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First printed in India 2013 @ NIFT New Delhi All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording or by any information storage and retrieval system without prior written permission from the copyright owners.

face “Threads of metal crafting their way through the lineage of skilled fingers� -RITU KUMAR


his is a study of a zardozi cluster in the city of Banaras. After visiting the city and interacting with the karigars, we have identified the major centres, techniques and processes which are the basis of this documentation. This work is part of a process which includes the identification of skilled artisans/ karigars in the context of their environment and skill, the pre-production process i.e. specifications of the materials and tools used, the structure, designs, techniques and technology used in the production process, post production process and marketing involved in the distribution of the final product and the secondary research on the craft. This medieval craft has a legacy dating back 500 years. The study attempts to reflect the changes in the craft, how zardozi has evolved over the years and how the skills of the artisans have been moulded to sustain it. The structure of the book has evolved over a number of drafts. We hope that the book will be useful in providing information about zardozi and in seeking the craftsmen when needed.



e as a team would like to thank National Institute of Fashion Technology, New Delhi for taking the initiative of the craft cluster project and giving us the opportunity to explore and learn about a new craft. Mr. Mohammad Ibrahim, Mr. Salaam Ahmed, Mr. Syed Majid Ali (Nasir Bhai) and Mrs. Anwari Khanam who took out time from their busy daily schedule and familiarized us with the craft. They gave us a lot of input about the history of the craft as well. We would also like to thank the entire faculty in the Textile Design Department at NIFT, New Delhi for giving us constant support and guidance throughout the period of the Craft cluster documentation. The humble people of the City of Varanasi have been very warm and welcoming.

ontent Introduction


History of Zardozi Centres

17 22

Varanasi Culture People Crafts

24 34 38 43

Zardozi of Varanasi Raw materials

46 50

Zari Process of Zari Imitation Zari Tools

53 56 66 70

Zardozi Process Motifs Products Profile Marketing Present Status Glossary Bibliography Credits

72 78 80 90 101 102



he significance of gold has been very evident in history. It is considered a symbol of royalty and affluence. India has long been known for zari or golden thread. Zardozi is one of the oldest and most beautiful styles of embroidery in India. The word zardozi means embroidery using gold thread (zari). Zar is gold and douzi is embroidery in Persian. It is practiced by the zardoz community which is primarily a muslim community. It is a pushtaini craft and has worked its way through generations of skilled workers.


Zardozi Buttons

Patch done using Vasli kaam 13

story of zardozi


Brocade skirt (lehnga) with zardozi border late 19th centur y, Banaras.

story of zardozi


arious versions of cloth/ garments made out of or ornamented with gold find reference in the vedic literature and the epics of Ramayana and Mahabhatata. It is believed that the royal courts wore fine clothing embroidered with gold and silver and studded with precious stones. Some stories refer to golden turbans worn by kings. Fabric ornamented with gold and silver displays opulence evoking historical splendor. Indications of similar work can be found in the Ajanta cave paintings. These paintings depict men and women wearing garments heavily embroidered in gold. In spite of repeated mention of numerous forms of gold embroidery at several places in early history, absence of documented records leads us to believe zardozi was a minor craft back then. However, definitive evidence and documented references are found after the advent of the Sultanate rule in India. Detailed records of Ibn Battuta and Amir Khusro, who travelled through India during the Sultanate period, describe the opulence of gold and silver embroidery and the use if precious stones during this period.


Zardozi embroidery flourished during the Mughal rule since it is believed to have been brought to India as a legacy from Persia. References to such work are found in the detailed accounts of Ain-i-Akbari, Tuzuk-i-Jahangiri and the likes. Miniature paintings from this period provide a vivid picture of the zardozi work prevalent during this era. It was used to embellish royal attires, furnishings, trappings, parasols, and wall hangings. Over time, zardozi has evolved in terms of designs, techniques and material used, to adapt to the dynamic demand for it.It has established its roots in indian culture.

Brocade jacket done in zardozi 19th centur y, Banaras.


