of ‘the Functional City’, either in ways of pure mechanization of the urban environment in Le Corbusier’s , or through consideration of the individual’s impact on the growth of cities in the Smithsons’ Berlin Hauptstadt plan. While sharing similar ideals as well as opposing methods, both groups took action in the modernist era through appreciation and emulation of symmetrical values, implementation of urban order through repeatable elements, and creation of unity with village-like elements residing within complex cellular units. Though the problem of housing and the ineficiencies of urban design still prevail worldwide, the works proposed and those that were completed during the early-to-mid-twentieth century provide an excellent foundation upon which we can build, up and out. Right: Plan Diagram, Ville Radieuse, Le Corbusier

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SPRING_16 ARCHITECTURE CULTURE CUL ARCHITECTURE I INSTRUCTOR INSTRUC Dora Epstein-Jones, Dor ein-Jones, PhD

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HISTORY + THEORY Excerpt taken from ‘Maximum Chameleons’, a reponse to Timothy Morton’s Masterclass led by Dora Epstein-Jones, Spring 2016 Looking to nature for sustainable answers not only requires design acumen or a solid understanding of architecture or engineering, but also the ability to think on a larger temporal scale. It requires critical thinking, application of tested design principles and long-term planning. No longer is it suficient to think ive, ten, or twenty years in advance in terms of urban planning and critical civilization forecasting; no, now we are to look hundreds, potentially thousands of years into the future in order to create better lives today. Simply meditating on (and not yet attempting to answer) the question of ‘what will the world be like in one thousand years?’ may take more energy and more creativity, that one may be unable to actually muster any sort of initial response. This is a big question, but it pales in comparison to a project that sustainable thinker, Danny Hillis, and Amazon. com founder, Jeff Bezos are collaborating on: the 10,000-year Clock. According to the Clock’s website, an introduction written by Bezos states casually, “[Danny Hillis]’s been thinking about and working on the Clock since 1989. He wanted to build a Clock that ticks once a year, where the century hand advances once every 100 years, and the cuckoo comes out on the millennium. The vision was, and still is, to build a Clock that will keep time for the next ten thousand years.” In partnership with The Long Now Foundation, the 10,000-year clock is precisely what it sounds like. The proposed mechanical engineering feat has been borne out of the idea (and really, the necessity) of developing and encouraging long-term thinking. In order to continue to grow and develop at the rates of the current human race, we must realign our processes and priorities. Here is a passage from Stewart Brand, founding board member of The Long Now Foundation, on the essential nature of long-term thinking: Civilization is revving itself into a pathologically short attention span. The trend might be coming from the acceleration of technology, the short-horizon perspective of market-driven economics, the next-election perspective of democracies, or the distractions of personal multi-tasking. All are on the increase. Some sort of balancing corrective to the shortsightedness is needed—some mechanism or myth which encourages the long view and the taking of long-term responsibility, where ‘longterm’ is measured at least in centuries. Long Now proposes both a mechanism and a myth.

Left: Atomium, Brussels, Belgium + Google’s Deep Dream Generator Photo Credit: Ashley Hastings

The 10,000-year Clock is not a chameleon, but it is a means by which to measure the continued existence of the chameleon (and its friends, the humans), and so it must be respected as a method of tracking the achievement of supreme adaptability. An undertaking like this Clock is unparalleled and dificult to grasp, even for one as myself who believes in evolution and its timescale. Similar to Michael Pawlyn and his irm, Exploration Architecture, The Long Now Foundation is taking the understanding of 3.8 billion years of historic evolution, and attributing that potential to the (supposed) living future of Planet Earth by looking ahead a wee ten thousand years. While only a tiny stitch in the fabric of time, the concept of this level of forecasting is foreign and, likely, uncomfortable for many. Utilizing this method of long-term thinking, not only am I conining (conirming?) my own existence (as an individual human), but also I am distancing myself with the understanding that my actions in this lifetime may not, in fact, have immediate impact on those of my successors; however, as a world society, we who live today in the year 2016 have already exhausted many of the natural resources previously abundant only thirty, ifty, or one hundred years ago. It is time for a major paradigm shift in terms of planning— culturally, architecturally, and now more than ever, temporally. The science-iction television show Doctor Who initially began in 1963 —during a completely different era than our own. During that time, the world was obsessed with the potential for space travel, rocketing off into other worlds, exploring other galaxies that someday we could potentially call Home. The show has survived for decades now with myriad regenerations of the Doctor and countless companions on their timeless adventures. The Doctor is able to transcend space and time by traveling in his spaceship, the TARDIS (Time and Relative Dimension in Space) , conspicuously shaped like a police call box (telephone booth) from the 1950s. In a big way, the Doctor is a sustainable designer. He is deinitely able to see the big picture timeline (he is the last remaining Timelord, after all) in terms of who we are in the Universe. In a few of the episodes from the mid-2000s, the Doctor and his companion travel to New Earth (the resultant of the destruction of our known Earth) to visit New New York (or rather, New New New New New New New New New New New New New New New York , as it has been rebuilt ifteen times [see also: consistent city planning, thorough continuity]). Despite its obvious ‘futuristic’

