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FALL 2014


ENDEAVOR A Publication Dedicated to Families and Professionals Who Are Committed to Deaf Children

It’s a Journey... Not a Race INSIDE THIS ISSUE: A Look Back at the 2014 ASDC Conference Deaf Kids Are Not Hearing Children Who Can’t HearTM

p. 6 p. 33

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American Society for Deaf Children #2047 800 Florida Avenue, NE Washington, D.C. 20002-3695 Fax: (410) 795-0965 Toll-Free Help Line: (800) 942-ASDC (2732) (202) 644-9204 VP Facebook: ASDC-American-Society-for-DeafChildren/215538915154965

THE ENDEAVOR STAFF Editor Tami Hossler

Managing Editor Anita Farb Publication Services T.S. Writing Services, LLC ASDC STAFF Director of Advocacy Cheri Dowling © 2014 ASDC. The Endeavor is ASDC’s news magazine published three times a year. Published articles and advertisements are the personal expressions of their authors and do not necessarily represent the views of ASDC. The Endeavor is distributed free of charge to ASDC members.

ADVERTISING For advertising information, contact ASDC is a 501(c)(3) public benefit corporation.

A Look Inside EVERY ISSUE ASDC Board A Note from the Editor Past President’s Column Membership Form FEATURES A Look Back at the 2014 ASDC Conference Principles for Reading to Deaf Children Deaf Education: Replacing a “Special Education” Perspective with an “ESOL Education” Perspective The Bedrock Literacy Curriculum Bullying and Deaf Children A Family’s Love Story: Our Journey with Our Deaf Son Book Spotlight: Deaf and Hearing Siblings in Conversation It’s a Journey, Not a Race Deaf Children Are Not Hearing Children Who Can’t HearTM Paper Says Early Sign Language Exposure Is Essential for All Deaf Children A Different Way of Life Book Spotlight: The Life Story of Mother Delight Rice and Her Children

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For a copy of the ASDC Endeavor’s submission guidelines, contact 1

ASDC BOARD Executive Council Board of Directors President Beth Benedict, Ph.D. Germantown, MD beth.benedict@gallaudet. edu

Treasurer Timothy Frelich, M.A. Jessup, MD timothy.frelich@gallaudet. edu

Vice President Avonne Rutowski, M.A. Austin, TX avonne.rutowski@tsd.

Executive Secretary Tami Hossler, M.A. Miromar Lakes, FL

Past President Jodee Crace, M.A. Westfield, IN

Members at Large Jeff Bravin, M.A. West Hartford, CT

Erin Kane, M.A. Rochester, NY

Tony Ronco, P.Eng. La Mesa, CA

Rachel Coleman Midvale, UT

Jacqueline Laldee Olney, MD

Susan C. Searls Rochester, NY

Apryl Chauhan Livermore, CA

Gregory Mendenhall Dublin, OH

KaAnn Varner Sulphur, OK

Lisalee Egbert, Ph.D. Sacramento, CA legbert@saclink.

Gina Oliva Laurel, MD

Council on Education of the Deaf Representatives Serving on the Joint Committee on Infant Hearing Beth Benedict, JCIH Chair, and Jodee Crace

Stefanie Ellis-Gonzales, M.S.W. Pleasanton, CA

Maria Renninger, B.A. Seattle, WA maria.renninger@gmail. com

2015 Conference Chair Dawniela Patterson


A Note from the Editor This issue’s cover theme conference that was held of It’s a journey, not a race, at The Learning Center for is inspired by Della Thomas the Deaf in Framingham, of pepnet2. You will find Massachusetts, last June. her article on page 31. As A big hand-wave goes to she discusses, so many conference chair Chris times in this hurry-hurry Kaftan and his committee Tami Hossler world, we forget to stop for their hard and dedicatand enjoy the journey we ed work. are on. Hearing parents If you’d like an early start of deaf children understand that the on your holiday shopping this year, journey set in front of them may be take a look at the Toys “R” Us specialdifferent than what they expected, ized guide; it features toys that are yet if hurried, life experiences gained great for deaf children. Read more from the journey can be overlooked. about the guide on page 22. Take time to slow down. . . it’s not a We are always looking for writers and race. stories for The Endeavor. If you have a This issue is packed full of wonderful story to tell or have a resource to share, stories and resources to help you along please feel free to send it my way. Just on your journey. You will also find a drop me a line at full recap of the fantastic 2014 ASDC Here’s to another great academic year!

Farewell, and Welcome! ASDC expresses its gratitude and appreciation to Chris Kaftan, Peter Bailey, Mich Bignell, and Carrie Davenport. Their work and dedication to serving ASDC are immensely appreciated. We wish them the best in their future endeavors! ASDC welcomes Gregory A. Mendenhall to the ASDC board. He earned his bachelor’s degree in English from Gallaudet University, and his master’s degree from the University of Minnesota. An Ohio native, he began his career at the Minnesota State Academy for the Deaf as a high school English teacher, and then became the Ohio School for the Deaf high school and transition principal in 2013. 3

A Message from the Past President

It’s a Journey, Not a Race

Time is of the essence. part of their journeys. If Anxiety is high. No looking you’d like to review some back. Life is short. Oh my, of the PowerPoint presenwhere has time gone? Don’t tations, go to www.tlcdeaf. rush. There’s plenty of time. org/page.cfm?p=570. Am I doing the right thing? We also thrive through Ask someone. Don’t worry, connections to another Jodee Crace things will work out. person or group and/or Are these comments increasing knowledge or familiar to you? Maybe you make such sense of belonging when there is a comments when you’re pressured to connection with someone who shares make a choice, or you’re worried you’re similar experience or expertise. Deaf not doing enough. Maybe you are children, connected to people who afraid to leap forward or you dwell on support and celebrate them and their the past. In these times, remember it’s families, gain identity and acceptance a journey, not a race. Take your time to in being a deaf person. We are all in do what feels right for you. this together, connecting the dots. One strategy of being comfortable This leads to the next conference in your journey is to learn along the theme: Connecting the Dots: Child • way. Learning is a tool that can come Family • Community. The next ASDC from many sources, such as through conference will be in Indianapolis friends, professionals, websites, and on June 25-28, 2015 at the Indiana just personal experiences. Learn- School for the Deaf. ing is vital for personal growth and Remember. . . it’s a journey, not a improved outcome. race. Keep on learning, experiencing, Last June, during the success- and being happy with your journey. ful ASDC conference at The LearnFor more information on the 2015 ing Center for the Deaf, there were ASDC conference, visit www.asdc2015. approximately 30 presentations and com. several round table discussions that provided families with numerous tools to apply at home and in the community. Families learned that using these tools, such as resilience, language strategies, engaging the community, promoting your child’s learning, and real world preparation, can become a

ASDC has a videophone number! (202) 644-9204


Mission The American Society for Deaf Children (ASDC) is committed to empowering diverse families with deaf* children and youth by embracing full access to language-rich environments through mentoring, advocacy, resources, and collaborative networks. Vision Statement All deaf children and youth shall have the opportunity to thrive in every aspect of their lives through the empowerment of their families and the support of the community. Core Values We believe in the celebration of a positive identity of all deaf children through healthy family support, linguistic competence and high quality education in the home, school and community.

sible environment. We believe that there should be access to early identification and education by qualified providers, family involvement, and educational opportunities equal to those provided for hearing children. The reason is to ensure that young deaf children will achieve kindergarten readiness and will be academically and socially prepared by the time they enter elementary school. Kindergarten readiness is a critical step for children on the path of developing into happy and successful adults.

We believe deaf children are entitled to full language & communication access. We also believe that language development, respect for deaf individuals, and access to deaf mentors are important to ensure optimal intellectual, social and emotional development.

We affirm that parents have the right and the responsibility to be primary decision makers and advocates for their deaf children. For this role, parents need access to

We believe that consideration of language opportunities for deaf children should be based on facts. Research consistently demonstrates that fluency in the visual language of ASL and English offers all deaf children optimal opportunities for academic and social success, and thus both should be part of their language-rich and fully acces-

*ASDC uses the term “deaf ” to be inclusive of all hearing levels and all the various shades of it, including those who are seen as, or identify as Deaf, deaf, hard of hearing, partially deaf, partially hearing, or any other similar term. Also, we see “deaf ” to be inclusive of any technology or language utilized.