Detailed Zardozi armlet

Zardozi necklace

Zardozi embellished crown 21



he traditional art of Zardozi embroidery is practised in many parts of India like Jaipur, Agra, Hyderabad, Ajmer, Mumbai, Delhi, Paithan, Lucknow, Patna, Bareilly, Bhopal, Tiruchirapalli, Madras and Bangalore. However Surat is the biggest centre of manufacturing zari, followed by Varanasi. The centres which specialise in zardozi are Agra, Lucknow, Bareilley, Bhopal, Delhi, Jaipur, Hyderabad and Patna.

CENTERS OF ZARDOZI Jammu & Kashmir Delhi Agra Farrukahbad Lucknow Varanasi Kolkatta Hyderabad



“It is the Oxford & Mecca of Hinduism” - Charles Phillips Cape



aranasi, also known as Kashi, dates back to 2500 years, making it the oldest inhabited city in the world. Its name is derived from two tributaries of the holy river Ganges, Varuna which flows through the city and Assi, a stream near assi ghat. By virtue of being situated on the banks of Ganga, the city is also regarded as the place of attainment of nirvana (moksh) and salvation from the cycle of birth and death. It is known as the abode of Lord Shiva and Parvati and has many temples devoted to them. Varanasi finds mention in the epics of Mahabharata and Ramayana and figures prominently in Buddhist scriptures as well.

The sacred city is home to eighty ghats such as, Dasaswemedh, Manikarnika, Assi, tulsi, Kedar etc. each having its own significance. These are round the year abuzz with devotees taking a dip in the river or performing rites and rituals. Varanasi is famous as not only a place of ardent worship and rich cultural legacy but also as a major textile manufacturer of Benarasi Silk Saris. The city has produced master craftsmen and artists who have earned name and fame for their skills in textiles, handicrafts, music, and literature.


Activities on and around Ganga ghats


Varanasi - The City of temples

A devotee lights a leaf diya to set afloat on the River Ganga

The gate way to temple 31





ashi is a city of spiritual enlightenment. It is the most sacred place of pilgrimage for the Hindus. They believe that those who die here gain instant salvation and attain nirvana. People from all over the world visit Banaras to experience the divine lifestyle and believes of the city. A lot of activities in the city revolve around river Ganga. Their rituals include bathing in the river, which is believed to free a person from his sins. Evenings are filled with enthusiasm and chaos as crowds gather at the ghats in huge numbers to attend the Ganga arti dedicated to the river. Varanasi is known as a place for performing the last rites after death. There is always, at all times of the day, a body burning on the ghats. It has been a centre for knowledge and learning since ancient times. Varanasi has many universities, college, schools, Madarsas and Pathshalas. Education is of prime importance here. Banaras Hindu University is famous throughout the world for its scholars. Apart from being a religious hub, the city of Benaras is also associated with a rich tradition of music, drama and entertainment. Varanasi is home to various classical musicians and their music styles, known as Gharanas are an intricate part of the culture. It is also famous for its paan, chaat, lassi and thandai.


A devotee lights a diya on the ghat of River Ganga


A devotee praying 37



n Banaras, people are seen praying, eating paan, drinking lassi and thandai, sipping tea, eating chaat, boating and bathing in the river, playing cricket on the ghats, chatting with others, performing the last rites, and relaxing. The city has a small town charm.



Wooden craft



ince time immemorial, Varanasi has stood strong as a leading centre of the finest Indian handicrafts owning to the skill and expertise of its artisans.

Silk weaving is the most renowned craft. Handwoven Benarasi saris produced by local craftsmen are popular all over the world. Besides the famous Benarasi sari other crafts practiced in Varanasi are:

▪▪Brassware ▪▪Copperware ▪▪Ivory work ▪▪Cane & bamboo ▪▪Carpets ▪▪Folk painting ▪▪Horn & bone ▪▪Rugs & durries ▪▪Printed & emroidered textiles ▪▪Glass bangles ▪▪Wood carving ▪▪Stone & clay toys ▪▪Exquisite gold jewellery ▪▪Zari work


