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NMP EXPERT ADVISORY GROUP (EAG) POSITION PAPER ON FUTURE RTD ACTIVITIES OF NMP FOR THE PERIOD 2010 – 2015 November 2009

EUR 24179 EN


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EUROPEAN COMMISSION

NMP EXPERT ADVISORY GROUP (EAG) POSITION PAPER ON FUTURE RTD ACTIVITIES OF NMP FOR THE PERIOD 2010 – 2015

Editor: Costas Kiparissides

November 2009

2009

Directorate-General for Research, Industrial Technologies

EUR 24179 EN


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Preface

In accordance to the minutes of the EAG meeting of November 3rd, 2008, it was agreed that four working groups be appointed to prepare a position paper describing future research and technological directions of the NMP programme for the period (2010-2015). The nominated EAG members in the four working groups were: Economic Impact sub-group: K. Sommer (chair), L. Baldi, E. Hulicius, C. Moitier, F. Mudry, T. Wilkins Nano sub-group: Materials sub-group:

Production sub-group:

C. Kiparissides (chair), B. Clausen, L. Boehm, T. Wilkins, M. Kellermayer, M.I. Baraton, K. Hossain D. Mihailovic (chair), M.I. Baraton, L. Boehm, C. Taliani, C. Moitier, K. Hossain, J.E. Sundgren, L. Baldi, H. Van Swygenhoven-Moens, S. Tretyakov, F. Mudry, J.M. Tarascon, H. Hofstraat J.G. Neugebauer (chair), T. Wilkins, D. Goericke, L. Baldi, J. Rodriguez.

The primary objectives of the report were: 1. To identify the necessary research and technological initiatives to be undertaken by the NMP programme in order to support the European Industry, by creating new products/services and production paradigms, so Europe can maintain its competiveness and leading position in a knowledge-driven global economy. 2. To define the “breadth” of the NMP programme’s “core business” by maintaining an optimal balance between “industrial” applications and “breakthrough” research developments. 3. To undertake research and technological initiatives in response to humanity’s “Grand Challenges”, described in the declaration of Lund, namely, Global Warming, Tightening Supplies of Energy, Water and Food, Ageing Societies, Public Health, Pandemics and Security. The overarching challenge to be tackled being that of turning Europe into an eco-efficient economy. It was also agreed that the position paper addresses the relevant issues: • Present state-of-the-art in Europe and in the world in the respective NMP fields. • Required

fundamental research priorities in relation to the development of “breakthrough” technologies in NMP.

• Present research directions described in the most relevant ETPs. • Identification of the required advancements in selected industrial sectors. • Identification of possible synergies with other thematic priorities of the seventh

framework programme. • Expected impact (if possible, quantify the impact of the research and technological

activities in relation to an industrial sector, societal/economic impact, etc.) i


MEMBERS OF THE EXPERT ADVISORY GROUP (EAG) OF NMP (NANO, MATERIALS, PRODUCTION) PROGRAMME NAME

FIRST NAME Country

Organisation

Position

WILKINS (Chair)

Terence

UK

Nanomanufacturing Institute, Univ. of Leeds

CEO of Nanotechnology Institute

MUDRY (Vice-Chair)