* Finalized as of August 25, 2014


A Look Back at the 2014 ASDC Conference By Chris Kaftan, Chair Over 350 children and adults converged at the Learning Center for the Deaf (TLC) in Framingham, Massachusetts, in June for the 23rd ASDC conference. Friday night, families were welcomed in the spirit of the conference theme, Family Strong: Together We Stand, during the opening ceremonies. Children were treated to a performance from Signing Time’s Rachel Coleman and singalongs. TLC students led the audience in a chant of “Family Strong: Together We Stand” to close the evening. On Saturday, adults participated in three workshops throughout the day, roundtable discussions, and attended a keynote presentation by Rachel Kolb, who shared her experiences growing up deaf in a hearing family. Kolb told stories of how her parents supported her and how they prepared her for life. On Saturday night, attendees swam in the hotel pool, enjoyed various activities, or visited historical Boston. On the third day, New Mexico School for the Deaf superintendent Ronald Stern, Ph.D., presented on the Child First Campaign and the Cogswell/ Macy Bill (HB 4040). Parents left the presentation more aware of what they 6

need to do to gain a more favorable and enriching environment for their deaf children. Participants also attended a new round of workshops and roundtable discussions, and continued to meet other families. During the closing ceremonies on Sunday evening, families feasted on prime rib and vegetable lasagna, were treated to a wonderful video produced by a great group of students who worked the entire weekend. The conference ended with the participants gathering on the large field behind the gymnasium to release 250 shiny balloons with the “Family Strong” logo into the evening sky. Next year’s conference theme is “Connecting the Dots” and will be hosted by the Indiana School for the Deaf. More information is at www.asdc2015. com. See you there!


Gratitude from the 2014 Lee Katz Award Recipient By Cora Shahid On June 28, I received word that I was the 2014 recipient of the Lee Katz Award. A whole range of emotions came over me after reading the text message, including, I wish I was there in person to thank and hug the ASDC board for such an honor, but also joy, pride, thankfulness, and shock. I was shocked that I was being recognized for something that brings me complete joy. Me? Wow! I have volunteered for 10 years now and I could not imagine my life on any other journey. In addition to ASDC, thanks go to Nancy Sager, who nominated me, along with Tony Ronco; both were my champions during the process. I also would like to thank my husband, Naseer Shahid, who supports my passion and puts up with a messy house many days a week, and our three children, two of whom are Deaf. Without them, I would not be on this amazing journey! I believe it is up to each of us to support the families coming behind us, and it’s a responsibility that I am happy to have. It has been my experience that the biggest impact on families are free events that bring families together so that the parents can meet each other, ask questions and learn from one another, and, equally important, 8

so that their children can bond with other children and adults who are Deaf. This is something that any one of us can do: arrange a park day, a beach (or lake) day, ice cream social, movie night in a backyard, hiking trip, a variety of panels and so on. We could even piggyback on another community event. These types of events have a huge impact on families and their children early on in their journey. I challenge each of you to consider hosting a couple of events each year in your community; it just might snowball from there. Everyone benefits from these connections — everyone. Thank you again, ASDC. I look forward to many more years of service to families in California and beyond.

DONATE TO ASDC Make a tax-deductible charitable contribution to ASDC and invest in the future of education for deaf children, strengthening networks among families, and providing a promise of a better future for our children. Donations may be sent to ASDC at #2047, 800 Florida Ave., NE, Washington, D.C. 20002. You may also donate via PayPal at:

Principles for Reading to Deaf Children clerc_center/literacy-it_all_connects/ reading_to_students.html David R. Schleper (1997), based on research of what deaf parents do when reading to their children, developed 15 principles for reading to deaf and hard of hearing children. 1. Translate stories using American Sign Language (ASL). Focus on concepts and use lots of fingerspelling. 2. Keep both languages (ASL and English) visible. Make sure children see both the signing and the words and pictures. 3. Elaborate on the text. Add explanations about the text to make it more understandable. 4. Reread stories on a “storytelling” to a “story-reading” continuum. The first few times, make sure the child understands the story. Then, slowly, focus more and more on the text. 5. Follow the child’s lead. What does the child want to read? What if the child wants to read just one part of a book, then move to another? Follow the child. 6. Make what is implied explicit. Make the hidden meaning clear. 7. Adjust sign placement to fit the story. Sometimes sign on the page. Sometimes sign on the

child. And sometimes sign in the usual place. 8. Adjust the signing style to fit the story. Be dramatic. Play with the signs and exaggerate facial expressions to show different characters. 9. Connect concepts in the story to the real world. Relate the characters to real events. 10. Use attention maintenance strategies. Tap lightly on your child’s shoulder, or give a gentle nudge to keep his or her attention. 11. Use eye gaze to elicit participation. Look at the child while reading. 12. Engage in role playing to extend concepts. Act out the story after you have read it. 13. Use ASL variations to sign repetitive English phrases. If you are using the same phrase over and over, vary the signs. 14. Provide a positive and reinforcing environment. Encourage the child to share ideas about the story and support the child’s ideas. 15. Expect the child to become literate. Believe in the child’s success and read, read, read!

Used with permission from: Schleper, D. R. (1997). Reading to Deaf Children: Learning from Deaf Adults. Washington, DC: Laurent Clerc National Deaf Education Center at Gallaudet University. (ISBN 0-88095-212-1) 9

Deaf Education: Replacing a “Special Education” Perspective with an “ESOL Education” Perspective © 2014 Chris Wixtrom English for Speakers of Other Languages (ESOL) How to educate deaf students: Modify How to educate deaf students: Focus regular instruction with a focus on directly on dual languages (sign and content areas and support broadlyEnglish) to promote reading and intedefined “language” grate content areas Reading as the number one priority Reading as one subject among many within all subjects Reading as a discrete academic skill Reading as a fulfilling experience that set is thoroughly integrated into daily life Reading as a measurable skill set, Reading for personal satisfaction and taught and tested by teachers, for independent educational school success exploration Save complex language (academic register, idioms, figurative language, Integrate complex language from the multiple-meaning words, colloquial start language) for later Encourage mediated language expeProvide language exercises and pracriences and applications within all tice in school and as homework aspects of daily life Compartmentalize languages Integrate languages Sign or English as the primary lanSign and English as primary language guages Teach parents sign as an adjunct Teach parents sign as a top priority Teach parents sign in the early years Teach parents sign PreK-12 Teach parents sign for basic Teach parents sign and English for communication education Teach parents sign via Teach parents sign online discrete classes asynchronously Teach parents sign as an academic Teach parents sign integrated into skill set daily life Special Education (SPED)



ESOL Teach peers/others sign as Teach peers/others sign incidentally a primary approach Teach bilingual-bicultural views as Teach bilingual-bicultural arts philosophy in daily life Teach bilingual learning from Teach bilingual learning from an adult children’s and young adults’ perspective, for the children’s benefit perspectives, as self-expression Teach limited vocabulary; Teach vocabulary as an don’t overwhelm ongoing feast Teach vocabulary in controlled Teach vocabulary in contexts every possible venue Teach vocabulary-building Teach discrete vocabulary techniques Use environmental print as a primary Teach environmental print source of educational input for direct (road signs, ads, product packaging, instruction and for self-education in menus, labels, captions) incidentally daily life Avoid non-conceptual, arbitrary signs Connect non-conceptual, arbitrary for reading; teach conceptual accuracy signs to code English for reading in sign De-emphasize metacognition in favor Emphasize metacognition as an of language education organized by enjoyable skill for school and for teachers daily life Teach with SPED principles Teach with ESOL principles and approaches and approaches Instructors and specialists needed: Instructors and specialists needed: ESOL teachers, reading specialists, SPED teachers, speech therapists, SPED teachers, speech therapists, audiologists audiologists, online, family Chris Wixtrom is the author of The Two Views of Deafness, and the creator of www. She holds a master’s degree in education, TESOL. Over the last six years, she has developed curriculum for teaching ESOL/reading and a course for teaching parents of deaf children how to connect ASL and English text to improve reading among K-12 deaf students. She may be contacted at


Educating Deaf Students with Disabilities Online Graduate Certificate Program Gallaudet University’s online certificate program in educating deaf students with disabilities prepares educators, other educational professionals, and second-year graduate students to develop critical knowledge and skills in special education. The program emphasizes culturally-relevant critical pedagogy as a foundation for highly-qualified special education teachers. The program focuses on working with the whole child, the family, and professionals while merging content standards and CEC standards, in addition to general, bilingual, special, and deaf

education pedagogy through coursework. Although completing the educating deaf students with disabilities online graduate certificate program* will not result in a license, the program is designed to meet the requirements for a non-categorical special education license in Washington, D.C. For more information, visit www. education/depts_and_programs/education/ certificate_educating_deaf_students_with_ disabilities.html.