Brass work

Ari work

Brocade weaving 45

ardozi of varanasi


he beautiful & royal craft of Zardozi has been a part of the oldest living city of the world for over 100 years. About 300 families across Benaras have zardozi as their livelihood. It is an ancestral craft coming down generations. More than work it is a tradition. The work is primarily done for export to countries like USA, UK, Malaysia and Japan. The local market can’t afford to pay their prices. They barely scrape through even on exports since their wages are very low. Depending on the type of zari used, zardozi work can be either sacha kaam, nakli kaam, plastic kaam or rangeen kaam. The artisans (zardoz) are predominantly from the muslim community and the buyers are usually from the hindu community. Both the artisans and buyers have an interdependent relationship. The workers are introduced into the craft at a very young age. Along with their schooling, they are trained and taught how to do zardozi by their fathers or uncles, usually family members who are already practicing it. Only the male members of a family actually do the embroidery. They do educate the women, but prefer them to look after the house. “kaam karna majburi hai� . They are forced to practice zardozi to earn a living. Very few karigars still do it out of passion. The centers for the Zardozi embroidery in Varanasi are Aurangabad, Cholapur, Koyla Bazaar, NaiBasti and Shivala. These are all small colonies where everyone knows each other and people work and live in unison. Even though there is competition among the artisans, they still do their own work in peace.There is a union of karigars comprising of artisans from Koyla Bazaar, Shivala and Aurangabad. It used to consist of 1000 artisans but now only 200 are left.

Lion motif done in zardozi 47




koyala bazar






old kashi temple






main roads monuments water body




manikarnika ghat








zardozi region

T O WA R D S B . H . U .


aw material

▪▪Badla- flat wire ▪▪Kora- spring wire ▪▪Dabka or bullian ▪▪Khar ▪▪Gokhru(not done anymore)



and silver have been used for decorative work from ancient times because of G old their material properties of malleability and ductility. This means they can be beaten and flattened into sheets as well as drawn into long wires. A single ounce of gold can be drawn into a wire 1250 miles long. Silver is less ductile. One ounce of silver can be drawn up to 8,000 ft.

First the silver block is melted and converted into a rod of about 1.5 inches in diameter. This is then rolled into a wire. This is further passed through different sizes of dyes where the diameter is progressively decreased. A dye is a cylindrical tool with holes used to draw wires to make them thinner. Its shape is triangular from one side and flat from the other. When the metal needs to be sliced away from the wire it is inserted from the flat side and if the wire needs to be made thinner, it is inserted from the ‘V’ side. At one point the wire cannot be drawn further as the metal bars trap air bubbles which get transferred to wires and obstruct it. To overcome this, wire is passed with pressure through ‘janti’, a perforated metal plate. The holes are of gradually decrease in size, each hole tapering slightly in its passage through the plate. The obstruction comes out as scrap metal when passed through janti. About 15%-20% metal gets shaved off from one kg of silver. This metal remelted and used again. The resultant fine wire is then flattened by passing it through rollers. The flattened wire is then wound on the core thread to form zari.


Zari is a Persian name which means yellow. It is also known as kalabattu where kala means ‘art’ and battu means ‘to wrap’. The main zari manufacturing centers in India are Surat and Banaras. Gold has always been more expensive than silver. So instead of making a wire entirely out of gold, silver was converted into a rod and 20% gold was fused onto the wire. This was then drawn into a wire using janti. In the olden days, cow dung was burnt under silver wire and then dipped in a haldi (turmeric) solution. This is how zari was made without gold. In 1935, Sellac zari (powder zari) was introduced. Sellac was dissolved in spirit with yellow color and the hank was passed through it. The spirit evaporate leaving behind the yellow color on the hank. In the 1960s, when gold and silver became too expensive, they were substituted with copper. After the industrial revolution, once electroplating was introduced, the other methods were no longer used. In 1962, Japan introduced plastic zari (Lurex zari). In this aluminum is coated on plastic sheets and different colors are given using sellac. The ultramodern method of manufacturing zari is only practiced in Japan and China in which the silver is vaporized on plastic sheets. The identification of plastic zari can be done by untwisting the metallic end, dividing the plastic and pulling it. If it is plastic, it will stretch and if it is metal, it will break. It can also be identified by a burning test. When burnt, plastic will melt, copper will leave a black residue and silver will leave a silver residue


