You had to be There: Experiments in Time and Space

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YOU HAD TO BE THERE Experiments in time and space ASHLEY NICOLE MORGAN

YOU HAD TO BE THERE. Experiments in time and space. ASHLEY NICOLE MORGAN

Intermediate Exam. Main topic. Bachelor Integrated Design TH Kรถln/University of Applied Sciences, Faculty for Cultural Studies, Kรถln International School of Design Under the supervision of: Prof. Nina Juric, Image and Motion department




1.1. Description



1.2. Space


1.3. Time


3.1.1. Background


1.4. Effects


3.1.2. Concept





2.ELEMENTS 2.1. Visuals

3.1. DÉJÀ VU

3.1.4. Key visual


3.1.5. Storyboard

2.1.1. Storytelling


2.1.2. Software

15 Video


2.1.3. Projector

16 Spatial


2.2. Space

2.2.1. Spatial Design

2.2.2. Material Experiment


3.1.6. Design Decisions

3.1.7. Technical 18 Video

37 Spatial

38 Selection


3.1.8. Final result

39 Experiment


3.1.9 Behind the scenes




3.2.1. Background


3.3.1. Background


3.2.2. Concept


3.3.2. Concept


3.2.3. Moodboard


3.3.3. Moodboard


3.2.4. Inspiration


3.3.4. Key visual


3.2.5. Key visual


3.3.5. Storyboard


3.2.6. Storyboard


3.3.6. Design Decisions

3.2.7. Design Decisions Video

67 68 Video

51 Spatial Spatial


3.2.8. Technical

3.3.7. Technical Video

69 Video

53 Spatial

70 Spatial


3.3.8. Final result


3.2.9. Final result


3.3.9 Behind the scenes


3.2.10 Behind the scenes






The following experiments explore video installations and particularly, the intersection between visual narratives through projections and the spaces in which they occur. Video installations are designed to bring visuals and space together to tell a story or portal an idea. The video can be displayed on televisions, computer screens or on a surface through a projection. The following research and experiments are focused only on projector based video installations. I chose projections as my medium of choice because: 1. projections are more versatile than screens and can be applied to almost any surface 2. they are portable and fitting to temporal situations. Through the use of projections, surfaces are transformed into a narrative space; meaning the surface takes

on another life and is expanded beyond its reality. As the surface fades out of focus and the visuals come to the forefront, reality becomes fiction, and fiction becomes reality. In this text, I begin with a theoretical analysis of video installations and the elements necessary for their existence. I address several questions including: “What is a video installation?”, “What are the elements of time and space in relation to a video installation?” and “What effects on a visitor does a video installation promote?”. Next, a brief introduction of spatial design and the elements which were beneficial to my video installation planning are covered. Finally, I document the decisions leading up to and the resulting experiments and scale models. Through research, I learned that video installations are com-



Video installations usually come along with a rather large price tag. Therefore, they usually seek economic sponsorship from commercial or public entities. This means, they must have detailed plans, models and prototypes in order to sell the idea to get funding.1 Because of this, I designed my experiments after this model. Each experiment conveys a different concept, whose visuals and space simultaneously work together to portray an idea or tell a story and are accompanied by a scaled prototype model.

1 Morse, Margaret. “Video Installation Art: The Body, the Image and the Space-in-Between.� Illuminating Video: an Essential Guide to Video Art. Ed. Steve Dietz. New York: Aperture Foundation, Inc., 1990. 153-167 p 155.

prised of overlapping, multiple dimensions of time and space; because of this, these principles were also deeply intertwined with the experiments. The final section aims to gives an insight into the way I worked as a designer to visualize concepts and use time and spaces to create an experience.


Déjà vu Concept

1.1. Description 1.2. Space 1.3. Time 1.4. Effects





2 Morse, Margaret. “Video Installation Art”, p. 153. 3 Ibid., p. 156. 4 Tate. “Expanded Cinema – Art Term.” Tate, 5 Morse, Margaret. “Video Installation Art” p. 153.


What is a video installation? In a video installation, the visitor is enveloped within layers of images, textures and sounds.2 Video installations belong to a larger shift in art forms towards “liveness” which started in the 1960s and included expanded cinema, happenings, performance, conceptual art, body art, earthworks and the larger category of installation art.3 According to the Tate Modern Museum, during this time of expanded cinema and video installations, artists and filmmakers challenged the conventions of spectatorship and chose to show their works in art galleries, warehouses and in the open air, rather than in the cinema. The role of the observer changed from passive to active, as the visitor rather than sitting, would be able to walk around and experience the medium from different angles.4 As Margaret Morse in her article, “Video Installation Art:

The Body, the Image and the Space-in-Between.”explains, the term video installation already reveals the conditions of its existence, a form of media taking place in an installation. An installation implies that an artist or designer comes into a specific space and installs the electrical or architectural components in the designed or constructed space. Some installations focus on disrupting the habitual modes of sensorimotor experiences, while others focus on the narrative or conceptual level. Most installations are a temporal occupation of space, meaning they are a systems of pieces which must be built and eventually broken down in order to vacate the premises.5 The video content can take on many stylistic forms and can be presented in a plethora of spaces and conditions.



9 Ibid., p.155. 10 Barthelmes, Christian, et al. Scenography: Making Spaces Talk: Projects 2002-2010 = Szenografie: Narrative Raume: Projekte 2002-2010. Avedition GmbH, 2016. p. 196.

them. In a video installation, the visMorse goes on to say that, unlike itor is ‘invited on stage’ so to say and other art forms, video installations The frame of an installation is then only apparently the takes part in the work.9 The visitor are dependent on a space in order actual room in which it is placed. This room is rather the to exist; they can occur in many can observe the work from different different areas including: museums, ground over which a conceptual, figural, embodied, and perspectives, can get as close or as galleries, commercial or public spac- temporized space that is the installation breaks. Then, far away as desired, and is aware of es.6 Consequently, the media and the the material objects placed in space and the images on the fictional, constructed and actual space in which it is manifested carry the monitor(s) are meaningful within the whole pattern spaces. a message and both work together of orientations and constraints on the passage of either for a successful installation. Whether the body of the visitor or of conceptual figures through Another layer of space inside a video sculptural, kin- installation is the space inside the it be a wall, relief, sculpture, kinetic or various modes of manifestation-pictorial, 8 -Margaret Morse esthetic, aural, and linguistic. otherwise, a painting or structure, the video content. Projected video elimactual space is an essential aspect in inates the restrictions of architectural the work, as all levels inside the 2D and 3D based art such as cinema or television. In space and expands the perception of space realm contribute to the personal and emo- the latter, the visitor is a spectator which by overlapping the space inside the video. tional response to the installation.7 is separate from where the action takes Through the use of projection, spaces are place. They are in their own space and time, only limited to the imagination. The physical She also describe how video installations immobilized, safely watching another space space becomes obsolete and is replaced by set themselves apart from other video an imagined or fictional space.10 and time unfold in front of and away from

