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50 WIN T ER 2 017

Years of Service 1967-2017

Also in this issue: 2017 ASDC Conference

“Bridging Yesterday, Today and Tomorrow”


Winter 2017

A Publication Dedicated to Families and Professionals Who Are Committed to Deaf Children The Endeavor 1


2 The Endeavor


Winter 2017


2 A Message from the President. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 A Note from the Editor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

ASDC Educational and Organizational Members . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PAGE


Membership Form . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


42 52

A Deaf Child’s Intelligence Is Not Limited . . . .

5 10

Making Reading Real and Meaningful to Your Child. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


ASDC Celebrates 50 Years of Service. . . . . . . . . . .

Patterns of Informality in Spoken English Interpretation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 2017 ASDC Conference. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Seven Annual Deaf Celebrations . . . . . . . . . . . .

28 34

Key Findings on Social-Emotional Development in Deaf Children. . . . . . . . . . . . . .

40 2017 Summer Camps. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45

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The Endeavor

American Society for Deaf Children #2047

Tami Hossler

800 Florida Avenue, NE Washington, D.C. 20002-3695 Fax: (410) 795-0965 Toll-Free Help Line: (800) 942-ASDC (2732) (202) 644-9204 VP

Editor’s Note

Facebook: ASDC-American-Society-forDeaf-Children/215538915154965

The Endeavor Staff Editor Tami Hossler Managing Editor Anita Farb Publication Services T.S. Writing Services, LLC ASDC STAFF Director of Advocacy Cheri Dowling ADVERTISING © 2017 The Endeavor is ASDC’s news magazine published three times a year. Published articles and advertisements are the personal expressions of their authors and do not necessarily represent the views of ASDC. The Endeavor is distributed free of charge to ASDC members

ASDC is a 501(c)(3) public

Happy 2017! This year marks ASDC’s 50th anniversary. What a remarkable accomplishment! We are proud of all that ASDC has achieved over the years, supporting families with deaf or hard of hearing children. We are so thankful to all the volunteers who have given their time, energy, and resources. Do you like our new look? We’ve changed quite a bit in terms of appearance over the years, and are excited about this redesign of The Endeavor. In this issue, you will find 50 years of history. We have done our best to identify as many people as possible; however, some names may be missing. If you recognize anyone, let us know. This summer, the American School for the Deaf (ASD) in Hartford, Conn., will host the ASDC Conference. ASD was the first deaf school in the nation, established in 1817, 200 years ago! This is a conference not to miss, so hurry on over to page 29 to learn more about the conference. Several deaf schools have taken the opportunity to submit a full-page ad at no charge. If you missed the deadline for this issue, the offer has been extended to the Spring/Summer issue. The deadline is April 15; for ad dimensions or more details, contact Enjoy this issue!

benefit corporation.

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Avonne BrookerRutowski

ASDC Board EXECUTIVE COUNCIL President Avonne Brooker-Rutowski, M.A. Austin, TX MEMBERS AT LARGE

President’s Message ASDC celebrates its 50th anniversary this year, and honoring these 50 years of serving families with resources and referrals is a joy for the ASDC board and members. Generous donations from ASDC supporters are among what keeps us strong and determined to advocate for our families and our children’s future. One of ASDC’s birthday gifts is new board member Alisha Joslyn-Swob, who replaces longtime board member, Erin Kane. Erin will be missed, but we thank her for her service to ASDC over the years, and for finding Alisha. Alisha, an RIT graduate and Deaf, works as a counselor in the RIT admissions office. She brings experience in meeting with families and will be especially helpful at conferences and connecting with families. Alisa is the mother to a one-year-old boy who is Deaf, as is her husband. We are confident that Alisa will add another layer of success to our quality efforts. Welcome, Alisa! I also want to take this opportunity to thank you, our readers and ASDC members, for your interest in The Endeavor. My hope is that with each issue, we present articles that challenge your thinking, bring fresh thoughts to mind, and reassure you of your uniqueness. Continued on next page Winter 2017

Vice President Lisalee Egbert, Ph.D. Sacramento, CA Treasurer Timothy Frelich, M.A. Jessup, MD Executive Secretary Tony Ronco, P.Eng. La Mesa, CA Alisha Joslyn-Swob Rochester, NY Jacqueline Laldee Olney, MD Gregory Mendenhall Dublin, OH Gina Oliva Laurel, MD Susan C. Searls Rochester, NY CED Representatives, Joint Committee on Infant Hearing Beth Benedict, JCIH Chair, and Jodee Crace Past President Beth Benedict, Ph.D. Germantown, MD Parliamentarian Jeff Bravin, M.A. West Hartford, CT

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Continued from previous page Please contact Tami Hossler, our editor, at if you are interested in writing an article. We want to hear from you. Keep your eyes peeled for details about our upcoming ASDC Conference at the American School for the Deaf in June, summer camps for your children, and much more by checking our Facebook page and reading our monthly e-blasts. Have a great year!

ASDC Board Bids Farewell to Erin Kane and KaAnn Varner ASDC wishes to thank departing board members Erin Kane and KaAnn Varner for their service to ASDC. Erin, the assistant director of admissions at Rochester Institute of Technology, served as a member-at-large and was part of several committees.

KaAnn was the superintendent of the Oklahoma School for the Deaf during her board tenure, and was known for her wisdom and insight on deaf education. ASDC wishes both of these amazing individuals all the best!

SAVE THE DATE! June 25-27, 2017 ASDC Conference American School for the Deaf Hartford, CT 4 The Endeavor


ASDC Celebrates 50 Years of Service A Look at ASDC’s History 1967: The Parent Section of the Convention of American Instructors of the Deaf (CAID) is established as a result of an effort started by Roy Holcomb. This is the beginning of a dream for an international, independent organization of and for parents of deaf and hard of hearing children. 1969: The first issues of the CAID Parent Section newsletter are published and distributed from Indiana and the first convention of the Parent Section is held in Berkeley, Calif., with parents from 16 states. 1970: A temporary executive board meeting is held in Santa Fe, N.M., to establish a national office of the CAID Parent Section.

Lee Katz 1971: CAID donates $3,000 for the second national convention of the CAID Parent Section. Arthur Norris is hired as a consultant, using his basement as temporary office space. The convention is in Little Rock, Ark., and culminates with Winter 2017

the first national officers, bylaws, and 1967 automatic membership for the 200 participants. They vote to change the name to the International Association of Parents of the Deaf–Parent Section or IAPD. Lee Katz (Md.) is elected the first president.


1972: IAPD moves into free space in the National Association of the Deaf (NAD) building, and the president’s full-time salary is paid by NAD.

1973: The third biennial meeting is held in Indianapolis. Larry Newman becomes the second president, and Lee Katz becomes the executive director. 1974: Membership includes 32 affiliate groups. Katz’s passing leads to Mary Ann Locke becoming executive director. The Key Network is activated to help override the U.S. presidential veto of the Rehabilitation Act of 1974. IAPD actively begins legislative work. 1975: IAPD is recognized at state, national, and international levels as the united voice of parents of deaf children. IAPD participates in the World Federation of the Deaf convention; the fourth biennial convention is in Washington, D.C. and Jane Girsham (Ga.) is elected as the third president. 1976: With support from the NAD and Gallaudet College, IAPD represents parents at national and international levels. Position statements in 22 areas

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of concern to parents are adopted and widely acclaimed. 1977: This is a year of change and growth for the organization. Mary Ann Locke, executive director for three years, resigns, and Bonnie Fairchild is appointed acting director. IAPD and NAD work together to draft a proposed Mutual Alliance Plan, which is adopted at the fifth biennial convention in Morganton, N.C. Wilda Owens (Ga.) is elected as fourth president. 1978: Lavenia Faison is hired as executive director. Expanded recognition of IAPD leads to profiles in national magazines. 1979: Faison resigns and Fairchild is again appointed acting director. The sixth convention is held in Colorado Springs at the Colorado School for the Deaf. Joseph Geeslin (Ind.) is elected president. Position statements related to P.L. 94-142 are adopted, and Jaqueline Z. Mendelsohn is hired as executive director. 1983: IAPD joins numerous organizations to form the Council of Organizational Representatives. American Society for Deaf Children is granted tax-exempt status by the IRS.

ASDC and Gallaudet University

1976 produce a public service announce-

ment televised throughout the nation, sharing a toll-free number for ASDC. The Speakers Bureau is established and Executive Director Mendelsohn participates in 87 conferences, workshops, and meetings on issues of concern to families, including accessibility, school programs, TTYs and captioning.

1988: Indianapolis is the site of eleventh convention. Thomas becomes 1980 president and Mike Sinnott (N.Y.) is president-elect. During the convention, Thomas resigns to become executive director and Sinnott is president. ASDC testifies at the Commission on the Education of the Deaf hearing. 1989-1990: ASDC experiences growing pains. Executive Director Thomas and President Sinnott both resign. The 1990 organization can no longer maintain a full-time executive director. Sharon Baker Hawkins (Okla.) becomes president. The bylaws are suspended and a Crisis Committee is implemented with Hawkins, Jeffrey Cohen, and Joseph Finnegan, Jr. as members. ASDC survives and evolves into an even stronger entity.

