ALL ABOUT GLUTEN, YOU NEED TO KNOW!
What is Gluten? What foods have it? What problems Gluten will cause in humans? How to avoid Gluten? What to do next with this knowledge?
1 This paper answers all these questions. Let us jump into it straight away. WHAT IS GLUTEN? Gluten is a family of protein found in grains like wheat and similar-structured-protein sometimes called by different names are in rye, barley and oats. Humans simply cannot digest this protein because humans do not have enzymes or the stomach structure to breakdown the complex gluten protein or other proteins of wheat. This is the primary reason humans do not eat grass. However, ruminant animals  (are those who eat grass and can extract proteins and minerals from grass and grass seeds) does have enzymes and special stomach
structure  to breakdown complex grass and grassseeds associated proteins . HISTORY OF MODERN DAY’S WHEAT. Wheat has a complex class of family tree   and comes in many forms. Some of the wheat forms are: Triticum aestivum a.k.a. common wheat from which bread is made and it is also used in cereals, Durum, Turgidum Vulgare wheat, spelt a.k.a. dinkel or hulled wheat, cultivated since 5000 BC, Kamut1 (triticum
turanicum), Triticale, Einkorn    [Triticum dicoccum or boeoticum (wild wheat) or Triticum monococcum (domesticated species of einkorn)] a.k.a. emmer wheat (wild einkorn wheat was first domesticated approximately around 7500 BC) or more. All wheat types have Gluten, the only question is the quantity of gluten will vary from type to type. The most common wheat in the world todays is Triticum aestivum  and makes around 95% of world’s wheat production . Durum wheat on the other hand represents 5-8% of global wheat production  and is used in pasta/macaroni making. Triticum Vulgare Wheat’s “Germ Oil”  is used in cosmetics and personal care product formulations. The modern day’s wheat has been hybridized, which is different from genetically modified (GMO) modern day technique. GMO use gene splicing techniques. In 20th century wheat was hybridized with non-wheat plants in a complex process of backcrossing that produced todays BASF’s Clearfield wheat . For this Norman Borlaug in 1970, receives noble peace prize in recognition of his contributions to world peace through
ALL ABOUT GLUTEN, YOU NEED TO KNOW! increasing food supply . Spelt, Kamut1  and Triticale has not gone through this backcrossing process. However, they do contain proteins that human body doesn’t have enzymes to digest. Apart from gluten, wheat has many other proteins like gliadin, glutenin, wheat germ agglutinin   (WGA), albumin, globulin, etc. These proteins when put through human digestive system creates a complex array of problems that is unique to individual chemistry. The objective of this paper is to highlight the associated research on the wheat molecules and help readers to further read the establish research that is documented here for greater details on each of these topics.
Humans have no enzymes to break down wheat proteins into a single amino acid for digestion, it comes in the lower intestine in a small chain of amino acids (unbroken protein structure), which human body assumes as bacterium and releases an immune reaction every time this happens. Because of leakage of undigested protein particles as peptides in the blood, body immune system assimilates an immune attack, leading to issues apart from celiac disease, like skin disorders from eczema to psoriasis and everything in between. List of the skin disorders  . Note, skin disorders are also caused out of the context that we are discussing here.
Wheat proteins are divided into monomeric and polymeric proteins, depending upon the length of polypeptides chain . These are classified according to protein solubility properties in various solvents as per Osborne, 1907 . For example, albumin wheat protein is soluble in water; globulin wheat protein is soluble in salt solution; gliadin wheat protein is soluble in 70% aqueous ethanol; and glutenin wheat protein is soluble in dilute acid or alkali; with that as the back drop let us take a quick deep-dive into key wheat proteins.
WHY IS GLUTEN BAD FOR SOME PEOPLE? No human can digest gluten. A person can tolerate eating gluten, if it comes out the other end without creating an immune reaction. There are people that fall into this category, which we will classify for discussion purpose as category #5. The other four categories of people in which gluten does create problems upon consumption are highlighted in the below figure.
ESTABLISHED GLUTEN RELATED MEDICAL CONDITIONS.