François

FR

ARCELOR Research

Scientific Director

AITKEN

Rob

UK

IOM - Institute of Occupational Medicine

Director of Consulting

BALDI

Livio

IT

NUMONYX

External Relations and Funding Senior Director

BARATON

MarieIsabelle

FR

University of Limoges & CNRS

Senior Scientist

BOEHM

Leah

IL

IAI - Israel Aerospace Industry

Chief Scientist

CLAUSEN

Bjerne

DK

HALDOR TOPSOE

Executive Vice President

GOERICKE

Dietmar

DE

VDMA

Managing Director RTD

HOFSTRAAT

Hans

NL

PHILIPS Research

Vice President

HOSSAIN

Kamal

UK

NPL / VAMAS / EURAMET

Director S&T UK Nat'l Phys Lab

HULICIUS

Eduard

CZ

Institute of Physics, Sciences

KELLERMAYER

Miklόs

HU

SEMMELWEIS University, Medicine

KIPARISSIDES

Costas

GR

Aristotle University of Thessaloniki & Centre for Research and Technology Hellas

Professor / Director

MELIA

Jennifer

IE

ENTERPRISE IRELAND

Manager of Research & Technology Programmes

MIHAILOVIC

Dragan

SL

Jozef Stefan Institute, Ljubljana

Department Head

MOITIER

Carine

BE

Douelou N.V. - BIVOLINO.com

CEO & Co-Founder

NEUGEBAUER

Jens-Günter

DE

FRAUNHOFER

Director, EC Policy

PRESAS

Teresa

PT

CEPI

Director

RODRIGUEZ

Jesús

ES

DRAGADOS

RTD Project Coordinator

SOMMER

Klaus

DE

BAYER Technology Services GmbH

Senior VP Head Business Management

SUNDGREN

Jan-Eric

SE

VOLVO Group

Senior Vice President

TALIANI

Carlo

IT

Institute Molecular Spectroscopy - Bologna

Lab Director

TARASCON

Jean-Marie

FR

Lab React. Chimie Solides - CNRS Univ. de Picardie

Professor

TRETYAKOV

Sergei

FI

Dept. Radio Science & Eng. Helsinki Univ. of Technology

Professor

BE

Paul Scherrer Institut - CH Institute Materials Science

Professor

European Commission, Industrial Technologies, DG RTD / G-1

Secretary of the EAG

VAN SWYGENHOVEN Helena

ANASTASIOU

Ioannis

Academy of Faculty of

Assoc. Professor Professor

ii


Introductory Note

T

he NMP Expert Advisory Group (EAG) is composed of 25 Experts of the various RTD

domains of the NMP research programme. They belong to different types of organisations (Industry-various industrial sectors, Academia, Research Centres) coming from 17 countries. However, they do not represent their organisation or their country, since they participate as independent Experts. The objective of the EAG has been a thorough strategic thinking on NMP RTD areas and the generation of a position paper as an input for the needs of future RTD priority setting within the NMP programme. The EAG had several plenary and specific working meetings in Brussels, and had organised its activities through several working sub-groups. The present EAG report is the result of this work. Its importance for NMP, beyond its thorough character and its origin from external independent Experts, lies in its usefulness as one of the key elements to better judge and shape long-term and also shorter-term NMP policies and to defend strategic decisions. It represents a very valuable and traceable source of state-of-the-art research and technological priorities in the NMP RTD areas and of the European challenges in relevant fields. Its elements will carefully be blended and integrated by the NMP Programme along with the rest of the Commission's criteria and information sources for its strategic thinking. The impact of the EAG report is expected to be even higher due to its timely finalisation taking into account the current (end 2009) convergence of several major driving forces: (a) the beginning of a new Commission, (b) the importance of the recent re-structuring of NMP activities after the introduction of the new scheme of the EC recovery package (Public-Private Partnerships–PPPs), (c) the new Nanotechnologies Action Plan, where the regulatory dimension (concerns on impacts on health, safety, etc.) increases, as Nano technologies move closer to applications, (d) the beginning of the preparation for the 2011 work programme, expected by April 2010, (e) the NMP strategic thinking and priority setting for the rest of FP7 (2011-13). The NMP Programme is grateful to all EAG Members for their time and dedication throughout this exercise and for the quality of their work. Special thanks are addressed to the main contributors of the report: Professor C. Kiparissides (Editor of the report), T. Wilkins (Chair of the EAG), Professor D. Mihailovic, Dr. J. Neugebauer, Dr. Sommer for the key role they have played and the energy they have put into the elaboration and finalisation of the report. Herbert von Bose Director DG RTD Directorate G - Industrial Technologies iii


FUTURE R&D DIRECTIONS OF NMP PROGRAMME FOR THE PERIOD 2010-2015 TABLE OF CONTENTS Preface.....................................................................................................................i Members of the Expert Advisory Group (EAG) of the NMP Programme…………..ii Introductory Note………………………………………………………………………...iii Table of Contents………………………………………………………………………..iv Executive Summary........................................................................................... vii 1.

Fostering a Competitive and Dynamic Public-Private Environment... 1

1.1

Improving Europeans' Lives and Opportunities through the NMP Programme................................................................................................. 1

1.2

Fostering the Knowledge, People and Business Advantages ................... 2

1.3

Encouranging Public-Private Partnerships…………………………………...2

1.4

Making Europe a World Leader in NMP Related Industries ...................... 2

2.

