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DummytheSketchofaNewspaperPageLayout (VisualCommunicationDesignandCreativity) HussainiGarbaMohammed DailyTrustNewspaper,Utakoâ&#x20AC;&#x201C;JabiAbujaNigeria

Objectives

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Abstract: Background/Significance: The dearth of professional designers is affecting the profession of creativity;therefore,theneedformoreexpertiseinvisualcommunicationinNigeriaandgloballycannotbe overemphasised. Therefore, this study will bring to the fore the need to develop interest in and strive towardsattainmentofprofessionalismasmediadesigners,throughthepresentationaimedatenablingease of understanding in how to produce high quality visual/graphic designs, and media content and to contributetowardtheconceptofcreativeinnovationonandoffÇŚlinemedialayoutsolutions. 

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 1.Thegoalistopopulariseanewideaandchangepeopleâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;sbehavior,towardsthecontentofcommunication (offÇŚlinemedia),itsstylingandthemethodofdelivery.  2.ProperAssessmentofwhatisintendedforcommunication;howbesttopresentit,creatively;utilization of graphical presentation; the most effective medium; harping on how communication designers target theiraudienceforgreaterattentionretention.  Methodology: Due to its important role in both business and technical writing, a more traditional methodology of visual communication in both business and technical creativity is practiced when a designers or students present or give a chance to design or present a paper as a chance to see the communication visually, either during an assignment or during the practical test/examination, as well as chance to use some software like: power point, CorelDraw Graphic suite,, Adobe InDesigned CS4, Page Maker,e.t.c  Themethodologyuseforthisabstractresearchworktoaddresstheobjectiveofthisstudywasusedfrom VisualCommunicationhandsbooks,whichexplorethekeytheoreticalareasinvisualcommunicationand presentstheresearchmethodsutilizeinexploringhowpeopleseeandhowvisualcommunicationoccurs.  Keyword:Dummy:TheMostimportantaspectsofNewspaper 

Introduction

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 Any newspaper or magazine around the world cannot be or become the best design newspaper, or newspaperassessmentcannotbedonewithoutgoodlayoutofthenewspaper,whichwasthefoundationof anyprintmediaindustrytogivesignificantappearanceoftheirpublication.Thelayoutwhichalsojudgethe value of thepaper, givevisual ofthe paper unique identity the creative concept design, layout and paper makeup.  Dummysheet:isoneofthemostimportantaspectsofnewspaperormagazineproductionandtheentire edition of newspaper to be made with an excellent design. In reality good newspaper design is more importanttodaythanever.  Dummysheetcanbedefineasawayorconceptofplacingphotos,illustrationsandstoriesonapage,which is very important for professional designers to bring their ideas and hypotheses on readers visual communication,whichconveyamessagefromaclienttoaparticularaudience. 



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The pressure is on for newspapers editors, page planners and newspaper designers, which identity how important it is for any media house to have a good dummy layout and the dummy become even more sophisticatedintheiruseofthegrid,typography,alternatestoryformsandlayouts.

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Good newspaper design doesnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t cost money; it can actually save money by making your presentation of newsmoreefficientaswellasattractive.Attentioniseverythinginnewspaperadvertising,youradtherefore mustbebeautifullydesigned,standoutincontrasttoalloftheothersonthepages.Trytocreateagood professionallydesignedadvertisement,becauseadisoneoftheinvestmentreturnsinnewspaperindustry. Youneedvisualimpact,adistinctiveborder,font,angel,placementtostandoutonthepageandmakeit veryeasilyreadable,andatthesametimeboostreadingspeed,andreaderstobuyyourpaperbecausethe designorheadlines,whichincludepictures,attractthemfromfaraway.  Agooddummylayoutcanhelp.How?Withgoodstrategiesofworkflowfromthebeginningofyourlayout, Ibelievedthatcanmakethepapervisuallyappealingtotheeye,butalsotell/showtheimportanceofthe storythroughgooddesignpagelayout.  This article describes a study of a dummy sheet which identify the combing words, pictures, and illustrations (cartoons), a wellÇŚconceived visual communication design in forms, persuades, organizes, stimulates,locates,identifies,attractsattentionofthereaders;eyeÇŚtrackingduringnewspaperreadingand provides a memorable experience. Thus eyesÇŚtracking method provides insight into how the individual readerperceivesnewspaperspread.  In another definition the dummy sheet is described as serving as the skeleton, framework or replica of a newspaperormagazinethatisproducedbyeitherpageplanner,pageeditor/productioneditor,subÇŚeditor or planning unit of a newspaper that shows the space advert, picture and editorial content; all graphical elementsandtheamountofspaceallottedeachitem.