Gluten is inflammatory to the gut according to Dr. Alessio Fasano, who directs the Center for Celiac Research, specializing in the treatment of glutenrelated disorders, including celiac disease, wheat allergy and gluten sensitivity. Dr. Fasano identified two genes (DQ2 and DQ8) of a cellular receptor called the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) and its association with celiac disease. His books talk in detail about how Zonulin, a protein, opens intestine gates and let undigested gluten’s amino acid into the blood serum leading to immune reaction   . Dr. Fasano authored the groundbreaking study in 2003 in which he establishes celiac disease rate in United States as 1 in every 133 Americans. Seventeen years past that research that number is growing, indicating collectively something we are not doing right.
During the research for this paper we found a study showing usage of KAMUT® wheat and user’s health markers have gone down . It will be unfair not to publish that. 1
Figure 1: Broad Types of Gluten Disorders
Category #1 Celiac Disease is a genetic autoimmune disorder in humans and animals triggered by the consumption of gluten. When a person with celiac disease eats gluten, the wheat proteins (gluten and others) interferes with the person’s nutrient absorption process from food they are eating. In a celiac patient gluten damages a part of the small intestine called as villi. For an animated video on villi click here. Minerals and vitamins from food are absorption in the body in
ALL ABOUT GLUTEN, YOU NEED TO KNOW! the small intestine. For example, iron is absorbed in the very first part of the small intestine. Damaged intestine villi make nearly impossible for the body to absorb nutrients into the bloodstream. This then leads into malnourishment and a host of other problems that may become the cause for cancers, thyroid disease, osteoporosis, infertility and the onset of other autoimmune diseases. Category #2 Non-Celiac Wheat Sensitivity (NCWS) also referred to as “gluten sensitive” or “gluten intolerant” people. This group of individuals are sensitive to gluten but not as strong as in the case with celiac disease. They are still digesting nutrients from the small intestine. In this category of individuals, when wheat is consumed, there will be a subtle reaction like skin blushes, rash, redness (face or other parts). Overtime this could aggravate from mild to severe and can lead to host of other body issues. Easiest way to find if you are in this category is to stop wheat for few weeks and see if the problematic symptoms goes away. Category #3 Wheat Allergy like any other allergy is caused by your body having too many immunoglobulin E (IgE) antibodies  in your blood serum produced by your immune system to attack, control and/or kill the undigested wheat protein molecules that has seeped into your blood. This could be verified by a simple blood test . To stop this abuse on your immune system, you need to stop the foods from entering your mouth that are triggering this allergic reaction. This is not something that will happen silently. You body will be shouting and telling you about these allergic conditions. It is you who is ignoring it, leading to … you guessed it. Category #4 Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) is a large intestine disorder where not all fructose is absorbed in the small intestine. When the eaten food’s undigested fructose moves into large intestine, fermentation starts and aggravation from there onwards is referred to as IBS. IBS affects around 11% of the population globally . Few IBS symptoms are abdominal pains, bloating, constipation, cramping, diarrhea, gas and more . Again, best way to manage IBS is to identify the food or foods that are creating IBS and then remove those foods from your diet for a positive confirmation that you
can do on your own within few weeks. It is to be noted that there are other reasons for IBS  apart from the gluten context discussed here. These four categories of people can be having other category of wheat protein disorders and hence this is a very complex issue. The Venn diagram helps to some extent in the visualization of complexity. VALUE GLUTEN ADDS IN THE FOOD CHEMISTRY? Gluten is a heat stabilizing compound and it has the capacity to bind and extend the structures around it. When water and flour is mixed, gluten plays the lead role in creating sticky glue-like dough with elasticity. This makes bread rise in the process of baking. In short, gluten adds the determining rheological   dough properties in the bread making. This is the reason it is used to give baked items texture, makes wheat products fluffy, gives it a chewy character, gives flavors, provides browning and helps baked products retain moisture. WHEAT COMPOUNDS
Agglutinin wheat protein is a toxin produced by wheat to protect wheat seed from insects. In humans this will produce immune reaction for up to six months after consumption of wheat, if you are allergic to this protein or if the unbroken (undigested) protein molecules (amino acids) enter your blood stream.
Wheat germ agglutinin (WGA)  is a lectin present is in the kernel of wheat and its main function also is to protect the seed from insects, yeast and bacteria. WGA molecular structure looks very much like insulin and it binds to the human cell insulin receptors producing insulin resistance in the person, which is the root cause of diabetes. Moreover, the blockage of insulin receptors starves cells from getting glucose; this will send signal to the brain for more food, making the infected person cravings for more food . The food cravings will cease to exist for WGA is out of your system, which is approximately four to six months after the last consumption of this protein.