6 Ibid., p. 154. 7 Ibid., p. 163. 8 Ibid., p. 154.



11 Morse, Margaret. “Video Installation Art” p. 158 - 166. 12 Ibid., p 157. 13 Ibid., p. 154.


*Aura is a

According to Morse, video installations have multiple dimensions of time. They unfold over time through 1)how long they are installed for 2) the timeline of the media playing 3) the time needed for the visitor to complete her or his chosen path while inspecting the installation and 4) the time of reflection which happens inside the visitor from the experience. Video installations are marked by the present here and now, not only in a spatial sense but also concerning the point experienced on the timeline inside the media. A video installation has the ability to explore the past, present, and future all within the present space and time11; additionally the visitor is free to come and go as they please, entering and exiting freely the timeline of the video installation. Because of this, video installations are able to introduce fictions and manipulations of the present here and now.12

She claims that since many video installations are temporal, this fleeting existence cannot be separated from the subject, time and place of its creation. Due to such a nature, they maintain their aura* and people are enticed to come and experience it firsthand. A video installation is more than media and a created space; it is an experience inside a particular time and space. Such experiences are unique for every visitor and cannot be documented fully. The three dimensional experience can be filmed, photographed or written about, but none do it proper justice like a personal experience. Because of the site specific, temporal and experience based characteristics of video installations resulting in difficulties of documentation, they cannot be commodified like say a painting, which can be replicated, reprinted and sold as a souvenir 13. *A concept by Walter Benjamin, which describes the Aura as the essence of an artwork, which is lost through reproduction. See:“The Work of Art in the Age of Industry”by Walter Benjamin


Due to advances in technology, we are able to transform perception of spaces like never before. By projecting 2D or 3D images onto a surface, the surface is brought to life and takes on another role outside its traditional architectural function, it is transformed into an element of dramaturgy for the installation. This affects the experience of a space, as the perception of that space has been transformed through media. The experience of a space is personal and based on how the individual perceives it. The theory of phenomenology helps one to plan the effects a space will have on the visitor. Phenomenology, “represents the theory that spatial experience is directly influenced by human perception.”16 So according to how a person perceives a place, their experience and behavior will be influenced.17


In a video installation, the experience is at the forefront. Experience is, according to Morse, the conscious perception and intake of the space, time and its elements. It also implies a change inside the visitor, a change in knowledge as the body and its senses take in the world visually, auditory and kinesthetically14. Visitors experience the video installation through their perceptions, internal thoughts, memories, imagination, fantasy and senses. The experience occurs in real time and in a specific space. Robert Morris writes that the model of “presentness” is the inability to separate the experience of physical space from the ongoing immediate present. In other words, real space can only be experienced in real time. In this real time, the body is in motion, the eyes are constantly shifting, focusing on a myriad of static or moving images and objects; the location of the body and point of view are also constantly changing, either in real space or in relation to time’s flow15.


What effects on a visitor does a video installation promote?

14 Ibid., p. 165. 15 Morris, Robert. Continuous Project Altered Daily: the Writings of Robert Morris. MIT Press, 1995. p. 177-8. 16 Exner, Ulrich, and Dietrich Pressel. Basics Spatial Design. Birkhäuser Architectur, 2017. p. 14. 17 Ibid., .p. 14



18 Smith, David Woodruff. “Phenomenology.” Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Stanford University, 16 Nov. 2003, 19 Merleau-Ponty, Maurice, 1908-1961. Phenomenology Of Perception. London : New York :Routledge & K. Paul; Humanities Press, 1974. p. ix-xi. 20 Smith: “Phenomenology.” 21 Merleu-Ponty: Phenomenology Of Perception. p. 5

According to Stanford, “Phenomenology is the study of structures of consciousness as experienced from the first-person point of view, the study of structures of experience, or consciousness. Literally, phenomenology is the study of ‘phenomena’: appearances of things, or things as they appear in our experience, or the ways we experience things, thus the meanings things have in our experience.“ It was introduced in the first half of the 20th century by Edmund Husserl, Martin Heidegger, Maurice Merleau-Ponty, and JeanPaul Sartre18. Maurice Merleau-Ponty explains that experience and knowledge are built through perceptions gained through one’s particular point of view and experience of the world. What we perceive is unique and personal, it is ultimately laid on top of the actual world, although we don’t register that what we experience is not reality, but rather, our perception of that reality. Maurice Merleau-Ponty writes, “My field of perception is constantly filled with a play of colours, noises and fleeting tactile sensations which I cannot relate precisely to the context of my clearly perched world, yet which I nevertheless immediately ‘place’ in the world, without ever confusing them with my daydreams.”19

“Phenomenology examines the structures of various types of experience including perception, thought, memory, imagination, emotion, desire, embodied action and social activity”20. What we perceive and experience can only be valid in relation to the context and system in which they occur. If the context or system were to be changed, the perception of an object or color for instance, would also change21.


In a video installation, the surface and the projection work together to create the phenomenology, or the experience, of the space. The world created inside a video installation, according to Morse, is an imaginary one full of anticipations, surprise and intrigue. Here, the visitor is able to enter a multi-layered space and look at it from different perspectives. The bodily experience inside this conceptual world is determined by, not only the designer or artist, but also by the visitor’s choice of navigation throughout the objects and images which have been situated in spatial relation to one another24.


All these experiences and sensations are experienced within milliseconds, and are translated from a filmic, real time experience into a series of stills cataloged in memory, according to Morris. These images stored in the mind are the past tense of reality, which embodies and solidifies the present tense of immediate spatial experience23.

22 Kozel: “Phenomenology - Practice Based Research in the Arts, Stanford University” 23 Morris: Continuous Project Altered Daily: the Writings of Robert Morris. pp. 176 - 178. 24 Morse, Margaret. “Video Installation Art” p. 159.

According to Susan Kozel,a Professor in the School of Art and Culture, to phenomenologically measure an experience one should, “Treat the body as a resonance chamber, like a body that resonates vibrations,” and ask questions such as: What were the effects of this experience? What are the impressions, intuitions, emotional responses, memories, imagination, or feelings that hang in a room?22

2.1. Visuals 2.1.1. Storytelling 2.1.2. Software 2.1.3. Projector 2.2. Space 2.2.1. Spatial Design 2.2.2. Material Experiment Selection Experiment








The media used in video installations can range from filmed reality using actors or objects to computer generated motion graphics. (In regard to my research and experiments, only computer generated motion graphics will be discussed.) These motion graphics can be two or three dimension and affect the perception of space depending on the perspective dimensions of the media. A two dimensional motion graphic would more likely be perceived as a motion graphic on a surface, whereas a three dimensional motion graphic can transform the space entirely, such as spatial augmented reality. This augmented reality is due to advances in technology. These advances allow us to create three dimensional worlds that are only limited by our imagination. They can defy the governing principles

of our world and surprise the viewer through contradictions to our understanding of physics. The projection of a three dimensional space onto a surface has the ability to trick our perception of said space. It therefore, transforms or expands the space beyond its actual surface through the use of a projection. Projections can also be tailored to a specific space through projection mapping, a way of adjusting the projection area and the perception of a video through software. Projection mapping has been used in many different settings such as video installations, theater backdrops and architecture.