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Theaimofthispaperpresentationistohelpstudentsacquirepracticalgraphicsdesignpresentationskills neededfortheirstudiesatthetertiaryeducationlevel;duringtheirresearchworkandadequatelyprepare themtobeabletoapplytheideasorfunctioneffectivelyinthetheirworkings.  The paper cannot be well understood without a full definition of visual communication. â&#x20AC;&#x153;Visual communication as the name suggests is communication through visual aid and is described as the conveyanceofideasandinformationinformsthatcanbereadorlookedat.â&#x20AC;?  AldousHuxleyhighlyregardedasoneofthemostprominentexplorersofvisualcommunicationand sightâ&#x20AC;&#x201C;relatedtheories,inoneofhismostfamousquotessays,â&#x20AC;&#x153;themoreyousee,themoreyouknowâ&#x20AC;?.He alsodescribedâ&#x20AC;&#x153;seeingâ&#x20AC;?asbeingthesumofsensing,selectingandperceiving.Therefore,towhatdegreecan newspapersdesignersorpageplannerspredictthevisualbehavioroftheirreaders?Isitespeciallydifficult topredicttheeffectofcertainlayoutelement?  Weallknowthattheconceptofplacingphotos,cartoon/illustrationandstoriesonapageisimportantand morethanjustdummysheetamechanicalprocess.Inotherwords,itisseenassmallversionofanentire pageorpageofnewspaper.GridlinesusuallydivideadummysheetandthegridespeciallyinacomputerÇŚ madedummy.GridisasetofnonÇŚprintinglinesthathelpseditorsorpagedesignersguideinplacementof elementsappropriately.  SampleNewspaperlayoutdummy:Hereisasampledummydrawnupforanewspage.Though newspapers have their own method of drawing up dummies, they mostly adhere to the modular design formatwhichisseenasthebestthedesignofbeautiful,easytoreadnewspaperpagesasagainsttheolder irregularformatthathastextlegscrissÇŚcrossingandintertwiningothersinaconfusingmass;orthelayout thatcombinesboth.  Canyouseeherehowthedummytranslatesintothefinaldesignedpage?



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 Takenoteyoushouldalwaysincludetheseinyourdesignpagedummylayout:ÇŚ  i.Sectionname ii.Quotes iii.Imageboxes,thesecanincludedimensionsandinstructionsfordesigners iv.Cutlineâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s(captions)andcreditsforphotos v.Storyname(sign)andparagraphstyles



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Itisimportanttoincludeasmuchinformationaspossibleforyourdesigners.  Checkbelowforanexampleofwhatyoumightincludetodesignyourpages.

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Figure1.

 Figure2.



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Figure3.

The way articles are displayed as you can see above in Figure 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 the size the headlines tell readers the importance you are given to each story. Bigger, more prominently placed equals more important. Smaller, less prominently placed equals less important. Who has not at times looked at a publicationandsaid,â&#x20AC;&#x153;ofcourse,theyputthatstoryonpage22or33atthebottom,theyarebiasedagainst thattopic,â&#x20AC;?orâ&#x20AC;&#x153;ofcoursethatâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;sabigstory,andabigheadlines,rightonthecoverbecausetheyareobsessed withthattopic.â&#x20AC;? Thatiswhytheprocessofplacingelementsonapageinvolveddecisionmadebyeditors;usuallyeditorsare responsible for certain section of a large publication. In a newspaper for instance, a â&#x20AC;&#x153;wire editorâ&#x20AC;? may be responsibleforchoiceandplacementofnationalandinternationalnews,orchoicethepicturewhichgoes withthecoverornewsinsidethepage.Asportseditorwillberesponsibleforsportpages.

Drop Quotes

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Asindicatedinfigure3andalsowithinthesportpage.Dropquotesareshortpiecesoftextthatareinserted inÇŚbetween columns and given a bold format. Drop quotes are assumed to guide the scanning process towardsthetext;servingasentrypointintodeeperreading.Dropquotesareoftencentralquotesfromthe text,bringingouttheessenceoftheissue,orstandinginaclearrelationshiptotheheadline.Itseemsthat dropquotesdoexactlywhattheyaremeanttodo:Attractreaderattention.  However,dropquotesnotonlyattractattention.Thedatafromthecurrentstudyshowthattextswithdrop quotesarealsoreadforasignificantlylongertime.  Thisinvolvesimportantchoices,aswellasknowledgeofthemechanicalway,apublicationgetsmade,and theoperationofthepublicationthatmakeseverythingsetsdonecorrectly,andontime.  Ascars,clothandbuildingchangewithtimes,sodopublicationsofnewspapersdesignchange.Youmay checkthedesignofsomenewspaperforinstance,in60s,80s,youwillrealizethatthedesigninthosedays design and todayâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s new media are goes with new digital innovation. For instance, 8 â&#x20AC;&#x201C;col broadsheet newspapersusedtobestandard,nowcolumntendtobewider,fiveorsixtoapage.Alsocommontodayis theconceptofâ&#x20AC;&#x153;modulardesign.â&#x20AC;?Storiesareplacedtogiveahorizontalfeeltoapage,androundedoffinto rectangles. Old style design emphasized â&#x20AC;&#x153;vertical makeÇŚup.â&#x20AC;? Headlines were often 1ÇŚcol, and stories ran



