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research NewVisualLanguage


mod ern


modernism what is it?

Modernism is more a way of thinking than a style. Modernists believed that the design of an object should be based purely on the purpose that ‘form follows function’. Modernism describes an array of cultural movements rooted in the changes of society in the late nineteenth and early twentieth century. The term covers a series of reforming movements in various genres in art and design, architecture, music, literature and the applied arts which emerged during this period. There is no specific definitive description for Modernism, mainly because the practice was very different in each area of interest. Among the factors that shaped Modernism was the development of modern industrial societies and the rapid growth of cities, followed then by the horror of World War I.

Modernism also rejected the certainty of enlightenment thinking, and many modernists rejected religious belief. Modernism still has alot of relevance today an it’s influence can be seen through comtemporay design as more people have started to seek and make sense of the world that surrounds us. In terms of Graph Design, moderism embraced an asymmetrical approach to layout with strict attention to the grid. ‘the grid system’ puts emphasis on white space and san serif typography, and the absence of decoration. Modernism adopted the rise of clean, percise design. This can be seen in such schools such as the Bauhaus and De Stijl. Modernism encouraged the re-examination of every aspect of existence, from commerce to philosophy, with the goal of finding that which was ‘holding back’ progress, and replacing it with new, progressive and therefore better, ways of reaching the same end. Some divide the 20th Century into movements designated Modernism and Postmodernism, whereas others see them as two aspects of the same movement.


The grid system gained its faim by The International Typographic Style movement and pioneered by design ledgends such as Josef Muller-Brockman and Will Crouwel. The grid is the foundation of any solid design with rationality and structure. The grid system is a continuously expandig resource where graphic designers can learn about grid systems, the golden ratio and baseline grids.


‘The grid system is an aid, not a guarentee. It permits a number of possible uses and each designer can look for a solution, appropriate to his or her personal personal style. But one must learn how to use the grid; it is an art that requres practice.’ - Josef Muller-Brockman

use the grid.


s n is ig s sw e d international typographic style


Swiss syle design is also known as ‘international typographic style’, became a movement that spread worldwide from Germany to Russia. Swiss style has some distinct features, a grid system and structure for one, which had a great impact on the design industry. It’s very common to see the use of contrasting font sizes in swiss style because it was often a technique they used to create clariety within their work whilst still relaying their message creativly. The use of these features within design industries of the 1950’s lead to the development of the ‘swiss’ or ‘international’ style movements we still see today in 2014. The features are still used in our society just the content and contextual choices have differed.


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The Bauhaus has been a influenceal school of design since 1919 and was open for 14 years. The realization of this movemont were brought upon the focus to explore social and political views. Post World War One brought on much depression and problems for the working class, therefore the Bauhaus explored these problems and sought to visually fix them. Their concerns high-lighted the importance of ‘high quality’, which is expressed in the design work and justification of the visual communication.

simplistic work from before the war to the bright modern design work filled with colour and more experimentation from after.

Looking at this movement personally, I can see the transformation from the plain,

“less is is more” more” “less

- miles van der rohe


Josef Muller Mulle ‘The pioneer of Swiss Graphic

and simplisitic designs to the way

work was done for the Zurich Town

changed the face of the graphic

effective and influential to look at

theatre productions. He published

Design, Josef Muller-Brockman

industry and help to inspire a generation. Born in 1914, he studied architecture, design and

history of art. In 1936 he opened

he uses typography, its all very and gives me alot on inspiration and

ideas to take to my developmnet

stages. Perhaps his most decisive

Hall as poster advertisements for its several

books,

including

The

Graphic Artist and His Problems

and Grid Systems in Graphic

his own design studio, specializing in

graphics,

photography.

exhibitions

and

Muller-Brockman

was a true master and rare pioneer

of his craft. Even after his death in 1996, his work sets a benchmark to

This

others

in

his

description

profession.’

shows

how

modernism is reinforced by Muller-

Brockmans work and even in todays generation of Graphic designers

follows his strategies employed by

him forcefully. I really like his work, from his strong modernist layouts

A Pioneer of G


er-Brockman r-Brockman Design.

These

books

provide

He spent most of his life working

practices and philosophies, and

1990s when he toured the US and

an in-depth analysis of his work provide an excellent foundation for young graphic designers wishing to learn more about the profession.

and teaching, even into the early

Canada speaking about his work. He died in Zurich in 1996.

Graphic Design


swiss de

“These posters stand apart from may other graphic design forms because they offer the designer high visibility and large-scale format.’ Swiss style emphasizes on neatness, eye friendliness, readability and objectivity. Its foundations go back to its strong reliance on elements of typography and universality. This basic knowledge of universal understanding made Swiss style earn its moniker dubbing it as the ‘International Typographic Style’.