A projection would be empty if it didn’t have a story to tell. The images projected and their sequence should be arranged in such a manner that the story is told and the viewer stays intrigued, a technique known as dramaturgy. The story can be told through countless ways, including reality based stores using dialogue and actors, or more abstract ways through shapes, colors or movement. They can be made using analog or digital means, or a combination of both. When telling a story through visuals, every element can and should carry meaning. Design decisions about each element such as: color, shape, size, contrast, conflict, characters, rhythm (how quickly or slowly it progresses), composition, symbolism, camera angles and movement, can all express emotion, feeling or meaning, and work together to tell the story.






In order to create a completely digital video, one needs the software to create it. There are multiple programs available, where one can model and animate in 3D such as: After Effects, Cinema 4D, or Unity. One can also use open source programs to write digital videos using Processing, VVVV, Max, etc. I chose to use Cinema 4D and After Effects as my tools. I used Cinema 4D for 3D modeling, animation, and rendering. Cinema 4D is owned by Maxon GmbH and has a huge amount of potential to make imagined things a reality. After Effects by Adobe was utilized for adding special effects and arranging the the videos on a timeline (compositing) for a finished product.

Ultra short


Long (Standard)

Projector brightness defines the power of the light beam, which in turn, defines the ability to produce vivid and bright images regardless of light pollution25. This is measured in Lumens. Other points to look for when choosing a

projector are the contrast ratio and the resolution. Contrast ratio is the ratio between the brightness of the white and the darkness of the black26. The resolution of the projector refers to the amount of pixels within the image. The best resolution at the moment it 4K, which has a resolution of 4096 X 2160 pixels. Resolutions are usually in a 4:3 or 16:9 aspect ratio and range from 720x480 to 4k. Both contrast ratio and resolution influence the quality of the image27. Another aspect of the projector is the throw, these range from ultra short, short and long (standard) throw (see Figure 1). This determines, along with the throw ratio how large the image can be depending on how near or far away the projector is placed.


To create a quality projection, the correct projector must be chosen. To learn about projections I turned to the book, Augmented Reality in Public Spaces: Basic Techniques for Video Mapping. There are several different types of projectors: Digital Light Processing projectors, Liquid Crystal Diode projectors and Laser Video projectors. Each has their own advantages and disadvantages which I won’t go into here, however the Laser video projector is the best of the three.


Figure 1: Various projector throws

25 Maniello, Donato. Augmented Reality in Public Spaces: Basic Techniques for Video Mapping. Le Penseur, 2017. p. 55. 26 Ibid., p. 56. 27 Ibid., p. 57.



28 Ibid., p. 62

The throw ratio is an equation that one can use to determine how far away the projector should be placed. The equation is: throw ratio (image dimension) = distance between projector and surface / width of image size (see Figure 2). Another aspect to keep in mind is the offset of the image (see Figure 3). This term describes how the picture projection is higher than the base of the projector. This is determined by the lense angle inside the projector28.

Figure 2: Throw ratio




Figure 3: Offset



According to Christian Barthelmes in Scenography: Making Spaces Talk, physis, atmosphere, narration and spatial choreography are four spatial parameters basic to all created spaces. Physis, or physically substantive, is the architecturally constructed space: what it includes and excludes. Atmosphere refers to the colors, material and surfaces inside the space, as well as the physical temperature and acoustics. Narration is the imagined room, usually based

29 Exner: Basics Spatial Design. pp 9, 35. 30 Barthelmes:Â Scenography: Making Spaces Talk: Projects 2002-2010 p. 169 - 170. 31 Exner: Basics Spatial Design. p. 74.

In a constructed space, the materials used have a direct impact on its affects of the spatial impression and phenomenological experience of the viewer. Materials have fundamental qualities whether they be smooth, fine, polished, rough, transparent, opaque, solid, etc.31 Stone and walls can’t be bent and are To start learning about spatial design, I turned to the book, heavy, whereas fabric or plastics are pliable and Basics Spatial Design. Humans can perceive and judge lightweight. These built in qualities of the material spaces to be safe or threatening, too small or too large have an influence on the perception of space and within a few seconds. Through the use of form, materialshould be considered when constructing a space. ity, light and color spaces can provoke the senses and the mind. These spaces are perceived in contrast to the human scale and the surrounding spaces29.


Spatial Design

off a text from a theater or screenplay. Lastly, the choreography of space deals with the sequence of spaces in order to create dramaturgy for the visitor30. This influences the way the visitor will act and navigate the space.




White chiffon

Voile transparent natural

White tulle

Brown insect net glass fiber

Metal Mesh

White acrylic glass. *The bot-

Clear acrylic glass. *The bottom

tom left corner shows the reflection

left corner shows the reflection of

Clear acrylic glass sprayed black. *The bottom left corner

of the light box.

the light box.

shows the reflection of the light box.

Aluminum with 1mm holes

Transparent plastic

Polyester silver foilprint

Viscose silver foil print fabric

Steel with 10mm holes

Black paper

White paper


Transparent paper

chiffon, voile natural structure, white tulle, brown insect net glass fiber-soft, transparent paper, transparent plastic, polyester silver foil print, viscose silver foil print fabric, white acrylic, clear acrylic, clear acrylic sprayed with black spray paint, metal mesh 2mm apart, 8mm thick aluminum with 1mm holes, 1cm thick steel with 10mm holes, and as control groups black paper and white paper.


Since materials are important for the perception of the space, I wanted to test out several materials which could be used an a projection surface. Materials were chosen and categorized into 4 groups of differing characteristics: obtrusive vs opaque, matte vs shiny, reflective vs non-reflective and solid vs perforated. In total seventeen materials were tested. The materials are as follows: white


The Setup In order to create a space to test the material without distractions, each material was cut into a 16.5 by 26cm rectangle and attached to a frame made of clear acrylic glass. This frame was suspended in the air by nylon thread. The construction was lined up with an Acer H6518BD projector (DLP, 3400 Lumens, 16:9 aspect ratio, 1920 x 1080 resolution, standard throw), which projected a specially created testing image. This image was a cube graphic with several levels of gray and color saturation. This allowed me to test the following criteria: contrast (black vs white/ grayscale), brightness (white + brightness of reflection), color vividness/saturation, color correctness (in relation to the image on the computer screen), and detail/sharpness. I used the VJing software Resolume to project and scale the image onto each surface. The resulting projection was documented from three different perspectives, straight on, a close up of the material and projection at a 40° angle 29cm away, and the back of the material at a 24° angle 91.5cm away. In the following pages, you can see the test results. It was interesting to see how each material affected the graphic. In particular, I found it surprising how clear and white acrylic dispersed the light, creating a fuzzy image, yet once the acrylic was sprayed painted black on the backside, the image was clear. Additionally, I learned that some reflective materials were too reflective and hurt my eyes depending on my viewpoint.