1984: The ninth biennial convention is held at the California School for the Deaf in Fremont, partly held jointly with CAID. IAPD is renamed to American Society for Deaf Children. Linda Meyer of Illinois is elected president.

Jeffrey Cohen (far left)

1986: The tenth convention is held in Omaha, Neb., and Alice Kennedy (Md.) becomes president while Roberta Thomas (Pa.) is installed as president-elect.

1990: The twelfth biennial convention is in Vancouver, British Columbia, and Jeffrey Cohen (Pa.) is elected president. The ASDC business office moves Sulphur,

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Okla., and Kathy Witchey is hired as part-time office manager.


Beena Timperlake & Elaine Ocuto Sandy Harvey 1992: Sulphur, Okla., serves as the site of the thirteenth biennial convention. The board asks Cohen to continue as president for another two years. Sandy Harvey is brought in as executive director. The national office moves to Sacramento, Calif. ASDC joins the Council on Education of the Deaf (CED). For the first time in CED’s history, parents have a voice. After months of collaboration with the U.S. Dept. of Education, Office of Special Education and Rehabilitative Services directed by Dr. Robert Davila, the Policy Guidance on the Education of Deaf Children is released. Despite rampant opposition, the clarification is published. To mark ASDC’s 25th anniversary, the First-Year Free Program is created through the generosity of the Merrill Lynch Foundation. Families with deaf children are provided resources and The Endeavor for one year at no cost. 1993: ASDC becomes a founding member of the Consumer Action Network, a coalition “of, by, and for deaf and hard of hearing Americans.” ASDC establishes the Who’s Who in American Schools and Programs for the Deaf. Winter 2017

1994: The fourteenth biennial convention occurs in St. Augustine, Fla. Beena Timperlake (Texas) is elected president and Elaine Ocuto (Fla.) becomes president-elect. The “Parents Connected Network” is established on the Internet to provide information and recommend actions to protect the quality of education for deaf children. 1996 : Nebraska hosts the fifteenth convention, with Ocuto as president and Sue Ouellette (Ill.) as the president-elect.

1997 ASDC Board 1997: Through a gift from the McCune Foundation, Don Rabush is hired as ASDC’s development officer until 1999. The Endeavor is transformed into a news magazine. Rabush later becomes a member of the ASDC board. Thanks to Dr. James DeCaro’s dedication, the ASDC website and the ASDC Parent Listserv (Parentdeaf-hh) are created. The National Deaf Education

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Project is set up in collaboration with Gallaudet University, the NAD, and the Conference of Educational Administrators of Schools for the Deaf (CEASD). 1998: The sixteenth biennial convention is hosted at NTID in Rochester, N.Y. Ouellette becomes president and Cheron Mayhall (Wash.) is president-elect. ASDC is actively involved with the reauthorization of the Individual’s with Disabilities Act. Harvey resigns as executive director, but stays on as a board member.

Barbara Raimondo

Cheron Mayhall 1999: ASDC is relocated to Gettysburg, Pa. Barbara Raimondo becomes the director of public affairs, representing ASDC families at the U.S. Capitol. Ouellette resigns and Cheron Mayhall becomes president. Linda Zumbrum is hired as operations manager. ASDC en8 The Endeavor

sures the passage of the Newborn and

1999 Infant Hearing Screening Act. Ouellette

represents ASDC as a member of Project Inclusion, a partnership between the U.S. and European Union countries to promote equality of opportunity in education and society.

2000: The 17th biennial convention is at Gallaudet University. Natalie Long (Mo.) becomes president-elect. Under the umbrella of “Initiative 2000 and Beyond,” programs encompass training for the board and enhancement of ASDC’s infrastructure. Regional leadership training workshops, a cyber-mentoring project, and the recruitment and support of parents as advocates and mentors with other families take place. These activities are to facilitate positive outcomes as delineated in ASDC’s strategic plan. Former ASDC 2000 president Benna Timperlake begins to lead program implementation. 2001: Mayhall becomes president and new board members include Krista Leitch Walker, Diana Poeppelmeyer, Sheila Shea, and Alex Sieta. Congress appropriates $500,000 to train captioners. 2002: ASDC becomes more vocal about cochlear implants, the rights of deaf children, and the responsibilities of medical, hearing health, and educational professionals. Long begins her presidency as Sandy Harvey, Doreathe Cole and Dr. Don Rabush leave the ASDC board. National availability of 711 begins and RIT/NTID becomes the first institution to offer degrees in interpreting. 2003: The 18th biennial convention, “Family Reunion,” is hosted by the Texas School for the Deaf in Austin. 2004: The board welcomes Max Wilhite, Robert Borden, Robin Pavel and Elaine Moore. Support grows for captioning of


first-run movies in public theaters, and The Endeavor, under the leadership of Zumbrum, addresses topics related to being deaf and religious beliefs, depression, and Christian interpreting. 2005: IDEA is reauthorized with changes affecting the qualifications of core academic teachers, the role of interpreting services, and universal design of standardized testing materials. A national report gives a failing grade to emergency communication for deaf and hard of hearing people. Zumbrun retires. Pittsburgh hosts the 19th biennial convention, “Bridging the Rivers of Change.”

Sherry & Roger Williams Husband-and-wife team Roger and Sherry Williams become co-presidents and Don Rhoten becomes the executive director. The home office moves to Camp Hill, Pa., with support from the Western Pennsylvania School for the Deaf. Jessica Marks becomes the operations manager, and Robert Wells becomes editor of The Endeavor. Dr. Beth Benedict joins the board.

Share your ASDC photographs with us! asdctami@

Winter 2017


Cheri Dowling 2006: Director of Advocacy Barbara Raimondo resigns and Cheri Dowling replaces her. Joe Finnegan and Marc Marschark join the ASDC board. ASDC works to protect deaf and hard of hearing children’s access rights by protesting FCC’s weakening requirements for captioning of some television programs.


Beth Benedict 2007: The Florida School for the Deaf and Blind hosts the 20th biennial convention, “An Ocean of Opportunities.” Beth Benedict (Md.) becomes president. New board members include Ellie Rosenfield, Alex Seita, Sheila Shea, Terry McMillian and Michelle Love. 2008: The convention is now renamed “conference,” and the board expands with Larry Hawkins, Cathy Rhoten, Tami Hossler, Cindy D’Angelo, Jodee Crace, and Jeff Bravin. Hossler becomes the editor of The

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Endeavor. ASDC continues to attend and provide presentations at national conferences. 2009: The 21st biennial conference, “Blazing New Trails,” is held at the Oklahoma School for the Deaf. ASDC relocates to Washington, D.C., with support from the Laurent Clerc National Deaf Education Center. Rhoten resigns as executive director. New board members include John Egbert, Carolyn Paradiso, Todd Reeves, Vicki Gelona, Timothy Frelich, and Paul Rutowski.

Hill, Erin Kane, Peter Bailey, Tom

2009 D’Angelo, Carrie Davenport, Stefanie

Ellis-Gonzalez, and Avonne BrookerRutowski join the board. ASDC begins a partnership with Deaf Autism America.

2010: ASDC welcomes Tony Ronco, Dr. Lisalee Egbert, Richard Flores, and Dr. Jodee Crace Kristin DiPerri to the board. ASDC supports CEASD’s position paper, “The Full 2012: CEASD launches a “Child First” Continuum of Educational Placements campaign, educating legislatures for All Students who are Deaf or Hard of Hearing.” Benedict is awarded the 2010 about language changes needed in the IDEA to provide quality education Antonia Bracia Maxon Award for Early to deaf children. ASDC continues to Hearing Detection and Intervention partner with national organizations. Excellence. ASDC begins sending monthCrace becomes president. Peter Bailey ly email updates to members. Congress and Maria Renniger join the board. signs the 21st Century Communications and Video Accessibility Act which increases access to communication, 2013: Rachel Coleman and Mich Bignell television, and the Internet for deaf, join the board. The conference, to be held hard of hearing and deaf blind individuat the Arizona School for the Deaf and als. Delaware passes the Deaf and Hard Blind, is canceled due to community conof Hearing Child’s Bill of Rights. The cerns about the school administration. International Congress on the Education ASDC supports legislation in Florida enof the Deaf addresses Resolutions of the acting a model communication plan for 1880 Congress in Milan that banned the IEP. The ASL-English Bilingual Consign language in educational programs sortium for Early Childhood Education is for deaf children. Benedict remains held at the Texas School for the Deaf. ASDC president. 2011: The 22nd biennial conference, “Parent Choices: Key to Your Child’s Future,” is held at the Maryland School for the Deaf. Denise Tucker and Rosemarie Greco are co-recipients of the Lee Katz Award for outstanding parents of deaf and hard of hearing children. Robert 10 The Endeavor

2014: Gina Oliva , Susan Searls, KaAnn Varner, Jacqueline Laldee, and Gregory Mendenhall join the board. The 23rd ASDC conference, “Family Strong,” is held at the Learning Center for the Deaf in Framingham, Mass. ASDC receives a videophone number and updates its


mission and vision statements and core values.

portunity Weekend in Columbia, Md.