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The Bedrock Literacy Curriculum By Kristin Di Perri, Ed.D. The ability to use English competently is an expectation all parents have for their children. However, the way deaf childrenare expected to learn grammar skills particularly is often via disconnected lessons that result in confusion and developmental gaps. Teachers of deaf students are expected to “tweak” existing instructional resources to make them usable for their students. However, suggesting that a teacher alter or adapt materials designed for hearing children is often irrational for many deaf students, especially at the beginning of literacy development. Simply tweaking English materials, suggests that English access and experience have been basically the same for hearing and deaf children. Instead, deaf students need to develop English literacy skills in a manner that is meaningful and arranged in a sequence that moves from their known access point in English to new information. English grammar is tricky to learn even when one has full access to the language from birth. Consider the hearing three-year-old who says things like “Mommy goed to the store,”

despite hearing the verb “went” many times. Why doesn’t the child simply use it correctly after hearing it the first time? That’s not how language or learning works. As humans, we need time for learning — to engage, practice, refine and store the multitude of rules required in English. However, deaf children are rarely afforded this necessity of time. A crucial point to understand is: Hearing children have six full years of natural access with English before they are expected to begin writing in first grade. The lessons in the typical U.S. curriculum are “shallow” and designed to practice what is already known. Thus, in-depth lesson development on most grammatical elements is unnecessary. For proof, ask almost any adult why we write, “The dog eats” and “The dogs eat.” They likely will be unable to explain the linguistic rules and instead reply, “Well. . . it sounds right.” In direct contrast, most deaf students go to school to learn how English works. They do not have a complete background in English before they have to write it. They cannot simply rely on the “does it sound right” response to check their grammar. They require lessons 13

that are developed with greater density, focus, and clarity of comprehensible rules that can be retained. Giving deaf students a curriculum that develops English lessons at a superficial practice level is a disservice and will result in an incomplete education. To rectify this situation, we must give our deaf students the very same opportunities to internalize English in a manner that makes sense. They need curricula, lesson planning and activities that are plausible and allow skills to become internalized. The development of foundational skills is absolutely essential. The Bedrock Literacy Curriculum The Bedrock Literacy curriculum was developed to provide the deaf teacher with a resource for teaching foundational English literacy skills to deaf students using a more thorough, developmental approach. It is also useful for the parent who is interested in making sure his or her child is developing a 14

strong English foundation. Additionally, the curriculum is written in part as a training manual to provide teachers (and parents) with background information so they can design and plan effective grammar lessons. Curriculum Components The curriculum components: • Are designed for where deaf students need to start in developing literacy concepts • Offer focused instruction that provides a foundation for English literacy development. • Have objectives written in specific, performance-based terms for accurate measurement, providing a way to ensure that students are truly learning. • Arrange skills in a specific hierarchy to ensure skills are built in a logical manner that makes sense to the deaf learner. Lessons are designed to continually bridge student success to new information.

Do not assign grade-level equivlancies to objectives. Instead each literacy area has a number of foundational skills that need to be learned, and objectives are arranged in order of difficulty. Any parent or teacher can look at the objectives in each section and see how it best fits each students needs.

Features A primary feature of the curriculum is in providing necessary language experience. Students need this background information and experience about a literacy component before being expected to work on the contents. Frequently, teachers will see directions that instruct them to use “through-the-air” discussion. Whenever “through the air” is noted, it is understood that the teacher will use ASL or spoken English, depending on the student’s linguistic needs. Additionally, some lessons have visual mnemonic devices to help the student remember the grammar “rule.” For example, when talking about time prepositions, the following visual mnemonic is used: • “IN” means a large expanse of time (The wedding is in 2015.) • “ON” means a shorter duration of time (The party is on Friday.) • “AT” means a specific pinpoint of time (The meeting is at 3:00.) To order or to get more information, visit or email kristin@

“Our deaf children are part of a rich cultural and linguistic heritage. They are part of a deaf community that values their deafness, while at the same time recognizes the importance of their taking their place in the larger, hearing community. Our children use two languages—sign language and English—and will make a mark on two communities, the deaf community and the larger, hearing community.” – Congressional Testimony on ASDC’s behalf by Barbara Raimondo, parent and board member April 28, 1994 15

Bullying and Deaf Children Within the past decade, bullying has gained social focus, even though it has been a problem for generations. While it’s difficult to believe that anyone would target a child with special needs, often bullying can be worse for these children, as bullies often target victims who are “different” from themselves. Some signs that a child may be a victim of bullying are: • Exhibiting disruptive behavior • Showing diminished quality in school work • Becoming anxious or stressed • Wanting to go to school late or leave early • Faking illness to miss school • Having ripped, missing or dirty clothes • Lost or damaged possessions • Sitting alone in class or asking to stay in during recess • Becoming withdrawn and not taking part in class


Because deaf children can often be isolated, particularly in a hearing environment, they may lack a support system and/or peers. Bullying may also go unreported because children with special needs may struggle with self-esteem issues and may feel humiliated or embarrassed about speaking up. Parents should tell their children, in specific terms, that bullying should never be tolerated and nobody should ever feel diminished for reporting it. If a child reports bullying, parents should show support by responding immediately and investigating the incident. While bullying has been a long-standing issue, cyberbullying is a recent development. The Internet and social media have become tools that cyberbullies use to torment victims. Now that deaf children can communicate using video relay services (VRS) on videophones with message capability, mobile devices and computers, the potential

for bullying deaf children has escalated. Some VRS providers, like Sorenson Communications, include tools to help customers block cyberbullying as well as other forms of harassment. For example, Sorenson’s Block List feature empowers its customers to block unwanted calls and SignMails® (to learn more about this feature, visit ntouch/ntouchvp_how_to). To block texts, parents should contact their child’s cell phone provider. Unwanted emails can be stopped by adding a spam filter. Parents may want to teach their children to never share personal information online, since any “private” information shared electronically can be distributed publicly. Parents should also consider installing Internet security filters and frequently checking their children’s online activities. For additional resources about bullying, visit: • • •

ASDC Referral Hotline

Are you a parent or professional with a question or comment? Our trained staff is available to answer your questions. Just call the ASDC hotline at (800) 942-2732 or (202) 644-9204 VP.


A Family’s Love Story: Our Journey with Our Deaf Son By Raz Stephen and Alex Stephen Our story begins as high school sweethearts who fell in love and dreamed of a family and an extraordinary life together. On our oldest child’s first birthday, we discovered that he was Deaf. As young parents, we had to choose between our son, Larry, being called “dummy” and doing menial jobs if we stayed in Trinidad or the chance to see Larry become a successful and independent adult in the United States. Today, Larry is a family man and a college professor. He competed in the Deaflympics representing the United States, and is a leader in the national and international Deaf community. In Trinidad, Larry would have had to wait until he was 7 years old to start school because there were many Deaf children as a result of sickness such as maternal Rubella (the cause of Larry’s Deafness). Luckily for us, the principal

of the school for the deaf there had just returned from a twoyear course at Gallaudet U n i v e r s i t y, and she said if we wanted the best education for our son, we should take him to Gallaudet University. We attended a Summer Learning Vacation at Gallaudet when Larry was 3 1/2 years old. During our time there, we interacted with Deaf adults who were dentists, doctors, and teachers happily living normal lives. This was the first time we saw and spent time with Deaf adults. They were our angels, providing a light-bulb moment for us. I t was in that moment that we fully and totally accepted our situation. We knew exactly what Larry’s future was going to be. We envisioned Larry being an educated, independent, successful, confident and happy adult, and we were compelled to commit to do

