Page 1

STUDIO KATHMANDU

REVITALISING BUNGAMATI : AN ACTION PLAN Design investigations for a post earthquake reconstruction process

Prof. Dr. Bruno De Meulder, Prof. Dr. Viviana d’Auria, Annelies De Nijs, Stefanie Dens 2015 K.U.Leuven, Master of Human Settlements, Master of Urbanism and Strategic Planning


LANDSCAPE URBANISM STUDIO KATHMANDU 2015-2016 STUDIO TEAM Prof. Dr. ir.-arch. Bruno De Meulder Prof. Dr. arch. Viviana d’Auria ir.-arch., urb. Annelies De Nijs ir.-arch. Stefanie Dens IN COOPERATION WITH UN-Habitat Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific Shelter Program MORE INFO ? MAHS / MAUSP / EMU Master Programs Department ASRO, K.U.Leuven Kasteelpark Arenberg 1, B-3001 Heverlee, Belgium Tel: + 32(0)16 321 391 Email: paulien.martens@kuleuven.be ISBN XXXXXXXX Wettelijk depot XXXXXXXX © Copyright by K.U.Leuven Without written permission of the promotors and the authors it is forbidden to reproduce or adapt in any form or by any means any part of this publication. Requests for obtaining the right to reproduce or utilize parts of this publication should be addressed to K.U.Leuven, Faculty of Engineering – Kasteelpark Arenberg 1, B-3001 Heverlee (België). Telefoon +32-16-32 13 50 & Fax. +32-16-32 19 88. A written permission of the promotor is also required to use the methods, products, schematics and programs described in this work for industrial or commercial use, and for submitting this publication in scientific contests.All images in this booklet are, unless credits are given, made or drawn by the authors (Landscape Urbanism, Studio Kathmandu 2015-2016, Nepal).


STUDIO KATHMANDU

REVITALISING BUNGAMATI : AN ACTION PLAN Design investigations for a post earthquake reconstruction process

Thesis Studio, Kathmandu, Nepal Prof. Dr. Bruno De Meulder, Prof. Dr. Viviana d’Auria, Annelies De Nijs, Stefanie Dens 2015 K.U.Leuven, Master of Human Settlements, Master of Urbanism and Strategic Planning


Urban extensions in the landscape - Due to urban pressure, expansions happen quite randomly within the surrounding landscapes. This leads to interesting intertwined urban-landscape morphologies

4

The appearance of shelters - Temporary housing is emerging on any available spot in the landscape, leading to unstructured and scattered patterns on often very vulnerable sites


Earthquake destruction - Bungamati’s historical core has been heavily damaged by the 25th April earthquake and its aftershocks. Nearly two third of the houses have been damaged or destroyed.

Continuous reconstruction - The urge for reconstruction in the settlement of Bungamati is large and the need for a structured process is therefore very present

5


Community-driven redevelopment - The inhabitants of Bungamati are collectively taking up the tasks for reconstruction of the village after the earthquake.

6

Embedded crafts - Woodcarving, as well as tin moulding, are the main crafts and economic activities in Bungamati and will have a crucial role in the redevelopment process.


Earthquake remembrance - Activities within the village of Bungamati are organised to collectively remember the devastating earthquake and look for a way forward.

Celebrating Machhindranath - Bungamati is the starting point of a procession for the Machhindranath God during the important festival. The public space is filled with people following the charriot on its route to Patan.

7


1988

2003

2009 8

Bungamati, 1967 - drawn by the Danish Group of Architects


2009 Bungamati 2015 - aerial picture of Bungamati after the April earthquake, expansion of the town on former rice fields

0 10

50

100m


1

economically and culturally. A proper spatial frame is therefor crucial. Tailor-made urban strategies articulate this spatial frame. This action plan consequently concentrates on the definition of these strategies.

one.

THE EARTHQUAKE,

THE KATHMANDU VALLEY 1. READING THE EXISTING On 25 April 2015 11:56 local time, a 7,8 magnitude earthquake struck Nepal, with the epicenter in Lamjung District (81 km N-W of Kathmandu), at a depth of 15km. Dozens of aftershocks followed, including a 6,7 magnitude earthquake on 26 April 2015. The hazard destroyed most of the traditional settlements and monuments in Kathmandu Valley and catalyzed major displacement flows. It is an enormous challenge to reconstruct these settlements while retaining their historical, economical, socio-cultural and architectural identity and simultaneously adapting them for a sustainable growth within an earthquake responsive development. Following the short-term tactics of first aid camps, which so often lead to slum development, now a long term vision is necessary for a sustainable redevelopment of the area. The redevelopment task indeed necessitates a clear urban framework. The post disaster effort should be steered as soon as possible towards sustainable development, shifting from urgency measures (amongst which immediate provision of shelters) towards durable contributions to the reconstruction post disaster shelters. On site technical assistance often proves essential in this regard. Generic solutions have to be avoided., They are usually prone to speculative trends and far to often controlled by real estate only. Reconstruction should indeed be tailor made, make best use of local resources and built on the expertise that is embedded within local practices and knowledge, and involve the population actively. This is self-evident. Mobilizing local knowledge allows to make appropriate choices of building materials and methods, and conserve of tangible and intangible heritages. Within this post-earthquake context, the aim is to revitalize the traditional settlements of the Kathmandu Valley socially,