2014 This unique event gives parents and

professionals the opportunity to receive in-depth ASL instruction. ASDC continues attending and presenting at national conferences. ASDC membership soars, and ASDC partners with LEAD-K to ensure all deaf and hard of hearing children are kindergarten-ready by age 5.

Avonne Brooker-Rutowski 2015: The Indiana School for the Deaf hosts the 24th ASDC conference, “Connecting the Dots.” Avonne Brooker-Rutowski becomes president. Tami Hossler ASDC board members Lisalee, resigns from the board but continues as editor of The Endeavor. The Califor- 2017 Tony, Jacqueline, and Avonne nia General Assembly passes SB210, a historic day in deaf education history. 2017: ASDC celebrates its 50th The bill ensures that all deaf and hard of anniversary, with its conference slated hearing children are kindergarten-ready for the American School for the Deaf in and establishes language benchmarks for Summer 2017. deaf children through 5 years old. ASDC continues to offer a 24-hour hotline for Thank YOU for all you have done in parents, and develops a position statehelping ASDC serve parents, families, ment on the term “deaf.” and deaf children. 2016: ASDC hosts an ASL Learning Op-

Two of the thousands of deaf children ASDC serves. Winter 2017

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A Deaf Child’s Intelligence Is Not Limited By Ju-Lee A. Wolsey, Jodie M. Ackerman, and M. Diane Clark Lamar University

What is the first thing that goes through parents’ minds when they find out that their child is deaf? Shock, anger, denial, grief, worry, or fear. That child is often the very first deaf person they have ever met. The majority of medical professionals express sorrow and then inform parents that their child “failed” the hearing test and may have limited opportunities in life (Benedict, 2011). The reality is there are unlimited opportunities through options that include visual and audio technologies (Benedict, 2011). As a parent, you can support your child by accepting her/ his hearing status and researching all the possible options for success. 12 The Endeavor

Have you ever felt that your deaf child was not intelligent because s/ he “failed” the hearing screening or “lost” hearing (Benedict, 2011)? If so, keep in mind that your newborn child did not “lose” hearing — so her/his life is not filled with the loss that you may be feeling. Also, know that your child’s intelligence has no relationship to being deaf, nor is it fixed for life (Orelon, 1950). What leads to success and people appearing to be smart? Is it how much you know and understand about the world? Is it how much you hear? Is it based on IQ test results? Is it how well you do at school? Is it how well you can play Jeopardy! or Trivial Pursuit? Is it the ability

to reason, solve problems, and think critically? There are different definitions of IQ, but according to Ceci (1996), your thinking and IQ depend on your life experiences. Both your biological makeup and your environment influence each other; both are necessary for everyday functioning. IQ is not fixed at birth, not set in stone, or even related only to your genetic makeup. What people refer to as IQ is very flexible (Ceci, 1996; Gottlieb, 2002) and can depend on how you set expectations for your child. There are different definitions of IQ and different kinds of intelligence, such as the theory of multiple


ligences by Howard Gardner (1983). Your child’s intelligences could be any combination of the following: linguistic (“word smart”), logical-mathematical (“number/reasoning smart”), spatial (“picture smart”), musical (“music smart”), bodily-kinesthetic (“body smart”), interpersonal (“people smart”), intrapersonal (“self smart”), or naturalist (“nature smart”) (Gardner, 1983). Given these possibilities, your child is not limited to what is often called verbal intelligence, since information can be processed through multiple channels, nonverbal or verbal. With that being said, your deaf child is not incapable or limited. S/he may need additional support since s/he processes information differently. But the first few weeks at home will help set the stage for later IQ. For hearing parents, the first few weeks are often confusing because of the change in mindset, and realizing that things may need to be done differently. Consider that the majority of deaf children and adults are visual learners (Hauser, O’Hearn, McKee,

Winter 2017

Steider, & Thew, 2010), using their eyes in place of their ears. Therefore, if you notice your child being inattentive or not understanding what is happening, there are visual learning strategies that can help your child succeed. 1. Establish visual eye gaze and then later joint attention for communication and language development (get their attention before you point, show, or sign) (Clark, Galloza-Carrero, Keith, Tibbitt, Wolsey & Zimmerman, 2015); 2. Provide contingent and reciprocal dialogue where you follow the lead of your child’s conversational interests (Hirsh-Pasek & Golinkoff, 2015); 3. Provide world knowledge and experience that is visually accessible. Make sure your child is looking at you as you communicate. 4. Use short utterances with different facial expressions, tone/pitch, and emphasis on words (motherese and prosodic features) (Mohay, 2000); and

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5. Provide early access to language. The important thing is to expect the same thing from your deaf child as you would any child. Your deaf child’s intelligence is influenced by how much s/he learns, which leads to smarter and more effective interactions with the world. When it is time for school, simply being at school and interacting in this environment will alter your child’s thinking and cognitive abilities. Tell your child that IQ is not fixed. Your child has the cognitive flexibility to acquire and expand her/his intelligence. With this truth about your child’s IQ, encourage exploration of

passions and learning motivations to maximize your child’s potential and discover what the world has to offer. For a complete list of references, contact

Did you know ASDC has a hotline that parents of deaf children can call with questions, thoughts, or concerns?

(800) 942-2732

TIPS TO GO This resource is designed to be used as a quick reference. Tips address questions on how parents can partner with teachers working with deaf and hard of hearing students in the classroom. /InsideClercCenter

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Making Reading Real and Meaningful to Your Child The glossing approach in reading instruction takes into account that what deaf children know in American Sign Language (ASL) does not match the English text. The experience of learning to read can become bewildering for many deaf children, according to research. The tools and measures available at the Gloss Institute aim to change this through proper training for teachers and the provision of specialized reading materials. The glossing approach for reading instruction is a theoretically sound process where deaf children experience a transition from ASL to English literacy during their early school years. For parents concerned about the quality of education, the Gloss Institute supports the notion that a systematic print connection between ASL and written English is needed. This develops skills to become a proficient reader. Given this explicit Winter 2017

connection, teaching becomes effective since literacy skills and strategies can be taught to deaf children in a manner comparable to children who hear and/or use spoken language. The idea of a glossing approach is not new. This instructional strategy was first used at the Laurent Clerc Elementary School (LCES), a charter school in Tucson, Ariz., in 1996. The parents who established LCES had a vision of their children attending a public sign language school, providing inclusive literacy instruction to deaf children and their hearing siblings in grades K-4. LCES founders believed that if its students could learn English during the critical grades of K-4, their paths to academic achievement in grades 5 and beyond (when students use reading skills to learn academic content) would be limitless. Crossing the threshold into LCES was a unique elementary school expeThe Endeavor 15


rience akin to Martha’s Vineyard, where everyone had ASL fluency. There were no interpreters because students had direct access to communication among teachers and peers, as well as an unencumbered path to a typical academic curriculum. While signed language served as a natural vehicle in the oral/visual domain, children’s literature was made accessible through customized reading materials. The teachers taught English literacy using ASL and were able to measure deaf children’s progress with reading skills for the first time. The Gloss Institute provides an assessment for deaf children’s ASL proficiency, enabling parents to know where their children stand in terms of signing skills, which will then be fully tapped for reading development in English. An independent evaluation is a critical tool for a school district and the deaf education program to consider in breaking the cycle of reading failure that often affects deaf children. The Gloss Institute will help create a baseline for a deaf child in terms of language and reading considerations. Teachers then will undergo the Gloss Institute’s training program and become comfortable using the special reading materials along with assessment options. From there, the deaf child will be monitored in transitioning from ASL to English literacy.

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Questions such as whether a child has age-appropriate proficiency in ASL, how a child can become a better signer through monitoring, what reading instruction should look like for deaf children, how to catch up on reading skills, and the best ways to teach reading to deaf children can all be answered by the Gloss Institute. Additionally, parents may want to ask for an independent evaluation via their children’s individual education plan (IEP) meetings. The evaluation program by the Gloss Institute requires the school and parents to participate in a presentation about the details of the language and reading programming at the Gloss Institute.