Economic Impact of NMP ........................................................................ 5

2.1

Introduction................................................................................................. 5

2.2

External Economic Analysis....................................................................... 6

2.2.1

EU RTD Competitiveness .........................................................................................6

2.2.2

Value-added ..............................................................................................................7

2.2.3

Intellectual Property...................................................................................................8

2.2.4

Comparative Global Investment in Nanotechnology ...............................................11

2.2.5

Global Investment in Materials and Production Technologies ................................13

2.2.6

Likely Forward Trends.............................................................................................15

2.2.7

Pool of S&T Researchers in Manufacturing ...........................................................15

2.2.8

Role of NMP in International Cooperation...............................................................17

2.3

Internal Impact of Global Economic Change on NMP Operations........... 17

2.3.1

Overview of the Challenges ....................................................................................17

2.3.2

Impact of Current Global Economic Situation .........................................................17

2.3.3

EU Recovery Plan ...................................................................................................19

2.3.4

Impact of EU Recovery Plan on NMP Budget Deployment for 2010-2013 .............19

iv


2.4

Lead Market Analysis .............................................................................. 20

2.4.1

Scope ......................................................................................................................20

2.4.2

Source Material Used..............................................................................................21

2.4.3

Portfolio Overall Analysis – a First Glance ..............................................................22

2.4.4

Analysis of Individual Market Segments..................................................................22

2.5

Conclusions and Priorities for Research Direction................................... 29

2.5.1

Conclusions from the External Economic Analysis .................................................29

2.5.2

NMP Priorities 2010-2015 Derived from the Internal Economic Analysis ...............30

2.5.3

NMP Priorities Derived from the Lead Market Analysis .........................................30

3.

Nanoscience and Nanotechnology ...................................................... 31

3.1

Present State-of-the-Art ........................................................................... 32

3.2

Nanomaterials and Nanostructures by Design......................................... 34

3.2.1

Fundamental Understanding and Synthesis ...........................................................35

3.2.2

Analytical Nanotools and Measurements ...............................................................36

3.2.3

Manufacturing and Processing................................................................................38

3.2.4

Modelling and Simulation ........................................................................................41

3.2.5

Environment, Safety, and Health.............................................................................42

3.2.6

Standards and Informatics ......................................................................................46

3.2.7

Dissemination, Education and Training...................................................................48

3.3

Manufacturing of Nanostructures, Nanocomponents and Nanosystems. 48

3.3.1

Research Directions in Atomically Precise Fabrication Methods ...........................49

3.3.2

Challenges in Atomically Precise Components and Systems .................................53

3.3.3

Challenges in Fabrication Methods and Enablers...................................................55

3.4

Nanotechnology Applications for Selective Industrial Sectors ................. 58

3.4.1

Life Sciences and Health Care................................................................................58

3.4.2

Energy: Conversion, Storage and Efficient Use ......................................................61

3.4.3

Environment (Air, Water and Soil)...........................................................................63

3.4.4

Chemicals, Consumer and Household Goods ........................................................65

3.4.5

Food & Agro-Biotechnology ....................................................................................66

3.4.6

Nanotechnology Application in Fibers, Fabrics and Textiles...................................69

3.4.7

Information and Communication Technologies .......................................................70

3.4.8

Civil Security...........................................................................................................73

3.5

Conclusions.............................................................................................. 75

v


4.

Research Priorities in Materials Science & Engineering .................. 77

4.1

Enabling Technologies, Cross-Cutting Research Directions .................. 78

4.2

Priority Areas in Response to Basic Needs of European Society............ 82

4.2.1

Materials for Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) .........................82

4.2.2

Materials for Energy ................................................................................................85

4.2.3

Materials for Health .................................................................................................87

4.2.4

Materials for Enhanced Quality of Life ....................................................................89

4.2.5

Materials for the Environment ................................................................................93

4.2.6

Materials for Security and Safety ............................................................................93

4.3

Horizontal Issues and Implementation ..................................................... 93

4.4

Conclusions.............................................................................................. 97

5.

Industrial Production Systems ............................................................. 99

5.1

Present State-of-the-art ........................................................................... 99

5.2

Cross-Cutting Research Directions in Manufacturing ............................ 101

5.2.1

New Business Models: "Future Management of the European Production” .........102

5.2.2

Adaptive Manufacturing.........................................................................................105

5.2.3

Networking in Manufacturing.................................................................................108

5.2.4

Digital Knowledge-based Engineering ..................................................................111

5.2.5

Eco - conception and Sustainable Manufacturing ................................................113

5.2.6

ICT for Manufacturing............................................................................................120

5.2.7

Specific Challenges for the European Process Industry .......................................122

5.3 Production Technologies for new enabling technology concepts ............... 128 5.3.1

Next-generation HVA Products .............................................................................128

5.3.2

Education and Training in “Learning Factories” ....................................................129

5.3.3

Disruptive Factory: “Bio-nano” Convergence ........................................................130

5.3.4

Disruptive Factory: “Bio-cogno-ICT” Convergence ...............................................130

5.3.5

Manufacturing of Nanos and New Materials in Microcomponents ........................131

5.4

Conclusions ........................................................................................... 132

6.