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upgrades, New New York is easily discernible as a familiar city from our Earth—but why is this? It seems that, in the future, we still cannot seem to get away from modern architecture. Sustainable design does not always yield new, innovative, and/or unfamiliar aesthetics, nor does it need to. Matthew Newcomb, an assistant professor of English at SUNY New Paltz, in his essay, Sustainability as a Design Principle in Composition, references designer Mike Nickerson when he notes that “…activities are sustainable when they do three things: ‘use materials in continuous cycles’; ‘use continuously reliable sources of energy’; and ‘come mainly from the qualities of being human (i.e. creativity, communication, coordination, appreciation, and spiritual and intellectual development)’” . He continues, in his own words, saying that “[s]ustainable design means thinking about ‘how we should live our lives’ in ways that take long-term and nonhuman interests into account” . This thought perfectly articulates what it means to design and build ecologically—to design with human and nonhuman effects in mind, to look ahead to a future that may or may not contain humans or nonhumans or both, but to design something that will withstand and not cause harm to the environment in which it (whatever ‘it’ is) exists. In this sense, we can look to the chameleon again—he may or may not outlive the human race, but in our sustainable future, he will die in an environment that at least considered him.

take. Humans, on the other hand, continue to take and exploit and exhaust the resources currently available without much regard to replenishing what we have depleted. At this point in time, it is not necessary to argue for sustainable design and to really tap into the power of biomimicry in order to create a more dependable future; instead, it is something that just must be. We live in a world where we know that our resources are limited, but still we (over)use them. Much like species extinction, we are now facing resource extinction. Now is the time to pay close attention to those who have existed longer than we, to those less concerned with their own self-interests and instead (innately) embrace the approach to the greater good. The chameleons will never know.

It is the act of consideration that is perhaps too taxing on societies at large—what with all of the current, pressing issues of the day. Looking ahead is dificult, but it must be done. In the case of animals and nonhumans, one could very clearly state that the role of identity in nature is innate, or subconscious. Nonhumans understand, somehow, that they have speciic purposes in life and parts to play in the grander scheme of the ecosystem. It is how systems function—according to Meadows, “a system is an interconnected set of elements that is coherently organized in a way that achieves something.” Systems are required for, in this case, sustainable design to advance and for, long-term thinking, civilization to continue to grow and evolve. We are not unlike the ants building endless miles of underground tunnels or the meerkats building endless…miles…of tunnels. Or, termites! Or, any other animals burrowing through the earth to create a solid infrastructure and network that will sustain its community for however long is needed. Nature does not govern itself by time— it simply is. Nonhumans exist in a world that they create for themselves that does not require any more than they can give or

Left: Design Museum Ceiling, Copenhagen, Denmark + Google’s Deep Dream Generator Photo Credit: Ashley Hastings

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FALL_15 ALL_15 INTRODUCTION TO TO CONTEMPORARY INTRODUCTION ARCHITEC ARCHITECTURE INSTRUCTOR INSTRUC Todd odd Gannon, PhD

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HISTORY + THEORY Excerpt taken from ‘Does Architecture Really Speak for Itself?’, Fall 2015