Swiss style works are generally attentive to the use of uniform design elements and geometric figures. It focuses on preserving the consistency of the shapes and their sizes. Most graphic artists practice the use of shapes collated together to form unique abstract designs. The use of polygons, rather than intricate lines and calligraphic designs assure the simplicity of the work. It also spices up the whole image, making it look sharper and purpose-directed. Aside from that, colors, text manipulations and abstract devices are also combined to produce a remarkably clear message to its spectators.


esign posters

The modernity of the Swiss Style connotes a very rudimentary feel. Using minimal designs to make the reader focus more on what is really important is the main goal of the Swiss Style. The fewer the distractions, the better. Removing all the distracting elements and making the elementary and only the important details remain is the basic principle of the style.

Typeface is the core element of visual communication. It is the most direct and easiest route for the message to be delivered. In the Swiss Style principle, it would be an abomination for a designer to put into jeopardy the quality of the typeface for the design Typefaces should be presented in the most simple, expressive, and universally understood manner.


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EL DEX TER WAL

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WALTER DEXEL IS ONE OF THE OUTSTANDING EXPONENTS OF 1920’s CONSTRUCTIVISM. IT WAS THROUGH HIS OCCUPATION WITH CUBISM AND THE EXAMINATION OF WORKS BY THE BAUHAUS MASTER LYNEL FEININGER THAT WALTER DEXEL FOUND HIS WAY TO ABSTRACT COMPOSITIONS BASED ON CLEAR FUNDAMENTAL GEOMETRIC STRUCTURES. WALTER DEXEL WAS NOT RESTRICTED TO PANEL PAINTINGS BUT ALSO

WORKED AS A TYPOGRAPHER, AN ADVERTISING DESIGNER AND DESIGNED INTERIORS AD STAGE STETTINGS. AFTER 1933, DEFAMED BY THE NATIONALSOCIALIST DICTATORSHOP, WALTER DEXEL INTERUPTED HIS CAREER, IT WAS NOT BEFORE THE LAST YEARS OF HISLIFETHATHERETURNEDTOART. HIS WORK IS VERY INFLUENCIAL FROM HIS ADVERTISMENT AND TYPOGRAPHY TO HIS PAINTINGS, THEIR ALL WORTH A LOOK AND INSPECT.


adrian

FRUTIGER

“From all these experiences the most important thing I have learned is that legibility and beauty stand close together and that type design, in its restraint, should be only felt but not perceived by the reader.�

Adrian Frutiger is a typeface designer who influenced the direction of digital typography in the second half of the 20th century and into the 21st. Born on the 24th May 1928 in Unterseen, Canton of Bern, Switzerland, he is best known for creating a group of typefaces. He established his international position as a typeface designer with his Univers sans-serif font, produced for metal and film in 1957. In addition to his typeface design, Frutiger has been a consultant to IBM and the Stempel typefoundry. He produced the typeface for Paris Charles de Gaulle airport during the early 1970s and Linotype subsequently released this in 1977 as the Frutiger typeface. Adrian Frutiger has a lot to say about legible and beautiful typefaces, and his work is a perfect reflection of these typographic elements. He has received several awards and honours. In 2008 Frutiger collaborated on a reworked version of Meridien, which was released by Linotype as Frutiger Serif in honour of his 80th birthday.

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REGITURF


EL

L L II S S S S II T T Z Z K K Y Y


Lazar Markovich Lissitzky better known as El Lissitzky. He was a Russian artist, designer, photographer, typographer, polemicist and architect. His work greatly influenced the Bauhaus and constructivist movements, and he experimented with production techniques and stylistic devices that would go on to dominate 20th-century graphic design. Lissitzky’s entire career was laced with the belief that the artist could be an agent for change. Lissitzky, of Jewish оrigin, began his career illustrating Yiddish children’s books in an effort to promote Jewish culture in Russia, a country that was undergoing massive change at the time and that had just repealed its antisemitic laws. He took this ethic with him when he worked with Malevich in heading the suprematist art group UNOVIS, when he developed a variant suprematist series of his own, Proun, and further still in

1921, when he took up a job as the Russian cultural ambassador to Weimar Germany, working with and influencing important figures of the Bauhaus and De Stijl movements during his stay. In his remaining years he brought significant innovation and change to typography, exhibition design, photomontage, and book design, producing critically respected works and winning international acclaim for his exhibition design. This continued until his deathbed, where in 1941 he produced one of his last works – a Soviet propaganda poster rallying the people to construct more tanks for the fight against Nazi Germany. In 2014, the heirs of the artist, in collaboration with Van abbemuseum and the leading worldwide scholars, the Lissitzky foundation was established, to preserve the artist’s legacy and preparing a catalogue raisone of the artist oeuvre. El Lissitzky died in Moscow in 1941.