Testing Back


WHITE CHIFFON Contrast: high contrast, clearly defined colors and grays. Brightness: white is true white, image is bright, yet matte. Saturation: excellent saturation. Correctness: the colors appear correct. Detail: very sharp. Additional: casts blurry shadow on background, hangs well.

VOILE TRANSPARENT NATURAL Contrast: high contrast on colors, but less in grayscale areas due to silver tinged white and grays being darker than on computer screen. Brightness: whites are tinged silver, image is very bright. Saturation: vivid . Correctness: some color information lost in lighter colors. Detail: very sharp. Additional: lets a lot of light through, creates a cross of light on the background. Shiny but doesn’t hurt eyes.

WHITE TULLE Contrast: medium contrast, all grays are seen. Brightness: whites are not vivid due to holes, but the overall image is bright yet matte. Saturation: good saturation. Correctness: the colors appear correct up close, far away the holes of darkness affect the perception of colors. Detail: image is recognizable despite holes, Holes in image are apparent - even further away. Additional: material doesn’t like to stay taped.







Contrast: medium contrast, depending on location of viewer grays are washed out or correct.

Brightness: white seems brownish, image is bright and shiny. Saturation: good saturation. Correctness: colors appear correct. Detail: image is recognizable despite holes. Holes are not as apparent as with white tulle. Additional: material sparkles from projection.

TRANSPARENT PAPER Contrast:high contrast, clearly defined colors and grays. Brightness: true white, image is bright. Saturation: colors are vivid. Correctness: colors appear correct. Detail: a bit of pixelation, but overall clear. Additional: only light is emitted on the background, no image passes through.

TRANSPARENT PLASTIC Contrast: medium contrast, the light grays are very pale. Brightness: gray tinted white, colors seem unaffected. Saturation: colors are vivid. Correctness: colors appear correct. Detail: far away the image is sharp, up close it’s a bit fuzzy. Additional: can be projected onto while tight or flowing. Image on back isn’t any clearer than the one on the front.







POLYESTER SILVER FOILPRINT Contrast: medium contrast, light grays are washed out. Brightness: silver tinged white, bright. Saturation: colors appear well saturated but dull. Correctness: colors look a bit darker than on screen due to black in between the silver dots. Detail: crisp, no pixelation. Additional: very reflective and hurts eyes. depending on viewpoint.

VISCOSE SILVER FOIL PRINT FABRIC Contrast: high contrast on colors, poor on grayscale areas. Brightness: silver tinged white, very bright image. Saturation: good saturation. Correctness: colors look a bit darker than on screen. Detail: crisp, no pixelation. Additional: extremely reflective and hurts eyes depending on viewpoint.

WHITE ACRYLIC GLASS Contrast: high contrast, clearly defined colors and grays. Brightness: true white, is bright and reflective. Saturation: good saturation. Correctness: colors appear correct. Detail: very fuzzy, the image is dispersed over the surface. Additional: fills room with dispersed light .






CLEAR ACRYLIC GLASS Contrast: high contrast on colors, poor contrast on light grayscale area. Brightness: actual image is not very bright although it reflects light. Saturation: image is saturated or dull depending on viewpoint. Correctness: colors appear correct. Detail: image is a bit fuzzy. Additional: easily scratched, reflects image onto surrounding surfaces, however the image is fuzzy. Backside image and image displayed on background are clearer than the side onto which it’s projected.





CLEAR ACRYLIC SPRAYED BLACK Contrast: high contrast, clearly defined colors and grays. Brightness: true white, semi-bright image, light is reflected. Saturation: bright saturated colors. Correctness: colors appear correct. Detail: clear image minus the imperfections from scratches. Additional: reflected image is clearer than that of the reflected image from clear acrylic, and at a higher angle than metal, so it didn’t affect eye level observation.

METAL MESH Contrast: poor contrast. Brightness: silver tinged white, mixture of bright and dull areas. Saturation: ranges from good to poor depending on viewpoint. Correctness: colors appear correct depending on viewpoint. Detail: much detail is lost. Additional: bright, and reflective depending on viewpoint, complete image projected through, yet it is fuzzy.




ALUMINUM WITH 1MM HOLES Contrast: high contrast, clearly defined colors and grays. Brightness: white is silver, bright image Saturation: good saturation. Correctness: colors appear correct. Detail: quite sharp considering the small holes in the image. Additional: reflective but doesn’t hurt your eyes, image behind is a interesting , quilted-like image.

STEEL WITH 10MM HOLES Contrast: poor contrast, grays are washed out. Brightness: white is silver, bright image. Saturation: good saturation but light colors washed out. Correctness: richer colors appear correct. Detail: image is destroyed, very hard to make out shapes. Additional: maybe good for outside with a big logo that’s easily recognizable, the light inside the edges from the back side looks cool. The image on the background is interesting.

BLACK PAPER Contrast: high contrast, all the grays are seen. Brightness: whites aren’t as bright as on white surfaces. Saturation: colors are saturated but a bit dull. Correctness: colors appear correct. Detail: slightly fuzzy image. Additional: no image is shown through or on backside.

WHITE PAPER Contrast: high contrast, clearly defined colors and grays. Brightness: white is correct, bright and vibrant image. Saturation: good saturation. Correctness: colors appear correct. Detail: sharp image. Additional: an image shines through on the backside but not on background.





3.1. DÉJÀ VU


3.3.1. Background 3.3.2. Concept 3.3.3. Moodboard 3.3.4. Key visual 3.3.5. Storyboard 3.3.6. Design Decisions Video Spatial 3.3.7. Technical Video Spatial 3.3.8. Documentation

3.1.1. Background 3.1.2. Concept 3.1.3. Moodboard 3.1.4. Key visual 3.1.5. Storyboard 3.1.6. Design Decisions Video Spatial 3.1.7. Technical Video Spatial 3.1.8. Documentation 3.1.9. Behind the scenes

3.2. PRESENT, THE ACT OF BEING 3.2.1. Background 3.2.2. Concept 3.2.3. Moodboard 3.2.4. Inspiration 3.2.5. Key visual 3.2.6. Storyboard 3.2.7. Design Decisions Video Spatial 3.2.8. Technical Video Spatial 3.2.9. Documentation

3.1.9. Behind the scenes


3.1.9. Behind the scenes 28






After gathering knowledge in the theory of video installations, spatial design, experiences, phenomenology, and visual storytelling, I was ready to begin experimenting. With time as the inspiration for my visual pieces, I came up with three topics which I wanted to realize: dĂŠjĂ vu, present or the act of being, and time as a cultural phenomena. As noted in the previous chapter, I used Cinema4D and After Effects as my tools to create the visual content. This was a trial and error experience as I had only begun learning the program a few months beforehand. As creativity flourishes under restrictions, the constraints for the visual style were use of only black and white color, no use of text, an aspect of depth must be included, and it must made out of shapes or forms. These concepts were visualized into short 30 second videos, which inhabited a designed space in the form of a prototype model. The models were restricted to indoor spaces, particularly appropriate for temporal installation pieces.