cess of zari


irstly the bar is drawn or turned into thick rod with help of rollers. Then the rod is further passed through different size of dyes to compose it into fine wires. At one point the wire cannot be drawn further as the metal bars trap air bubbles which get transferred to wires and become obstruction while drawing the wire. To overcome this, wire is passed through janti with pressure. The obstruction comes out as pared metal when passed through janti. The fine wire is then flattened by passing it through rollers. The flattened wire is then wounded on the core thread with wrapping machine and finally the thread is prepared into hanks and spools.


melting Silver bars/rods

drawing Thick wires

drawing Thin wires

flattening Flat wires

winding Core thread

wraping Hanks

electroplating Zari


Vessel used to melt silver

Dyes used to convert the rods into thin wires

Janthi 59

Melting of silver


Bar/Rod obtained after melting of silver

Silver rods being converted into thick wires 63

Thick wire is drawn into fine wires using wire drawing machine

The flattened wire wounded on the core thread with wrapping machine and finally prepared into hanks and spools 65

mitation zari


fine copper thread about 25 microns thick is drawn from copper rods, which is wound on bobbins for further process. These wounded threads are rolled into rollers for further process of electroplating. The rollers are passed through gold electroplating bath with desired voltage and current to plate the threads with desired plating thickness. These gold plated threads are called Zari threads. These threads are finally rolled, separated into hanks and packed for further use.


Process of electroplating where in Silver wire is passed through dichromite solution containg chromium salt




he karchob is a wooden frame made from hard woods like sheesham. It looks like a charpai, with two vertical beams called farad and horizontal beams called shamsher. The farad is used for rolling the cloth if need be and the shamsher is used for tightening it. This frame is placed on stands called tipai.The other tools used are needle,scissor, tweezer, needle, fatila(to wrap fine golden wire) and angustana (to protect fingers from cuts while working).


Scissor and angusthana





ardozi process the design is drawn on a tracing paper and perforated with a needle. These First tracings are called khakhas. They are kept for many years and the zardoz still

use khakhas which were made 30-40 years back. During the Mughal era, nakkash, the artists, used to make the khakhas. However, now the zardoz draw the designs themselves. The fabrics on which zardozi embroidery is done are velvet, satin, silk, mashru, muslin, net and georgette. The cloth is stretched out on the karchob. The design is transferred onto the cloth by smearing a solution over the khakha when it is placed on the cloth. An impression is formed on the base when the solution passes through the holes. The solutions used are khadiya (white), geru (red), neel (indigo), kajal (black) mixed with mitti ka tel (kerosene oil), depending on the colour of the cloth. The oil evaporates leaving behind a pattern. The design is then filled using the various forms of zari. Dabka, badla, kora and bulyan, which are cut in small pieces and the kalabattu is wrapped around the fatila. These are then stitched and couched onto the fabric. Beads and stones are added to enhance the design.

Another technique known as wasli kaam is used to give an embossed effect in the desired areas. This can be achieved in a few different ways. After the design is traced onto the fabric, pieces of bukram, wood or fibre board are pasted on the areas where the raised effect is required. For very intricate work which requires such an embossed effect, regular cotton thread is couched in the area until the desired rise is achieved. Once the desired effect is obtained, the area is covered with zari/kalabattu. In zardozi thread is used only as a binding element to keep the metal pieces and embellishments in place. Unlike other forms of embroidery that are based on various kinds of stitches, zardozi involves a distinctive style of couching and stitching metallic embellishments onto the fabric. Thread is only used as a binding medium. This work has a three dimensional aspect to it and looks more like applique than embroidery. Hence, it may also be called metal applique.