Integration of Nano-, Micro- and Macro- Manufacturing Systems .. 133

6.1

Integration of Micro- and Nano- Macromanufacturing Systems............. 133

6.2

Sustainable and Competitive Construction ........................................... 142

Annex: Contributing Authors ......................................................................... 155 vi


Executive Summary

The world is undergoing a global technology revolution that is integrating developments in nanotechnology, materials technology, biotechnology, and information technology at an accelerating pace. Future technological development will continue to integrate innovations from multiple scientific disciplines in a “convergence” that will have profound effects on society. European industries large and small are bringing innovations into our lives, whether in the form of new technologies to address environmental problems, new products to make our homes more comfortable and energy efficient or new therapies to improve the health and well-being of European citizens. Today, Europeans are faced with the challenges of globalization that affect the European industry, economy, and academia on many levels. This means that the generation of new knowledge and know-how is no longer the privilege of only a few Nations. To promote industrial growth, a vibrant economy, and social welfare, Europe must maintain its leading position in all fields of Nanotechnologies, Materials Science and Engineering and Production Systems (NMP). This goal is certainly achievable. Innovations in NMP abound in nearly all European industrial activities, including environment, energy, agriculture, health, information and communication, infrastructure and construction, and transportation. It is believed that the NMP programme’s science and technology policies need to be guided by the following four core principles: •

• •

Promoting world-class scientific and technological excellence in Nanoscience, Nanotechnology, Materials and Production Systems in relation to the needs of the European Industry. Focusing on priorities in basic and applied research in areas of strength and opportunity for Europe. Encouraging public-private partnerships and collaborations, involving the business, academia, research institutions and public sectors at home and abroad. Through partnerships, the resources of various and varied stakeholders can be brought together to transform research into innovation and economic success. Enhancing accountability and reporting practices to deliver and demonstrate results. Accountability is important because it puts the responsibility on those who are supported by public funds to demonstrate to taxpayers that results are being achieved.

Research collaborations between the government, private and academic sectors can take many forms. These include joint research projects, formal sharing of facilities, networks of excellence, etc. As there are considerable benefits to be gained, and insufficient economic incentives, particularly to pursue high-risk and long-term opportunities, for the private sector to pursue them, the European Commission can play a key role in supporting such collaborations. Collaborations of this type only work when there is a sincere commitment by all parties that is matched by an allocation of resources to the joint effort. vii


In the present report, the future research and technological directions of the NMP programme for the period (2010-2015) are discussed. In particular, the report addresses the following areas of research and technological priorities in relation to the NMP programme: • • • •

Nanoscience and Nanotechnology Materials Science and Engineering Industrial Production Systems Integration of Nano-, Micro- and Macro- Manufacturing Systems and Processes

For each area, the following issues are addressed: • • • •

Scope/ objectives of the proposed science and technology research activities. Present-stateof-the-art in Europe and in the world. Required fundamental developments in relation to the application objectives. Potential market applications and relevant industrial sectors. Expected economic and societal impact of the research and technological developments

In what follows the economic impact of NMP programme on the European Industry is summarized.

Economic Impact of NMP Chapter 2 of the present report provides an assessment of the economic and technical contribution given by the NMP Programme to the growth of Europe’s economy. It plays a vital role in the creation of the enabling technologies for the EU’s high-added value industrial sectors whilst addressing also Europe’s “Grand Challenges”. The main conclusions obtained through comprehensive external and internal economic analyses as well as from the lead market analysis are presented below: •

• •

• •

The importance of the NMP industrial programme as a major engine for Europe’s growth, sustaining employment and creating new jobs and providing solutions to its Grand Challenges has been confirmed and is likely to grow as the major global trading blocks increasingly focus on the concepts of the Physical economy. World RTD investment forecasts indicate that Europe’s future investment intentions in manufacturing, energy, environmental technologies, health and transport are significantly lower than Asia and North America. This is a major EU challenge for which further investment in NMP would provide EU leadership. Strong international co-operation in R&D should be established with other key developed and emerging economies for mutual benefit and maximum leverage at the European level. The scale of the investment collectively by the EU in nanotechnology is appropriate and competitive with the US, Japan, China and BRIC countries but must be maintained for the period in question, and concentrated on opportunities where Europe has particular strengths for its industry to remain competitive and improve its competitive edge. There is evidence that the US is investing in research into the environment, health and safety risks of engineered nanomaterials at annual rate that is 3 x that of the EU. The NMP programme has proved to be robust to harsh economic change and demonstrated both leadership and innovation in RTD policy creation and implementation in FP7’s new 3 PPP initiatives. The PPPs enhance NMP’s industrial focus, its contribution to the Grand Challenges and its connectivity to ICT, Energy, Environment and Transport Directorates in ways that could help shape future framework programmes. viii