Memory experts see déjà vu as likely to happen in a situation where some aspects of the current environment or setting are familiar, but the source of the familiarity cannot be recalled. This leads to something called double perception, where the initial perception is flawed through a lack of attention or deficient conditions, but is directly followed by a second perception with full attention34.

“Neurological explanations view déjà vu as a brief interruption to normal brain activity. This may involve a small seizure or a slight acceleration or retardation in the normal time course of neural transmission.”33 - Kevin Crowley


According to Crowley in his article, “Explaining That Feeling of Familiarity The Déjà vu Experience”. it can occur in unknown or familiar and routine locations. However, they usually occur while the individual is undertaking an ordinary or mundane activity. The experience is normally prompted by the general physical environment, or by words and phrases spoken by the individual or other people.


“The phenomenon of déjà vu—a subjective feeling of familiarity, of having been in a place, engaged in a particular activity, heard or said a particular phrase once before despite knowing objectively that this cannot be the case—is an everyday experience that is familiar to many.”32 - Kevin Crowley



32 Crowley, Kevin. “Explaining That Feeling of Familiarity The Déjà vu Experience”. A. S. Brown. Psychology Press, New York, 2004. No. of Pages 201. ISBN 1-84169-075-9. (Hardback).” Applied Cognitive Psychology, vol. 19, no. 3, Wiley Online Library, 2005, pp. 379–80, doi:10.1002/acp.1118. p.379. 33 Ibid., p. 379. 34 Ibid., pp. 370 - 80.





Since déjà vu is a glitch in our perception of time and space, I wanted the visuals to be confusing, yet give a feeling of familiarity. As déjà vu usually happens in mundane experiences, I chose a simple, familiar sphere as the form to work with. In my experiences of déjà vu, I remember feeling as though I had experienced the moment before, however I could never put my finger on what exactly was the same between my memory and perception or experience of the Through this overlapping and delay in present moment. This influenced how I put the visuals animation, a sense of familiarity and together. Firstly, one is presented with a simple sphere the feeling that it happened before with a rippling surface. Then the animation with several is visualized. The third overlapping seconds of delay is overlaid, creating a disassociation and delayed animation represents the with the original sphere. height of confusion during the déjà vu experience. This is the pinnacle of the dramaturgy during the clip and it envisions the active search through our stored memories in the hopes of bridging the space between what we phenomenologically experience in real time and what our mind is telling us. For the last several seconds, the original sphere is reintroduced and the overlapping spheres fade away, in the same way that a déjà vu experience eventually fades away and we are once again present in the here and now.


A moodboard is a collection of inspirations and influences for the final piece. This could be anything from words, colors or shapes to the general feel of an image.




Key visual


A key visual is an image that shows the look and feel of the motion graphic piece. From this one image, others should be able to understand in which art direction the final piece will be going.



A storyboard is the ordering of scenes or action along the timeline. It communicates how the story develops.




Design Decisions Video


As previously stated, a sphere was chosen because of its familiarity. Throughout the video the sphere stays in one location while the ripples on its surface are constantly moving. This visualizes how we are in one location (space) and time, while at the same time, our minds and memories are elsewhere. The sphere was set in the center and there is enough room on the top, bottom and sides of the sphere to signify how that the attention is centered and focused on the present moment and experience. The camera stays in the same position for the same reason. Only black is used in this animation, as black is associated with mystery and exploration of the unknown (here: the attempt to bridge the glitch in memory with the present experience). I used soft lighting, so that the sphere would be recognizable without revealing its entirety. This was influenced by the experience of déjà vu as an experience, in which we will never experience its entirety and parts remain a mystery.


also clear. Thirdly, the holes represent glitches in our memories, although we believe our memories are correct — metal as a solid material supports this strong will. The space reinforces the idea of déjà vu through a multiple projection. One image, representing one experience, is manifested upon the front of the metal sheet as well as the wall. The projection is also reflected inside the holes, creating a third projection. This symbolizes the experience of déjà vu happening on several phenomenological levels (such as visual, auditory and smell) and the inability to connect our memories to the present time and space, as the angled metal is unable to be on the same plane as the wall.


The space was constructed to support the concept of déjà vu and to present it in an architectural construction. I chose to use the aluminum metal with 1mm holes. I want the installation to seem bigger than the person so the metal sheet would be 214cm high and 172cm wide. This was decided based upon human measurements. According to First in Architecture, the average reach upwards of a man is 206cm with an average height of 174cm35. The metal sheet is situated at a 45° angle to the wall and the projector situated directly across from the metal sheet. This material was chosen for several reasons. Firstly, it delivers a crisp image without being too reflective. Secondly, it allows the image to pass through and the other projected images are

35 “Average Male and Female Dimensions / Heights.” First In Architecture, First In Architecture, 15 Feb. 2014,



Technical Video


For this video, everything was created in Cinema 4D and composited in After Effects. In Cinema 4D the shape was created, a color material added to the shape and a series of effects were utilized to create the surface ripples. Following that, the black background and lights were put in place. Finally, the ripples were animated and the whole animation was exported as a video file. The file was then imported into After Effects where the shape was overlaid, the opacity of each changed, and their position on the timeline was arranged for maximum dramaturgy.

Cinema 4D interface. Here, the sphere is shown with the material and effectors applied.

The final steps in C4D adjusting the lighting and camera positions.

After Effects interface. Here the clips were overlapped and the opacity was changed.

Angled view

I would recommend using an ultra short throw projector at a 26.7 cm distance attached to the ceiling, in order to create a projection where the visitors would be less likely to disturb the image.

Front view




The model is a scale of 10:1. According to the Auckland Design Manual most walls are 2.7 Meters high36 so consequently, the model it is 27cm high. The scaled metal sheet is 21.4cm by 17.2cm. The top of the projection is set at 17.4cm which is the average height of a European man. This ensures that the average man and woman’s eye height will fall at a desired position. For the real size installation, the metal sheet could be connected with an additional wall in which the metal would be embedded to create a 45° angle and secured at the base.