Gliadin and glutenin together represent about 80% of the total proteins in wheat flour and are present in approximately equal amount. Gliadin and glutenin are
ALL ABOUT GLUTEN, YOU NEED TO KNOW! the most important determinants of the functional and rheological dough properties as stated above. Gluten within humans also works in suppressing leptin enzyme, which is an adipose tissue secreted peptide hormone. Its main function is to let you know, you are full and eaten enough. This communication is crucial for maintaining healthy metabolic functions. Blockage of this communication pathway results in all kind of problems, as you can imagine. This blockade results in gliadin appetite stimulation. Make you eat more in a single sitting or make you feel hungry over short span of time. Both conditions will ultimately result in obesity, promotes development of metabolic syndrome and possibly get you to the doorsteps of diabetes. If you’re already diabetic, it will make your blood serum glucose so high, your diabetic medications will not work effectively and that will lead your doctor to prescribe insulin. Eating wheat increases the average person’s calorie intake by 385-400 calories a day  . Gliadin also has opiate-like properties, which make it “addictive” . Moreover, gliadin contains peptide sequences that are highly resistant to gastric, pancreatic, and intestinal proteolytic digestion in the gastrointestinal tract . Gliadin protein is responsible for most of the negative health effects in people who are sensitive to this wheat gluten derived protein.
of wheat is a chemical compound unique to wheat and it is NOT a protein, rather a type of starch a.k.a. carbohydrate. Amylopectin are of type A, B and C. Wheat has Amylopectin-A, which has a huge glycemic load   meaning it will release to much of glucose in your blood in a very short span of time. Which is an absolute problem for people with diabetes. That means, eating two slices of bread will raise your blood sugar more than eating “one sugar treat” of double the amount of quantity, but not made from the wheat! Amylopectin-A is also associated in the trigger reaction of small LDL particles in blood vessels creating inflammation and leading to huge range of cardiovascular diseases . When wheat is removed from the diet, these small LDL particle levels are reduced by 90% . At this point we can state that Canadian nephrologist Dr. Jason Fung, M.D.,   recommendation of removing amylopectin-a from diet and fasting as well as Wisconsin cardiologist, Dr. William Davis, M.D.   recommendation of
amylopectin-a removal from diet has worked on putting diabetes into remission for the volunteers we are following. This is a non-funded research and once data is collected, analyzed and anonymized, we are planning to publish it. Rye has gluten and it is called as secalin, which is a form of gluten. Barley  contains 8 or less percent of gluten like protein and it is called as hordein. Oats protein is called as avenins, which is a globulin or legume-like protein. Corn a.k.a. maize does not have gluten protein. It has a different class of protein referred to as prolamin  [meaning, seed proteins a.k.a. globulins that are NOT soluble in water but are soluble in water-ethanol mixtures] and it is called as Zein. So, it could be
concluded that wheat (all forms), rye, barley and oats do have some form of wheat gluten like proteins  and in human body almost behave in a similar ways. GLUTEN FREE ALTERNATIVES There are plenty of grain and starch alternatives that by nature do not contain gluten associated proteins and thus free from all the problem and issues as listed above. It is to be noted that the market label of “glutenfree” or “gluten-free diet” is a sham and will contain other forms of the toxins with different names and it is legal to sell them as they do not have gluten in them. We have just learned in this paper that gluten like structures in grass seeds are called by multiple other names. However, the food items that can substitute gluten grains are: 1. Almond flour 2. Amaranth 3. Brown, white and wild rice. The most common question that comes up… Is rice safe? Rice doesn’t increase the blood sugar levels to the extent wheat does; rice also doesn’t contain amylopectin-A or gliadin. However, rice does have starch, which may contribute to your blood serum glucose levels. Rice have high levels of arsenic  due to the conditions in which it grows. 4. Buckwheat 5. Coconut flour; A mixture of almond and coconut flour with psyllium husk powder  bakes beautiful healthy breads.