The Gloss Institute is a non-profit organization established in 2010, founded in the spirit of fostering effective reading instruction practices. The primary mission of the Gloss Institute is making English literacy clear to deaf children for effective learning outcomes. For more resources or information,, contact the Gloss Institute at


Winter 2017

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By Meghan K. McCombs Northeastern University

In an ever-evolving profession such as American Sign Language (ASL) interpreting, it is crucial that interpreters constantly reassess the quality of their work and look for areas in which they can improve. A common pitfall for many interpreters is using informal speech when interpreting a more formal ASL text into English. This misrepresentation of a more formal source text hinders the interpretation from encompassing the entire meaning of the source text. The study presented here looked for specific markers of informality, to explore which ones are used most often, and to consider what might prompt their use. Literature Review: Representation

Feyne (2015) studied the interpretations of Deaf museum docents (guides) and found that, in almost all 18 The Endeavor

cases, the docent raters made judgments of the Deaf docents based on the linguistic and contextual choices made by the interpreters. This was true for both positive and negative perceptions of the lexicon, context, and register of the interpretations, meaning these facets within the interpretations were perceived as attributes of the Deaf docents, not the interpreters. In almost all instances, the raters referenced the Deaf docent in their notes, not the interpreter, when making comments on tone and word choice in the interpretation. For example, one rater reported “‘The lecturer has, at best, a superficial understanding of the artwork/exhibition’” (Feyne, 2015, p. 8). Feyne indicated that each of the Deaf docents was highly educated and qualified; however, this was not conveyed in the interpretations. In other words,


the data showed that participants in an interpreted interaction understand all facets of the interpretation to be accurately representative of the source speaker/signer and his or her capabilities. Feyne has given specific examples to the fact that, unfortunately, a flawed English interpretation leads the participants who rely on such interpretations to believe that the flaws are a direct product of the Deaf presenter, therefore distorting their views of the Deaf presenter. Register

Accuracy in an interpretation is based on more than the information provided. An interpreter also must consider register, which is a part of any language that allows the speaker/signer to interact in a way that is appropriate for a given setting (Humphrey, 1995). For example, consider the way an adolescent boy may converse with his friends at lunch, and how that contrasts with the way he might address his teacher. If he were to switch registers for these two situations, his language would be considered incongruous with the setting. Feyne shared an instance of poor register matching by an interpreter in her study, resulting in one rater commenting about a Deaf docent: “‘The site is a museum and this person is speaking to museum visitors — s/he is not in a bar chatting with his/her friends’” (2015, p. 10). It is clear the rater is commenting on Winter 2017

the Deaf docent by her use of “s/he” and “his/her,” because the rater does not see the Deaf docent and therefore does not know the docent’s gender. This comment shows that the register of the interpretation reflected poorly on the Deaf docent, making him or her appear frivolous and casual in a formal educational setting. A contributing facet of register is lexicon. The words an interpreter chooses carry a great impact on the implications of the interpretation. Formal language is more appropriate when communicating with people with whom one is unfamiliar, as it is perceived as more polite (Hallidy, 1979; Quinones, 2014). Some types of informal lexical makers include the use of conjunctions such as and or so to begin a sentence, vague language such as sort of or whatnot, and contractions or ellipses such as gonna and wanna (Halliday, 1979; Quinones, 2014). Also common in informal language are fillers — words that hold little to no meaning, such as ya know, or um, as well as the use of chained clauses, a form of run-on sentences in spoken English (Quinones, 2014). These markers are all indicators of informal English, but not necessarily rules (Quinones, 2014). Processing Time

Processing time, formerly known as lag time, is the time an interpreter takes to process the message in the source language before presenting The Endeavor 19


the same information in the target language; this time varies by interpreter and can range from two to ten seconds (Cokely, 1986). Cokely (1986) also found that the number of miscues in an interpretation is indirectly associated with a particular interpreter’s processing time. Cokely (1986) reports that this may be due to a longer processing time increasing the interpreter’s comprehension, the lack of which makes interpreting impossible. ASL Discourse

Like any other language, ASL takes different forms depending on its environment. There are cases in which more formal ASL is appropriate, but the language can be also adapted to be used in casual situations such as chatting with a group of friends. A strong marker for informal ASL is producing signs formally articulated with two hands using only one hand (Valli & Lucas, 2002). In casual settings, these signs can be articulated using one hand only. The location of a sign can also be an indicator of the level of discourse (Valli & Lucas, 2002). An example is the sign for KNOW, which is formally articulated on the forehead, but informally is understood and accepted if signed lower on the side of the face (Valli & Lucas, 2002). Oppression of the Deaf Community

Members of the Deaf community have faced a form of discrimination, or audism. A term coined by 20 The Endeavor

Tom Humphries in 1975 (as cited in Bauman, 2004, p. 239), it refers to prejudice and discrimination based on hearing status, which has been perpetuated throughout history by the mentality that speech and hearing are the only avenue for language and that humanity is measured by one’s ability to use language. Deaf people have been wrongly perceived as less than human because ASL is not a spoken language (Bauman, 2004). As a result, Deaf people have been underestimated in terms of intellect, independence, and general ability. If interpreters misrepresent Deaf people like in Feyne’s (2015) study, they clearly contribute to this problem and do nothing to educate the non-Deaf people involved. Method

The data used for this study was collected in the winter of 2010-2011. Participants interpreted the same series of ASL source texts in which the presenter discusses the Gallaudet Academic Bowl. This video is considered formal text: the presenter used two hands and properly articulated signs. It should also be noted that she was standing; sitting would be more appropriate in a conversational setting. Each interpretation was transcribed and analyzed for six specific informality markers. Sample

The sample for this study included five interpreters, chosen from a pool of interpreters who graduated within


a 10-year range. One interpreter was chosen from every other graduating year; for example, one from each graduating class of 2000, 2002, 2004, 2006, and 2008. All participants had a bachelor’s degree from Northeastern University and were locally, if not nationally, credentialed interpreters. The sample had an age range of 11 years and consisted of four female interpreters and one male interpreter. The videos, each approximately 18.5 minutes long, were sampled according to selected time segments. This provided a total of about 7 to 8 minutes worth of transcripts for each interpreter. Processing time for each interpreter was also identified in selected minutes through several steps. First, the researcher located the beginning of a signed sentence in the start of the selected minute in the source text and noted the time code. The time code for when the interpreter’s production of the meaning of this sentence

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began was then noted. The difference between these time codes was calculated to determine the lag time. This was repeated for a sentence in the middle of that minute, and again for a sentence at the end of the minute. A mean was taken for these three processing times to determine the interpreter’s average processing time for that minute. Informality Measures Conjunctions

The first informality marker analyzed was the use of the conjunctions so, and, or but as the first or last word in a sentence. Also included were the words well and now. These typically informal markers are acceptable in casual conversation. An example of this can be found in the transcript for interpreter 3, between time stamps 6:10 and 7:03: It gets passed down and the moderating assistants will show, I’m sorry, will show the answer

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for each team. So they have this electronic overhead that will scan the answer and it will appear on the screen for both teams. So there’s not any sort of discussion or anything else from the audience. One can see from reading these three sentences, two of which begin with the word so, that the conjunction is not grammatically or contextually significant in either sentence. That is, the sentences would be accurate without the conjunctions at the beginning. The use of conjunctions in this way sounds very conversational. Vague Language

The second informality marker identified was the use of vague language, specifically the words and phrases, thing, stuff, all that, sort of/kind of, and whatnot. In a spoken English interpretation, this use may discredit signers, making them seem less knowledgeable about the subject on which they are lecturing (Quinones, 2014). The nature of a formal text such as the Academic Bowl video is that the speakers/signers are assumed to have prepared for the speech, and would be quite certain of what they have to say (Halliday, 1979). Vague language results in different implications for the listeners, influencing their impression of the presenter. Chained Clauses

Chained clauses, equivalent to run-on sentences, are not often found 22 The Endeavor

in formal speech because, like vague language, they sound as if the speaker is unprepared and is therefore chaining together multiple clauses as one “sentence.” It should be noted that, while transcribing the interpretations, the researcher had a difficult time identifying sentence breaks, which might attest to the prevalence of chained clauses in the data. Ellipses

The fourth informality marker was the use of ellipses, such as gonna or wanna. These are considered informal substitutes for the phrases going to and want to. These words are acceptable in casual situations, such as two friends chatting, but lower the standard of formality when used in a more formal setting. Contractions

Contractions, such as can’t or you’re are similar to ellipses (Halliday, 1979). Although contractions are more common in spoken English, they are considered informal because they are a shortened version of a phrase. Fillers

The sixth and final formality marker was filler words, which have no semantic or grammatical function, but have clear implications for the speaker using them. Examples of fillers include, ya know, um, uh, like (as a transition or in place of the stated word) and I mean. For ASL-to-English interpreting situations, these


fillers are often used when the interpreter needs more time to formulate a sentence or does not fully understand the signer. These words imply that the speaker is unsure of what to say next, which may be acceptable in day-to-day speech, but not in a formal setting. Procedure

After sampling and transcribing the interpretations, each transcription was analyzed for informality markers.