Side view

36 “2.2Floor-To-Ceiling Heights.” Auckland Design Manual, guidance/thebuilding/buildingform/floortoceilingheights.



Final Result Video documentation can be found:



Behind the scenes

This is a look into the working process leading up to the concept and a collection of ideas which weren’t strong enough for the final concept.


These are the original storyboard and screenshots from the resulting video. After creating and executing it, I realized that I had not communicated my idea effectively. Therefore, I critically cut away pieces of the video and adjusted elements till I found the piece convincing.

Initial brainstorming

Testing possible materials.

The test model before creating the final model.

Alligning the projection based on the average human size.


Finalized math for the scale model.



Sketch of how installation could look.


For the installation, I wanted to use materials that allowed for the projection to be caught on several different surfaces. However, I didn’t want to use a chiffon fabric, because I had seen it done many times before. Therefore, I turned to my material research in order to find a fitting material. I projected the video onto several materials I thought I might use to see how they worked together. I ended up choosing the aluminum. In order to create an element of surprise and to choreograph the movement of the visitor, I chose to put the metal sheet at a 45° angle. This encourages the visitor to walk around the sheet and discover the two other projected images.




37 Dixit, Jay. “The Art of Now: Six Steps to Living in the Moment.” Psychology Today, Sussex Publishers, 1 Nov. 2008,


Often, the present slips away unnoticed and undetected. We forget that the only existence in time, over which we really have control, is the here and now. We are unable to change the past or the future. We can only change the present. Regardless, our minds are often crowded with worries of the future or distracted by living in the past. In today’s rushed society, it is often the norm to be constantly distracted; yet this tendency leads to unseized moments. This stops

us from fully living in the present and as a result, the present quickly and fluidly flows away as one moment changes to the next completely unnoticed. This ability to be focused and aware of the present moment has been mastered by Zen masters. Zen is a part of Buddhism which focuses on the practice of meditation, or being mindful — “the state of active, open, intentional attention to the present.”37


First, a flat white surface is presented. This wall moves backwards to reveal the inside of a box, which represents the mind. The walls of the boxes are perforated by holes, which let objects in, the same way that thoughts or external stimuli invade the conscious mind. Some object stay still, while others move; this creates a tension inside the box. This tension is then put to an end through the appearance of two white bars, which clear out all the shapes inside the box. Finally, the white surface moves forward to close the box, a representation of reaching peace or enlightenment.


Zen masters ability to shut out unnecessary distractions through their tradition of meditation really inspired me. From personal experience, meditation helps to clear the mind of unwanted or unneeded thoughts and to simply be. Therefore, I wanted to create a visual which tells the story of this moment in time, where one clears their mind from worries or unnecessary thoughts and is simply in the present moment.






“hectic” MOODBOARD

“peace” “focus” “enlightenment”


SILA SVETA is an inspiration for this experiment in relation to augmented reality and spatial expansion. Their project Levitation, uses 3D visuals projected onto a wall and the floor to augment the space. This allows the dancer to enter an imagined world, which creates dramaturgy using simple shapes and only two colors. The choreography of the dancer is based around this imagined world and works together with the visuals to tell the story.





Key visual PRESENT








Design Decisions Video


I wanted to represent the inner workings of a mind in an abstracted way, so I chose a box inspired by the saying, “To think outside the box”, as our thoughts are metaphorically speaking, sometimes contained inside a box. The holes which open and close on the sides of the box represent external stimuli reaching into our brains and planting seeds of worries or dreams. Therefore, the spheres, based on thought bubbles from comic books, are white for good thoughts and black for bad or unnecessary thoughts. Their size is varied because some thoughts are large and very important to us, whereas others are not very important and consequently play a smaller role. There are also black cones racing around the room, up and down and from side to side. This visualizes the english saying, “Racing thoughts” associated with anxiety and lack of control over thoughts. In the second half of the animation, a white line grows from the back, curves over the scene and plants itself in the front of the box, making a quarter circle. This represents what happens when one focuses on the present moment, and the power meditation has to pierce through thoughts. It then becomes two lines which sweep to the sides, eliminating the objects in its way. This represents the ability for meditation to render unnecessary thoughts obsolete and to clear the space in a mind, allowing the conscious mind to be fully aware of the present moment. At the end of the scene, the white wall moves back to the front to close the box, resulting in a pure white surface. This represents peace and enlightenment, the byproducts of meditation.


For the space, I decided to project on the ceiling. This has meaning, because like the present moment, we often don’t notice it and it slips through our fingers, never to be grasped again. A projection on the ceiling is likely to be passed by and go unnoticed. Just like meditation, where only those who focus on it will reap the benefits, only those who look up will see the projection. The ceiling also works well with the 3D projection to create an unexpected augmented reality experience. The perception and phenomenological experience of the space is transformed through the projection. The projection nullifies the limitation of the ceiling and the new perceived space is one that extends beyond the real space. There was no additional material used in this installation outside of a white ceiling would exist in the room.




Technical Video


Attaching and animating cones along a path


All parts have been animated

Lighting and camera set up

This whole video was created in Cinema 4D. The elements were built, materials, whether black or white, shiny or matte, were applied to the shapes, and several effectors such as clone, spline wrap and boolean were used. The timeline was marked according to the storyboard and then the animations were added to the objects. After everything was animated, lights were added to the scene and tweaked until I was satisfied with the lighting of all objects. The final step was to adjust the animation curves so everything moved smoothly and didn’t collide. After that, the whole animation was exported as

a video file. The projection had to be mapped with MadMapper onto the model, so that the perspective would be right and the augmented reality and phenomenological affects would be correct. Mapping requires building shapes for the video to be played through and then moving the points of the shapes to the correct location on the surface until the desired result is achieved. This is done by setting up the projector and the space to be projected upon, then adjusting, in real time, the projection shape in MadMapper until it fits the shape correctly.


For this space, no construction is required. The only requirement is that the ceiling is a flat, white surface. The 10:1 scale model is 27cm high and the walls are each 32cm long. The image was projected in the middle of the ceiling at a 16:9 ratio and size of 20cm by 18.7cm. For this piece, an ultra short projector such as Casio XJ-UT310WN would allow the projector to be mounted 40cm away from the ceiling and still be able to achieve a 2.2M by 1.87M projection area. This would avoid disturbances in the projection caused by visitors walking by.




Final Result Video documentation can be found:



Behind the scenes

This is a look into the working process leading up to the concept and a collection of ideas which weren’t strong enough for the final concept


At first I wanted to have a double meaning of present, that the viewer would be forced to focus on a slowly evolving object; thereby, aligning the video and viewer in the present moment. However, attempts to visually communicate the idea weren’t successful. First, I thought of the ocean tides, as for me personally I find bodies of water calming and remember many times of being fully present. I attempted to create waves through generating particles, which didn’t work, so I tries moving shapes in a to and fro motion to mimick waves. This didn’t please me aesthetically, so I tried to simplify the idea and work with boxes. I created two other pieces which I ended up discarding. One idea was white cubes which fade into the scene towards the front, till they form a white wall, the other was cascading squares which slowly move towards the viewer and end in a white surface.