Each piece of architecture is built within its own ‘-ism’— formalism, functionalism, modernism, realism, neoclassicism, etc. In the case of Reyner Banham’s essay The New Brutalism, the title period in contemporary architecture is discussed, wherein he describes this style as being a confounding of cubism and futurism, ultimately created as a relection of modern socialism. Brutalism uses a language all its own—unadulterated concrete, big repeated forms that created particular zones within the plan. It is characterized precisely by its brutality, its je m’en foutisme, which literally translates to its ‘I don’t give a fuck-ness’. Brutalism is about pure honesty in terms of communicating form and function through the use of raw, uncompromising materials. During this time, architecture is underdone, interesting, and harsh. According to Banham, the language of the Brutalist style follows three rules: it is ‘uncompromisingly frank about its materials’, the ‘plan is very formal in the disposition of its main elements’, and it ‘makes a kind of symmetry’. It is as a result of the use of materials that Le Corbusier states ‘L’Architecture, c’est, avec des Matières Bruts, établir des rapports émouvants’—Architecture, with its use of raw materials, establishes an emotional relationship. Brutalist buildings, designed by architects like Alison and Peter Smithson, Le Corbusier, and Louis Kahn, evoke emotions and reactions within us… Or, do we only feel and respond as a result of interpretation, either our own or through the words of critics? Do materials have their own universal message? The language of architecture utilizes grammatical tools of composition in order to speak to the world—buildings tell us that they are experientially similar to another by the layout of their loor plans. They communicate with us using symbols and signs, guiding or comforting us as we wander through their corridors. They remind us of what they are based on, their styles and their relationships of materials to one another. In his essay La Dimension Amoreuse, George Baird refers to the linguist Roman Jakobson and how he uses metaphor and metonymy to characterize certain works of art and architecture. Here, Jakobson deines metaphor as a relation of substitution, and metonymy as a relation of contiguity, or continuous connection. In describing Mies van der Rohe’s Farnsworth house, one can see that the entire structure—while relatively ‘house-like’—is one big metaphor for the normative term of ‘house’. The exterior walls are all glass, providing no privacy or insulation, but alluding to the idea of what we understand to

Left: The Hunstanton School, Alison + Peter Smithson, 1954 Photo Credit: Nigel Henderson

be a common wall. The house is elevated at both the terrace and foundation levels, alluding to a structure more like a temple, not a residence. The use of metaphor in architecture reminds us of similarities between projects, no matter how divergent they may be. However, it is when we attribute such things as architectural words, metaphors, and semantics to these works, the building no longer speaks for itself; instead, we are applying our own interpretation and signiicance to the structure. In this way, we allow for argument and debate of the actual meaning of the building itself. It begins to lose its voice and identity as we fabricate our own deinitions, regardless of what it actually is. By providing our own commentary, we silence the building… Or, are we giving it the voice it could never have? [...] While there are countless questions, the language of architecture answers many, but not all. This language is understood by everyone, even at its most basic level. A building tells us who designed it, where to enter, how to circulate, what to do, and when to leave. It does not, however, tell us why. In this regard, we are left to our own devices of interpretation and understanding of the space, by visual cues, and by any commentary left by the architect. Therefore, architecture does not speak for itself, and instead only offers two avenues of articulation: statements of obvious expression (i.e. the layout of a lobby, single-family residential loor plans), and (still more) questions of content (i.e. what do these materials represent culturally/periodically to you? why do you go this direction and not the other?). Our buildings have a lot to say. It is our responsibility to hear them, and to then help them be understood through translation and interpretation.

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Complete essay, ‘RRR’, Fall 2015 -- also published by Underscore, Spring 2016

There are no original ideas. There are no special moments. “What has been will be again, what has been done will be done again; there is nothing new under the sun.” It has all been done— even as I write this, I am paraphrasing a Barenaked Ladies song lyric. The readings from our inal week of coursework discussed ideas in the realm of object-oriented ontology, architectural discourse, and inding real comparisons between seemingly fundamentally different objects. While attempting to discuss new ideas, these readings primarily ind alternate ways to echo older concepts. As a response to these readings and those discussed during this term, I would like to propose my own theoretical approach to architecture by taking an idea from our ecologically-minded friends: RRR, or Triple-R. You are likely familiar with this approach, because it is certainly not a new idea, as it is otherwise known as ‘Reduce. Reuse. Recycle’. Using the RRR method, critical analysis can be made in relation to Bernard Tschumi’s discussion of the Pyramid and Labyrinth alongside Tom Wiscombe’s references to lat ontology and emergence theory; Jason Payne’s essay on doppelgangers and Gilles Deleuze’s critique of the simulacra; and also, how Friedrich Nietzsche’s genealogical discourse as it relates to my original thesis on the Holmes’ quote/Ecclesiastes 1:9. There are no special moments. There are no original ideas. Comparison and analysis fuels philosophers and theorists, but architecture persists purposefully through replication. REDUCE. Both Tschumi and Nietzsche discuss a simpliication in the organization of ideas, either by way of the Pyramid or through essences, respectively. For Tschumi’s, the Pyramid, or ultimate model of reason, in terms of space, describes that the “architectural object is pure language and that architecture is an endless manipulation of the grammar and syntax of the architectural sign.” He goes on to describe how architectural objects are thus reduced to being self-referential—“Forms do not follow functions but refer to other forms, and functions relate to symbols.” In this sense, one can then refer to Tom Wiscombe’s essay Discreteness, or Towards a Flat Ontology of Architecture. Here, Wiscombe discusses the reduction of objects in terms of a lat ontology. Instead of a generic partto-whole philosophy, he describes a way of architectural elements—mass, interior, surface articulation, ground—being whole parts that correlate to each other, that empathize with each other. In other words, each discrete part is no longer a component of a larger whole, but now are individual wholes that