With such objective in mind, several key areas were considered, with Bungamati as a pilot project. Within the Kathmandu valley, several sites are recognized as important and thus are priority areas for post-earthquake reconstruction. Criteria such as historic importance, cultural heritage, identity, (natural) resources, proximity of (future) infrastructures and community engagement did lead to the identification of hotspots. From this multi-dimensional analysis, Bungamati resulted as the first hotspot to be considered. It will at the same time serve as an exemplary case for other key areas in the Kathmandu Valley. The village Bungamati is located 10 km south of Kathmandu and has its origins in medieval times. Its inhabitants are predominantly Newars. It is situated under the newly established Karyabinayak Municipality, counts around 6000 inhabitants and is famous for the main temple of Machhindranath, as well as for woodcarving and handicrafts. It is furthermore one of the proposed heritage sites for UNESCO listing. The earthquake damaged 900 out of 1114 houses, destroyed the Machhindranath temple and injured many people. Many families are now forced to live in temporary shelters. Bungamati was chosen as a pilot project as it still hosts significant local potentials and resources. The goal of this action plan is to support the recovery of the local community and the redevelopment of their assets. Therefore, the focus lies on urban design strategies that take into account the genius loci, incorporate local housing traditions, and integrate local economies and heritage. Strategies are developed on different scales, for housing as well as the public realm, and take into account also technical issues such as construction methods and materials, in addition to water management and sanitation. The reconstruction of Bungamati is about place making, revitalizing urban space (the social and economic activities that characterize them so much included), rethinking the public realm while strategically incorporating technical solutions. Hence, public space should be considered as a catalyst: it becomes the center around which intensifications of residential and public activities and amenities can be planned, with the overall goal of inducing a swing to the local economy and thus engendering a sustainable and independent future for the settlement.

liquefaction risk Chandragiri Fault

10

landslide risk

Kalphu Fault

The Kathmandu Valley section – the position of Kathmandu and Bungamati in the valley brings very specific climatic and geological conditions that have an influence on landslides and monsoon seasons. Fault lines cross through the valley due to the presence of the nearby Himalayas


30 000 years ago

1967

Bungamati 1991

2014 Evolution of the Kathmanu Valley - from lake to condensed city plain

0

1

4 km

11


Bungamati

Challenges on the regional scale – planned infrastructures will influence the historical settlements and their economies

2. DEFINING A SPATIAL FRAME Bungamati is however also a village on the verge of significant transformation. Booming development is underway, stretching as far out as the wide landscape of rice fields surrounding the historic core of the village. With new infrastructure developments (the outer ring road and the highway towards the South of the country) and the rapidly extending urban tissue, building with local craftsmanship 12

0 100

500m

1km

becomes difficult and generic concrete buildings are on the rise. These uncontrolled, mushrooming practices threaten the natural resources and induce generic sprawl. They also neglect regional construction materials and methods (for earthquake resilient buildings) and are not based on intensive dialogues between the historic center and new extension areas. Seen the sudden growth of Bungamati, a complete urban development strategy has to be thought out, hand in hand with the reconstruction of the existing fabric.


Fieldwork frame and production map - productive territory between the Nhakku and Bagmati River.

0 100

500m

1km

13


okharpaunwa landfill

X

X gokarna landfill

kathmandu

teku

Bhaktapur patan

mtwtfss

PRIVATE 200 R/MONTH DOOR TO DOOR / STREET COLLECTION

KTM

techo bungamati

BGM

khokana

mtwtfss MUNICIPALITY 35 STREET COLLECTORS

Water logics in relation to settlement structure – a system of interrelated water ponds and water wells is one of the base spatial layers of Bungamati

Waste trajectories - one of the mayor issues in Bungamati and the Kathmandu Valley is the (formal and informal) collection and treatment of waste

This action plan for the reconstruction of Bungamati necessarily has to apprehend the urban logics of the Kathmandu Valley, not only as a whole, but also as the Southern edge of the dynamic city. This regional analysis and understanding allows to frame urban and social changes in Bungamati and in its surroundings. At the same time, the needed deep analysis of the existing situation requires intensive fieldwork that combines mapping with interviews with local experts and other key respondents.

design process. The reflections generated by this process are steering the action plan and are determining the most strategic elements within the overall vision under articulation.

Intensive fieldwork is the basis for reflections on the revitalization process. Common grounds can be installed only through knowledge of current practices and (urban) landscape dynamics. To come to an integrated action plan, a process with the inhabitants and local stakeholders is developed. This means exchanging knowledge with local residents based on an intensive participative trajectory that is developed in parallel to the 14

The specific context of Bungamati is one of a village situated in a close relationship with Khokana, slightly off the main road yet influenced by it. Bungamati is likewise influenced from the strong urban growth coming from the city and the potential development of a new outer ring road. Situated on the hinge between peri-urban and rural conditions, Bungamati occupies as a crucial position. Its traditional architecture and settlement structure are fundamental for vibrant cultural practices that constitute an important element of the action plan.