This included tallying the occurrences of each marker for all five interpreters. In addition to the tallies, the total of sentences in the transcriptions was recorded. Spreadsheets allowed for tracking of the total number of markers per minute, the total for each Winter 2017

marker over the entire transcript, and the grand total for all six markers. After determining which minute contained the greatest and lowest number of markers for each interpreter, the average processing time was calculated for each of these minutes. This identified if there was a pattern in the number of informality markers used based on the interpreter’s average processing time for that minute. If an interpreter had the lowest number happen during differ-

ent minutes, the processing time was calculated for each minute. Results Interpreter 1

Interpreter 1 had the most experience of the five, with approximately 9.5 years of experience. The Endeavor 23


This interpreter produced 58 total sentences over all 7 sampled minutes. Throughout the entire transcript, 28 sentences began and/or ended with conjunctions, 0 instances of vague language, 5 chained clauses, 1 ellipsis, 27 contractions, and 30 fillers. This yielded 91 informality markers in the sampled minutes. This interpreter’s most and least frequently used markers were fillers and vague language, respectively. Interpreter 2

Interpreter 2 had approximately 7.5 years of experience, and produced 65 total sentences over all 7 sampled minutes. There were 37 sentences beginning and/or ending with conjunctions, 12 instances of vague language, 6 chained clauses, 2 ellipses, 21 contractions, and 23 fillers, totaling 101 informality markers in the sampled minutes. The most and least frequently used markers were conjunctions and ellipses, respectively. Interpreter 3

Interpreter 3 had approximately 5.5 years of experience and produced 56 total sentences over all 7 sampled minutes. Throughout the entire transcript, there were 17 sentences beginning and/or ending with conjunctions, 0 instances of vague language, 7 chained clauses, 1 ellipsis, 31 contractions, and 3 fillers, totaling 59 informality markers. The most and least frequently used markers were contrac24 The Endeavor

tions and vague language, respectively. Interpreter 4

Interpreter 4 had approximately 3.5 years of experience and produced 43 total sentences over all 7 sampled minutes. There were 24 sentences beginning and/or ending with conjunctions, 2 instances of vague language, 6 chained clauses, 1 ellipsis, 10 contractions, and 24 fillers, totaling of 67 informality markers. The most frequently used markers were conjunctions and fillers, both with a total of 24, and the least frequently used marker was the use of ellipses. Interpreter 5

Interpreter 5 had approximately 1.5 years of experience, and produced 47 total sentences over 7 sampled minutes. There were 25 sentences beginning and/or ending with conjunctions, 0 instances of vague language, 17 chained clauses, 1 ellipsis, 9 contractions, and 2 fillers, totaling 54 markers in the sampled minutes. The most and least frequently used markers were conjunctions and vague language, respectively. Discussion

After totaling the results from all five interpreters, the most frequently cited informality marker in these interpretations was the use of conjunctions to begin and finish a sentence, with a total of 131 occurrences. This means that, of the total 269 sentences


scribed for all five interpreters, 48.7% as a pattern and as a possibility for began with, well, now, so, and, or but. causation. That alone has significant implicaPatterns in the number of years tions for how an audience perceives of experience and the total number a presenter. Feyne’s study (2015) of markers were also examined for provides evidence that this could each interpreter. It was hard to find cause any audience member listen- a correlation between these two variing to the interpreter to perceive the ables. One cannot completely rule it signer as less professional or serious out however, as there may be a correlathan actuality. tion in a larger Also, the two sample. While most frequent “Interpreters are also each intermarkers after aware that this oppression preter had conjunctions an average is often based on were contrac- misconceptions and greater than tions, with 98 one, there was prejudices. Interpreters instances, and no pattern in fillers, with 82 are entrusted with this this sample information, and are given to correlate instances. Interpreters 2, opportunities to reverse the number of 3, 4, and 5 had the attitudes that elicit markers with shorter processexperience. ing times during oppression every time they Interpreters the minute in enter a job.� represent all which they each parties particused the most informality markers ipating in the communication in any than they did in the minute with the given situation for which they are least informality markers. Interpreter hired. Because they are privy to the 2, the only interpreter whose process- norms and expectations of ASL and ing time did not follow this trend, had Deaf culture, they are more aware the same calculated processing time than most people of the oppression for both minutes. The greatest differ- Deaf people face. Interpreters are also ence in these two processing times aware that this oppression is often was 2 seconds, calculated for Inter- based on misconceptions and prejpreter 8. Because processing time udices. Interpreters are entrusted was not calculated for all 8 minutes, with this information, and are given it cannot be determined as the cause opportunities to reverse the attitudes for the increase in formality markers. that elicit oppression every time they Despite this, it is still worth noting enter a job. Being aware of these indiWinter 2017

The Endeavor 25


cators of informality and the implications of informal speech, interpreters can monitor their own work and be intentional in speaking more appropriately in more formal settings. Future Directions

One could gather a wider range of interpreters with a greater variety of backgrounds and conduct a similar study to yield stronger data. One might also consider adopting the model used in Cokely’s (1983) study, gathering two groups of raters: native ASL users and native English users. The transcripts could also be analyzed for patterns to explain why

the informality markers appear where they do. This could also be done with the source text to look for linguistic consistencies in the source text. One might also consider researching other markers of informality, repeating the process performed in this study. For a full version of this paper with references and graphs, please contact

Have an article you’d love to share with our readers? Contact

Hey, Schools & Organizations! ASDC provides a very special membership option for schools and organizations. If your school or organization joins ASDC as an Educational Member, ASDC will provide: • A free one-year membership for all of your families • A special thank you in the next monthly email blast • A special thank you in The Endeavor • A special thank you in the news section of the ASDC website • A link to your school or organization’s website • Your contact information posted on ASDC’s Educational/ Organizational Membership webpage

To join, complete the membership form on page 52. More information: or (800) 942-2732. 26 The Endeavor





ASDC believes that deaf children are entitled to full communication access in their home, school and community.

ASDC believes that consideration of communication opportunities for deaf children should be based on facts.

ASDC believes there should be access to identification and intervention by qualified providers, family involvement, and educational opportunities equal to those provided for hearing children

ASDC affirms that parents have the right and responsibility to be primary decision-makers and advocates.

#2047, 800 Florida Avenue, NE, Washington, DC 20002-3695 800-942-2732 (v) • 202-644-9204 (vp) • •

Winter 2017

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The American School For the Deaf IS PROUD TO HOST

The American Society For Deaf Children National Conference June 25—27, 2017

Bridging Yesterday, Today and Tomorrow 28 The Endeavor


Mark Your Calendar! 2017 ASDC Conference

Bridging Yesterday, Today and Tomorrow The American School for the Deaf (ASD) is very proud to host the 2017 ASDC Conference on June 25-27 in West Hartford, Conn., a beautiful New England destination. The conference theme, Bridging Yesterday, Today, and Tomorrow, focuses on celebrating families and empowering them with resources and advocacy knowledge and skills. Founded in 1817, ASD is the oldest school for deaf students in the United States, the oldest special education facility of any kind in the Americas, and Connecticut’s only educational organization devoted exclusively to serving the deaf community. ASD will celebrate its 200th anniversary at the same time ASDC celebrates its 50-year anniversary. Together, we will provide an exciting educational conference that includes: • Two keynote speakers, diverse workshops and the opportunity for round table discussions led by professionals and/or parents. • Kick-off ceremony and banquet. • Enriching, and adventurous age-appropriate activities for children/teens. ASD is ready to embrace and welcome everyone as they create long-lasting connections. Registration Winter 2017

is $275 per adult and $225 per child, which includes all meals, conference activities, and children activities. Transportation and Lodging

A shuttle to and from ASD is available for the following locations. AIRPORT: Bradley International (BDL); 25 minutes drive to ASD BUS/TRAIN: Hartford Union Station LODGING: Limited space is available on the ASD campus. Dorm rooms have shared co-ed bathrooms; $10/person per night, two people per room. Conference participants are responsible for making their own hotel reservations. Room blocks are listed under ASD/ASDC. Courtyard by Marriott, Hartford/ Farmington 1583 Southeast Road Farmington, CT 06032 (860) 521-7100 Homewood Suites by Hilton 2 Farm Glen Boulevard Farmington, CT 06032 (860) 321-0000 Register for the conference at cfm?p=1297&LockSSL=true. The Endeavor 29


Established in 1885, FSDB is a fully accredited state public school and outreach center available tuition-free to eligible Pre-K and K-12 students who are deaf/hard of hearing or blind/visually impaired. Comprehensive educational services at FSDB are designed for the unique communication and accessibility needs of students. EDUCATORS


Highly qualified, certified teachers and related service personnel work with Pre-K and K-12 students.

Early Learning Center Program personnel provide Montessori-based education for Pre-K students.



21st century classrooms and an array of assistive technologies ensure students become confident and independent users.

Trained personnel advise families with infants and toddlers ages 0-5 in their homes.






207 N. San Marco Avenue • St. Augustine, FL 32084 • 800.344.3732 • 904.201.4527 (VP) 30 The Endeavor



GALLAUDET ADVANTAGE ● Excellence in education, research and beyond for deaf and hard of hearing students ● Over 45 majors, minors and self-directed major



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(202) 651-5050 (voice) (800) 995-0550 (voice) (202) 250-2474 (videophone) (202) 651-5744 (fax)

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32 The Endeavor


ASDC Adds New Video to Website:

Socializing with Deaf and Hard of Hearing Students

A video has been added to the ASDC website, “Socializing with Deaf and Hard of Hearing Students.” This video profiles Orren, a teenager who is the only hard of hearing student at his school. Orren demonstrates ways to combat loneliness in mainstream settings. Gallaudet University social work graduate students Laura Farley, Carolyn Nash, and Danielle Sprague created this video for a course, filmed in partnership with the Model Secondary School for the Deaf. The film is the first of several to address students’ needs in the mainstream setting, and includes discussion questions to encourage conversations. Student actors included Luisa Chastel, Thomas Fernades, Orren Mehan, Kedar Mertz, Stefania Miller, and Maia Swanson. ASDC thanks all the students and staff that worked to make this video a success! View the video at:

In need of resources for parents, families, educators, or service providers? Check out the ASDC Knowledge Center at Winter 2017

The Endeavor 33


Seven Annual Deaf Celebrations March 6: National Deaf Youth Day

National Deaf Youth Day was founded by the National Association of the Deaf in 2016. March 6: Deaf History Month

Deaf History Month, created in 1997 as a spinoff of the DC Public Library’s Deaf Heritage Week, focuses on three key moments in American Deaf history. March 13, 1988: Victory of Deaf Civil Rights Day April 8, 1864: Founding of the first college/university for deaf people in the world April 15, 1817: Founding of the first public school for the deaf in America in Hartford, Conn. The American Library Association and NAD passed a resolution in 2005 and 2006 respectively to recognize National Deaf History Month. Last Sunday in April: MOTHER FATHER DEAF Day

The last Sunday in April is MOTHER FATHER DEAF Day, which was established in 1996 by the Children of Deaf Adults organization. May: Better Hearing and Speech Month

Established in 1927 by the American Speech Language and Hearing Society. 34 The Endeavor

Last week in June: Helen Keller Deaf-Blind Awareness Week

The last full week in June that includes June 27th is Helen Keller Deaf-Blind Awareness Week, created in 1984 by a U.S. Presidential Proclamation to celebrate the achievements and abilities of people who are deafblind. Last full week in September: International Week of the Deaf

The International Week of the Deaf was established in 1958 founded by the World Federation of the Deaf. December 3-10: Clerc-Gallaudet Week

Clerc-Gallaudet Week originated as as Deaf Awareness Week in 1974, followed by Deaf Action Week and Deaf Heritage Week, by the District of Columbia Public Library. Special thanks to Alice Hagemeyer for this information.