ALL ABOUT GLUTEN, YOU NEED TO KNOW! 6. Corn / maize - Genetically modified or having pesticides, or toxin  could be another problem that may kill gut bacteria; 7. Guar gum 8. Millet 9. Pea flour 10. Potatoes or Potato flour - have starch and will create issues with people that have diabetes; 11. Quinoa 12. Sorghum also called as durra, jowari, or milo in some areas of the world. 13. Soy flour - Genetically modified or having pesticides could be another problem that may kill gut bacteria. 14. Teff is a fine grain about the size of a poppy seed in colors of white and red to dark brown. It is an ancient grain of Ethiopia and Eritrea and a staple food in that area. Foods listed here are not the comprehensive list of gluten free foods and may not be the staple foods in some parts of the world. CONCLUSION The information provided in this paper is to help you make your own decisions about what you put in your mouth. That is something you absolutely control, and that has direct correlation to many ailments that exist today within you or will flourish in the time to come. The essential nutrients for body are water, amino acids, essential fatty acids, vitamins, minerals, trace minerals and ultra-trace minerals. It is to be noted that carbohydrates are NOT a part of this list . There are 20 different amino acids  that your body needs for growth and to function properly. However, only nine of those twenty amino acids are classified as essential  and those are histidine, isoleucine, leucine, lysine, methionine, phenylalanine, threonine, tryptophan and valine. None of the wheat amino acids (proteins) are among the category of amino acids needed by the human body. So it is worth noting that you are not going to miss any nutrients if you eliminate wheat from your diet if it happens to be creating problems. According to Dr. Mark Hyman, MD, “This new modern wheat may look like wheat, but it is different in three
important ways that drives obesity, diabetes, heart disease, cancer, dementia and more” . He also states the three point that we have already concluded in this paper and Dr. Hyman lists the three reasons wheat should NOT to be consumed as… (direct quote from his blog site): #1 It contains a Super Starch amylopectin A that is super fattening. #2 It contains a form of Super Gluten that is super-inflammatory. #3 It contains forms of a Super Drug that is super-addictive and makes you crave and eat more. End quote. All the three points of Dr. Hyman, M.D., this paper also have logically concluded. Avoiding wheat, especially if it helps in improving your overall health is an outstanding strategy. The key question here is, are you aware of what is behind the health conditions you are facing. There is a possibility that knowledge gained from this paper may help you evaluate that question. Let us analyze this in greater details. WHAT IS GOOD HEALTH? Let us answer this question via a universal acceptable definition. In five words that would be “absence of bad health conditions” in layman’s terms. None of us can disagree to that statement. Doctors scientifically put this by the following five statements and if you answer any three of the below statements in affirmation, then you have a metabolic syndrome. 1. Wide abdominal area? (based upon your height, weight and Body Mass Index (BMI); 2. Fasting glucose is over 5.6 Hb-A1c (122 mg/dl or 6.8 mmol/l); 3. Blood pressure over 135/85 mm Hg; probably readers may not agree with this as it is not matching 2017 recommendation from American College of Cardiology  ; 4. Triglycerides over 1.7 mmol/L  or 200 mg/dl ; 5. HDL <= 1 mmol/L or <= 40 mg/dL; The higher the better; If any three out of five biomarkers positively answered as “yes”, then you have metabolic syndrome. Take this up with your doctor. If one or two are “yes”, then you are at the borderline. In either case you can work to
ALL ABOUT GLUTEN, YOU NEED TO KNOW! reverse the identified condition(s). What you need is knowledge and determination. So good health is the absence of disease and it could be accomplished by providing your body cells with building blocks, which are nutrients     that includes minerals, vitamins, essential amino acids and essential fatty acids and keeping your body away from the inflammatory foods. If this statement is understood and translated in practice in your life, many health conditions will simply cease to exist. Minerals, vitamins, essential amino acids and essential fatty acids are the building blocks for the chemical reactions in your cells. Todayâ€™s food does not have the same mineral and vitamin contents as it use to have back in the time. Moreover, the environment and toxicity today compared to hundred or thousand or ten thousand
years back is completely different. When the construction material in the body is in short supply for the cells to function properly, health problems starts to accumulate or when there is inflammation inside of your body. What you put in your mouth is absolutely in your control and will contribute to the problem or the process of resolution. If what you put in mouth is creating health issues, then it is your right to understand it and take necessary actions to change it.
This article was written and produced for DFSC LLC with an exclusive purpose to educate readers on the topic of wheat proteins. All the discussion points used are well referenced for additional reader analysis. All rights reserved!
ALL ABOUT GLUTEN, YOU NEED TO KNOW!