Learning sign language created a strong bond between my brother and me. - Charisma


whatever was necessary for Larry to attend KendallSchedule Demonstration unique experiences of deaf Conference Elementary School, located on the youth and siblings will be Wednesday Registration Gallaudet University campus. and addressed through art, drama, Opening “Sample City” During the Summer Our Learning and team building activities; Family Night! Families Vacation, we Fun also listened to a Deaf sibling workshops; and games, willwith sample menu items down from woman, tears streaming field trips, and more. Frederick her face, speak area aboutrestaurants, her childhood learnher about Frederick and how family did not cultural learn to Evening Activities: Family sign.venues, We decided there and then, that oriented activities each shop at local merchant we would learn to enjoy sign. activities booths, and evening offer family and By such this as time Larry had a sister, face painting, a petting social time. On one evening, Charisma, who was months old. participants will explore zoo, games, and18more. We decided to leave everything and Frederick’s sights, shops, Thursday Saturday – everyone behindthrough and migrate as university studentsand with our two young children galleries, parks; enjoy Parent Workshops: Three to the United States. dinner on their own; and fullstarted days ofhisconcurrent Larry language development and communication at 4 years and 4 experience living history workshops on issues, choices, months old at Kendall. “American Sign Language (ASL) was the key that unlocked through Ghost Tours. the door to my mind;and it helped me gain access into the world of thought, which consequences, the many definitely afforded me a better a language of the eyes; you take in inforavailable resources that life. canASL isExhibit Hall: Sponsors, mation visually. [Before States],related I did not profoundly impactcoming the to the United businesses tohave any aoffoundation the language. I thought in ‘pictures’ and was unable to express myself. ASL allowed development of deaf or hard of conference key areas, me to expresschildren. myself and to understandeducational concrete information as well hearing Professionals institutions andas abstract ideas,” he said. “Had I not learned ASL and been exposed to other signers, my abilwill present in each of the five organizations, and local ity tokey readareas and write English or any other language would not have been effective covering such agencies and vendors will and my world would have remained closed in a fundamental way. Once I had the diverse topics as family display information and foundation of ASL, I was able to learn English, mathematics, chemistry and other dynamics, cochlear implant products in the Exhibit Hall. subjects. ASL opened the door to my future life of learning.” effective use, language Our entire family attended sign language classesMSD’s every Saturday. Museum: Bjorlee We are so development, secondary happy we made that decision because communication broughtwith us closer as a famiMuseum is packed conditions, choices,sums it up best about learning ASL: “I love ly. Larry’s sister, education Charisma, perhaps historic information and community support having a Deaf brother. His options [being Deaf] brought closer. As I was his interartifactsusrelating tokids, the school, and access, and many more. preter in the hearing world. I was happy Frederick, to be his ears and voice. InBarour family we the Hessian shared unconditional love. Learning sign language created a strong bond between Children’s Program: A racks, multiple wars, and my brother and me. It is hard for me to understand how some families with Deaf comprehensive three-day more. children do not learn sign language. I cannot imagine my life without being able to program of planned, Sunday morning – Final communicate with my brother.”

supervised activities for breakfast and Conference children and teens ages 0 to 21 two books with their children, Larry and Raz and Alex Stephen have co-authored Wrap-Up; airport in fourCourage age groups. Charisma: in OurThe Hearts: A Family’s Love Storyprovided. and Discover Your Inner transportation informational needs and Treasure. 19

Past ASDC President Elaine Ocuto, 76 Elaine Fasquelle Ocuto, above all, she enjoyed being 76, beloved mother of Oscar a mother to the fullest and “Luke” Ocuto, passed peacea grandmother to her first fully at home surrounded by grandchild. Elaine was also family in Mobile, Alabama, a loving sister and aunt, on Aug. 9. Elaine was born doting on her nieces and as the oldest of four chilnephews. dren on April 20, 1938, in Elaine was a staunch Honduras, and educated in believer of spiritual faith New Orleans. She battled and found warmth in the cancer for the better part of solace it brought to her life. 10 years, twice surviving breast cancer In lieu of flowers, donations can be and fiercely battling multiple myeloma. made to the Ocuto Family FoundaElaine worked for over 20 years in tion, which provides support for deaf the airline hospitality industry with high school student-athletes who Taca Airlines and then Pan American are college-bound. Donations can be Airways. While working as a steward- mailed to 1912 Tramson Drive, Austin, ess, she met the late Arthur Ocuto, the TX, 78741. love of her life. Settling in northeastern Florida, Elaine was a tireless advocate for her son’s education On April 10, Phyllis Frelich, a at the Florida School Tony Award-winning Broadway for the Deaf and star of “Children of a Lesser God” Blind (FSDB) and an passed away at the age of 70. involved member of Phyllis was a member of the the Florida Concerned National Theatre of the Deaf. She Parents of Deaf Chilattended North Dakota School for dren and ASDC. Servthe Deaf and Gallaudet University, and appeared in ing as the ASDC presimany movies and television shows. dent from 1996 to She is survived by her husband Robert Steinberg 1998, she also worked as well as four sisters; Shirley Egbert, Peggy Camp, in various positions at Priscilla O’Donnell and Pamela Campbell, and four FSDB, retiring as an brothers, Dennis, Merrill, Timothy and Daryl. She executive assistant to is also survived by two sons, Reuben and Joshua, the superintendent. and a grandson. Elaine loved life, to travel, read, cook and

Famed Actress Phyllis Frelich, 70


Book Spotlight: Deaf and Hearing Siblings in Conversation Sister Brother Deaf Inc., a Maryland nonprofit organization disseminating information about deaf and hearing siblings, has published Deaf and Hearing Siblings in Conversation by Marla C. Berkowitz and Judith A. Jonas, with a foreward by Martha Sheridan. This is the first book to consider both deaf and hearing perspectives on the dynamics of adult sibling relationships. Authors Berkowitz and Jonas, who are deaf and hearing respectively, conducted interviews with 22 adult siblings to access their thoughts. A major feature is the book’s analysis of how isolation impacts deafhearing sibling relationships. The book also documents the 150 years of American societal attitudes embedded in sibling bonds and identifies how the siblings’ lives were affected by the communication choices their parents made. The authors weave information throughout the text to reveal attitudes toward American Sign Language and the various roles deaf and hearing siblings take on as monitors, facilitators, signing-siblings and sibling-interpreters, all of which impact lifelong bonds. Deaf and Hearing Siblings in Conversation may be ordered from, or via Inquiries may be emailed to siblingconversations@

Free-Loan, Accessible Educational Media The Described and Captioned Media Program (DCMP) benefits students who are blind, visually impaired, deaf, hard of hearing, or deaf-blind. DCMP is a collection of free-loan accessible educational media that contains the highest quality descriptions and captions on all media. Also, DCMP’s website provides information about educational media access, one-of-a-kind guidelines for creating descriptions and captions and advocacy regarding media access issues. For more information, visit 21


Albert Pujols “Pinch Hits” for 20th Anniversary of Toys“R”Us Guide The 20th anniversary edition of the Toys“R”Us Toy Guide for DifferentlyAbled Kids®, an easy-to-use toy selection resource for children with special needs, is now available. This complimentary shopping guide is a go-to for families, friends and caregivers involved in the special needs community, and is available in Toys“R”Us® and Babies“R”Us® stores nationwide, as well as online at in both English and Spanish. Toys“R”Us is teaming up with nine-time all-star baseball player and world champion, proud father and special needs advocate, Albert Pujols, who appears on the cover with 5-yearold Cameron Withers from Los Angeles. Pujols serves as a vocal advocate for children with special needs through the Pujols Family Foundation. As part of the launch of this year’s Guide, Pujols is partnering with Toys“R”Us to reach customers nationwide and raise awareness of this one-of-a-kind resource. “As a proud dad to my beautiful daughter, Bella, who lives with Down Syndrome, I understand how important it is to have resources like the Toys’R’Us Toy Guide for DifferentlyAbled Kids to help in making informed choices to support a child’s development,” Pujols said. “And, as a professional athlete, I truly value the importance of play and recognize the impact

it has in the lives of children who face everyday challenges — for these kids, playtime is not just about fun; it’s an opportunity to explore their strengths and experience success in reaching each new milestone.” Tailored Toy Recommendations The 63-page buying guide is packed with everyday playthings selected to help kids build critical skills, such as creativity, fine and gross motor and self-esteem, during playtime. Each of the toys has been vetted in partnership with the National Lekotek Center, a nonprofit organization dedicated to making play accessible for children of all abilities. Each toy in the Guide is paired with skill-building icons, helping users easily identify the playthings most suitable for the child they’re shopping for. Examples for each icon include:: • Auditory: Baby Einstein Octoplush from Kids II® • Creativity: Mega Bloks Build ‘n Learn Table from MEGA® Brands • Fine Motor: Hot Wheels KidPicks Super 6-in-1 Track Set from Mattel® • Gross Motor: Monster Dirt Diggers from Little Tikes® • Language: Doctor Role Play Set from Melissa & Doug® • Self Esteem: Classic Doodler with 2 Stampers from Fisher-Price® • Social Skills: Elefun & Friends 23