NMP Priorities Derived from the Economic and Lead Market Analysies • •

• •

Focus on high-value manufacturing, energy, environment, healthcare, food and transport technologies. Greater support is recommended to strengthen all necessary intermediate stages of materials and products' research and development research to accelerate translation of emerging nano-, bio-, info- technologies towards exploitation. Investment in nanomaterials EH&S risk research must be maintained or preferably increased to US levels to ensure that Europe remains competitive with respect to developments in global regulations. The NMP’s EH&S nanomaterials collaborative projects and clustering for sharing knowledge are unique and should be encouraged play a leading role in global cooperation. With 40% of the budget moved into the PPPs, tough decisions are required to focus the remaining budget for 2010-2013. A rational economic basis is provided in this chapter together with in-depth technology forecasts in the remaining chapters for Work Programme topic selection for maximising economic and societal impact. The performance of the 3 PPPs should be continuously monitored for the future planning of NMP’s industrial technologies cooperative RTD programmes. Additional PPPs may be selected from topics covering the other Grand Challenges of Europe, in areas where Europe has good opportunities to maintain or strengthen its global competitiveness. This review indicates that NMP should seek increased funding beyond 2013 to maintain the momentum of Europe’s physical economy after it has emerged from the current recession and to: a) build on the learning from the PPPs and b) to exploite Europe’s global strength in intermediate materials and devices manufacturing Europe’s Research and training capacities for high-technology manufacturing and business management have declined at a time of growth in industrial need. Whilst the responsibility for addressing this issue lies with other directorates, as a practical measure NMP could introduce “on the job” opportunities for future manufacturing leaders as a special measure within all its projects. Amongst existing NACE classified sectors, several have emerged as favourable for focussed funding. In particular, these are: the electronics and communications industry; the transportation vehicle industry; the medical/pharmaceutical/ chemical industry and the machinery industry. From the whole “Growth” Vs “Size” analysis of the Chapter 2, it is clear that Radio, Office, Vehicles, Medical, Pharmaceuticals, Chemicals and Machinery are all of significant “Size” and show stronger “Growth”, whilst sectors such as wood, Textiles, Coke, Printing, Metals, Pulp, Furniture and Leather are of rather limited “Size” and exhibit slower “Growth” but do have particularly attractive specialty sub-segments that need to be supported and nurtured by Europe. These areas are highlighted in the detailed comments and priority recommendations for each individual NACE sector.

Nanoscience and Nanotechnology Nanotechnology spans over many areas including, nanoparticles, nanocomposites and customdesigned nanostructures, that find applications from polymer additives to drug delivery systems and cosmetics. Especially, nanowires are of great interest for many applications like storage, ix


transport, separation, drug delivery, thermal isolation, photonic and electronic applications or templates. Successful implementation of Nanotechnology will require a strong commitment to process innovation (manufacturing). The traditional focus on materials science alone will not provide the breakthroughs needed to extract the full benefits of nanotechnology. Research to understand what material structures are required for a specific application must be developed concurrently with new processing capabilities. Biological systems found in nature provide excellent examples of highly controlled and organized architectures that generate complex materials. The insight obtained in these systems can be directly transformed into novel approaches for diagnosis and treatment of diseases. Developing similar controlled manufacturing capabilities will require a significant research effort with close interactions among diverse disciplines. Inherent in nanoscale manufacturing is the need to preserve the specialized functions available at the nanoscale during manufacturing and scaling the material to the macro or applications level. A variety of new processes (including self-assembly) will likely be needed to cost-effectively produce diverse nanomaterials. These processes are critical, as nanomaterials are often unstable and sensitive to the surrounding environment. Fundamental knowledge of both physical properties and chemical reactivity at the nanoscale will be necessary to manufacture nanomaterials and ensure their integrity in storage and use. Nanoscale manufacturing R&D and high-volume, cost-effective production will not be possible without advanced analytical tools. The development of robust manufacturing methods with nanosized elements requires extensive process control. An effective control system requires accurate and timely measurements, rapid data assessment, and response parameters. Easy-to-use, economical tools for product assay and application-specific qualification are also needed. Integrating the process control components at the nanoscale will require a long-term commitment to R&D in diverse science and technology fields. The spectrum of invention required necessitates a series of parallel, intensely interwoven R&D activities. Manufacturers will combine the benefits of traditional materials and nanomaterials to create a new generation of nanomaterials-based products that can be seamlessly integrated into complex systems. In some instances, nanomaterials will serve as stand-alone devices, providing unprecedented functionality. Nanotechnology is an integral part of almost all developments regarding new functionalised materials and products, as mentioned above. Many of the potential applications are based on exploiting effects that are part of our current understanding of science. However, producing structures and operating at the atomic level will produce novel effects that will stimulate new science and hence lead to new applications. The wide range of nanotechnology-based industrial applications includes: Life Sciences and Health Care ; Energy: Conversion, Storage and Efficient Use ; Environment (Air, Water and Soil) ; Chemicals, Consumer and Household Goods ; Construction and Housing ; Food & Agro-Biotechnology ; Fibers, Fabrics and Textiles ; Transport: Aircraft and Automotives ; Civil Security. The market for nanomaterials has been estimated by analysts to be â‚Ź700 to 1,000 billion by 2011. As new materials and applications are used by the human society, the possible impact of nanomaterials on the environment and human health has to be considered. Such impact studies have to involve both industrial and NGO or independent national scientific groups, as current knowledge is inadequate for risk assessment of nanoparticles and fibres. As materials exhibit unique properties at the nanoscale level, which affect their physical, chemical and biological behaviour, the potential hazard of nanomaterials needs to be considered in parallel with their potential benefits on a case-by-case basis.