References  A. i. t. C. Foundation. [Online]. Available: http://www.cattle.ca/assets/Uploads/232d540861/ruminants.pdf.  "Ruminant Animals: Full List and Fun Facts," AnimalWised, 14 June 2018. [Online]. Available: https://www.animalwised.com/ruminant-animals-full-list-and-fun-facts-206.html. [Accessed 2 November 2019].  "Wheat Family Tree," EatWheat.org, [Online]. Available: https://eatwheat.org/learn/kinds-of-wheat/.  "Wheat - Gramineae, Poaceae, Triticum species," Purdue.edu, [Online]. Available: https://hort.purdue.edu/newcrop/Crops/Wheat.html.  en.wikipedia.org, "Einkorn wheat," en.wikipedia.org, [Online]. Available: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Einkorn_wheat. [Accessed 1 Nov 2019].  einkorn.com - Restoring Ancient Einkorn Farro, "The History Of Einkorn, Nature’s First And Oldest Wheat," einkorn.com - Restoring Ancient Einkorn Farro, 2011. [Online]. Available: https://www.einkorn.com/einkornhistory/. [Accessed 1 Nov 2019].  AncientGrains For morden Nutrition, "AncientGrains For morden Nutrition," AncientGrains, [Online]. Available: http://www.ancientgrains.com/einkorn-history-and-origin/. [Accessed 1 Nov 2019].  CAB International. CABI is a registered EU trademark. , "Triticum aestivum (Wheat)," CABI , [Online]. Available: https://www.cabi.org/isc/datasheet/55204. [Accessed 1 November 2019].  en.wikipedia.org, "[Help with translations!]," [Online]. Available: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Common_wheat. [Accessed 1 November 2019].  en.wikipedia.org, "Durum," en.wikipedia.org, [Online]. Available: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Durum. [Accessed 1 November 2019].  ECCO Verde, "Wheat Germ Oil - Triticum Vulgare (Wheat) Germ Oil, Triticum Vulgare," ECCO Verde, [Online]. Available: https://www.ecco-verde.com/info/ingredients/wheat-germ-oil-1. [Accessed 1 November 2019].  C. +. A. +. H. C. Dr. William Davis, "Wheat is NOT "genetically-modified"," www.wheatbellyblog.com, 14 Feb 2012 . [Online]. Available: https://www.wheatbellyblog.com/2012/02/wheat-is-not-genetically-modified/. [Accessed 1 Nov 2019].  The Noble Prize, "Norman Borlaug - Biographical," The Noble Prize, 1970. [Online]. Available: https://www.nobelprize.org/prizes/peace/1970/borlaug/biographical/. [Accessed 1 Nov 2019].  OLDWAYS WHOLE GRAINS COUNCIL, "Health Studies: KAMUT® Wheat vs. Modern Wheat," OLDWAYS WHOLE GRAINS COUNCIL, 20 Dec 2017. [Online]. Available: https://wholegrainscouncil.org/blog/2017/12/health-studies-kamut®-wheat-vs-modern-wheat. [Accessed 1 Nov 2019].