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dawn the page vertically. Modern design emphasizes â&#x20AC;&#x153;horizontal makeÇŚup;â&#x20AC;? headlines are multiÇŚcolumn, andstoriesseemtostretchhorizontallyacrossthepage.  However,asforthedummysheetsordummypages,theydonâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;tcomefromsomeothereditors,depending on the newspaper inÇŚhouse policy, in some other newspaper media houses, dummy come from the advertisingdepartmentorheadofadvertdepartment,pagesarrivedataneditorâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;sdeskwithadsalreadyaid in.Editorsareexpectedtofillthespaceleftoveraftertheadsadoftenpageplannerordesignersknowthe sizeoftheads,thespace,designedtoaccommodatebotheditorialtextandadvertinsidethepages.Italso showsthedateoftheedition,volumenumber,aswellasapageandsectionnumber 

TypesofDummySheets

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 TherearetwotypeofdummysheetwhichareproduceIthenewspaperormagazinetheseare:  (1)EditionDummy  (2)PageDummy  EditionDummy: Refers to a sheet that contains the number of pages in an edition and the element thatareallottedtoeachpageofanewspaper.Intheotherwords,itislinedsheetproducedbyaproduction editororplanningunitofanewspaperthatindicateswhatisgiventonewsstories,featuresarticles,adverts, opinions,commentsandeditorialandsoon.Productionofthissheetislargelydeterminedbythenumber of adverts the newspaper received from advert department either from regional, outstation or within the locationareaofthenewspaper.



 Figure4.Dummy

PageDummy:isproducedbypageÇŚeditorthatdepictshowhewantsthepagetoappearthefollowing day. It is produce to contain and show the column and inches headlines, stories, picture (s) and other elementsshouldoccupy.Itisindicateswhichheadlineandstoryisgivenprominenceonthepage.   

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GuidelinesforPreparingPageDummy

 Belowarefiveguidelines,whichshouldbeapplicabletoallpages.However,thereare certain conditions

and situation when front and back pages, because of their crucial and strategic importance, may require additional and more creative guidelines and strategies.

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i.Itisstronglyimportanttoensurethatthedummysheetisproduceincolumnatleastsixorsevenincase ofnewspaperandthreetotwoifitismagazine.However,thisreliesonwhatanewspaperhouseadoptsas itshousestyle.  ii. The page planner or designers should determine to locations of the necessary features (standing elements) of a page. These basic and mandatory attributes are nameplate (front and back pages), folio, marginandimprint(incaseofbackpage)  iii.Itisalsoparamounttoindicateareaswherecolourisapplicable.Thisparticularrelatedtofrontandback pages.  iv.Anybodywhoplansapageisexpectedtosketchtheareaswhere,advertheadlinesbyÇŚlines,entirearticle (s),picture(s)â&#x20AC;&#x201C;byusingsquareboxÇŚshouldfill.

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v.Incasewherequoteboxwindowisneeded,theplannermustindicatethatbyusingquotationmarksat thearea(s)hewantsittoappear.  ImportanceofDummy  i.Itensureelementinnewspaperandmagazineareplaceatthesuitablelocationinthepages  ii.Ithelpsingivingnewspaperandmagazineuniqueidentityandappearances.  iii.Iteasesandfastenstheworkofcomputeroperatorwhoproducesthepages  iv.Itensuresstoriesandpicturesaregiventheirdeservedprominencesonapageoredition  v.Dummysheetsalsoassistinreducingthedesignandotheraestheticsmistakesthatusuallyappearatthe finalstageofthepublishednewspaperormagazine.  Acknowledgement  The contribution and collective data information from Media Trust Ltd., publishers of Daily Trust newspapers helped in the compilation of this study; and advice from the Daily Trust Editor, Habeeb I. Pindiga,ProductionEditor,Mr.NiiAyiBulley,EditorialAdverser,Mr.GeorgeOkoroandSubÇŚEditorMalam Danâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;azumi Idris. However, and a lot of people have also helped one way or the other. I hope finally the share knowledge during this symposium will translate into sound decision and actions to improve the developmentprospectsofmediaindustry,aswellasadvancingthefieldofcommunicationeverywhere.  References:  1.Holmqvist,K.(2002):â&#x20AC;&#x153;HowWeReadNewspaperorRatherNotâ&#x20AC;?PresentationattheSND/sconferencein Malmo,â&#x20AC;?August2002.

2.Rayner,K.(1978)EyeMovementsinReadingandInformationProcessing.PsychologicalBulletin,85(3), 618ÇŚ660



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3. Smith, K. (2005) â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;Perception and the newspaper page. A critical Analysis (in) Handbook of Visual Communication Research:Theory methods, and Media, edited by Ken Smith (et al) page 81 â&#x20AC;&#x201C; 95, Pub by LawrenceErlbaumAssociates. 4.www.thepaperboy.com(accessingthebestfrontpagesofnewspapersaroundtheworld) 5.www.layoutexecutive.com 6.Garcia,M.R.andStarkP.(1991).EyesontheNews.St.Petersburg,Florida:ThePoynterInstitute. 7. Nwabueze (2011: p77). News Management & Production/ introductory test, published by Top Sheivs publishers,ImostateinNigeria

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8. Okaye (2000: p 28 â&#x20AC;&#x201C; 29) News editing and Production in the computer age published by Nbeyi & AssociatesNigeriaLtd,Lagos,Nigeria 



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