“Typographical “Typographical design design should should perform perform optically optically what what the the speaker speaker creates creates through through voice voice and and gesture gesture of of his his thoughts.” thoughts.” El El Lizzitsky Lizzitsky


Neue Grafik New Graphic D Legendary magazine Neue Grafik published by Muller-Brockmann, Vivarelli, Neuburg & Lohse is one of the holy grail for graphic design lovers. Finding an issue is like winning the lotery: you can search during decades and find finally a copy in a small vintage bookstore or in the collection of a senior designer. Published quarterly in Zürich, Switzerland from 1958-1965 (17 issues, 18 numbers – the last issue 17/18 was a double issue), Neue Grafik was arguably the most important journal responsible for disseminating contemporary and historical Swiss functional design ideas and philosophies referred to as the “International Typographic Style”, “Swiss New Typography” or“ObjectiveFunctional Typography”.


Design


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Dada or Dadaism was an art movement of the European avant-garde in the early 20th century. Many say Dada began in Zurich, Switzerland in 1916, spreading to Berlin shortly thereafter but the height of New York Dada was the year before in 1915. The movement primarily involved visual arts, literature, poetry, art manifestoes, art theory, theatre, and graphic design, and concentrated its anti-war politics through a rejection of the prevailing standards in art through anti-art cultural works. In addition to being anti-war, Dada was also anti-bourgeois and had political affinities with the radical left. Dada activities included public gatherings, demonstrations, and publication of art/ literary journals; passionate coverage of art, politics, and culture were topics often discussed in a variety of media. The movement influenced later styles like the avant-garde and downtown music movements, and groups including surrealism, Nouveau réalisme, pop art and Fluxus.

‘Dada is the groundwork to abstract art and sound poetry, a starting point for performance art, a prelude to postmodernism, an influence on pop art, a celebration of antiart to be later embraced for anarcho-political uses in the 1960s and the movement that lay the foundation for Surrealism.’ Dadaists delighted in uncoventional typographic design, frequently mixing fonts employing unorthodox punctuation, printing both horizontally and vetically on a single sheet, and sprinkling texts with randomly chosen printers’ symbols.

‘Art is dead. Long live Dada.’ --Walter Serner

‘It’s not Dada that is nonsense--but the essence of our age that is nonsense.’ --The Dadaists


DAVID CARSON David Carson was born on September 8th 1954. He is an American graphic designer, art director and surfer. He is best known for his innovative magazine design, and use of experimental typography. He was the art director for the magazine Ray Gun, in which he employed much of the typographic and layout style for which he is known. In particular, his widely imitated aesthetic defined the socalled “grunge typography” era.

only symbols, as the font for what he considered a rather dull interview with Bryan Ferry.[3] (However, the whole text was published in a legible font at the back of the same issue of Ray Gun, complete with a repeat of the asterisk motif). Ray Gun made Carson well known and attracted new admirers to his work. In this period, he was featured in publications such as The New York Times (May 1994) and Newsweek (1996).

Carson was hired by publisher Marvin Scott Jarrett to design Ray Gun, an alternative music and lifestyle magazine that debuted in 1992. In one issue, he notoriously used Dingbat, a font containing

In 1995, Carson left Ray Gun to found his own studio, David Carson Design, in New York City. He started to attract major clients from all over the United States. During the next three years (1995–1998),

Carson was doing work for Pepsi Cola, Ray Ban (orbs project), Nike, Microsoft and many other companies. He named and designed the first issue of the adventure lifestyle magazine Blue, in 1997. David designed the first issue and the first three covers, after which his assistant Christa Smith art directed and designed the magazine until its demise. Carson’s cover design for the first issue was selected as one of the “top 40 magazine covers of all time” by the American Society of Magazine Editors. In 2000, Carson closed his New York City studio and followed his children to Charleston, South Carolina, where their mother had relocated them.

‘CARSON is the most googled graphic designer in history, even surpassing some well known fine artists’ -Eye magazine, London


studio dumbar Studio Dumbar is a highly influential Dutch graphic design agency with outposts in China and Korea. Its work has helped shape, not only Dutch, but international design for over three decades. They describe their work as ‘visual branding, online branding’, meaning that they create every visible expression of a brand or organization — offline and online. This involves expertise in strategy, communication, branding and process-management. Studio Dumbar’s colourful history began in 1977 when Gert Dumbar founded the company in The Hague. From their they expanded greatly and have their homebase in the Netherlands (Rotterdam) and a liaison-office in South-Korea (Seoul). On average, they have 5 different nationalities and cultures in the team. Their portfolio is equally diverse,

encompassing work for a variety of clients both large and small – from business and government to cultural and non-profit. Among the client list one can spot the Amsterdam Sinfonietta, Dutch Police, TNT, Shell, Dutch Railways, KPN, Danish Post and the Dutch Government. Studio Dumbar attracts talented individuals from around the world. Over the years, this has lead to an endless run of remarkable personalities and projects. The company has won an astounding number of awards. On D&AD’s all time list, Studio Dumbar is the third most awarded design outfit, beaten only by Apple and Pentagram.