A

Section - A

Value of vernacular typologies – the socio-spatial logics of a traditional courtyard house within the tissue of Bungamati

Various fieldwork exercises have unveiled the qualities of existing morphologies, typologies and landscape structures, as well as their limitations for receiving growth - and thus also future development. Existing cooperative organizations are important elements for the economy, and are established for agriculture as well as for brick production. Growth goes hand in hand with infrastructures and their enlargement. With a newly planned highway, an outer ring road and a bus station, all in the direct environs of Bungamati and Khokana, the urban realities will change with a fast pace. Therefore, the action plan does not only try to take into account the reconstruction of the current village, but it also reflects upon an expansion strategy with respect to both landscape and the heritage, including construction methods and earthquake resilient strategies. The spatial possibilities of reconstruction have been linked to structuring routes or armatures, in order to collect different actions and exceptional buildings that can serve the community,

but at the same time connect existing main elements in the tissue. Fieldwork exercises have been fundamental to grasp today’s realities and understand dynamics that can then lead to a grounded projection for the near and longer-term future of Bungamati. The action plan that is elaborated in the next chapters proposes a method for redeveloping the village of Bungamati and should not be read as a fixed master plan. All the elements included are of importance for the revitalization process, centred on the spatial structure that is proposed as a fundamental base on which an array of projects can be implemented. Reconstruction dynamics are delicate and should include community-based scenarios in order to sustain projects on the long run. Revitalizing Bungamati is therefore simultaneously an aim and a method. Where restructuring is needed, the urge of developing and reflecting on the reconstruction process is essential. 15


2

two.

BUNGAMATI-KHOKANA, TWIN VILLAGES

1. TWIN VILLAGE ARMATURE The spatial reality and redevelopment of Bungamati (and its redevelopment) cannot be dissociated from its “twin-village”, Khokana. Together they form an interactive spatial and social system, with an obvious connection and a cultural node that ties them between them: the temple of Karyabinayak. They are part of a landscape generated by a spectacular geomorphological condition: a sequence of valleys and hilltops, The development and articulation of an important spatial connection between the two twin settlements is crucial for the future development of the two twin villages. This link should not only act as a collector and connector of existing functions and public spaces, but it also can become (whether extended or not) the armature sustaining reconstruction projects and future urban development alike. This armature connects the bus stations of both villages through a new type of public space, which allows pedestrian flows, public and social infrastructures and technical services to be collected in one trajectory. A path is choosen as armature that is not passing by the villages’ central squares in order to facilitate a more complete development that can also focus on regional accessibility.

<< to Patan - Kathmandu

16

Hills and valleys – the territory of Bungamati – Khokana as a system of hills and valleys, that defines the settlement structures


A structuring armature - densification and public functions are structured by an armature that connects Bungamati and Khokana. The armature becomes an important figure to guide urban (re)development

0

50

100

200m

17


Natural edges

- Natural Edges: the valleys and forests are creating

a very strong natural edge for the villages towards the valley of the Bagmati river

Topography

- valleys and hills define the position of the current villages, the agricultural activities as well as the infrastructure and accessibilities

1 2 3

Cultural Assets - Festivals and traditional routes are culturally very embedded in the structure of Khokana and Bungamati. Chariots have to be carried through these streets and masses of people are passing through. This defines their width already since ancient times 18

Indication of the sections


3 rice fields

stormwater drainage

infrastructures

armature as pedestrian strip

recycle point - waste collection

lookout platform

2 rice terraces

reedbed purification system

reclaiming the rice fields

sitting area

stormwater drainage

wastewater - electricity - optic fibre ...

armature as pedestrian strip

1

19

pedestrian walkway

stormwater drainage

renewed infrastructure

wastewater - electricity - optic fibre - ...

centre for Newari culture and music

inner courtyard


KARYABINAYAK PARK preparation phase

construction phase

dd/mm/yyyy

dd/mm/yyyy

opening

maintenance phase

dd/mm/yyyy

By upgrading the existing park along the temple of Karyabinayak and making it into an active landscape, a new kind of public space is introduced between Bungamati and Khokana. The ambition of this project is to combine ecological and water management strategies while enhancing community activities in a redesigned landscape. A reuse of building materials, from the Machhindranath Temple square, is introduced for the public spaces and urban furniture, while afforestation is used to prevent soil erosion, assure enough water recharge in the ground and can provide construction materials. Possible stakeholders associated to this project: UN-Habitat, Relief Committee, Karyabinayak community, UNDP, UNEP, â&#x20AC;Ś

Karyabinayak Park â&#x20AC;&#x201C; adding public amenities, enhancing the local economies and reinforcing the identity of the tourism site 20


V.Architecture-Dragonfly Park, Vietnam

S.Associates, Sanskriti Kendra, India

Turenscape-Shenyang University, China Turenscape -Houtan Park, China

Karyabinayak Park â&#x20AC;&#x201C; enhancing local tourism by upgrading the park, inserting amenities and turning it into an active landscape (planting to prevent landslides)

0

1

4 km

21


2. THE ARMATURE AS A DEVELOPMENT ALTERNATIVE In the immediate post-earthquake aftermath a massive amount of temporary settlement structures were built with the help of multiple international organizations. As much as those structures are needed for post-disaster relief, they present challenges in themselves on the long run and require careful action. Indeed, these temporary structures are currently positioned on any type of available land, without necessarily having access to public services or without being located in flood-proof areas. Moreover, the shelters are spread around the village cores. The revitalization project is aiming to replace the temporary housing units as soon as possible by permanent and more sustainable solutions, built as much as possible with the community and by making use of the deeply rooted local knowledge. The armature plays an important role in this as it functions as a structuring element for the urban fabricâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s densification and for the location of collective and public initiatives. Village extension is projected to happen along this (extended) armature and in concentrated areas, referring to the historical pattern of urban cores. These new cores, however, are structured with active landscapes, community water treatment infrastructures and water collection areas. The infrastructures are interwoven with the existing structures and settlement patterns. The resulting spatial figure is a dialogue between both old and new.