Chasin’ Cheeky from Hasbro® Tactile: Cyclone from Radio Flyer® Thinking: Connect & Create Geometric Set from Imaginarium™ • Visual: Marker Maker from Crayola® “For two decades, the Toys‘R’Us Toy Guide for Differently-Abled Kids has been a valuable resource for parents looking to find toys that help build specific skills for their children,” said Kathleen Waugh, Chairman, Toys“R”Us Children’s Fund. “Toys‘R’Us has a long-standing commitment to ensuring tools like the guide are accessible and available for parents and children everywhere.” Through the Toys“R”Us Children’s Fund, Toys“R”Us, Inc., has long supported the special needs community through organizations such as ASDC, Autism Speaks, the Pujols Family Foundation, HollyRod Foundation, Muscular Dystrophy Association, National Down Syndrome Society, National Lekotek Center, National Organization of Parents of Blind Children, National Center for Learning Disabilities, Special Olympics, Spina Bifida Association and United Cerebral Palsy. • •

Shopping the Guide: In-Store, Online and On-the-Go Those who prefer to browse online can take advantage of the shop-byskill option at Customers can narrow their toy selection by focusing on a specific skill to refine their search. Shop24

pers can also view the guide via their smartphone by scanning the QR code featured on dedicated signage located at their Toys“R”Us store’s customer service desk. The official Toys“R”Us App Guide for Differently-Abled Kids can also be downloaded. The App Guide provides a convenient, on-thego resource for viewing, researching and comparing mobile apps designed to build individual development skills for children of all ages. In addition to finding toy recommendations, parents can peruse the Guide’s “Top Ten Tips for Buying Toys,” prepared by the National Lekotek Center, as well as “Safe Play Tips for Children with Special Needs,” which were created based on research collected from leading safety and special needs organizations, to help avoid playtime injuries. Join the Conversation Using #ToysforAll Throughout the year, Toys“R”Us will continue to leverage its social media channels, including Facebook, Twitter, Instagram and Pinterest, to share tips and recommendations found in the Guide, as well as exclusive behind-thescenes content from the cover shoot with Pujols. Fans and followers are encouraged to join the conversation and support the power of play in the lives of all children by using hashtag #ToysForAll. For more details on the guide, visit

Take Your Career to the Next Level Gallaudet University’s Graduate School draws on Gallaudet’s rich heritage, and bilingual learning environment to prepare future scholars, leaders and practitioners to excel in their professions and disciplines. Immerse yourself in Gallaudet’s unique community or take advantage of the university’s online, hybrid, and distance education programs. Open to deaf, hard of hearing and hearing students, Gallaudet offers more than 25 post-graduate degrees and certificate programs, including:

Au.D., Audiology M.A., Deaf Studies M.A., Education M.A., Interpretation M.S.W., Social Work

M.A., Sign Language Education M.S., Speech Language Pathology Ph.D., Clinical Psychology Ph.D., Educational Neuroscience …and many more.

For more information or to register, visit

Open House

October 17, 2014 9:30 a.m. – 4 p.m.

800 Florida Avenue, NE


Washington, DC 20002



The Florida School for the Deaf and the Blind is a state public school and outreach center available tuition-free to eligible Pre-K and K-12 students who are deaf/hard of hearing or blind/visually impaired. Comprehensive educational services at FSDB are individualized, specific to the unique communication and accessibility needs of each student for independence and lifelong success. + MONTESSORI FOCUS

Early Learning Center Program personnel provide Montessori-based education for Pre-K students.


Highly qualified, certified teachers and related service personnel work with Pre-K and K-12 students.


More than 80% of students continue their education at a university, college, or vocational program.


Trained personnel advise families with infants and toddlers ages 0-5 in their homes.

207 N. San Marco Avenue • St. Augustine, FL 32084 800.201.4527 • 904.201.4527 (VP) •


Arizona State Schools for the Deaf and the Blind

100 YEARS of Excellence in Education

Arizona School for the Deaf - Tucson (520) 762-7898 Videophone (520) 770-3700 Voice Phoenix Day School for the Deaf (602) 845-8411 Videophone (602) 771-5400 Voice 27


Thanks to social media, #SUPPORT can be visual, #ADVOCACY can be shared, and #EQUALITY can be achieved. Join, like, follow us on every platform!




NADvlogs National Association of the Deaf 8630 Fenton Street, Suite 820 Silver Spring, MD 20910 • •



It’s a Journey, Not a Race By: Della W. Thomas pn2 staff The theme in my son’s kindergarten classroom was “It’s a journey, not a race.” It was intended to remind us overeager caregivers that our children were embarking on the journey of life. The experience is what matters, not the finish line. In all honestly, it is hard to remember this message given the standards, benchmarks and test scores we are also asked to consider. Regardless of intent, the journey does become a race, and each year of school is another year of “training.” This analogy could not be more true than for students who are deaf or hard of hearing. Not only are there standards and test scores, but there are legal provisions through IDEA that also must be met. Every year, the child, his/her support team and the “coaches” (teachers) work in unison on the required competencies, remediating areas that need extra support and capitalizing on areas of strength. Similar to a race, graduation marks a finish line and the student receives his or her diploma or completion certificate — much like the winner of a race receives an award. After the race is done and the crowds have dispersed, the runner may be left feeling a little lost as to what comes

next.) The sole focus of training has been on this one event, and when it is over, so is much of the structure that has guided the athlete. Similarly, for a young adult who is deaf or hard of hearing, the structured years of education and “training” culminate in school completion. The student could find him/herself asking “what’s next?” If the educational team has been able to focus on the journey, then reaching this milestone is not so daunting. However, there are so many elements to touch upon that we often tell the student what the plan is without teaching him or her how to create a plan for him/herself. Unless the student feels ownership of the planning process and empowered to make decisions, the focus becomes finishing the race with31

out understanding the importance of the journey. Map It! What Comes Next? Is a new online curriculum created by pn2 ( to help students who are deaf or hard of hearing develop a sense of their own educational needs as they use video and interactive exercises to answer three poignant questions: “Who am I? What do I want? How do I get there?” Selfdetermination and self-advocacy skills are taught via pragmatic examples using spoken English, written English and ASL. The Map It! curriculum is available on the PN2 website free of charge to students, family members and professionals. Additional online and in-person extension activities and learning opportunities are planned and will be made available beginning in October, 2014. Life is a journey, not a race. Perhaps the biggest reminder to all is that transitioning to adulthood is a process. Of course we want to make sure that our children who are deaf or hard of hearing are academically well prepared, but more importantly, we want them to know what they want from life and how to achieve it. Map It!: What Comes Next features young deaf and hard of hearing adults who are going through transition but who are empowered to set their course independently. No one will tell them “what’s next.” They will know for themselves. The goal of the curriculum is to help all students who are deaf or hard of hearing gain similar confidence in deciding for themselves what their path will be. Pepnet 2 (pn2) recognizes the full range of postsecondary education and training options available for individuals who are deaf or hard of hearing, including those with co-occurring disabilities, and strives to enhance the capacity of those institutions to appropriately serve this diverse student population. Pn2 is a national collaboration of professionals with expertise in a broad array of content areas and a variety of environments, including research, technology, personnel development, media production, and technical assistance. More information is at 32