2017 ASL and Bilingual Early Childhood Education Summit The 2017 National ASL and Bilingual Early Childhood Education Summit will be hosted at the Rochester School for the Deaf in New York on April 6– 8, 2017. This summit is for professionals involved with ASL and English bilingual early childhood education programs. Contact Susan Searls at for more information.


Renew Your ASDC Membership and Receive a Free Gift Time is running out to take advantage of this special offer; don’t miss the wonderful opportunity! Renew your ASDC Membership today for only $40 and receive a FREE Once Upon a Sign DVD. Renew for three years at only $100 and receive all three Once Upon a Sign titles for FREE. Membership form on page 52 or at

Winter 2017

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Established in 1884, USD provides the highest quality direct and indirect services to Utah students, families and districts from birth to age 22. USD works directly with districts across the State as well as provides self-contained fully accredited public schools and outreach programs that serve students needing American Sign Language and Listening and Spoken Language approaches Education resources and services are delivered by highly trained and specialized staff who pride themselves on offering individualized and intensive services for deaf and hard of hearing children in a variety of settings and methodologies. Visit for information!

36 The Endeavor


Did You Know? The International Association of Parents of Deaf was founded in 1967 by concerned parents of deaf and hard of hearing children. The organization changed its name in 1985 to the American Society for Deaf Children. Today: ASDC is the oldest national organization founded by and governed by parents of Deaf children. ASDC depends solely on donations, memberships, and proceeds from conferences for operations. ASDC’s board is a “volunteer” board with members who pay their own travel and lodging expenses for all ASDC events. Become a part of this innovative organization by joining today! See membership form on page 52.

Stay Safe in a Fire! Safe Value Pack Complete fire notification system that alerts you by: Loud Alarm Bright, Flashing Lights Vibrating Bed Shaker

Find Safe and other products for hearing loss at: (800) 825-6758 FREE Catalog! Equipment or Books and Media Winter 2017

The Endeavor 37


Thank you for your support of ASDC! Samantha Agron Anonymous Elaine Bailey Rosalie Balzer Bank of Blue Valley Karen Barkume Maclin Bilski Tammy Bolen Bottle Rocket Apps Craig Brenner Kathryn Castellani Mike Childers Anne Coreno Ebert-LeBlanc Family Charitable Foundation Lisalee Egbert Elaine Esch Kathleen Finnan Nicole Garcia Amy Geboff Carrie Gheith Tracy Graham Peggy Hafenberg Butterfly Harris Nicola James Nancy Kelly-Jones Jacqueline Levine Linda Lytle Amber Martin Jeffrey Martin Hilary Mayhew Derrick Miller Shane Molaison Leslie Monroy Scott Nelson 38 The Endeavor

Gina Olivia Heather Oster Matt Pella Julie Poulson Mara Pugh Josh Pyatt Kendrah Richards Jennifer Riven Stephanie Rosenberg Joey Seifner Escueta Shirley John Spamos Patricia Timm Elizabeth Trevor Kimberle Troutte Denise Tucker Scarlett Tucker Tatiana Turak Matthew Warfel Joseph Weisenauer Michele Westfall Lori Wilson Debra Witter Susan Wolf Haylee Woods Your Cause Mary Zuchniewicz In Honor of Beloved Family Josh, Barry, Zora & Laine Elliott-Mendelsohn Jacqueline Levine In Honor of Eileen McDiroy-Hurne Lori Kovac In Honor of Mike & Lisa Skjeveland Jeffrey Boller

In Honor of Luke Fraser & Kathy Walley’s Wedding Jaime Garamella In Honor of Donald Zimring’s 65th Birthday Sherwin Root In Memory of Raquel Castle Gloria Casal In Memory of Annie Coz Lucia Vieco In Memory of Patsy M. Forrester Mr. & Mrs. Don Harris Mr. & Mrs. Fred Hollett Lucille Kammer In Memory of Joan Ippoliti Andrea Balducci Rita Balducci Jack Cherin In Memory of Robert Peden, Jr. Beverly Allphin Angela BattistonePotosky Robert & Jane Bohne Kathleen Conrad Edward Czaniecki Emily Dennie Vera DiCola Lisa Dolak Lois & John Finlin Marian Haymond Beverly Hine Jennifer Knepshield Jill Landis

How to Donate to ASDC Make a tax-deductible charitable contribution to ASDC and invest in the future of education for deaf children, strengthening networks among families, and providing a promise of a better future for our children. Donations may be sent to: ASDC, #2047, 800 Florida Ave. NE, Washington, DC 20002. Or donate via PayPal at and click DONATE.

Mr. & Mrs. Daniel Maloney David Marquardt Wiliam & Joanne McArdle David & Susan Pavlick John Seliga John Thomas Alan & Janet Wilhelms Frances & Gerald Wilhelm Winter 2017

In Memory of Bonnie Ven Rooy Anna Flynn Dale & Tina Johnson William Millsaps Wilma Vathakos-Millsaps In Memory of Patricia Ziev Joel Ziev The Endeavor 39


Key Findings on Social-Emotional Development in Deaf Children Key findings have been identified on social-emotional development in Deaf children. Some of the points in this study include: •

Social-emotional development promotes language skills, and language skills in turn support social-emotional development.

Direct communication with numerous adults and peers is important to learning and social-emotional development.

Deaf and hard of hearing children show gains in self-esteem and self-confidence when they have friends who are deaf or hard of hearing.

After-school, weekend, summer programs with deaf or hard of hearing peers are excellent means for developing friendships and a feeling of belonging.

Deaf and hard of hearing children are empowered when they are considered part of the overall diversity among students in school. Read the full article at (May 2016, Page 1 of 12)

40 The Endeavor


Technology Has Changed Deaf Life: Is Your Child Benefitting? Slightly more than a decade ago, the TTY was the most advanced communication technology for Deaf people. But this was slow and required Deaf people to communicate in English — a second language for many. Lack of communication access and convenience sustained the rampant problem of isolation among Deaf people. Many continued to rely on hearing family and friends to place calls and make appointments for them, diminishing their privacy and independence. In 2002, new technology emerged that would revolutionize Deaf communication, culture and relationships: video relay services (VRS). For the first time, Deaf people could communicate in their native language, American Sign Language (ASL), via ASL interpreters who would relay conversations to hearing people. With VRS, for the first time many Deaf and hearing family members communicated clearly. Deaf people could call other videophone users and communicate directly, diminishing loneliness and isolation. WInter 2017

VRS has become a standard technology for Deaf people and is now available on tablets and computers. In the past few years, features that hearing people enjoy are now available for VRS users, including contacts lists, call waiting, conference calling, call forwarding and more. Is your deaf or hard of hearing child benefitting from these developments? Providing communication services to your child can give them a sense of belonging, independence and security. There are many VRS providers, the largest being Sorenson Communications, LLC (SVRSÂŽ). In 2003, Sorenson became the first VRS provider to develop a videophone specifically for Deaf people, which it licensed to Deaf users at no charge. The technology began changing lives. Today, your child has many options to be an effective communicator. Check into the different options available to your child to ensure he or she is communicating with confidence and developing their independence. Learn more at The Endeavor 41


Educational and Organizational Members American School f/t Deaf 139 N. Main St. West Hartford, CT 06107 860-570-2300 Colorado School f/t Deaf and the Blind 33 N. Institute St. Colorado Springs, CO 80903 719-578-2100 Delaware School f/t Deaf 630 E. Chestnut Hill Rd. Newark, DE 19713 302-454-2301 Edmonds School District Deaf & Hard of Hearing 9300 236th St. SW Edmonds, WA 98020 Florida School f/t Deaf & the Blind 207 N. San Marco Ave. St. Augustine, FL 32084 800-344-3732 Gallaudet University 800 Florida Ave. NE Washington, DC 20002 202-651-5000 Georgia School f/t Deaf 232 Perry Farm Rd. SW Cave Spring, GA 30124 800-497-3371