A renewed public space â&#x20AC;&#x201C; on the head of the armature, the current bus parking of Bungamati will be transformed into a vibrant public space with market functions and sport facilities for the community 22

Shelter living â&#x20AC;&#x201C; the post-earthquake relief aid has given many shelter housing that are now spread around the two villages of Bungamati and Khokana


Urban extensions â&#x20AC;&#x201C; the (extended) armature will also become the carrier of future urban development, with strong attention for interweaving new spaces with the existing, and securing both relations to the landscape and a clustered and compact configuration

0

50

100

200m

23


3

three.

AN ACTION PLAN FOR BUNGAMATI Starting from the spatial frame for Bungamati-Khokana, an action plan for the reconstruction and revitalization of Bungamati is elaborated. To re-found and renew Bungamati three fundamental components are proposed: (i) a structuring public space figure; (2) pilot projects; (3) a timeline for reconstruction. Public spaces and infrastructures structure settlements and have a fundamental impact on the character and identity of settlements. It is almost self-evident that they require very careful consideration during the reconstruction process. The action

DESTRUCTION entirely collapsed badly damaged shelters

24

plan also acknowledges the fundamental value of indigenous typologies and construction techniques. They are main assets to reincorporate the genius loci in the new urban structure of the village. The suggested action plan is based on the destruction degree of the different buildings as well as on the existing community and open space structures., This open spaces and community structures are indeed crucial as they define the hierarchy of public spaces, the green-blue structures and the built fabric. Three transversal routes structure the urban fabric and connect it to the new armature, becoming inner backbones for reconstruction. Public programs, collective housing, gardens and water management are some of the components that are prioritized for implementation along these routes. By choosing their anchor points carefully, specific characters are accentuated and public functions are stimulated.

COMMUNITIES shelters Shrestha Nyae Udaya Kapali

OPEN SPACE NETWORK Gathu Guvaju Bharamacharya Shakya Jyapu


A vision for Bungamati â&#x20AC;&#x201C; the future spatial structure of Bungamati is envisioned to be carried by large public space trajectories (the armature and three transversal routes), as well as a renewed green-blue logic

0 10

50

100m

25


A. OPEN SPACE NETWORK Reinforcing the green structures and open spaces within this dense tissue and turn them into active landscapes, providing services for the village, is consequently one of the priorities of the action plan. Several pilot projects are oriented towards this, with a community wastewater treatment strategy and collective rainwater harvesting as the most important ones.

Green Bungamati â&#x20AC;&#x201C; historically, the settlement of Bungamati developed in close relation to its green structures and water ponds [pictures from the publication of the danish group of architects, 1967]

Collective green as interface â&#x20AC;&#x201C; kitchen gardens are suggested to form the edge between the valley and the settlement core of Bungamati 26


Green-blue structures â&#x20AC;&#x201C; water harvesting and management and public space interventions go hand in hand in the action plan for Bungamati

0 10

50

100m

27


COMMUNITY WASTE WATER TREATMENT preparation phase

construction phase

opening

dd/mm/yyyy

dd/mm/yyyy

dd/mm/yyyy

maintenance phase

Decentralised community wastewater treatment systems are proposed as astrategy to counter the heavily polluted environment and rivers of Bungamati. By introducing small-scale reed beds on strategic locations around the village, the water can make use of the topographical differences and be cleaned before it goes through the valley and reaches the river. A biogas system can be coupled to this approach and can generate energy for the households related to the treatment plant. Possible stakeholders associated to this project: UN-Habitat, UNDP, UNEP, WASH, Bill Gates Foundation, Tata Foundation â&#x20AC;Ś

ater

waste w

biogass International reference Purification system for office buildings, 100m2, USA, New York, Crawford and Associates Engineers 28


MICRO SCALE RAINWATER HARVESTING preparation phase

construction phase

opening

dd/mm/yyyy

dd/mm/yyyy

dd/mm/yyyy

maintenance phase

Multiple rainwater collection points are integrated in the tissue of Bungamati and create not only common spaces but at the same time also ecological nodes. While providing solutions to stormwater floods in the monsoon season, the collection points can also serve as collective irrigation sources for the kitchen gardens within the tissue. Furthermore, they assure a recharging of the groundwater table, which then can reinitiate the ancient stone spout system. All buildings should therefore get an adapted system where rainwater is harvested separately (as a source for showering and toilets) and where grey water and black water get their respective circuits. Possible stakeholders associated to this project: UN-Habitat, WASH, UNDP, UNEP, Oxfam, Bill Gates Foundation, Tata Foundationâ&#x20AC;Ś

stone spouts micro retention ponds

0 10

50

100m

29


B. URBAN TISSUE AND PUBLIC SPACE The tissue of Bungamati has historically developed from the harmonious balance between landscape and built structures. Water elements like ponds were integrated in the village structure and of great importance for religious and water management functions alike. The density of the village generated an almost complete urban image

Pati - A traditional covered social space (gathering, storing, drying crops, ...)