N E V I L L E Neville Brody was born on 23rd April 1957 in London. He is an English graphic designer, typographer and art director. Neville Brody is an internationally renowned designer, typographer, art director, brand strategist and consultant. Brody is also the founder of the Research Studios network and partner in each of their operations, his insight, methodology and appetite for excellence inform every aspect of their work. Today, in addition to lecturing and contributing to a variety of cultural and educational initiatives, Brody works both independently on private commissions and alongside Research Studios on commercial projects for a diverse range of clients.

B R O D Y


Neville Brody is an alumnus of the London College of Printing and Hornsey College of Art, and is known for his work on The Face magazine (1981–1986) and Arena magazine (1987–1990), as well as for designing record covers for artists such as Cabaret Voltaire and Depeche Mode. He created the company Research Studios in 1994 and is a founding member of Fontworks. He is the new Head of the Communication Art & Design department at the Royal College of Art.

He was one of the founding members of FontShop (http://www.fontshop. com) in London and designed a number of notable typefaces for them. He was also partly responsible for instigating the FUSE project an influential fusion between a magazine, graphics design and typeface design. Each pack includes a publication with articles relating to typography and surrounding subjects, four brand new fonts that are unique and revolutionary in some shape or form and four posters designed by the type designer usually using little more than their included font. In 1990 he also founded the FontFont typeface library together with Erik Spiekermann. Notable fonts include the updated font for the Times newspaper, Times Modern, New Deal as used in publicity material and titles for the film Public Enemies and Industria.


magaz c Fom looking at these magazine covers, I like the use of experimental typography. Creating covers using typography like this is my faverote kind of design work as I feel it draws you too the pages and intruiges you. If I can creative a cover with a creative edge like these I’ll be very pleased woth myself.

This is a very effective magazine poster as it en cooperates two aspects of the title in one graphicly symbolic image. Also the use of colour in this peice helps the overall message come out, I feel it helps draw your eyes towards the centre of the piece, making you veiw the whole page.


zine covers This cover I had to put in because of the effectiveness it has to it and the message shown in the piece. From first view the striking inage makes you think about the magazine and what the content could be. I think having a front cover that can make you that intrigued about whats inside, definitely needs recognition and to be evaluated.

This is one of my faverote front covers, the use of typography in this draw your eyes straight to the page and keeps you looking. I feel having various styles of fonts and sizes on a single piece forces you to inspect the design, picking what you like and dislike about it. Also the bright colours help you to pick out all the different fonts and keep your eyes on the page.


develo


opment


masthead development


Here is a collection of masthead thumbnail designs. I have tried to create a wide range of different styles of mastheads so I can see what effects they have on the wording. From looking at these pages, I haven’t created a masthead with the zing and pep I want mine to have. I feel that Im going to try experimenting with other pathways and hopefully this will get me on the right path to create a strong, eye-catching, effective masthead design. Throughout these pages I like the blurred designs as the look a lot more intriguing and make you want to explore the design more. I feel with the right design, this blurred effect would look great and help portray the magazine in the correct way. Overall I need to continue developing this until Im happy with a masthead, then it’ll should give me enough leverage to create the front cover and content of the magazine. I think the final magazine is going to be a very new, unique magazine with interesting design work drawing you too the piece.


From the previous masthead designs, I started to play around with isometric paper and seeing what effects it had on my designs. Here are some of the designs I created with the graph paper. I like the effect the iscometric paper gives the designs making them look very 3D and interesting to look at. From lookinat at this page I feel I’ll be able to create a very intruiguing masthead design, which will help draw people to the magazine and to the front cover.


Here is my final masthead design, after playing around with isometric papar I knew that was the route I wanted to go down with this. From looking back I feel I made the right decision going down this pathway as I believe this is my most effective and eyecatching design I’ve created. Looking at this masthead design I feel I’ll be able to continue with this design to help create the front cover, and as it’s the first issue of this magazine I feel I should use the masthead to help create an creative and intruiging magazine front cover. Due to the look of the masthead I dont think it will be hard to change it into a large poster design as from looking at this page, it works on a variety of different sizes and boldnesses.