42 The Endeavor

Iowa School f/t Deaf 3501 Harry Langdon Blvd Council Bluffs, IA 51503 712-366-0571 www.iowaschoolforthedeaf. org

Michigan School f/t Deaf 1235 W. Court St. Flint, MI 48503 810-257-1400

Kansas School f/t Deaf 450 E. Park St. Olathe, KS 66061 913-791-0573

Model Secondary School f/t Deaf 800 Florida Ave. NE Washington, DC 20002 202-651-5031 clerc_center

Kendall Demonstration Elementary School 800 Florida Ave. NE Washington, DC 20002 202-651-5206 center Laurent Clerc National Deaf Education Center 800 Florida Ave. NE Washington, DC 20002 202-541-5855 Marie H. Katzenbach School f/t Deaf 320 Sullivan Way Trenton, NJ 08628 609-530-3112 Maryland School f/t Deaf P.O. Box 250 Frederick, MD 21705 301-360-2000

Montana School f/t Deaf and the Blind 3911 Central Ave. Great Falls, MT 59405 800-882-6732 National Technical Institute f/t Deaf 52 Lomb Memorial Drive Rochester, NY 14623 585-475-6426 New York School f/t Deaf 555 Knollwood Rd. White Plains, NY 10603 914-949-7310 NC School f/t Deaf 517 W. Fleming Drive Morganton, NC 28655 828-432-5200


Ohio School f/t Deaf 500 Morse Rd. Columbus, OH 43214 614-728-4030 www.ohioschoolforthedeaf. org

South Dakota School f/t Deaf 2001 E. Eighth St. Sioux Falls, SD 57103 605-367-5200

Pennsylvania School f/t Deaf 100 W. School House Lane Philadelphia, PA 19144 215-951-4700

Texas School f/t Deaf 1102 S. Congress Ave. Austin, TX 78704 512-462-5353

Phoenix Day School f/t Deaf 7654 N. 19th Ave. Phoenix, AZ 85021 602-771-5400

The Learning Center f/t Deaf 848 Central St. Framingham, MA 01701 508-879-5110

Rhode Island School f/t Deaf One Corliss Park Providence, RI 02908 401-222-3525

West Virginia Schools f/t Deaf and Blind 301 E. Main St. Romney, WV 26757 304-822-4800

Rochester School f/t Deaf 1545 St. Paul St. Rochester, NY 14821 585-544-1240 Saint Joseph School f/t Deaf 1000 Hutchinson River Pky. Bronx, NY 14065 718-828-9000 Scranton School for Deaf and Hard of Hearing Children 537 Venard Rd. Clarks Summit, PA 18411 866-400-9080

Winter 2017

Western Pennsylvania School f/t Deaf 300 E. Swissvale Ave. Pittsburgh, PA 15218 800-624-3323 Willie Ross School f/t Deaf 32 Norway St. Longmeadow, MA 01106 413-567-0374 ORGANIZATIONS Communique Interpreting 330 College Ave. Santa Rosa, CA 95401 707-546-6869

Conference of Educational Administrators of Schools & Programs for the Deaf P.O. Box 1778 St. Augustine, FL 32085 904-810-5200 DawnSignPress 6130 Nancy Ridge Drive San Diego, CA 92121 858-625-0600 Deaf Cultural Ctr. Fdn. 455 E. Park Street Okathe, KS 66061 913-782-5808 Described and Captioned Media Program 1447 E. Main St. Spartanburg, SC 29307 800-327-6213 Institute for Disabilities Research and Training, Inc. 11323 Amherst Ave. Wheaton, MD 20902 301-942-4326 Talking Hands Incorporated P.O. Box 7599 Largo, MD 20792 301-306-1606 www.talkinghands Veditz 448 Ignacio Blvd. #343 Novato, CA 94949

The Endeavor 43


Summer Camps for Hard-of-Hearing and Deaf Students

High School Sophomores and Juniors... Come Explore Your Future at Rochester Institute of Technology! Two Sessions: July 8 – 13, 2017 or July 15 – 20, 2017 • Explore the hottest new careers • Discover new friends • Learn how to turn your interests into a future career Apply Today! Visit or call 585-475-6700, toll free in the U.S. and Canada at 866-644-6843, or by videophone at 585-743-1366.

Health Care Careers Exploration Camp for students entering 10th, 11th or 12th grade in fall 2017 July 22 – 27, 2017 Explore a range of career options and learn about important issues in health care. Apply Today!

Visit or call 585-475-7695 or by videophone at 585-286-4555. Application Deadline: May 15, 2017

Application Deadline: April 30, 2017

Droids and Drones: Free Summer Camp for students entering 10th 12th grade in fall 2017 Two RIT camps for girls and boys entering 7th, 8th or 9th grade in fall 2017 July 22 – 27, 2017 Build your own computer, discover the secrets of robotics, conduct fun laboratory experiments and more.

Register Today! Visit or or call 585-475-7695 or by videophone at 585-286-4555.

June 18 – 23, 2017 Build your own drone to take home, and be part of hands-on demonstrations in robotic engineering and drone technology. Enrollment is limited to students from Alabama, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Mississippi, North Carolina, South Carolina and Tennessee.

Apply Today!

Visit or call 585-475-7695 or by videophone at 585-286-4555. Application Deadline: May 15, 2017

Registration Deadline: May 31, 2017

Rochester Institute of Technology I National Technical Institute for the Deaf I Rochester, New York

44 The Endeavor


2017 Summer Camps

Alabama Camp Shocco for the Deaf 216 North Street E. P.O. Box 602 Talladega, AL 35161 Dauphin Island Sea Lab 101 Bienville Blvd. Dauphin Island, AL 36528 251-861-2141 Space Camp/Aviation Challenge U.S. Space & Rocket Center One Tranquility Base Huntsville, AL 35805 1-800-63-SPACE specialprograms

Winter 2017

Arizona Lions Camp Tatiyee 5283 W. White Mtn. Blvd. Lakeside, AZ 85929 928-358-2059 www.arizonalionscamp. org

John Tracy Clinic Family Summer Programs 806 W. Adams Blvd. Los Angeles, CA90007 213-748-5481

California Lions Wilderness Camp for Deaf Childen P.O. Box 8 Roseville, CA 95661

Colorado Adaptive Sports Center 10 Crested Butte Way Mt. Crested Butte, CO 81225 866-349-2296

Camp Pacifica 45895 California Hwy. 49 Ahwahnee, CA 93601 559-683-4660

Aspen Camp 4862 Snowmass Creek Rd. Snowmass, CO 81654 970-315-0513

Deaf Youth Literacy Camp 15763 Lyons Valley Road Jamul, CA 91935

Connecticut Camp Isola Bella 139 N. Main St. West Hartford, CT 06107 860-570-2300

The Endeavor 45


Delaware ASL Summer Camp 630 E. Chestnut Hill Road Newark, DE 19713 302-454-2301

High Meadows Camp 1055 Willeo Rd. Roswell, GA 30075 770-993-7975 www.highmeadowscamp. org

Indiana Camp Crosley YMCA North Webster, IN 46555 574-834-2331

Florida Camp Endeavor 1301 Camp Endeavor Blvd. Dundee, FL 33838 Camp Warrior 2990 Fanlew Road Monticello, FL 32344 850-926-3361 Florida School f/t Deaf and the Blind 207 N. San Marco Ave. St. Augustine, FL 32084 800-344-3732 V 904-201-4527 VP Georgia Camp D.O.V.E. P.O. Box 80491 Athens, GA 30608 Camp Juliena 4151 Memorial Dr. #103B Decatur, GA 30032 800-541-0710 46 The Endeavor

Illinois Camp Lions of Illinois 2254 Oakland Dr. Sycamore, IL 815-756-5633 www.lionsofillinois Summer Hockey Camp Seven Bridges Ice Arena Woodridge, IL

Indiana Deaf Camp 100 W. 86th St. Indianapolis, IN 46260 574-306-4063 Springhill Camps 2221 W. State Rd. 258 Seymour, IN 47274 812-497-0008


Iowa Camp Albrecht Acres P.O. Box 50 Sherrill, IA 52073 563-552-1771

Maryland Bridging Hands Camp 8757 Georgia Ave. Silver Spring, MD 20910

Youth Leadership Camp NAD 8630 Fenton St., Suite 820 Silver Spring, MD 20910 leadershipcamp Michigan Camp Chris Williams 10500 Lincoln Lake Rd. NE Greenville, MI, 48838 586-932-6090 campchris.html Springhill Camps 7717 95th Ave. P.O. Box 100 Evart, MI 49631 231-734-2616 Missouri Camp Barnabas 901 Teas Trail 2060 Purdy, MO 65734 417-476-2565

Y Camp Des Moines YMCA 1192 166th Dr. Boone, IA 50036 515-432-7558 Maine Hidden Valley Camp 161 Hidden Valley Rd. Freedom, ME 04941 800-922-6737

Winter 2017

Deaf Camps, Inc. Lions Camp Merrick P.O. Box 56 Nanjemoy, MD 20662 301-870-5858 www.lionscampmerrick. org Maryland School f/t Deaf 101 Clarke Place Frederick, MD 21705 (240) 575-2960