People tree - Age-old trees create multipurpose community spaces 30

Ponds - Water bodies function as religious and social public spaces within the tissue

Peti - A linear collective space as extension of the building


Public space as a base â&#x20AC;&#x201C; the reconstruction of Bungamati is based on a public space structure that induces the construction of public amenities as well as individual housing

0 10

50

100m

31


ROUTE 1 PRATHAMPUR MAHABIHAR TO AMARAPUR BIHAR preparation phase

construction phase

opening

dd/mm/yyyy

dd/mm/yyyy

dd/mm/yyyy

maintenance phase

A public space route going from monastery to monastery is proposed as an instigator for public life and community redevelopment projects. The upgrading of this area, that crosses several communities, can be seen as a new artery to which specific buildings (a library, collective housing, a temple, …) are related, but that will at the same time incorporate a renewed public space approach (the pond as a manifestation of centrality and public life, collective gardens and play areas, …). The route is also in direct relation to the armature that functions on the Bungamati – Khokana scale.

0

100

250m

32 SECTION AA’ AND VIEW - of the main pond, before and after revitalisation


Collective Courtyard housing

Prathampur Mahavihar

Library collective / community housing

Collective housing with garden

Nhawan Gaa Amarapur Stone Spout Buddha Vihar

PROPOSED PUBLIC ROUTE inserted or enhanced collective functions priority project

Section AAâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;

AMENITIES religion educational wood crafting groceries pati other shops

DESTRUCTION entirely collapsed badly damaged

33


ROUTE 1

DENSIFYER courtyard housing and rotation units preparation phase

construction phase

opening

dd/mm/yyyy

dd/mm/yyyy

dd/mm/yyyy

maintenance phase

In order to provide housing units for the owners of damaged buildings, rotation units are provided where they can be hosted during the reconstruction process. This makes sure that the squares and public spaces are freed from shelter housing, which then leaves room for construction materials. For the reconstruction of the courtyard building a vernacular Newari architecture is sought (with the very specific technical construction techniques), yet the organization starts rather from a reflection on the clan as a community than the separate families. This typology of collective housing thus goes beyond the vertical division of the historical houses, but rethinks them as one unit. Possible stakeholders associated to this project: UN-Habitat, Relief Committee, Vocational School, Schools around Bungamati and Khokana, Community (clan), Architecture Sans Frontières, MIT, Air BnB, Namuna Ghar Vocational School, â&#x20AC;Ś 0 100

500m

1km

International references 1. Newa Chann Hotel, Patan 2. Safe Haven Library, Thailand, Tyin Architects, built in 1 month, $4800 3. Copper House, India, Studio Mumbai Architects 4. Copper House, India, Studio Mumbai Architects 34

1

2

3

4


35


ROUTE 2 MACHHIANDRANATH TO FAMILY HOMESTAY preparation phase

construction phase

opening

dd/mm/yyyy

dd/mm/yyyy

dd/mm/yyyy

maintenance phase

A second public space route is prefigured from the Machhindranath Square to the armature. While crossing the dense inner tissue, this route also initiates several upgrading projects on the most damaged sites. A large collective garden is planned behind one of the renewed housing sites and can become a central green core for the inner tissue of the settlement. Densification projects assure the possibility to accept new dwellers in Bungamati in the future, or to keep the possibility for growing families to still live together as one community.

0

100

250m

36 SECTION AAâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; AND VIEW - of the main pond, before and after revitalisation


CARPENTERS HOUSE ( SHEEBA)

Carpenter’s House

Machhindranath

Hiti Gaa Stone spout

Collective housing with comm. garden Densifyer, homestay and social restaurant play collective / ground community housing

PROPOSED PUBLIC ROUTE inserted or enhanced collective functions priority project priority project Section AA’

AMENITIES religion educational wood crafting groceries pati other shops

DESTRUCTION entirely collapsed badly damaged

37


ROUTE 2 CARPENTER’S HOUSE preparation

construction phase

opening

dd/mm/yyyy

dd/mm/yyyy

dd/mm/yyyy

maintenance phase

As a training project in vernacular construction methods and techniques that are earthquake resistent, the house of one of Bungamati’s carpenters is being renovated together with the community. With capacity building being one of the most important goals of the Bungamati Action Plan, this household-scale initiative is vital for the reconstruction of the village and its individual houses. The small scale project is chosen for its fast execution in time, aiming at a fast but profound spreading of building knowledge. Vocational school training is the support for this project. Possible stakeholders associated to this project: Relief Committee, Vocational school, (craftsmen) Community, House owner, Architecture sans Frontières, Namuna Ghar Vocational School, BASEHabitat, different construction NGO’s with …

International references 1. Homestay, Bhaktapur, Nepal, Vocational School Namuna Ghar 38

1


+ 0.