Deaf Children Are Not Hearing Children Who Can’t HearTM By Marc Marschark For as long as people have been educating deaf children, they have looked for the answer to the chronic academic underachievement observed in that population. For many people, in the past and even today, the assumption has been that if we can make them “more like hearing children” — in their behaviors, learning strategies, or by improving their speech, hearing, and/or language — deaf children will achieve similar academic outcomes (I used to think so too!). But, despite a new méthode du jour in deaf education every few years, progress has been limited. Most deaf learners still struggle in school and their academic outcomes tend to fall below those of hearing peers. What We Know There is considerable disagreement in the field of deaf education with regard to the causes and potential solutions of the above issue (and who to blame). The research evidence, however, clearly indicates that none of the proposed “solutions” to deaf children’s academic challenges have been successful or even appropriate for all deaf children. Two sensitive examples: For most children who receive a cochlear implant, hearing and hence speech are improved. Among younger children with implants, read-

ing comprehension also improves, often to age-appropriate levels. On average, however, by high school age, having an implant or not is no longer a predictor of reading achievement for deaf students. Similarly, deaf children of deaf parents, who have access to language from birth via sign language, typically read better than deaf children of hearing parents who do not sign (at least fluently) with their deaf children. But even they usually do not read as well as hearing children of hearing parents, and having deaf parents is not a predictor of reading ability among older deaf students. Specific educational interventions/ methods for deaf children have focused almost exclusively (and perhaps under33

standably) on language. Methods such as cued speech, bilingual education, manually-coded English, and Visual Phonics all can be shown to lead to some academic improvements for some children, but none has been shown to significantly enhance the long-term academic outcomes for deaf children at large. We know that early access to fluent language is essential, and that earlier language leads to better academic outcomes. Importantly, however, we also know that the individual differences among deaf children are far greater than they are among hearing children, thus making it less likely that any one method of deaf education is going to be universally effective. In addition, there are specific cognitive differences between deaf and hearing children that are likely to affect learning. For example, while deaf children may have better visual-spatial memory that hearing children, hearing children have better sequential memory than deaf children. Deaf learners also are far more likely than hearing learners to have delays in executive functioning (or cognitive control), an essential component of learning by which individuals control their own behavior (e.g., social, cognitive, and academic).  What We Don’t Know Because of the wide variability among deaf children, and perhaps because of limitations on the research methods used in deaf education compared to other fields, one can find a published article supporting essentially any posi34

tion with regard to the language and learning of deaf children. The fact that many of these are contradictory creates real difficulties for parents, teachers, and other stakeholders seeking to make evidence-based decisions with regard to school placement, support services, cochlear implantation, the language of instruction, and so on. Unfortunately, those large individual differences also are such that we do not know why the outcomes of cochlear implantation are so great (proponents rarely talk about the large number of unsuccessful cases; opponents rarely talk about the large number of successful ones); why there is so little evidence for the impact of bilingual education on academic outcomes (as opposed to language skills); or why the benefits of reading intervention programs among younger deaf children tend to fade as they get older. Implications Assuming that an educational tool or method that works for hearing children will be successful for deaf children if they only hear, speak, or sign better is appealing to many, but naĂŻve and not supported by the available evidence. Effective teaching of deaf children requires that parents and teachers understand and accommodate their strengths and needs. Although many of the related issues touch on interpersonal and cultural sensitivities, failure to deal with them directly does not do deaf children (or their families) any good. Simply put, deaf children are not hearing children who cannot hear.

Reprinted from Permission to republish granted by Oxford University Press. OUP owns all copyrights to this article. This is a onetime republication agreement with ASDC/ Endeavor. Third party reproduction is not allowed. Further Reading Knoors, H., & Marschark, M. (2014). Teaching deaf learners: Psychological and developmental foundations. New York: Oxford University Press. (especially Chapter 6: Cognitive Profiles of Deaf Learners).

Marschark, M. (2007). Raising and educating a deaf child, Second edition. New York, NY: Oxford University Press. Marschark, M., & Lee, C. (2014). Navigating two languages in the classroom: Goals, evidence, and outcomes. In M. Marschark, G. Tang, & H. Knoors (Eds.), Bilingualism and bilingual deaf education. New York: Oxford University Press. Spencer, P. E., Marschark, M., & Spencer, L. J. (2011). Cochlear implants: Advances, issues and implications. In M. Marschark & P. E. Spencer (Eds.), The Oxford Handbook of Deaf Studies, Language, and Education. (2nd ed., Vol. 1, pp. 452-471). New York, NY: Oxford University Press.

Butte is your source for a variety of publications helpful to parents with deaf children. Topics range from sign to English skill building resources. Visit our website to see the scope of our line.



Paper Says Early Sign Language Exposure Is Essential for All Deaf Children By Brice Russ, Director of Communications Linguistic Society of America When deaf children are learning their first language, in many cases their parents are encouraged to focus on spoken language fluency if at all possible. However, a new academic article published in the June issue of Language argues for the necessity of teaching deaf children a sign language in their early years, even if they receive cochlear implants or other hearing aids. Ensuring Language Acquisition for Deaf Children: What Linguists Can Do, by Tom Humphries of the University of California, San Diego and his co-authors, recommend, “All deaf newborns and newly deafened small children should learn a sign language, regardless of whether they receive a [cochlear implant] or a hearing aid.” The acquisition of a child’s first language in the first few years of life is vital to many critical cognitive skills, and these skills can be developed with either a spoken or signed language, but prior studies have demonstrated that “many children do not acquire a spoken language fully” using a cochlear implant. 36

The authors make several further recommendations for deaf language learning, aimed at the medical and linguistic communities as well as families of deaf children, spiritual leaders, and counselors. They also discuss their ongoing efforts to educate others, including the creation of an “option grid” to help physicians and families make decisions about deaf newborns’ education. The full version of this article is available at toc/lan.90.2.html (in the June 2014 issue of Language). The Linguistic Society of America is dedicated to the advancement of the scientific study of language.More information on linguistics-related topics such as this can be directed to the Linguistic Society of America at (202) 835-1717 or via

A Different Way of Life By Megan Gleason Alyssa Suzan Danielle Gleason was born on Nov. 17, 1991. Immediately, doctors encountered complications with her birth and she spent her first months of life within the confined walls of Balboa Hospital in San Diego. She survived life-threatening and experimental procedures and medications and finally overcame her struggles as a miracle baby. Alyssa was not only an extraordinary baby, but to a girl born just 23 months later at that same hospital, she became an extraordinary sister as well. Alyssa is my sister and her life has taught me extraordinary lessons. Because of my sister’s complications, she was left with many medical consequences to deal with throughout her life. The most apparent struggle she has encountered is her deafness. Around the age of eight, Alyssa was diagnosed with signs of degenerative hearing loss. In a world full of curiosity-ridden and judgmental kids, she was teased early on for wearing hearing aids. I remember clearly the day my sister came home from school with a fractured arm. She emotionally recalled

that a boy behind her in the lunch line was playing with her hearing aids and after asking him to stop several times, she grabbed his hand and pushed it off of her. The boy defensively chopped her arm away and the collision between them caused the fracture. I was only six years old then, but began to assume the role of the big sister, the protector, the defender. I stood in the front lines of my sister’s battles in order to reduce her hassles. In my head, my sister was normal. There was nothing wrong with her, and anyone who thought otherwise would have to quickly rethink that. It was not only the kids that caused Alyssa trouble. My sister faced struggles with the teachers and administration as well. Schools refused to purchase and use audio-assisting technology to help her hear in class, blatantly disregarding the laws which stand against this kind of thing. Teachers blamed her for not hearing the assignments or due dates. With a combination of the unruly kids and uncooperative teachers, school was a daily challenge. Being deaf is not a disease. It’s not a sickness that needs to be healed or cured. Being deaf is a way of life. It’s

Being deaf is not a disease. It’s not a sickness that needs to be healed or cured. Being deaf is a way of life. It’s a culture with a language and members all over the world.