ALL ABOUT GLUTEN, YOU NEED TO KNOW!  en.wikipedia.org, "Wheat germ agglutinin," en.wikipedia.org, [Online]. Available: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wheat_germ_agglutinin. [Accessed 6 November 2019].  I. J. Goldstein Ph.D. and R. D. Poretz Ph.D., "Learn more about Wheat Germ Agglutinin," www.sciencedirect.com, 1997. [Online]. Available: https://www.sciencedirect.com/topics/biochemistry-geneticsand-molecular-biology/wheat-germ-agglutinin. [Accessed 1 Nov 2019].  F. MacRitchie and D. Lafiandra, Bakery Products: Science and Technology, Wiley, 1997.  T. B. (. B. Osborne, The Proteins of the Wheat Kernel (1907), Cornell University Library's print collections, 1907.  A. Fasano, MD and R. Gannon , Gluten Freedom, April: Wiley, 2014.  C. Catassi and A. Fasano, MD, From Ptolemaus to Copernicus: The Evolving System of Gluten-Related Disorder, MDPI, 2018.  A. Fasano, MD, A Clinical Guide to Gluten-Related Disorders, LWW, 2013.  "Skin Conditions:," skinsight, [Online]. Available: https://www.skinsight.com/search-results?q=skin+disease.  "Skin Disease and Skin Condition List," skinsight, [Online]. Available: https://www.skinsight.com/skin-conditions.  American Academy of Allergy Astma & Immunology, "Immunoglobulin E (IgE) Definition," American Academy of Allergy Astma & Immunology, [Online]. Available: https://www.aaaai.org/conditions-andtreatments/conditions-dictionary/immunoglobulin-e-(ige). [Accessed 1 Nov 2019].  KidsHealth, "Blood Test: Immunoglobulin E (IgE)," KidsHealth, [Online]. Available: https://kidshealth.org/en/parents/test-immunoglobulin-e.html. [Accessed 1 Nov 2019].  C. Canavan, J. West and T. Card, "The epidemiology of irritable bowel syndrome," ncbi.nlm.nih.gov, [Online]. Available: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3921083/. [Accessed 1 Nov 2019].  B. .. Cash, M.D., "Understanding and Managing IBS and CIC in the Primary Care Setting," ncbi.nlm.nih.gov, 14 May 2018. [Online]. Available: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6158925/. [Accessed 1 Nov 2019].  A. Spinelli, "https://link.springer.com/article/10.2165/00044011-200727010-00002," Clinical Drug Investigation, vol. 27, no. 1, pp. 15-33, 24 Aug 2007.  L. O. F. A. Teixeira, "Rheological Properties," in Food Physics, Springer Link, pp. 117-206.  L. O. F. A. Teixeira, "Food Physics - Physical Properties â€” Measurement and Applications," Springer Link, [Online]. Available: https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-540-34194-9_4.  I. J. Goldstein Ph.D. and R. D. Poretz Ph.D., "Learn more about Wheat Germ Agglutinin," 1997. [Online]. Available: https://www.sciencedirect.com/topics/biochemistry-genetics-and-molecular-biology/wheat-germagglutinin. [Accessed 6 November 2019].
ALL ABOUT GLUTEN, YOU NEED TO KNOW!  R. W. Bryant, C. A. M. Granzow, M. I. Siegel, E. W. E and M. M. Billah, "Wheat germ agglutinin and other selected lectins increase synthesis of decay-accelerating factor in human endothelial cells.," The Journal of Immunology, 15 Sept 1991. [Online]. Available: https://www.jimmunol.org/content/147/6/1856. [Accessed 1 Nov 2019].  www.sciencedaily.com, "Sleep deprivation may cause people to eat more calories," www.sciencedaily.com, 2 November 2016. [Online]. Available: https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2016/11/161102130724.htm. [Accessed 1 November 2019].  W. Dr Davis, M.D., Wheat Belly CookBook, Potter/Ten, p. 9.  A. K. Dr. K, "Tackle your wheat belly," The Pioneer, 15 Jan 2019. [Online]. Available: https://www.dailypioneer.com/2019/pioneer-health/tackle-your-wheat-belly.html. [Accessed 1 Nov 2019].  "What is Gluten?," PubMed.gov, [Online]. Available: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28244676. [Accessed 2 November 2019].  Harvard.edu, "Glycemic index for 60+ foods," Harvard.edu, 14 Mar 2018. [Online]. Available: https://www.health.harvard.edu/diseases-and-conditions/glycemic-index-and-glycemic-load-for-100-foods. [Accessed 1 Nov 2019].  Grains & Legumes Nutrition Council, "Glycemic Index (GI) of Grains," Grains & Legumes Nutrition Council, [Online]. Available: https://www.glnc.org.au/grains/grains-and-nutrition/glycemic-index-gi-of-grains/. [Accessed 1 Nov 2019].  en.wikipedia.org, "Cerebrovascular disease," en.wikipedia.org, [Online]. Available: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cerebrovascular_disease. [Accessed 1 Nov 2019].  J. Dr. Fung, M.D., The Diabetes Code: Prevent and Reverse Type 2 Diabetes Naturally, Rodale Books, 2018.  M. J. Dr. Fung, The Obesity Code: Unlocking the Secrets of Weight Loss, Rodale Books, 2016.  M. W. Dr. Davis, Wheat Belly: Lose the Wheat, Lose the Weight, and Find Your Path Back to Health, Rodale Books, 2014.  W. Dr. Davis, M.D., Undoctored: How You Can Seize Control of Your Health and Become Smarter Than Your Doctor, Collins, 2017.  sciencedirect.com, "prolamin," [Online]. Available: https://www.sciencedirect.com/topics/agricultural-andbiological-sciences/prolamin.  Grain & Legumes Nutrition Council, "Gluten in Grains," Grain & Legumes Nutrition Council, [Online]. Available: https://www.glnc.org.au/grains/allergies-intolerances/gluten-in-grains/. [Accessed 1 November 2019].  British Nutrition Foundation, "Arsenic in rice â€“ is it a cause for concern?," British Nutrition Foundation, 22 Feb 2017. [Online]. Available: https://www.nutrition.org.uk/nutritioninthenews/headlines/arsenicinrice.html. [Accessed 1 Nov 2019].