Front cover development From looking at the previous pages, I feel the masthead design should be the main piece on the front cover. As its the first issue nobody will know the magazine, so it will need to get the name out to the people as effectivly as possible, and having the masthead bold on the front is a good way of starting this. I’m going to try out the masthead in a variety of different layouts to see which looks best and draws you too the page the best.

Once I have established a front cover design I’m going to add the finer detail, like the barcode, date, issue number etc., this way it will look alot more professional and clean cut. I believe with the right development I will be able to transform this mast head design into an effective front cover with somevery unique attributes. I plan on experimenting with a wide range of colour schemes so I get a good idea of what represents the cover the best possible way.


After looking through these pages, I feel I’m going to push this design above, I belive that it has the best visual effect, drawing your eyes towards the page. I and going to take this design back into Adobe Illustrator and continus to add the smaller detail unitl I’m happy with the final cover design. Looking at the various colour schemes I ave tried out on the last few pages, I know I want my cover to be more colourful thank black and white, this way it works with the design making it as appealing as possible. I like the look the red, yellow and green design has above and think I’m will experiment with this style further. Also with this design, creating an effective back page shouldn’t be too hard as I will be able to follow on the design from page to page. Overall, with the right further development, this will end up a very interesting, eye-catching front cover design.


Here is my front and back cover for this magazine. I’m really happy with the overall piece and think it helps draw people to the magazine with its interesting design and bright eye-catching colour. I think having a cover that links over both pages helps add effect towards the magazine giving your eyes something to follow. I’m pleased with the piece and believe it will stad out upon other magazine covers.


LAYOUT DEVELOPMENT


Content pages Content 1 Inner page Modernism & Post-Modernism 2 Pages Street Graphics 4 Pages Cabinet Of Curiousity 4 Pages Earth Artifact 4 Pages + Type 2 Pages Manifesto 2 Pages I want my inner pages to be very minimalist and easy on the eye so the brain is focousing on the working the magazine rather that the layout of the overall magazine. This way I feel it will show off the work in the best possible way as well as holding a stong structured layout and grid structure. Also I feel this way it wont be too busy any it will be easy to inspect the work inside the magazine.

Content Content

Content

Content

Content

Content

Content

Content Content

Content

Content Content

Content

Here is a collection of fonts I could possibly use as the font throughout my magazine. I want it to be a standard font. I think im going to experiment with two different fonts in this magazine.


Content Modernism & Postmodernism........2 Street Graphics..............................4 Cabinet of Curiousity.....................8 Earth Artifact.................................12 Type................................................18 Manifesto........................................20

Here’s a collection of various different font I could possibly use for the context page. I like the bolder font although they look a bit busy. I’m going to try and encoproate a bit of two fonts so their is more effect and more to view.

Content Modernism & Postmodernism........2 Street Graphics..............................4 Cabinet of Curiousity.....................8 Earth Artifact.................................12 Type................................................18 Manifesto........................................20

Content Modernism & Postmodernism........2 Street Graphics..............................4 Cabinet of Curiousity.....................8 Earth Artifact.................................12 Type................................................18 Manifesto........................................20

Content Modernism & Postmodernism........2 Street Graphics..............................4 Cabinet of Curiousity.....................8 Earth Artifact.................................12 Type................................................18 Manifesto........................................20

Content Modernism & Postmodernism........2 Street Graphics..............................4 Cabinet of Curiousity.....................8 Earth Artifact.................................12 Type................................................18 Manifesto........................................20

Content Modernism & Postmodernism........2 Street Graphics..............................4 Cabinet of Curiousity.....................8 Earth Artifact.................................12 Type................................................18 Manifesto........................................20

Content Modernism & Postmodernism........2 Street Graphics..............................4 Cabinet of Curiousity.....................8 Earth Artifact.................................12 Type................................................18 Manifesto........................................20


contents modernism & postmodernism........2 street graphics.................................4 cabinet of curiousity........................8 earth artifact....................................12 type..................................................18 manifesto.........................................20

contents modernism & postmodernism........2 street graphics..................................4 cabinet of curiousity........................8 earth artifact....................................12 type........................................................18 manifesto............................................20

contents modernism & postmodernism................................2 street graphics.................................4 cabinet of curiousity........................8 earth artifact....................................12 type..................................................18 manifesto.........................................20

contents modernism & postmodernism.................................2 street graphics.................................4 cabinet of curiousity.......................8 earth artifact...................................12 type.......................................................18 manifesto...........................................20


contents Modernism & Postmodernism Street Graphics Cabinet of Curiousity Earth Artifact Type Manifesto