x


Nanotechnology is the basis for the next industrial revolution. However, the true potential of nanotechnology has not been exploited yet, and new business opportunities in this field do not show yet the same industrial dynamics as other more mature industries. This can be attributed to several reasons: •

The breadth of knowledge required for economic exploitation is extraordinarily large due to the remarkably broad interdisciplinarity and complexity of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology. Europe has to overcome the fragmentation in research, technology development and innovation in the field, by better coordinating its own various RTD initiatives and European Technology Platforms with substantial Nano related activities. The large depth of knowledge needed for Nanosciences development and the large overlap with life sciences, chemistry and microelectronics lead to a different profile of the typical industrialist/entrepreneur in the Nanotechnology-related sectors compared with other industrial branches. For implementation of Nanotechnology-based innovations collaboration with all stakeholders is required. For instance, for healthcare applications clinical evidence and regulatory approval are prerequisites for successful introduction of new products. A profile that requires fully networked poles or clusters of technology in interaction with relevant parties with the knowledge required for implementation of the resulting innovative products, facilitating and accelerating the process from research to application in Open Innovation cycles. At its present state of development, Nanotechnology is an enabling technology and not an end product. It operates with as yet unformed value chains, in which technology push strategies have to meet market needs. There is a need for clear market drivers, for example, industrial problems that can be solved by the application of nanotechnologies. The emphasis on new applications and new markets for new technologies makes established companies reluctant to enter this domain, since it requires a completely different approach. As a consequence, it is more likely than in other industrial branches that new start-up companies are created for the exploitation of Nanotechnology results and its applications. There's a need for a dynamic and updated framework based on industrial foresight.

Nanotechnology Vision for 2015 The following potential nanotechnology developments are expected by 2015: •

Half of the newly designed advanced materials and manufacturing processes are built using control at the nanoscale. The structure and function control still may be rudimentary in 2015 as compared to the long-term potential of nanotechnology. Steps towards reduction of chronic illness will be made. It is conceivable that by 2015 our ability to detect and treat tumors in their first stage of occurrence may result in first successes towards the reduction of suffering and death from cancer. Similarly, increasing insights into systemic diseases, like cardiovascular disease and diabetes, will lead to earlier detection and more effective treatment. Science and engineering of nanobiosystems will become essential to human healthcare and biotechnology. This area is one of the most challenging and fastest growing components of nanotechnology. Converging science and engineering from the nanoscale will establish a mainstream pattern for applying and integrating nanotechnology with biology, electronics, medicine, learning and other fields. xi


• • •

Life-cycle sustainability and biocompatibility will be pursued in the development of new products. Knowledge development and education will originate from the nanoscale instead of the microscale. Nanotechnology businesses and organizations will restructure toward integration with other technologies, distributed production, continuing education, and forming consortia of complementary activities.