+1.

+ 2.

+ 3.

39


ROUTE 2 DENSIFYER rotation units + homestay + social restaurant preparation

construction phase

opening

maintenance phase

dd/mm/yyyy dd/mm/yyyy dd/mm/yyyy This project combines densification strategies with a social restaurant function. The rotation units and community kitchen become a gathering space for inhabitants of the multiple communities of Bungamati. The building is also partly dedicated to a community-run homestay, which can swing the economy of the village. Being strategically located on the crossing of the armature towards Khokana and one of the public space routes in the tissue of Bungamati, this public building becomes crucial in the redevelopment process of the village. Traditional building methods and vernacular architecture are at the base of the design of this project, while the execution process is a combined effort of the vocational school and the inhabitants themselves.

Possible stakeholders associated to this project: UN-Habitat, Relief Committee, Vocational School, Community, WASH, UNDP, Oxfam, â&#x20AC;Ś

1

International references Cassia Co-op Training Centre, Sumatra, Indonesia, TYIN Architecture with university students of architecture, built in 4 months, 30 000 euro 40

2

3


41


ROUTE 3 MACHHIANDRANATH TO FAMILY HOMESTAY preparation phase

construction phase

opening

dd/mm/yyyy

dd/mm/yyyy

dd/mm/yyyy

maintenance phase

Following the festivity routes from the Machhindranath Temple Square to Bungamati’s bus square, the public space intervention rethinks and restructures an ancient community trajectory. Several collective housing projects are situated along the route, as well as an extension of the Bungamati museum, which houses at the same time an information point on the reconstruction project for Bungamati. The public space links smaller places for worshiping, drying crops, gathering, … with a narrow yet unified public domain.

0

100

250m

42 SECTION AA’ AND VIEW - of the main pond, before and after revitalisation


craftsatelier and housing extension museum, information point and housing brothers’ house

commerce and housing PROPOSED PUBLIC ROUTE inserted or enhanced collective functions priority project priority project

AMENITIES religion educational wood crafting groceries pati other shops

Section AA’

DESTRUCTION entirely collapsed badly damaged

43


ROUTE 2 CRAFTS ATELIER carpenters’ and masoners’ atelier, housing preparation phase (design + plot) construction phase

opening

dd/mm/yyyy

dd/mm/yyyy

dd/mm/yyyy

On a strategic location along the bus parking, a crafts atelier is constructed in order to gather different craftsmen of the village and to give them again a good working environment. This initiative will not only stimulate the economic activities of the individual craftsmen, at the same time it boosts the reconstruction of the settlements as the construction materials needed, can be produced in the atelier. Enthusiast inhabitants can learn by watching and doing in the atelier, and an intensive collaboration is set up with the vocational school that will also be constructed. Possible stakeholders associated to this project: UN-Habitat, Relief Committee, Vocational School, (craftsmen) community, local craftsmen, MIT, …

International references Atelier and Workshop for craftsmen, Alibaug Plantation, India, Studio Mumbai Architects 44

1


45


ROUTE 2 VOCATIONAL SCHOOL preparation phase (design + plot) construction phase

opening

dd/mm/yyyy

dd/mm/yyyy

dd/mm/yyyy

The vocational school is a project that combines the training of skilled craftsmen and the production of qualitative construction materials. Being conceived as a learning atelier, with classrooms, workshops and living units, the vocational school works around a large courtyard. Furthermore, the school is also equipped with a vegetable garden, a rainwater collection system and a biogas cycle with the aim to become self-sustaining. Possible stakeholders associated to this project: UN-Habitat, Relief Committee, Namuna Ghar School, UNDP, UNEP, local craftsmen, â&#x20AC;Ś

International references Atelier and Workshop for craftsmen, Alibaug Plantation, India, Studio Mumbai Architects 46


47


3. TIMELINE Besides the spatial strategy, the action plan consists mainly of a critical consideration on the organization of the action planâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s development over time. The armature, the three routes and the set of priority projects constitute a frame for reconstruction. The process of revitalising Bungamati is assured by introducing amongst the suggested initiatives some key instigators for redevelopment. Projects like the Craft Atelier and the Vocational School are strategically positioned at the beginning of the process as they are key elements for reinforcing community-based reconstruction methods. Densifiers introduce innovative ways of cohousing during the construction process, while preparing ground for economic activities later on. In order to stimulate inhabitantsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; capacity building , and thus reinforce construction knowledge showcase projects such as the carpenterâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s house are collectively executed with skilled craftsmen.

The objective of the reconstruction timeline is to guide in time the development of a renewed urban structure for Bungamati, where temporary shelters will have made place for new constructions and renovated existing buildings. The maps in the timeline show the changing balance between temporary and permanent, between destruction and reconstruction, between individual and collective projects. As the lifespan of a shelter house is between 3 and 5 years, the timeline is envisaging a reconstruction process within such a time span. Of course, the smooth and logical flow of projects is more important than the exact dates of the actions, which will depend on funding conditions and management decisions

The important heritage sites follow a parallel trajectory of reconstruction, but stimulate at the same time economic activities and tourism. They are subject to larger investment and donor-driven support and are therefore imagined at a scale that is larger than the individual and collective reconstruction.