4 8 12 18 20 22


modernism The Iranian Embassy siege took place from 30 April to 5 May 1980, after a group of six armed men stormed the Iranian embassy in London. The gunmen, members of an Iranian Arab group campaigning for Arab national sovereignty in Khūzestān Province, took 26 hostages and demanded the release of Arab prisoners from jails in Khūzestān. Police negotiators gradually secured the release of five hostages in exchange for minor concessions. On the sixth day the gunmen, frustrated at the lack of progress, killed a hostage and threw his body out of the embassy. The British government ordered the Special Air Service (SAS), a special forces regiment, to rescue the hostages. During the 17-minute raid, the SAS rescued all but one of the remaining hostages, and killed five of the gunmen. The hostage-takers and their cause were largely forgotten afterwards, but the operation brought the SAS to public attention. It was overwhelmed by the number of applications it received from people inspired by the operation and experienced greater demand for its expertise from foreign governments. The building suffered major damage from fire (aftermath pictured) and did not reopen as the embassy until 1993. (Full article...)

modernism April to 5 May 1980, after a group of six armed men stormed the Iranian embassy in London. The gunmen, members of an Iranian Arab group campaigning for Arab national sovereignty in Khūzestān Province, took 26 hostages and demanded the release of Arab prisoners from jails in Khūzestān. Police negotiators gradually secured the release of five hostages in exchange for minor concessions. On the sixth day the gunmen, frustrated at the lack of progress, killed a hostage and threw his body out

of the embassy. The British government ordered the Special Air Service (SAS), a special forces regiment, to rescue the hostages. During the 17-minute raid, the SAS rescued all but one of the remaining hostages.

postmodernism

& & & &

Recently featured: HMS Endeavour – U.S. The Iranian Embassy siege took place from 30 April to 5 May 1980, after a group of six armed men stormed the Iranian embassy in London. The gunmen, members of an Iranian Arab group campaigning for Arab national sovereignty in Khūzestān Province, took 26 hostages and demanded the release of Arab prisoners from jails in Khūzestān. Police negotiators gradually secured the release of five hostages in exchange for minor concessions. On the sixth day the gunmen, frustrated at the lack of progress, killed a hostage and threw his body out of the embassy. The British government ordered the Special Air Service (SAS), a special forces regiment, to rescue the hostages. During the 17-minute raid, the SAS rescued all but one of the remaining hostages, and killed five of the gunmen. The hostage-takers and their cause were largely forgotten afterwards, but the operation brought the SAS to public attention. It was overwhelmed by the number of applications it received from people inspired by the operation and experienced greater demand for its expertise from foreign governments.

postmodernism April to 5 May 1980, after a group of six armed men stormed the Iranian embassy in London. The gunmen, members of an Iranian Arab group campaigning for Arab national sovereignty in Khūzestān Province, took 26 hostages and demanded the release of Arab prisoners from jails in Khūzestān. Police negotiators gradually secured the release of five hostages in exchange for minor concessions. On the sixth day the gunmen, frustrated at the lack of progress, killed a hostage and threw his body out of the embassy. The British government ordered the Special Air Service (SAS), a special forces regiment, to rescue the hostages. During the 17-minute raid, the SAS rescued all but one of the remaining hostages.


Modernism April to 5 May 1980, after a group of six armed men stormed the Iranian embassy in London. The gunmen, members of an Iranian Arab group campaigning for Arab national sovereignty in Khūzestān Province, took 26 hostages and demanded the release of Arab prisoners from jails in Khūzestān. Police negotiators gradually secured the release of five hostages in exchange for minor concessions. On the sixth day the gunmen, frustrated at the lack of progress, killed a hostage and threw his body out of the embassy. The British government ordered the Special Air Service (SAS), a special forces regiment, to rescue the hostages. During the 17-minute raid, the SAS rescued all but one of the remaining hostages.

Modernism April to 5 May 1980, after a group of six armed men stormed the Iranian embassy in London. The gunmen, members of an Iranian Arab group campaigning for Arab national sovereignty in Khūzestān Province, took 26 hostages and demanded the release of Arab prisoners from jails in Khūzestān. Police negotiators gradually secured the release of five hostages in exchange for minor concessions. On the sixth day the gunmen, frustrated at the lack of progress, killed a hostage and threw his body out of the embassy. The British government ordered the Special Air Service (SAS), a special forces regiment, to rescue the hostages. During the 17-minute raid, the SAS rescued all but one of the remaining hostages, and

3

&

postmodernism

&

postmodernism

April to 5 May 1980, after a group of six armed men stormed the Iranian embassy in London. The gunmen, members of an Iranian Arab group campaigning for Arab national sovereignty in Khūzestān Province, took 26 hostages and demanded the release of Arab prisoners from jails in Khūzestān. Police negotiators gradually secured the release of five hostages in exchange for minor concessions. On the sixth day the gunmen, frustrated at the lack of progress, killed a hostage and threw his body out of the embassy. The British government ordered the Special Air Service (SAS), a special forces regiment, to rescue the hostages. During the 17-minute raid, the SAS rescued all but one of the remaining hostages.