Initial brainstorming

Initial storyboard

Idea for Zen cubes

Idea for slowly moving boxes

Final storyboard


Testing the tunnel.


Originally, I had chosen a corner as the space to inhabit this concept. A corner is meaningful because it is a place where two or more things come together. Meditation is an act of allowing the mind and body to come together in one place at one time. I utilized MadMapper, a mapping software, so that the video wouldn’t be slanted and the walls would be augmented to look like a flat surface. One could relate this to meditation, wherein one seeks to rise above the hectic life, which would be represented with the slanted walls, to a clarity, which is the projected image of a flat white surface.


Using MadMapper to map the projection onto the model.


Above view from an angle of the mapped projection.

However, after testing it, I wasn’t convinced of the effect it produced. Therefore, I rethought the spatial container. I then quickly tried out an idea for a tunnel, which would be three meters and positioned diagonally from the top of a corner to the middle of a room. This was inspired by the need to be focused and the intention necessary for meditation. A transparent material would be inserted two meters away from the viewer inside the tunnel. However, after the test, I quickly decided against it, as it did not enhance or fit the visual well.


38 “Cultural Perceptions of Time.” The Anderson Institute, Quoted from https://www. 39 “Ibid. 40 Ibid. 41 Ibid.

CULTURAL PHENOMENA Background The Anderson Institute has done extensive research on time. They report that the way we experience time is a cultural construct; based on which society you’re in, your idea of and appreciation for time is ingrained in you. Time is also related with interpersonal relationships, for instance, if you belong to a society where punctuality is valued, showing up two hours late for a coffee date is bound to mean you no longer have that date38.

present moment. They don’t have a past or future tense, nor do they have numbers. Another tribe, the Hopi Tribe, in northeast Arizona, looks at time in a very generalized way, saying sooner or later, rather than giving exact times41.

I have experienced this difference in perception of time through being able to travel and experience different cultures. For instance, as an Midwest American who Japan, Western Europe and America are the fastest grew up in a city, I’m used to things moving quite fast paced countries in the world, “Anthropologists list the toughest and efficiently, people being according to Anderson Inthings to cope with in a foreign land. relatively punctual and not stitute. For these countries, Second only to language is the way having to wait often. Howevefficiency and speed are er, as I visited some friends we deal with time”39 - Lienhard important. Time is seen as in Hawaii, I learned that their something of a currency, it can be saved or wasted. pace of life is much more relaxed and they referred to Whereas in Mediterranean and Arab countries, the life- it as “Island Time.” For them, it was more about living in style is a slower tempo and more emphasis is put on the the moment and not worrying about the what would present moment. Many factors contribute to this phe- come next. They had an understanding for and were not nomena of difference, such as: if the society is preoccu- annoyed if we had to wait for something, which I found pied with their past, or if they focus rather on the future, peculiar. I remember the culture shock as I had to learn and how technologically advanced they are40. to slow down and enjoy the moment, and not be bothered when things weren’t as fast as I was used to. Then There is a tribe in the Amazon rainforest that represents I had reverse culture shock in relation to time and the a strong contrast to the mostly worldwide held beliefs cultural perception of time when I went back home. of time, the Pirahã Tribe. This tribe only recognizes the


inspired by Einstein’s theory of general relativity and in particular the theory of space-time, that time and space are a plane on which we move around on. The spatial concept also represents the idea of time being a personal and cultural experience. It is staged in a hallway, because this space is usually used as a transportation space, from one area to another inside a building. The projection is mapped on circular acrylic pieces arranged on nylon thread. The space is expanded throughout the use of mirrors on both sides of the hallway.


Time cannot be perceived through our five senses, but rather through abstract and complex perceptions such as: our cultural surroundings, our internal clock, whether we’re in “flow” and are so focused on a subject that time “flies” or we are so bored and uninterested that time “drags on”. As time is a highly personal and cultural experience, I wanted to visualize time in a very abstract way. To use a solid form like the other two animations would have been too representative. For that reason, I used particles and movement. The swirling movement of particles in the air, was





Moodboard CULTURAL






Key visual







Design Decisions Video


White particles on a black background represent the limited aspect of time which we as a human race can perceive. The color white was chosen because of its similarity to light, because light must be cast upon something for us to be able to detect and perceive the presence of it. Movement of the particles represents the movement of us through time. The camera changes its focal point on the particles throughout the video. This aims to represent how different cultures place different worth on the present, past or future. The camera stays static throughout the video due to humans limited ability to experience and understand time.


The space should support the visual as well as the concept.This led me to think about cultural constructs and how although nowadays we’re so connected, we still have our own separate cultural norms. For that reason, I decided to use materials to break up the projection surface. I chose acrylic glass which was spray painted black on the back because of its ability to reflect a clear image on the front and back of the surface. Since the visitors will be able to walk in two directions through the installation, I needed a material with such qualities. The acrylic glass was cut out into circular shapes and attached to nylon thread. This represents how as humans, we can never see or comprehend time as a whole, yet each culture, separate but connected, perceives time according to their norms. The use of mirrors on both sides of the hallway induce an illusion that the space expands into infinity. It addresses the fact that time is infinite and we actually don’t understand time completely. It also visually represents that the passing of time is an illusion.




Technical Video


To create such a particle wave simulation, I began in Cinema 4D and created a shape with many polygons and points, which were later translated into particles. The simple platonic shape became abstract through the different effectors applied to it.


This shape was then exported into After Effects. With the use of the plug in Trapcode, I was able to transform the shape into particles. Through this plug in, I was the able to adjust the size, variety and the movement of the particles. A 3D camera was added to the scene and the shape was shifted until an appealing angle for the composition was found. After extended tests and adjustments, the final product was created and then exported as a video file. This file was then mapped onto the strings and circles through a mixture of illustrator and After Effects. The process began with lining the model and projector up and then hooking up the projector to my computer. I projected the Illustrator file onto the model and painted each shape onto the file. After each circle and line was drawn up, the file was exported from Illustrator into After Effects. Using a real time projection of the final video through After Effects on the model, the Illustrator file and the model were lined up. The illustrator file was then turned it into a Alpha Mask for the particle video, so that only the video would be played onto the model.





Inside the model

Front view of model.

Top right view of model.