Impression of the motif is formed on the cloth when the design is perforated/outline of the embroidery

The oil evaporates leaving behind a pattern


The design is then filled 77



roducts like badges, patches and banners have definitive designs which have to be replicated to perfection. For the badges, motifs used are logos of the army, navy and air force and of the various schools, universities and other institutions which commission them. These are a blend of natural and geometrical forms like swords, eagles, coat of arms etc. The patches and royal robes depict the life of Christ. The themes are biblical with saints, Christ, and symbols of Christianity. Some forms of zardozi also depict Hindu gods and goddesses. Other products have floral patterns inspired from nature. There are motifs like paisleys, bels, animals and birds. The zardoz draw the designs according to their understanding of art and trends. most designs are given to the artists by the buyers through middlemen.




ardozi karigars in Varanasi are known for embroidered badges and ceremonial robes. This business has been going on since the British raj. These badges are commissioned by the army, navy and air force of India as well as other countries and sometimes they are made for local schools and universities. The ceremonial robes and patches are commissioned by the European Catholic clergy. Up to 50 years back, badges were even made for the European royalty. The designs are given to the artisans by the middlemen who get them from the buyers.The addas used while the embroidery is done are small, one man wooden frames. The fabric used is either felt, velvet or heavy satin. Such work is a combination of both ari and zardozi embroidery. Some areas are first padded with cloth and covered before the embellishments to give them a raised, embossed effect. Since the artisans have to reproduce the logos/symbols to precision, making zardozi badges is a painstaking process. Only very experienced craftsmen can practice this technique. Some artisans in Banaras have modified zardozi to make three dimensional figures. These innovative designs are made for temples and various religious institutions across India. They are either compositions of Idols and symbolic animals or depictions of religious buildings and landscapes. The design is traced onto the fabric. This is then painstakingly filled with layers of regular cotton thread until the desired rise for that area is achieved. For large areas bits of foam are stuck and then covered with thread. This thread becomes the base for the metal embroidery to be done. The different forms of metal embellishments are added to give texture. The figures are further enhanced with details painted using kajal and with beads and stones. Other zardozi products manufactured in Banaras include embroidered garlands, cushion covers, bags and wall hangings. Sometimes garments like lehenga cholis and shervanis are made but only if a direct order is received.

wasli work 81

Three dimensional zardozi wallhanging 83

Zardozi cushion covers


Zardozi Badges




Syed Majid Ali


yed Majid Ali (Nasir Bhai), is a skilled zardozi artist practicing this craft for 30 years along with his two brothers in Varanasi at their unit ‘New Golden Embroidery Works’. The karkhana, established by his grandfather, is about 150-200 years old. He makes products only to order. To get the orders he makes some samples and distributes them. Depending on the scale of the order, he employs the number of karigars required to finish the work on time. They put in 12 hours of work each day. Nasir Bhai and his brothers are trying to pass on the legacy to their children. However, they no longer want to be associated with this business since in today’s day and age machine embroidery is rapidly replacing manual labour. According to Nasir Bhai this craft has a bleak future. He is one of the few crafsmen who are still doing zardozi out of passion. The products made here are lehenga-cholis, saris, badges, cushions, bags and wall hangings. Time taken to complete a piece varies as per the product and design. Apparels such as heavy lehenga-cholis and saris for occasions would take a month or more depending on the intricacy of the design. Whereas, products such as cushion covers usually take 8 hours to embroider.


Gulzar Khan


ulzar khan is a zardozi artist and is part of the artisans union in Benaras. He inherited a badge making unit from his father. He has modified the art of badge making to make three dimensional, embroidered forms of idols, animals and landscapes. He has one brother in Qwait and two in Mumbai doing similar work. Initially Gulzar bhai made samples and distributed them but now he only makes them on order. His products are sold in Gujarat and are marketed through buyers in Mumbai. All the raw materials are supplied by these buyers.His kids are not expected to work in the same line since he feels this is a dying art. According to the union, the wages are set at Rs. 300 for 10 hours of labour.