April to 5 May 1980, after a group of six armed men stormed the Iranian embassy in London. The gunmen, members of an Iranian Arab group campaigning for Arab national sovereignty in Khūzestān Province, took 26 hostages and demanded the release of Arab prisoners from jails in Khūzestān. Police negotiators gradually secured the release of five hostages in exchange for minor concessions. On the sixth day the gunmen, frustrated at the lack of progress, killed a hostage and threw his body out of the embassy. The British government ordered the Special Air Service (SAS), a special forces regiment, to rescue the hostages. During the 17-minute raid, the SAS rescued all but one of the remaining hostages, and

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Modernism Modernism is a philosophical movement that arose from wide-scale and farreaching transformations in Western society, through the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Among the factors that shaped Modernism, was the development of modern industrial societies and the rapid growth of cities. Modernism also rejected the certainty of Enlightenment thinking, and many modernists rejected religious belief.In general, Modernism includes the activities and creations of those who felt the traditional forms of art, architecture, literature, religious faith, philosophy, social organization, and activities of daily life were becoming outdated in the new economic, social, and political environment of an emerging fully industrialized world. Looking at Modernism in Graphic design , you find out about the fine detail , that this genre relates too. The ‘Grid Structure’, ‘Less is more’, ‘White Space’ are often seen in when looking at design in modernism, these factors being a key in their design process. Using the ‘White Space and Grid Structure’ gives the designer a large amont of space to use, aswell as focousing you eyes on whatever he wants you too, keeping your thought on specific sections of the work, helping simplify the piece. You can still see all these influences in todays desin work from posters, flyers, and websites to magazines and logos.

“It is experimental, formally complex, elliptical, contains elements of decreation as well as creation, and tends to associate notions of the artist’s freedom from realism, materialism, traditional genre and form, with notions of cultural apocalypse and disaster.” This quote by Peter Childs from the book Modernism: The New Critical Idiom, helps show the size and broadness of this genre, making it a interesting topic and a joy to research, helping represent Modernism to the fullest.

“The modern artist is working with space and time and expressing his feelings rather than illustrating.”

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-Jackson Pollock

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postmodernism The opposite genre is Postmodernism, which completley shattered the walls of the modernist movement, allowing designers and artists free rain to express themselves as freely as possible. The two genres are very different, if you were to take the staight lines and white space of a modernist design and hand it to a postmodernist they would transform it , replacing it with strong abstact brush strokes, layers upon layers of texture, including rough shapes and bold colours, not forgetting carzy typography sometime unreadable.

“In our postmodern culture which is TV dominated, image sensitive, and morally vacuous, personality is everything and character is increasingly irrelevant.” Although alot of postmoderism work is criticized as being random, bland creations, I would say it has alot more to do with the artist and their way of expressing what the hear, see and feel without sticking to guidlines and rules that modernist designs doo. As the philospher Richard Tarnas states, postmodernism “cannot on its own principles ultimately justify itself any more than can the various metaphysical overviews against which the postmodern mind has defined itself.” This is an interesting satement helping to show the depth of Postmodernism and the unusual tendencies and attributes this grenre breahes out.

“what exactly is postmodernism, except modernism without the anxiety?” -Jonathan Lethem “Conclusion: better to be a thinking monk than a postmodern thinker.” - Muriel Barbery

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street graphics The term ‘street graphics/street art’ automatically makes you think of graffiti and spray art on our streets. But this term be applied to a variety of aspects of the streets, they can offer a lot more that a canvas for graffiti artists, they generate inspiration, provoke emotions and help build on ideas. This is the route I wanted to take, drawing myself away from the normal and creating a unique piece with the graphics of the streets. I started to look into various artist that use the streets in their work to help me generate some ideas on where to take this project. Through out my research I came across various artists, one in-particular that caught my eye was a man called Ed Fairburn, he produces portraiture over a variety of surfaces, including a large amount on maps, using the streets and contour lines to help shape the face and give it detail. I started too look into the graphics of the streets and what makes this up. I began looking at everything on the streets, from street lines and road markings too shop and road signs. The more you look into the graphics on the street the more you find and as a designer I found this brief very

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challenging as I wanted to represent ‘the streets’ as creatively as possible, using all he dots, shapes, lines and typography the streets have to offer. I began looking at the work of Alain Biltereyst, in particular his plywood abstract pieces. I believe that looking at his work helped me understand what pathway I wanted to choose for this project. I like how visual and unusual his pieces are, which inspired me to create something embracing the visual styles of his work. I wanted to make something that enhanced ‘Abstract Graphics’ and excited the viewer. His work definitely played a part in the development of this project for me. I started to take photographs and seeing what abstract effects I could do with them, using the graphic elements in the photos as the main features. Also, I tried removing the graphic elements, seeing what effect it had on the images. The more I played around with the images, the better effects and looks I created. Experimenting with various colours and styles, making some very unique pieces with intriguing patterns.