Revitalising Bungamati : the action plan - timeline pre-phase:

project phase:

funding strategies community meetings preparations

01/2016

11/2015

05/2016

09/2016

01/2017

1. CRAFTS ATelieR preparation phase (design + plot)

pla

library + pc-hall construction phase

opening

maintenance phase

kitchen gardens

>> Studio Mumbai - workshop

col

2. voCATionAl SChool (capacity building + construction materials) preparation phase (design + plot)

construction phase

opening

maintenance phase

>> Studio Mumbai - workshop

collective

3. houSe CARpenTeR (capacity building individual construction) preparation

construction phase

opening

collective housing + workshops

maintenance phase

>> Renovation of a house - Bhaktapur

4. DenSiFyeR i (rotation units + homestay + social restaurant) preparation

construction phase

opening

>> TYIN Tengueste - Cassia Coop training centre - Sumatra

maintenance phase

collective housing + Revitalising Bungamati (extension museum

5. DenSiFyeR ii (courtyard housing + rotation units) preparation phase (design + plot)

construction phase

opening

maintenance phase

>> Hotel - Patan

ponds 6. ReeDBeDS (waste water treatment system) preparation phase (design + plots) construction phase

0

50

100

200m

opening

maintenance phase

waste water + drainage infrastructure public space armature

>> New York - reedbed system

48 11/2015

01/2016

05/2016

09/2016

01/2017

soli


05/2017

09/2017

01/2018

05/2018

09/2018

01/2019

05/2019

ayground collective garden

llective courtyard housing

collective housing collective housing

collective housing + commerce

extended public space collective housing collective garden

collective housing

exemplary family housing project collective housing

m)

collective housing collective housing sports fields

new bus station

collective housing + commerce

collective housing + workshops

collective housing

id waste infrastructure

market (old bus station)

rainwater harvesting infrastructure

Karyabinayak active landscape park

49 05/2017

09/2017

01/2018

05/2018

09/2018

01/2019

05/2019


preparation phase (design + plots) construction phase

0

50

100

200m

opening

maintenance phase

11/2015

01/2016

05/2016

waste water + drainage infrastructure public space armature

>> New York - reedbed system

09/2016

01/2017

Machhindranath Temple

hayagriva Bhairav Temple

heritage

Mu nani, Rudra Baha

Karunamaya Dya Chhen Temple

Kwa Chen Baha Temple

0

50

100

200m

11/2015 collective

bungamati tissue

individual

damaged house destroyed house temporary shelter

50

0

50

100

200m

01/2016

05/2016

09/2016

01/2017

soli


id waste infrastructure

rainwater harvesting infrastructure

05/2017

09/2017

Karyabinayak active landscape park

01/2018

05/2018

09/2018

01/2019

05/2019

Bunga Bahi

Sala Chhen Temple

nhawan Gaa

hiti Gaa

05/2017

Re-opening Machhindra Bahal

09/2017

01/2018

Re-opening Chohel nani

lifespan bamboo shelter 05/2018

09/2018

01/2019

05/2019

lifespan Danish shelter opening Market square

51


4. A PARTICIPATORY TRAJECTORY AND SOCIAL MEDIA Reconstruction through a community-based process implies communication, moments of collective reflection on the project and information-sharing. The project is therefore based on a threefold participatory trajectory, of which the first part consists of the signing of a charter and community meetings during the project. A specific information point, with a wooden model indicating the reconstruction actions, will be established on site. A website will be running in parallel online. It is created to collect information on the project and gather possible demands for project aid. These three ways of interacting with inhabitants, but also with interested actors far beyond Bungamati, is crucial to the success of this project. The inhabitants are anyhow the protagonists in the revitalisation process.

signing of the charter COMMUNITY MEETINGS

community meetings

community meetings Inauguration Moment

PROJECT ACTION PLAN

PROJECT

collective projects + heritage informing the community presenting the action plan to the community

ON SITE

debating and deciding on the action plan by the community

individual reconstruction

ON SITE 1. info + wooden model of current situation made by wood craftsmen

MEDIA

2. miniature priority projects to sell

SOCIAL MEDIA interactive website

update projects crowdfunding project 1

call for participants update partners involved

52

update projects call for participants crowdfunding project 2

festive opening project 1


english / newari

ON

ONGOING

THE MAP

PROJECTS

TIMELINE

PROJECT

CROWD

FRAME

FUNDING

training & technical knowhow for redevelopment

ON

ONGOING

THE VILLAGE

THE MAP

PROJECTS

opening

VOCATIONAL SCHOOL

15/10/2016

08/04/2016

construction phase

08/12/2015

english / newari

VOICES OF

List of projects

VOCATIONAL SCHOOL preparation phase (design + plot)

PARTNERS

PROJECT AIM : Training of new craftsmen, taught by skilled craftsmen of Bungamati. Swing economy, revive craftsmanship, train on alternative energy, purification cycles and earthquake resilient building. PROGRAM : Class rooms, ateliers, storage space, boarding units. Implement water and biogass cycle to be self-sustainable. Rainwater harvesting, vegetable garden. EST. CONSTRUCTION TIME + COST : 4+6 months // xx USD