Sayeed Alim Hussain Naquvi


ayeed Alim Hussain Naquvi is a zardozi artist in Aurangabad, Benaras. He is the head craftsman out of a group of eight workers. They are Ashfaq Ahmad, Farzand Ali, Mohd. Aslam, Abid Hussain, Ryaz Ahmed, Mumtaz Ahmed and Jauheed Ahmed. These artists are all part of the artisans’ union. Sunnay bhai’s unit manufactures elaborate badges that adorn royal garments and those of the papacy. These are exported to Europe. They do no work for the local market. These badges are very different from the popular kind made in Benaras. They are made using a distinctive technique called wasli kaam. In this, once the design is traced, carved pieces of soft wood or fibre board are pasted in the areas where a raised effect is required. This is then covered with metal wire.


Salaam Ahmad


alaam Bhai is an entrepreneur in the business of products embellished with zardozi embroidery. His establishment is 30 years old. The products made here include cushions, bed covers, belts, sarees, kurtas, badges, accessories like zardozi buttons, hair bands, and jewelry like necklaces and earings. These are primarily manufactured for export. The embroidery designs are made by his daughter, Kashika Khan. They source their raw materials from Delhi and Mumbai. They use only copper wire zari and no plastic. Kashika’s designs are inspired from nature and are influenced by her aesthetic understanding. She regularly changes the designs, colours and styles of the products to keep up with the trends. The maximum demand for their products is during October to March. Their karkhana is open 8 hours a day, 7 days a week. They are very happy with their work and get good prices for their products. Salaam bhai believes that they are successful even in this harsh market because they have introduced contemporary products of zardozi.


Anwari Khanam


nwari Khanam (Nanhi Begum) is Salaam bhai’s mother-in-law. She is one of the few female zardozi artisans in Benaras. She learnt the craft in her father’s workshop at the age of 9 years. She practices zardozi out of passion and love for it. She makes badges and small motifs for Salaam bhai. Zardozi, for her, is a way to pass time.









he products are mostly marketed by middlemen. They act as mediators between the buyers and workers. They get the order from the buyers and provide the workers with all the raw materials. Most units only survive because of this system since they themselves don’t have enough working capital to invest in the raw materials and they can neither find big buyers using their own resources. However, the middlemen tend to keep most of the profit with themselves which in turn means the artisans themselves don’t earn much. A lot of craftsmen are trying to break this vicious cycle but they are unaware of the opportunities available. Those artisans who have tried to branch out of the traditional products, colors, techniques and materials are more successful. There is a better customer base for such things since they are cheaper and keep up with trends.


sent status


aranasi boasts of being the centre of handloom weaving and embroidery in India. However, in the past few years’ cheaper, machine made imitations have caused a reduction in demand for handloom and handmade products. This has greatly impacted the artisans in Varanasi and forced them to stop the traditional crafts and pursue other livelihood options. There were over 2000 karigars in Varanasi practicing the craft of zardozi and the number has come down to under 300 now. Upasana, a design firm in Auroville, started a project called ‘Varanasi Weavers’ to help revive the dying handloom industry in this city. Under this, in 2009-2010, approximately 150 women were trained to make hand embroidered zardozi buttons and brooches. The products were designed to be contemporary in bright colours. These buttons and brooches did very well and the women progressed to a higher level of craftsmanship. Varanasi Weavers has provided a much need boost to the zardozi community in Benaras. Now, the workers do not want to teach their children this craft and instead would rather educate them so that they have something else, other than embroidery as their bread and butter. The artisans also feel that there are no returns to the amount of work they do, as they have very low wages. Since most of the artisans have large families and the female members are not encouraged to work, they barely make enough to feed them.

Most zardozi craftsmen and businesses are only manufacturing products (badges) for export since locals can’t afford to pay for the work. Barely any work is being done on garments in Benaras and the focus had shifted more to contemporary products like cushion covers, wall hangings and idols. The market has deteriorated but hasn’t vanished. The grandeur of gold and silver threads that once encrusted royal fabrics has been degraded and replaced by plastic. This craft, thrived primarily in the royal and affluent strata of society, has been transformed and modified so as to be made accessible to everyone.