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Cabinet of curiousity To start this brief off we were shown images of Josef Cornell’s Boxes. As the name suggested we were to create a Cabinet of Curiosity from memories and experiences we have had. To start the project off I began to look into dreams, nightmares and surrealism. I wanted to try and experiment with the subconscious experiences in design. After a variety of ideas I decided to create the cabinet around a ‘trip’ I had on hallucinogenic mushrooms. Once I had decided I was creating the cabinet around that it was how to display it as effectively and intriguingly as possible. I wanted to move away from creating a cabinet as that’s what all the other students were going down. After a bunch of research, various different ideas and techniques I decided to create a design on Adobe Illustrator to represent the evening and once created, get the design laser etched upon various different materials. I wanted

to get it engraved upon metal, glass, plastic and wood. Then I began creating the image to represent the evening. I needed to represent every part of the evening, so after a lot of thought I decided to create a A3 illustration built up with different icons, representing different sections to the evening. It was quite difficult trying to decided what should be what as it was all based around a mushroom trip, and that needed to be represented. Once the illustration had been finalized I took the design to the laser etching machine and engraved it. The image to the left are the engraved pieces of wood. I found out that they wouldn’t cut the plastic of glass or metal. If I were to take this brief forward I think I’d want to play with the ‘trip’ side of the image and play with the perception of the piece. Possible add mirrors to the opposite side, reflecting the image in various different directions making the piece a lot more ‘trippy’.

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Earth artifact For this brief we we told to revisit and recreate a new version of the ‘Golden Records’, that was sent into space via the voyager in 1977. If you look through the information in the otiginal, its contained with various sounds and images which helps portray the diversity of life and culture n Earth. They sent the voyager on its mission in a search for an intelligent extreterrestrial life form that may be out their and if they are life forms they could find it and decrypt it. As soon I as read the brief I was really intruiged and ready to go. After doing some brain storming I decided to play around with the title, still recreating the ‘Golden Records’ but from another planet and it has landed here upon our Earth. This was an interesting pathway to chooses as it meant creating a whole new world, civilization, life and culture. The more I divied in to this project the more I kept creating, making a world that is completly different to ours. The research for this brief was very interesting too, I came across an item called ‘The Voynich Manuscript’, this artifact baffeld me, its a small book dated back towards the 1400’s, its content is filled with various images throughout it and a text which to this day can not be decripted. Some people believe it to be a hoax

but thats yet to be proven a true or false accusation. This inspired me greatly and lead me down the route I finally went down. I wanted to create my own planets text and font, like the manuscript has, making their language their own. Over the next four pages you can see me final pieces for tis project. I decided to draw them upon brown treated paper as it helped to add age to the pieces. I painted the piece with water colours mixed with alittle bit of guash and wrote up the text with a calligraphy pen, which was my first time experimenting with a calligraphy pen which was a new experience. Creating these I found very enjoyable as it was very out of the norm and different from what I usually create. If I had more time I would have set out to create a whole book explaining the whole planet in depth, but the creatio of these pages took longer than expected. But I feel from looking at these pages you can get a feel to the planet and its enhabitants and what they have to offer. I want too continue on this brief in the future as I feel having a complete book of these pages would be an effective, eye-catching piece which I feel would appeal to a lot of people throughout the design and art genres, generating a lot of interest and intruige.

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Manifesto The term ‘street graphics/street art’ automatically makes you think of graffiti and spray art on our streets. But this term be applied to a variety of aspects of the streets, they can offer a lot more that a canvas for graffiti artists, they generate inspiration, provoke emotions and help build on ideas. This is the route I wanted to take, drawing myself away from the normal and creating a unique piece with the graphics of the streets. I started to look into various artist that use the streets in their work to help me generate some ideas on where to take this project. Through out my research I came across various artists, one in-particular that caught my eye was a man called Ed Fairburn, he produces portraiture over a variety of surfaces, including a large amount on maps, using the streets and contour lines to help shape the face and give it detail. I started too look into the graphics of the streets and what makes this up. I began looking at everything on the streets, from street lines and road markings too shop and road signs. The more you look into the graphics on the street the more you find and as a designer I found this brief very

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