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exist equally but differently. This reading of part-to-whole can be likened to the reduction of objects to a description of their essences, or rather, their ‘inward nature, true substance, or constitution of anything’ (according to dictionary.com). Objects are thus reduced, but also are given a more complete status in that they are deined by themselves and not by their parts. REUSE. Ideas, concepts, and movements in architecture have been primarily founded on the practice of copying. The philosopher Gilles Deleuze goes into great detail on the idea of copies and simulacra in his essay, Plato and the Simulacrum. These supericial iterations of a style or concept can lead to false reproductions. Similarly, architect Jason Payne introduces the notion of doppelgängers, or the ghostly image or remnant of a living (present) thing or being. Payne uses this term to compare two seemingly different entities—an asteroid, and an Albanian bunker—to create a closeness between the objects. Payne breaks down his comparison of the asteroid and bunker as both being: big, black, and blank—three completely vague yet (in context) completely relevant adjectives. Together the concepts of false iterations or copies (simulacra), and of the evil twin (doppelgänger) are borne out of a strategy of reuse in architectural philosophy and theory. By copying a style or concept, it becomes reiied, reafirmed as a concrete thing. Classicism had been done by the Greeks and Romans thousands of years ago—Neo-Classicism was not a new idea, but the simulacra of repeated antiquity. In the same way that doppelgängers present us with two or more inherently unlike things, by comparing their differences, they become complete iterations of each other. Reuse becomes a standard operation in furthering architectural practice in ‘new’ and ‘innovative’ ways. RECYCLE. The argument of historical precedents versus genealogy in philosophy goes back and forth between the notion that there is a disconnect between eras or movements of thought. For example, in the history of architecture, historical precedents tell us that each concept comes from a linear descendant (one after the other). Genealogy, on the other hand, takes a more deeply rooted understanding of concepts and sees them as being closely linked, each inluencing the next in some way, similar to how the act of recycling works. By recycling a material, it is given an opportunity for new life and a new way of being, but only within the constraints of its physicality. Similarly, architectural theories and movements


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Wiscombe states in The Object Turn: A Conversation, “Discoveries in architecture are clearly different from discoveries in science, because they can only be assessed based on their cultural relevance at any given time.” From the perspective of Triple-R (RRR), as well as the verse from Ecclesiastes/Sherlock Holmes, it must be argued that in fact there are no discoveries in architecture, because each ‘new’ idea is simply a restatement of a previous thought or action. If it can be called a theory of practice, RRR can be accurately applied to architectural philosophy, past and present. For example, the theory of Object Oriented Ontology (OOO) gives us the concept that objects exist equally but differently to human beings and vice versa. While this could be contested, RRR gives us a way of understanding how OOO can exist in current architectural discourse. There are no original ideas—architectural theory simply gives us a means to observe and to analyze; through reducing concepts, reusing their fundamental properties, and recycling forms, new ideas may not necessarily be created, but old ones can be perpetuated. The discourse can and will continue, and new generations can be included—after all, it is not only about the design, but also about how architecture is discussed. Our means and methods will never be new or truly innovative, but they can be purely provocative based on how language offers a different description, and how the practice of RRR is utilized in each case.

RRR

are recycled over time, each time re-introduced in a more progressive or more developed way, but only able to be advanced within their own philosophical or ideological constraints. On this topic, Deleuze quotes Friedrich Nietzsche, “For we moderns have nothing of our own. We only become worth notice by illing ourselves to overlowing with foreign customs, arts, philosophies, religions, and sciences; we are wandering encyclopedia…You can only explain the past by what is highest in the present.” We are only capable of becoming what we are (or could be) based on our materiality—architectural objects are equally restrained, and the act of recycling proves it.

REDUCE. REUSE. RECYCLE.

(YOUR ARCHITECTURE)

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THANK YOU FOR YOUR CONSIDERATION.


Collectanea  

Second Year -- complete works from 2015-2017 from SCI-Arc M.Arch I candidate, Ashley Morgan Hastings

Collectanea  

Second Year -- complete works from 2015-2017 from SCI-Arc M.Arch I candidate, Ashley Morgan Hastings

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