a culture with a language and members all over the world. Many people see deafness as a disability in this majorityhearing world. They take pity upon their inability to speak or hear and by default tend to treat them differently than a hearing person. However, because of what I learned from my sister, I know the reality: Deaf individuals are no different from you and I. The deaf community is filled with fully-functioning individuals who interact with each other through a specified language just like the rest of the world. It wasn’t until she became a teenager that my sister learned how to cope with and overcome her challenges in life. As a young teen, Alyssa received a cochlear implant. As I mentioned before, deafness is not a disease and is not something that needs to be cured. A cochlear implant in my mind, is the bridge between the hearing world and deaf world. It provides the opportunity to be bilingual and multicultural. In high school, Alyssa found open-minded and accepting friends who didn’t judge her. She learned to speak up and defend herself and people learned to accept her differences. As she thrived in school and sports, I watched my older sister grow up into an extraordi-

nary woman who loved herself in every way. It’s because of my sister that I have a positive outlook on life. From the uncertainty of her life as a newborn, I learned that life is a gift. Those who can overcome illnesses are proof that life is worth fighting for. From her struggles as a child, I learned how to love people for who they really are and defend my family. And from her blossoming into a tremendous young woman, I learned about self-acceptance and pride. Now attending Gallaudet University, “the Harvard of deaf colleges,” Alyssa continues to succeed in her life in all aspects. She fought her whole life to finally find a culture she was proud to be a part of. She’s a true inspiration to many deaf kids everywhere and a truly extraordinary sister. Meagan Gleason attends the University of Hawaii.

I Deafinitely Can!

The Endeavor is excited to feature stories of deaf individuals who test and go above their limits. If you know of someone with a story to tell, e-mail the editor at Deadline: January 15, 2015 38

Book Spotlight: The Life Story of Mother Delight Rice and Her Children: The First Teacher of the Deaf in the Philippines Delight Rice, the hearing daughter of deaf parents, was a pioneering teacher of deaf-blind pupils at the Wisconsin and Ohio Schools for the Deaf during the early 1900s. In 1907, during the Spanish-American War, the U.S. government sent her to establish a deaf education system in the Philippines, which was occupied by American military forces. Initially unable to find any deaf children in Manila and surrounding provinces, she and American constabularies ventured into the interior mountains, heavily populated by wild, hostile headhunting tribes, in search of deaf children. They rode on U.S. Army wagons and on burros for more than 1,000 miles on their successful mission. This 184-page book is filled with photographs and fascinating attention to detail as Ronald M. Hirano, one of Delight’s students, chronicles Delight’s life and legendary contributions to deaf education in the United States and the Philippines. It is available for $19.95 through Savory Words Publishing ( books). All of the author’s profits will be donated to the Philippine School for the Deaf.

Savory Words Publishing: A New Deaf-Owned Publishing Company Savory Words Publishing, a sister company of T.S. Writing Services ( is a deaf-owned specialty publisher of books by deaf authors. Only a select few print and digital books are published each year. To learn more or to purchase books, visit 39

The Alice Cogswell Act: Free Appropriate Public Education for Deaf Students In the early 1800s, when Alice Cogswell’s parents discovered she was deaf, there were no teachers or schools established to teach her. In 1817, her father, Mason Cogswell, joined Thomas Gallaudet and others to establish the American School for the Deaf, the first formal education program for deaf students in the United States. Passed in 1975, the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act currently governs the education of students with disabilities. IDEA requires that schools evaluate students with disabilities to determine their educational needs, provide services and settings based on those needs, and holds schools accountable for their academic outcomes. Despite these efforts, the educational outcomes of deaf students are not commensurate with their abilities. Deaf students require specialized services to meet their unique, diverse needs, services which often are not available in today’s schools. The Alice Cogswell Act will shine a light on the needs of these students and enhance accountability for the services they require, thereby leading to improved outcomes. Among other things, the Alice Cogswell Act will: 40

Require states to identify, locate, and evaluate children who are deaf or hard of hearing regardless of whether they are also categorized in another disability category, and provide special education and related services to address their language and communication needs. Require states to file an addendum to its IDEA-mandated state plan outlining how the state will ensure that children who are deaf or hard of hearing are evaluated on their language, communication, and other needs; sufficient personnel are available to evaluate and instruct deaf and hard of hearing children in the state; and all children who are deaf or hard of hearing within the state who need special education and related

• • •

services, whether or not such children have other disabilities, receive such instruction. Enhance existing “special factors” provisions ensuring that they provide for the child’s language and communication needs and other unique learning needs including those related to assistive technology, self sufficiency, self determination, socialization, independent living skills, and career education. Require the U.S. Department of Education to monitor states on these requirements and regularly update its policy guidance on deaf and hard of hearing students. Clarify that natural environments under Part C of IDEA include specialized schools, centers, and other programs that focus on deaf and hard of hearing students. Ensure that Individualized Family Service Plans for deaf and hard of hearing infants and toddlers specifically address their unique language and communication needs.

To learn more and show support for this proposed bill, go to The contact person is Barbara Raimondo, Esq., the government relations liaison for the Conference of Educational Administrators of Schools and Programs for the Deaf at (301) 792-2884 or

DeafNation Expo Schedule for Fall 2014 FREE ADMISSION TO EXPO, ENTERTAINMENT AND WORKSHOPS! Boston, MA September 27 Pleasanton, CA October 11 Tacoma, WA October 18 Denver, CO October 25 Chicago, IL November 1 If you’re interested in being an exhibitor or sponsor, contact joel@ as soon as possible; space is filling up fast. For more about DeafNation Expo and what entertainment and workshops will be offered at each location, visit


A Glance at ASDC Past Presidents 1967-1970: Roy Holcomb 1971: Lee Katz 1973: Larry Newman 1975: Jane Grisham 1977: Wilda Owens 1979: Joseph Geeslin, Jr. 1981: Bonnie Fairchild 1983: Patricia Brown 1985: Linda Meyer 1987: Alice Kennedy 1988: Roberta Thomas 1988: Mike Sinnott 1989: Sharon Baker Hawkins 1990: Jeff Cohen

1992: Jeff Cohen 1994: Benna Timberlake 1996: Elaine Ocuto 1998: Sue Ouellette 1999: Cheron Mayhall 2000: Cheron Mayhall 2001: Cheron Mayhall 2002: Natalie Long 2005: Roger and Sherry Williams 2007: Beth Benedict 2009: Beth Benedict 2011: Jodee Crace 2013: Beth Benedict

DID YOU KNOW? The International Association of Parents of Deaf was founded in 1967 by concerned parents of deaf and hard of hearing children. The organization changed its name in 1985 to the American Society for Deaf Children. Today: • • •

ASDC is the oldest national organization founded by and governed by parents of Deaf children. ASDC depends solely on donations, memberships, and proceeds from conferences for operations. ASDC’s board is a “volunteer” board with members who pay their own travel and lodging expenses for all ASDC events.

Become a part of this innovative organization by joining today! See membership form on page 48. 42

ASDC’s Renewing Educational and Organizational Members CEASD PO Box 1778 St. Augustine, FL 32085 904-810-5200 CSD 102 N. Krohn Place Sioux Falls, SD 57103 605-367-5760 Dawn Sign Press 6130 Nancy Ridge Drive San Diego, CA 92121 858-625-0600 Deaf Cultural Ctr. Fdn. 455 East Park Street Okathe, KS 66061 913-782-5808 www.deafculturalcenter. org DCMP 1447 E. Main Street Spartanburg, SC 29307 800-327-6213

Gallaudet University Alumni Association Peikoff Alumni House 800 Florida Ave. NE Washington, DC 20002 202-651-5060 Alumni.relations@ “Hear With Your Eyes” Therapy Alison Freeman, Ph.D. 424 12th Street Santa Monica, CA 90402 310-712-1200 Kiwa Digital Ltd. 19 Drake Street Victoria Park Market Auckland, NZ 1010 +64 9 925 5035 New York Foundling Deaf Services Program 590 Ave. of the Americas New York, NY 10011 212-727-6848

Quota International 1420 21st Street, NW Washington, DC 20036 202-331-9694 Rhode Island Commission for the Deaf and Hard of Hearing One Capitol Hill Ground Level Providence, RI 02908 401-256-5511 Signing Online LLC American Sign Language Instruction PO Box 86 Mason, MA 48854 517-676-4361 Signs for Hope 867A Charlotte Hwy Fairview, NC 28730