ALL ABOUT GLUTEN, YOU NEED TO KNOW!  " Anthony's Organic Psyllium Husk Powder, 1.5lb, Gluten Free, Non GMO, Finely Ground, Keto Friendly," 2 November 2019. [Online]. Available: https://www.amazon.com/Anthonys-Organic-Psyllium-Powder-NonGMO/dp/B06XXN9CTG/ref=sr_1_fkmr0_1.  T. Polansek and M. Hirtzer, "Toxin in U.S. corn harvest poses latest headache for farmers," 6 November 2018. [Online]. Available: https://www.reuters.com/article/us-usa-trade-corn/toxin-in-u-s-corn-harvest-poses-latestheadache-for-farmers-idUSKCN1NA2PJ. [Accessed 1 November 2019].  Eric C Westman, "Is dietary carbohydrate essential for human nutrition?," The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 75, no. 5, p. 951â€“953, 2002.  alevelbiology.co.uk, "Structure & Properties Of 20 Standard Amino Acids," alevelbiology.co.uk, [Online]. Available: https://alevelbiology.co.uk/notes/structure-properties-of-standard-amino-acids/. [Accessed 1 Nov 2019].  en.wikipedia.org, "Proteinogenic amino acid," en.wikipedia.org, 14 Sept 2019. [Online]. Available: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Proteinogenic_amino_acid. [Accessed 1 November 2019].  M. Mark Hyman, "Three Hidden Ways Wheat Makes You Fat," drhyman.com, [Online]. Available: https://drhyman.com/blog/2012/02/13/three-hidden-ways-wheat-makes-you-fat/. [Accessed 1 Nov 2019].  American College of Cardiology , "AHA 2017 | New High Blood Pressure Guidelines," American College of Cardiology , 13 Nov 2017. [Online]. Available: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rvYL-7ergDs. [Accessed 1 Nov 2019].  American College of Cardiology, "New ACC/AHA High Blood Pressure Guidelines Lower Definition of Hypertension," American College of Cardiology, 13 Nov 2017. [Online]. Available: https://www.acc.org/latest-incardiology/articles/2017/11/08/11/47/mon-5pm-bp-guideline-aha-2017. [Accessed 1 Nov 2019].  Health Navigator, New Zealand, "Triglycerides," Health Navigator, [Online]. Available: https://www.healthnavigator.org.nz/health-a-z/t/triglycerides/. [Accessed 1 Nov 2019].  clevelandclinic.org, "Triglycerides & Heart Health," clevelandclinic.org, [Online]. Available: https://my.clevelandclinic.org/health/articles/17583-triglycerides--heart-health. [Accessed 1 Nov 2019].  J. Dr Wallach, Dead Doctors Don't Lie.  J. D. Dr Wallach, ND, Hell's Kitchen.  J. D. Dr Wallach, M. Lan and G. Schrauzer, Epigenetics : The Death of the Genetic Theory of Disease Transmission.  J. D. Dr. Wallach and M. Lan, THE AGEBEATERS and Their Universal Currency for IMMORTALITY.  Lectins Demonstrate Variable Cytotoxic Activity Toward Different Cancers Figure 1 for graphs, "Wheat Germ Agglutinin as a Potential Therapeutic Agent for Leukemia," www.frontiersin.org, Feb 21 2019. [Online]. Available: https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fonc.2019.00100/full. [Accessed 6 Nvember 2019].
ALL ABOUT GLUTEN, YOU NEED TO KNOW!  L. Dr. William, M.D., Eat to Beat Disease: The New Science of How Your Body Can Heal Itself, Hachette Book Group, 2019.