This model was also 10:1 and was 27cm high, 18cm wide and 34cm deep. The width was based off of a person with stretched out arms, so that it could accommodate multiple visitors without them feeling entrapped. Based on the average human dimensions I designed enough space for the visitor to walk through the hallway without feeling encroached by the projection structure. Therefore the space between the built acrylic sides is 7.5cm. There are ten rows with two nylon threads of circles each. The circles were drawn out on a paper according to how they should be positioned on the nylon threads and also on which row they should appear. This ensured an evenly spread amount of projection surface throughout the installation. The mapping of the projection to the strings and circles guaranteed that the projection would only appear on the circles and the strings. Since the material allows the image to be seen clearly on both sides, the visitor can experience the media regardless of which direction they are walking, the only difference is that the image on the spray painted side is duller than the other side. The use of opposing mirrors allowed the perception of hallway space to be manipulated. For the visitor, it produces the illusion that the shapes are repeated and the space continues into infinity,


Final Result Video documentation can be found:



Behind the scenes

This is a look into the working process leading up to the concept and a collection of ideas which weren’t strong enough for the final concept


I conducted free writing to help with the flow of ideas for the concept.

A storyboard that was later disposed of.

I brainstormed simultaneously for ideas of visuals and spaces.

Final plan for scale model.

Several different sketches for how I could show time as a cultural phenomena through space.

A GoPro at the height of 15.5cm based on the average eye leve was used for documenting a simulated experience.


This was a guide for attaching the circular cutouts to the nylon thread. They were divided into ten rows, each with a nylon and circles on each side. The circles were numbered by which row they would be on.




Building the final model


CONCLUSION Throughout the research and practical part, I was able to tackle the questions listed in the introduction: “What is a video installation?”, “What are the elements of time and space in relation to a video installation?” and “What effects on a visitor does such an art/designed space promote?”. I learned that a video installation consists of layers of space, time, analog and digital stimuli, visual and auditory stimuli, and textures. A video installation unfolds over a specific time There are multiple dimensions of time found in a video and space. They are characterized installation: the timeline on which the media runs, by a fleeting existence and therethe timeline based on how the visitor experiences fore are likely to hold onto their aura and wanders through the installation, the time which better than other art forms. A video passes inside the visitor during the phenomenological installation must be experienced experience and their reflection upon it, the timeline ind personally in order to fully perceive the video and the time in which the installation exists. it, because documentations do a Space is also a multidimensional aspect found in a poor job of communicating a video installation. There is the space which holds the phenomenological experience. installation, the constructed and staged space of the installation itself, the space taken up by the visitor and the space in between the visitor and the installation. The effects the video installation can have on a visitor can be described through the concept of phenomenology, which aims to describe and examine the structures of experience including: perception, thought, memory, imagination, emotion, desire, embodied action and social activity39.

While designing my video installation experiments, I was guided by the questions and answers listed above. With each experiment, I asked myself: “What is the concept or story that is communicated”, “How will the space communicate with the visitor and how will the visitor perceive each element of the video and constructed space as well as the whole installation?”. A successful video installation requires a broad knowledge of not only visual communication in digital and analog means, but also spatial design and the effects they have on the visitor. Throughout my research and experiments, I was able to deepen my theoretical and practical knowledge relating to visual communication, perception and phenomenology, and spatial design. During my experiments, I applied the theoretical knowledge learned in the research process. I had to think in several aspects. Firstly, as a designer making design decisions and secondly, how as a visitor who would perceive the installation, this included the thinking about the anticipations and surprises which might occur during the experience.


in real life, I could invite visitors to experience the installation and ask them about their experience and the phenomenological effects they experienced. This would lead to a conclusion of if my experiments were successful in their communication through video and spatial content.


Further steps would be to create the models in their correct scale, in order to test the phenomenological effects they would induce. If they were created in real life, the timeline of the video content might be extended, so that the experience of the installation would be longer. At this stage, I can only imagine what effect the installations could induse. However, if they were built


BIBLIOGRAPHY “2.2Floor-To-Ceiling Heights.” Auckland Design Manual, “Average Male and Female Dimensions / Heights.” First In Architecture, 15 Feb. 2014, Barthelmes, Christian, et al. Scenography: Making Spaces Talk: Projects 2002-2010 = Szenografie: Narrative Raume: Projekte 2002-2010. Avedition GmbH, 2016. Crowley, Kevin. “Explaining That Feeling of Familiarity The Déjà vu Experience”. A. S. Brown. Psychology Press, New York, 2004. No. of Pages 201. ISBN 1-84169-075-9. (Hardback).” Applied Cognitive Psychology, vol. 19, no. 3, Wiley Online Library, 2005, pp. 379–80, doi:10.1002/ acp.1118. “Cultural Perceptions of Time.” The Anderson Institute, Dixit, Jay. “The Art of Now: Six Steps to Living in the Moment.” Psychology Today, Sussex Publishers, 1 Nov. 2008, articles/200811/the-art-now-six-steps-living-in-the-moment?collection=10102. “Expanded Cinema – Art Term.” Tate, Exner, Ulrich, and Dietrich Pressel. Basics Spatial Design. Birkhäuser Architectur, 2017. Hall Doug, and Fifer, Sally Jo. lluminating Video: an Essential Guide to Video Art. Ed. Steve Dietz. New York: Aperture Foundation, Inc., 1990. Kozel, Susan. “Phenomenology - Practice Based Research in the Arts, Stanford University” YouTube.12 Dec, 2013. watch?v=mv7Vp3NPKw4.

Maniello, Donato. Augmented Reality in Public Spaces: Basic Techniques for Video Mapping. Le Penseur, 2017. Merleau-Ponty, Maurice, 1908-1961. Phenomenology Of Perception. London : New York :Routledge & K. Paul; Humanities Press, 1974. Morris, Robert. Continuous Project Altered Daily: the Writings of Robert Morris. MIT Press, 1995. Morse, Margaret. “Video Installation Art: The Body, the Image and the Space-in-Between.” Illuminating Video: an Essential Guide to Video Art. Ed. Steve Dietz. New York: Aperture Foundation, Inc., 1990. 153-167 Oddey, Alison, and Christine A. White. The Potentials of Space: the Theory and Practice of Scenography & Performance. Intellect Books, 2006. Smith, David Woodruff. “Phenomenology.” Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Stanford University, 16 Nov. 2003, entries/phenomenology/. Tamschick, Charlotte, and Marc Tamschick. Immersive Narrative Installations. Avedition, 2015. Fig 1based off of:

Projection throw calculator found at


Fig 3 based off of


Fig 2 based off of: Maniello, Donato. Augmented Reality in Public Spaces: Basic Techniques for Video Mapping. Le Penseur, 2017.


Moodboard déjà vu images 1 2 3 4 5 6 Moodboard present images 1 2 3 4 Moodboard cultural images 1 2 3 4 5

This is to declare that I wrote this thesis by myself and that I used only those quotes, sources and aids indicated in my thesis. All quotations used are explicitly marked.


Cologne, April 5, 2018