Materials Science and Engineering Materials play in increasingly important role in our daily lives. Thus, advances in materials can have a huge impact, practically, in all the industrial sectors including transport, energy, chemical, medical, information and communication technologies. The increasing demand for performances along with the challenges posed by health, climate change, energy supply and the quest for sustainability call for innovative solutions in materials research and technology developments. For many industrial sectors R&D in advanced materials are of crucial importance for both product and process improvements and innovations. This includes both structural and functional materials and ranges from transport related innovations (i.e., development of safer, greener and lighter vehicles) to medical applications (i.e., new diagnostics, drug delivery systems, novel biomaterials for tissue regeneration, etc.). Moreover, new material advances are required for the reduction in consumption or replacement of scarce or strategically critical materials and the replacement of environmental harmful materials with more friendly ones. Breakthroughs in materials science and engineering are thus one of the essential elements in business renewal, economic growth and competitiveness of practically all industrial sectors in Europe. Thus, the primary objective of the NMP is to align the needs of the European industry in common research and development priorities by designing and implementing one integrated program so that different industrial sectors in Information and communications; Materials production; Energy and power systems; Transportation (e.g., automotive, maritime, aerospace); Health care; Consumer and household goods; Chemical / Biochemical industry; Fibers and textiles; Construction and housing, can improve their competitiveness via innovations in materials science and engineering. More specifically, the NMP program in advanced materials research will allow the European industry to make the necessary technology leap by undertaking the risk to support, especially, the more fundamental innovations in materials research. Thus, the aim of the NMP program is to bring together the European materials community under a common vision, to identify new R&D opportunities for industry, government and academia so that prosperity, commercial success, improved quality of life and a sustainable economy can be maintained. The key recommendations on advanced materials are based on three underlying facts. First of all, the European industry depends heavily on breakthroughs in materials innovations in order to maintain its competitiveness. Secondly, the industrial activities in Europe are and will remain crucial building blocks of the European economy. And last but not least, economic growth and a sustainable society go hand in hand. The following elements of the position paper will be further outlined below to identify future R&TD in advanced materials. Thus, the following elements need be taken into account: •

Dominant role of materials for economic growth and a sustainable society,

xii


Organizing the material innovation needs of several industrial sectors in one European integrated program to generate sufficient focus and mass,

Motivating all players in the value chain to speed up innovations considerably,

Joining forces of all relevant organizations under the networking umbrella of NMP to create open innovation and valorisation models and to remove bottlenecks,

Building European Centres of Excellence on advanced materials technology.

Aligning the R&D needs of several industries into one program on advanced materials makes the NMP a powerful program in terms of sufficient focus and mass for the achievement of breakthroughs at the boundaries between various disciplines. This integrated approach is much stronger than if each industrial sector would conduct the materials research on its own. It simply avoids dispersion of efforts and redundancy in R&TD. A second advantage of one integrated program is that it allows companies to make technology steps they could not take on their own as they would not be able to make the technology leap (insufficient know-how), to fund a very large project or to take the risk, especially for more fundamental innovations. Greater emphasis needs to be placed on the fundamental understanding of materials rather than on marginal science and product developments. Naturally, application of materials is the ultimate goal, but this needs to be built on a firm theoretical basis so that improvements can be made more efficiently and reliably. Particular attention should be given to understanding materials’ behaviour from the atomic/nano-level via microstructure to macrostructure levels using advanced analytical techniques and computer modelling. Theoretical considerations and understanding must be coupled to insights and equirements for relevant applications. This strategy applies to both the improvement of conventional “bulk” materials, such as steel, and to new functional materials for increasingly smaller, “smarter” devices. In this respect, Europe has the capabilities to provide the required fundamental knowledge. The objective of modern materials science is to tailor a material (starting with its chemical composition, constituent phases, and microstructure) in order to obtain a desired set of properties suitable for a given application. In the short term, the traditional “empirical” methods for developing new materials will be complemented to a greater degree by theoretical predictions. In some areas, computer simulation is already used by industry to weed out costly or improbable synthesis routes. Thus, greater European collaboration is required to develop computational tools for materials and processing development and for property evaluation in a “virtual” environment.

Industrial Production Systems The European Union is home to more than 26 million companies. The number of manufacturing businesses (classified as NACE D3) is about 10% of this total, i.e. around 2.5 million, of which 99% are SMEs. European manufacturing activity today represents approximately 22% of the EU gross national product (GNP). Global comparisons show that Europe has been, and continues to be, successful in maintaining its leadership in many sectors – but this position is challenged on two fronts. On the one hand, EU industry faces continuing competition from other developed economies, particularly in the high-technology sector. On the other, manufacturing in the more traditional sectors is increasingly taking place in the low-wage economies, some of which are already looking towards higher-value-added segments. Manufacturing productivity growth in the ten CEEC countries has outpaced that of the EU-15 by more than six percentage points per annum over recent years, and the process of productivity xiii