Adda/ karchob Ain-i-Akbari Badla Bukram Charpai Chaat Dabka Fatila Geru Ghats Gijai Ibn Bututta Kajal Kalabattu Karchob Karchobi Karigar Khadiya Khakha Kora Lehenga-choli Madarsa Nakli kaam Nakkash

Zari embroidery frame cloth is on which fabric is stretched. Constitution of Akbar Thick metallic flat wire. Stiff cotton cloth used as lining. Indian bed with four legs. Indian street food Shiny coiled wire. Wooden tool used for wrapping the stretched dabka earthy red colour. Steps leading to banks of the river A thin stiff circular wire used for embroidery. A Moroccan-Muslim explorer and scholar Kohl. Silk thread braided with zari thread. Zari embroidery frame cloth is on which fabric is stretched. Zari embroidery done on velvet or heavy satin. Wage workers. chalk powder. The blueprints. A coiled wire with less lustre. An Indian outfit. Muslim school Embroidery done with copper electroplated zari artists who prepares khakhas.

Nakshi Namaz Nirvana Paan Paathshala Plastic kaam Pushtaini Ramayana and Mahabharata Rangeenkaam Sachakaam Saree Sitara Sona Sonechandi Ka taar Tuzuk-i-Jahangiri

Slightly thicker wire then dabka. Act of worship by Muslims. State of being free from suffering Betel leaf School Embroidery done withlurexzari Inherited Hindu epics Embroidery done with coloured zari Embroidery done with real gold/silver zari An Indian outfit. A small shining piece like a star. Copper electroplated with chemical gold. Gold and silver wire. Autobiographu of Mughal Emperor Jahangir



Saraf, D.N. Indian Crafts: Development and Potential, Vikas Publishers, New Delhi, 1982 Gupta, Charu Smita Glittering Gold Embroidery, Abhinav Publications, New Delhi, 1996 Banaras Sarnath, Roli books, 1998 Ranjan, Aditi and ranjan, M.P. Handmade in India, Mapin Publishing, 2007 Mahajan, Jagmohan The Ganga Trail: Foriegn Accounts And Sketches Of The River Scene, Clarion Books, New Delhi, 1984

Mohd. Ibrahim 09235534766 Firoz Khan B-3/360, Shivala Varanasi, India Salaam Ahmed LauhotiaChauraha GolGhar Varanasi, India 9795388161 Kashika Khan Syed Majid Ali (NasirBhai) New Golden Embroidery Works B-3/122, Shivala Varanasi, India Contact: 08127211226 Gulzarbhai Bahadurpur Naibasti Varanasi 9369253783 Mr.IrfanAlam09450977939 Shastrinagar Varanasi Other craftsmen:Javed Ali Mohd.Shamin Waqeel Ahmed Mohammad Ishtayar Khan A 25/43B Shivala Varanasi 8799044342

SayeedAlimHussainNaquvi (SannayBhai) 07505779713 C 14/46 Aurangabad Sarai Uttar Phatak Varanasi Ashfaq Ahmad Mumtaz Ahmed Jauheed Ahmed Mohd.Aslam AbidHussain Ryaz Ahmed Farzand Ali 7499121971 D-39/25, Naisadak, Thana Dhashwamedh, Varanasi Dr.SalitaAbdi Contact: 09304490680 JasminderKaur Assist. Professor, Banaras Hindu University 9450016939 Dr.AnjamChakravarty Contact: 09839979525 AdilNafiz B 3/358 8127211226 Shyam Sunder Jaiswal 09453040796 Dr.Niraj Kumar Pandey Assistant director, JnanaPravaha 9415991998



Udhayadhana Singh Arulselvan Harshita Ashok Agarwal

Mrigya Sharma

Utkarsh Anand

Archana Lakra Aditi Varshnei Mahima Bhatia


Varanasi Zardozi  

COPYRIGHT: National Institute of Fashion Technology, New Delhi. CREDITS: Layout & Graphics: U.Arul selvan Photography: Mahima Bhatia, Archa...

Varanasi Zardozi  

COPYRIGHT: National Institute of Fashion Technology, New Delhi. CREDITS: Layout & Graphics: U.Arul selvan Photography: Mahima Bhatia, Archa...