Camp Barnabas 1380 Eternity Lane Shell Knob,, MO 65747 417-858-1127 New Jersey YMCA Camp 1 Flatbrook Road Sandyton, NJ 973-623-0822

The Endeavor 47


New Hampshire Windsor Mtn. Intl. One World Way Windsor, NH 03244 603-478-3166 www.windsormountain. org

Techgirlz RIT/NTID 52 Lomb Memorial Dr. Rochester, NY 14623 585-475-6700 TechGirlz

New Mexico Apache Creek Deaf and Youth Ranch P.O. Box 260 Reserve, NM 87830 575-533-6969

Techboyz RIT/NTID 52 Lomb Memorial Dr. Rochester, NY 14623 585-475-6700 TechBoyz

New York Camp Mark Seven 144 Mohawk Hotel Rd. Old Forge, NY 13420 315-207-5706

Explore Your Future RIT/NTID 52 Lomb Memorial Dr. Rochester, NY 14623 585-475-6700 EYF

Camped Up 304 W. 75th Street #8C New York, NY 10023 877-818-5027 Cradle Beach Camp 8038 Old Lakeshore Rd. Angola, NY 14006 716-549-6307 Lions Camp Badger 725 LaRue Rd. Spencer, NY 14883 800-232-7060

48 The Endeavor

North Carolina Camp Sertoma 1105 Camp Sertoma Dr. Westfield, NC 27053 336-593-8057 www.campsertomaclub. org Camp Woodbine 12701 Six Forks Rd. Raleigh, NC 27614 Camp Cheerio 1430 Camp Cheerio Rd. Glade Valley, NC 28627 704-798-1094 www.springcampcheerio. org

Ohio Ohio School for the Deaf 500 Morse Road Columbus, OH 43214 614-728-6900 Oregon Camp Meadowood Springs P.O. Box 1025 Pendleton, OR 97801 541-276-2752 www.meadowoodsprings. org Camp Taloali P.O. Box 32 15934 N. Santiam Hwy. SE Stayton, OR 97383 503-877-3864 Mt. Hood Kiwanis Camp 10725 SW Barbur Blvd. #50 Portland, OR 97219 503-452-7416 Northwest Christian Camp for the Deaf P.O. Box 21011 Salem, OR 97307 503-390-2433 Pennsylvania Camp HERO 58 Camp Victory Rd. Millville, PA 17846


Hare Goalkeeper Academy Camp 2879 Anderson Dr. Allison Park, PA 15101 412-486-8284

Camp Summer Sign Brentwood Baptist Deaf Church 7777 Concord Rd. Brentwood, TN 37027 615-290-5156

Lions Camp Kirby 1735 Narrows Hill Rd. Upper Black Eddy, PA 18972 610-982-5731

Texas Camp Summit 17210 Campbell Rd. Suite 180-W Dallas, TX 75252 972-484-8900

PA Lions Beacon Lodge 114 SR 103 South Mt. Union, PA 17066 814-542-2511 WPSD Summer Camp 300 E. Swissvale Ave. Pittsburgh, PA 15218 800-624-3323 V 866-755-5261 VP Tennessee Bill Rice Ranch Deaf Camp 627 Bill Rice Ranch Rd. Murfreesboro, TN 37128 800-253-7423 Bridges 935 Edgehill Avenue Nashville, TN 37203 615-248-8828 V 866-385-6524 VP Winter 2017

Texas Lions Camp P.O. Box 290247 Kerrville, TX 78029 830-896-8500 Texas School for the Deaf Summer Programs 1102 S. Congress Ave. Austin, TX 78704 512-462-5353 Virginia Camp Loud and Clear 1267 4-H Camp Rd. Appomattox, VA 24522 434-248-5444 Signs of Fun Summer Camp 33 Warren Dr. Fredericksburg, VA 22405 540-370-1859

Washington Deaf Teen Leadership 2142 Cispus Rd Randle, WA 98377 (360) 497-5323 V (360) 255-7133 VP Washington, DC Summer Youth Programs Gallaudet University 800 Florida Ave. NE Washington, DC 20002 outreach-programs/ youth-programs.html Wisconsin Wisconsin Lions Camp 3834 County Rd. A Rosholt, WI 54473 715-677-4969 www.wisconsinlionscamp. com

UH-OH! Don’t see your camp listed here? Send your camp information to asdctami@aol. com, and we’ll include it in the 2018 list. The Endeavor 49


NAD Youth Leadership Camp The NAD Youth Leadership Camp (YLC) is an intensive four-week summer camp program for deaf and hard of hearing high school students. The camp provides leaders the ability to develop their scholarship, leadership, and citizenship qualities. Leaders learn about self-identity, confidence, and self-esteem while experiencing self-discovery. The camp selects 64 leaders nationally and internationally. Community members, including NAD YLC alumni, builders, and guest speakers, are actively involved in this program. Hands-on activities provide the opportunity to understand the emphasis on learning by doing. This highly popular program has graduated over 2,500 alumni in its 46 years of existence. This has created a network of alumni who have become successful leaders and advocates. For more, visit

Bridging Hands Camp When you think of summer camp, what’s the first thing that comes to mind? For us at Bridging Hands Camps (BHC), it is connections that encourage lifelong friendships between deaf/hard of hearing children and kids of deaf adults (KODA) through fun. Our overnight summer camp builds community through communication by providing a fun, safe environment for children between the ages of 8 and 13 years. BHC is a nonprofit organization founded in late 2014 to fill the gap in creating a strong connection between the deaf community and the KODA community. Aside from the usual benefits of summer camps, such as being active all day, unplugging from technology, and growing more independent, our camps promote positive interactions within the diverse, multicultural, and multilingual deaf community. The camp takes place in Clifton, Va., at Adventure Links at Hemlock Overlook Regional Park on June 25-July 1, 2017. Camp counselors are Deaf and CODA counselors, Adventure Links staff, and interpreters. Activities will include for rock climbing, ziplining, canoeing and kayaking, Deaf and KODA awareness, arts and crafts, talent shows, and challenge courses. Evenings will be a time for artistic expression and rap sessions. For more information, visit 50 The Endeavor


Our students say it all.

Excitement for learning is what it’s all about for students at Rochester School for the Deaf. Since 1876, our students have been discovering the art of communication and education in a nurturing, inclusive environment—at no cost to families. As a private school, our dynamic educational programs employ skilled professionals who educate students in a vibrant multicultural and bilingual scholastic setting which includes

American Sign Language and English. 

Building futures for deaf and hard of hearing students

Focusing on infant, early childhood, K-12 grades, up to age 21 Get in touch today and give your

student an excitement for learning.

Rochester School for the Deaf 1545 St. Paul Street | Rochester, NY 14621

Celebrating our 140th Year!

585-544-1240 • • Winter 2017

The Endeavor 51 Parent Information and Referral Line: (800) 942-ASDC (2732)

MEMBERSHIP FORM Name:__________________________

Email: ___________________________

Address: __________________________________________________________ City: ___________________________



Phone: Voice/TTY/Videophone Membership Type Individual memberships _______$40 per year: Individual/Family Membership _______$100 per year: Three-year Individual/Family Membership _______$5,000 one-time fee: Lifetime Membership _______First-Year Free Membership (Families with Deaf children are eligible for a FREE one-year membership. Just fill out this form and mail, email or fax it back to us.) Deaf Child’s Name: ________________________________________________ Date of Birth: _____________________________________________________ Group memberships _______$250 per year: Parent Affiliate Group ( ____ Number of Parent Members) _______$125 per year: Library Membership _______$250 per year: Educational Membership _______$250 per year: Organizational Membership I would like to send more than my membership dues. Enclosed is a tax-deductible donation: $10 $25 $50 $100 _______Other Total Enclosed: $__________ Make checks payable to American Society for Deaf Children. Please charge my Visa or MasterCard: Card Number:__________________________ Expiration Date:______________ Please return to: American Society for Deaf Children #2047 800 Florida Ave. NE, Washington, DC 20002-3695 Fax: (410) 795-0965 • Phone: (800) 942-2732 • Email: 52 The Endeavor

Enjoy talking on the phone – confident that you’ll catch every word! CapTel® shows you captions of everything they say.


It’s like captions on TV – for the phone!


Apps available for your smartphone!

CapTel 2400i

Captioned Telephone

1-800-233-9130 l S E E






ASDC #2047 800 Florida Ave., NE Washington, D.C. 20002

Non-Profit Org. U.S. Postage PAID Pittsburgh, PA Permit No. 993

With ASL and English, your child CAN... LEARN! THRIVE! SUCCEED! Mission ASDC is committed to empowering diverse families with deaf* children and youth by embracing full access to language-rich environments through mentoring, advocacy, resources, and collaborative networks. Vision All deaf children and youth shall have the opportunity to thrive in every aspect of their lives through the empowerment of their families. *ASDC uses the term “deaf” to be inclusive of various hearing levels, including those who are seen as, or identify as Deaf, deaf, or hard of hearing.

American Society for Deaf Children #2047 800 Florida Ave. NE • Washington, D.C. 20002-3695 (800) 942-2732 • •