BUDGET AIM : xxx USD DEADLINE : 15 march 2016

IF YOU SUPPORT THIS INITIATIVE, YOU GET :

INDIEGOGO LINK

# 10 USD : honorable mention on the website # 25 USD : honorable mention + postcard of the project # 50 USD : honorable mention + postcard of the project + bracelet made by the tinmen of bungamati # 100 USD : honorable mention + postcard of the project + bracelet + name carved in a wall of the school # 250 USD : honorable mention + postcard of the project + bracelet + name carved + project booklet

TIMELINE

PROJECT

CROWD

FRAME

FUNDING

DENSIFYER II

KU SCHOOL OF ARTS

# 10/01/2016

# 24/06/2016

# 21/08/2015

Construction works have started and continue with an intensive rhythm. The damaged house is being repaired with local materials. The scaffoldings are reaching to the upper floors in order to first tackle structural issues over the entire house.

While the design team is going ahead with the proposal for the re-invented courtyard housing, which will include also rotation units for the shelter inhabitants, a team of community members has joined forces to start preparing the plot for construction.

The Vernacular Sense & Essence of Bungamati

Specialised craftsmen help in the reconstruction of the house, for which the materials are prepared in the crafts atelier.

INDIEGOGO LINK

SPORTS FIELDS FOR BUNGAMATI

severe damage after the earthquake

>>

the motivated team working on removing the debris

>>

Plans are ready for the renovation works and experienced helpers from the village are motivated to work on the project. If still interested in giving a hand or help funding the works, please have a look at CONTACT FORM and CROWDFUNDING .

>>

LIBRARY PROJECT

construction works have started

# 16/12/2015

DEADLINE : 25 june 2016

>>

>>

INDIEGOGO LINK

A live performance on sensing the Vernacular Architecture of Bungmati in the aftermath of the Gorkha Earthquake 2015.

The event will host the local screenings of Digital Storytelling produced in collaboration with Willemijn van Kol and Elizabeth Hacker in Tea Shops and vernacular spaces in Bungamati.

DEADLINE : 06 april 2016

# 1000 USD : honorable mention + postcard of the project + bracelet + name carved + project booklet + homestay + wooden model made by the woodcrafters of Bungamati

- # REBUILDING BUNGAMATI

by Salil Subedi in collaboration with Amrit Karki, Bharat Rai, Bibek Thapa, Hisila Maharjan, Kunjan Tamang, Minod Bhaila, Parish Shakya, Rahul Thapa, Sameer Tamrakar, Santosh Jarga Magar, Saroj Maharjan, Shyam Prajapati, Utsab Maharjan, Ximi Wang, Yajyu Manandhar

BUDGET AIM : xxx USD

BUDGET AIM : xxx USD

VOICES OF THE VILLAGE

HOUSE CARPENTER

FAMILY HOUSING PROJECT

# 500 USD : honorable mention + postcard of the project + bracelet + name carved + project booklet + gift voucher for a homestay in Bungamati

PARTNERS

english / newari

ON

ONGOING

THE MAP

PROJECTS

TIMELINE

PROJECT

CROWD

FRAME

FUNDING

PARTNERS

VOICES OF THE VILLAGE

info-point Revitalising Bungamati

OPEN CALL VOCATIONAL SCHOOL

training & technical knowhow for redevelopment

preparation phase (design + plot)

construction phase

opening

# 01 - masoner for housing project WHEN ? - Saturday 7 & Sunday 8 november 2015 WHERE ? - Bungamati - 10 WHAT ? - Retrofitting works of a collapsed faรงade

PROJECT AIM : Training of new craftsmen, taught by skilled craftsmen of Bungamati. Swing economy, revive craftsmanship, train on alternative energy, purification cycles and earthquake resilient building.

REQUIREMENTS ? - experience in masonry CONTACT FORM

# 02 - help for plot preparation WHEN ? - Tuesday 16 to Friday 20 november 2015 WHERE ? - Bungamati - 10 WHAT ? - Cleaning of debris REQUIREMENTS ? - manpower

>>

CONTACT FORM

>>

# 03 - carpenter for wood structure

53


54


PARTNERS & PARTICIPANTS

UN-HABITAT Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific Bruno Dercon UN Nepal Padma Joshi Anil Maharjan Urmila Maharjan UN Nepal Volunteers Anatta Shresthacharya Anil Tuladhar Angela Tamrakar Kushma Thapa

K.U. LEUVEN MaHS MaUSP Staff Bruno de Meulder Viviana dâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;Auria Annelies De Nijs Stefanie Dens Participants Valentina Amaya Sheeba Amir Ashim Manna Isabelle Matton

SHELTER PROGRAM Bert Smolders Nieke De Bel Jamie Trybus Radbout Buitenrust Hettema Rajendra Shrestha


STUDIO KATHMANDU 2015-2016 REVITALISING BUNGAMATI : AN ACTION PLAN

Revitalising bungamati an action plan booklet kuleuven  

Revitalising Bungamati an action plan KU Leuven + UN Habitat + Arcadis Shelter

Revitalising bungamati an action plan booklet kuleuven  

Revitalising Bungamati an action plan KU Leuven + UN Habitat + Arcadis Shelter

Advertisement