Going Green! Help save trees and costs by receiving an online version of The Endeavor instead of a hard copy. Email your request to 43

American School f/t Deaf 139 North Main St. West Hartford, CT 06107 860-570-2300

Delaware School f/t Deaf 620 E. Chestnut Hill Rd. Newark, DE 19713 302-545-2301

Arizona School f/t Deaf and the Blind PO Box 88510 Tucson, AZ 85754 520-770-3468

Ed. Service Unit #9 1117 S. East St. Hastings, NE 68901 402-463-5611

Arkansas School f/t Deaf 2400 W. Markham St. Little Rock, AR 72205 501-324-9543 Atlanta Area School f/t Deaf 890 N. Indian Creek Dr. Clarkston, GA 30021 404-296-7101 Beverly School f/t Deaf 6 Echo Ave. Beverly, MA 01915 978-927-7070 California School f/t Deaf 39350 Gallaudet Dr. Fremont, CA 94538 510-794-3685 Cleary School f/t Deaf 301 Smithtown Blvd. Nesconset, NY 11767 531-588-0530


Florida School f/t Deaf & Blind 207 N. San Marco Ave. St. Augustine, FL 32084 800-344-3732 Gallaudet University 800 Florida Ave. NE Washington, DC 20002 202-651-5000 Indiana School f/t Deaf 1200 E. 42nd St. Indianapolis, IN 46205 317-550-4800 Kansas School f/t Deaf 450 E. Park St. Olathe, KS 66061 913-791-0573 Kendall Demonstration Elementary School 800 Florida Ave. NE Washington, DC 20002 202-651-5206 center

Laurent Clerc National Deaf Education Center 800 Florida Ave. NE Washington, DC 20002 202-541-5855 Maryland School f/t Deaf PO Box 250 Frederick, MD 21705 301-360-2000 Michigan School f/t Deaf 1667 Miller Rd. Flint, MI 48503 810-257-1400 Model Secondary School f/t Deaf 800 Florida Ave. NE Washington, DC 20002 202-651-5031 center Montana School f/t Deaf and Blind 3911 Central Ave. Great Falls, MT 59405 406-771-6000 National Ctr. on Deafness California State University Northridge 18111 Nordhoff St. Northridge, CA 91330 818-677-2145

National Technical Institute f/t Deaf 52 Lomb Memorial Dr. Rochester, NY 14623 585-475-6426 New Mexico School f/t Deaf 1060 Cerrillos Rd. Santa Fe, NM 87505 505-827-6700 New York School f/t Deaf 555 Knollwood Rd. White Plains, NY 10603 914-949-7310 North Carolina School f/t Deaf 517 W. Fleming Dr. Morganton, NC 28655 828-432-5200 Ohio School f/t Deaf 500 Morse Rd. Columbus, OH 43214 614-728-1422 www.ohioschoolforthedeaf. org Oklahoma School f/t Deaf 1100 East Oklahoma Ave. Sulphur, OK 73086 580-622-8812 Pennsylvania School f/t Deaf 100 W. School House Ln. Philadelphia, PA 19144 215-951-4700

Phoenix Day School f/t Deaf 7654 N 19th Ave. Phoenix, AZ 85021 602-771-5300 Rhode Island School f/t Deaf One Corliss Park Providence, RI 02908 401-222-3525 Rochester School f/t Deaf 1545 St. Paul St. Rochester, NY 14621 585-544-1240 Scranton School for Deaf and Hard of Hearing 537 Venard Rd. Clarks Summit, PA 18411 866-400-9080 St. Joseph’s School f/t Deaf 1000 Hutchinson River Pkwy. Bronx, NY 14065 718-828-9000 St. Rita’s School f/t Deaf 1720 Glendale Mildord Rd. Cincinnati, OH 45215 513-771-7600 South Dakota School f/t Deaf 2001 E. 8th St. Sioux Falls, SD 57103 605-367-5200

Texas School f/t Deaf 1102 S Congress Ave. Austin, TX 78704 512-462-5353 The Learning Center f/t Deaf 848 Central St. Framingham, MA 01701 508-879-5110 Washington School f/t Deaf 611 Grand Blvd. Vancouver, WA 98661 360-696-6525 West Virginia Schools f/t Deaf and Blind 301 E. Main St. Romney, WV 26757 304-822-4800 www.wvsdb2.state.k12. Western Pennsylvania School f/t Deaf 300 E. Swissvale Ave. Pittsburgh, PA 15218 800-624-3323 Willie Ross School f/t Deaf 32 Norway St. Longmeadow, MA 01106 413-567-0374 Wisconsin School f/t Deaf 309 W. Walworth Ave. Delavan, WI 53115 262-740-2066 45

ASDC would like to recognized the Gallaudet University fraternity, Alpha Sigma Pi, as a lifetime member and thank its members for their steadfast support of deaf children and their families.

Membership Package for Schools/Organizations ASDC provides a very special membership option for schools and organizations. If your school or organization would like to join ASDC as an Educational Member, ASDC will provide your school or organization with: • A free one-year membership for all of your families • A special thank you in the next monthly email blast • A special thank you in The Endeavor • A special thank you in the news section of the ASDC website • A link to your school or organization’s website • A post of your contact information on ASDC’s Educational/ Organizational Membership webpage Membership is only $250. If you would like more information, email or call (800) 942-2732. 46

The Road Not Taken Two roads diverged in a yellow wood, And sorry I could not travel both And be one traveler, long I stood And looked down one as far as I could To where it bent in the undergrowth;

I shall be telling this with a sigh Somewhere ages and ages hence: Two roads diverged in a wood, and I— I took the one less traveled by, And that has made all the difference.

Then took the other, as just as fair, And having perhaps the better claim, Because it was grassy and wanted wear; Though as for that the passing there Had worn them really about the same,

– Robert Frost

And both that morning equally lay In leaves no step had trodden black. Oh, I kept the first for another day! Yet knowing how way leads on to way, I doubted if I should ever come back.


(or search for American Society of Deaf Children)

@deafchildren 47 Parent Information and Referral Line: (800) 942-ASDC (2732)

MEMBERSHIP FORM Name:__________________________

Email: ___________________________

Address: __________________________________________________________ City: ___________________________



Phone: Voice/TTY/Videophone Membership Type Individual memberships _______$40 per year: Individual/Family Membership _______$100 per year: Three-year Individual/Family Membership _______$5,000 one-time fee: Lifetime Membership _______First-Year Free Membership (Families with Deaf children are eligible for a FREE one-year membership. Just fill out this form and mail, email or fax it back to us.) Deaf Child’s Name: ________________________________________________ Date of Birth: _____________________________________________________ Group memberships _______$250 per year: Parent Affiliate Group ( ____ Number of Parent Members) _______$125 per year: Library Membership _______$250 per year: Educational Membership _______$250 per year: Organizational Membership I would like to send more than my membership dues. Enclosed is a tax-deductible donation:

$10 $25 $50 $100 _______Other

Total Enclosed: $__________ Make checks payable to American Society for Deaf Children. Please charge my Visa or MasterCard: Card Number:__________________________ Expiration Date:______________ Please return to: American Society for Deaf Children #2047 800 Florida Ave. NE, Washington, D.C. 20002-3695 Fax: (410) 795-0965 • Phone: (800) 942-2732 • Email:


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ASDC #2047 800 Florida Ave., NE Washington, D.C. 20002

Non-Profit Org. U.S. Postage PAID Pittsburgh, PA Permit No. 993

With ASL and English, your child CAN... LEARN! THRIVE! SUCCEED! Mission Statement The American Society for Deaf Children (ASDC) is committed to empowering diverse families with deaf* children and youth by embracing full access to language-rich environments through mentoring, advocacy, resources, and collaborative networks. * The term “deaf ” is inclusive of all hearing levels and all the various shades of it, including those who are seen as, or identify as Deaf, deaf, hard of hearing, partially deaf, partially hearing, or any other similar term. Also, ASDC views “deaf ” as inclusive of any technology or language utilized. American Society for Deaf Children #2047 800 Florida Ave. NE • Washington, D.C. 20002-3695 (800) 942-2732 • •