convergence is bound to continue. But, in contrast to Western Europe where manufacturing employment has remained relatively stable, productivity catch-up in the acceding countries has been associated with persistent job losses. Even in Western Europe, continuing productivity increases are starting to cause a decline in direct employment – mirroring job losses in US manufacturing over the past 20 years. In fact, in the 1990s, manufacturing’s share of employment fell at least as fast, if not faster, in Western Europe than in the USA according to a US Government report on manufacturing in America. However, growing numbers of jobs in the associated services is likely to compensate for this loss in direct employment. In the automotive industry, for example, the direct labour content of car manufacture represents a relatively small proportion of total employment generated by the sector. Apart from the production of raw materials, tools, etc., the remainder stems from the provision of services from supply of fuel, spare parts, consumables and accessories, to maintenance and repair, insurance, in-car entertainment and communications, on-road catering and special interest publishing. It can be envisaged that, in the shorter term at least, the transfer of more labour-intensive production to the CEEC could help to redress their present situation, while preventing the migration of employment opportunities beyond Europe’s boundaries. Research Priorities in Manufacturing The manufacturing industry is very diverse and covers a wide range of specific processes ranging from extracting minerals to assembly of very complex products such as planes or computers, with all intermediate processing steps in a long chain of industrial suppliers and customers. Extracting from this wide variety of businesses and processes, some general trends that could be meaningful to the whole industry chain is far from easy and is bound to give rather general indications. However, this is the effort that has been done in Chapter 5 since, from the European Commission point of view, a purely sectorial approach is not relevant and some common transversal view is a necessity. For these reasons the chapter is organized along different cross-cutting point of views, trying to define what could be the whole industrial chain of the future, delivering products that will be required by our future citizens. Several general trends have been defined and, for each of them, the possible evolution within three time frames: short term, medium term and long term. Then, different topics for research have been identified in order to allow Europe to remain ahead of the competition. Most of them are transversal to several industrial sectors. However, projects should address concrete applications in specific sectors. Due to the large diversity of applications, some of the research topics may be specific to some industrial sectors only. The main general trends that have been defined are the following: •

Changes in the management of industry. Confronted to the important changes in the human society ( rise of emerging country, demand for well designed and minimum cost products, demand for green products of processes, demand for social equity and time for leisure, etc..), the management of the whole industrial sector has to be renewed. The business environment is changing faster and faster and this is bound to be even more the case in the future. Therefore, our production and design of products scheme have to be flexible enough to adapt themselves to such rapid changes. Another clear trend of manufacturing is the constant integration of parameters from upstream to downstream ensuring that in each process step, in the same company or across the supplier/customer borders, enough information is transferred to ensure that a global optimization is possible, making sure that the desired result is obtained even in complex products with a lot of sophisticated sub-parts. An important objective will be the overall xiv


quality of the production chain: tracking quality along each process step and across suppliers/customers boundaries. Further to the two previous trends of capacity to adapt to change and ability to integrate information through networking, is the ability to store and use the accumulated knowledge for design and manufacturing of future components and products. This trend is referred as: “Digital knowledge-based Engineering”. A specific topic is the integration in the design and manufacturing practices for answering the new demand of society for green products and technologies. This requires new design methods balancing often conflicting objectives and drastic changes of existing processes. At last, most of the trends given above will heavily rely on the development of information and Communication technologies. Though such development is already well addressed in the special ICT theme of FP7, it is interesting to give a certain number of research directions that are relevant to the European Industry. How it should be dealt with between NMP and ICT theme is a matter of internal management of FP7, but the interest for European Industry has to be stressed.

Meeting Europe’s Sustainability Objectives The manufacturing industries supported by the NMP programme, collectively, have the greatest potential of all sectors for enabling Europe achieve its’ ambitious targets for sustainability. It includes many of the largest industrial users of energy and materials including the steel, engineering, cement, petroleum and chemical industries. But these sectors also include industries, such as the wood, agriculture and biofuels that can offer novel renewable energy solutions. Yet other sectors, such as the chemical sector, offer the potentially robust solutions for meeting the EU’s target of 20% reduction in greenhouse gas emissions (GGE), relative to 1990 levels, by 2020. Examples of active technology programmes include novel thermal insulation (e.g. foamed polymers), heat transfer materials (e.g. nanofluids), and carbon capture and storage (CCS) for major energy users and suppliers alike. NMP’s RTD programme has a vital and wide ranging leadership role for Europe in the rapidly developing fields of nanotechnology, advanced materials and new production technologies. These technologies arguably offer the greatest potential of all the cooperative programmes for providing practical solutions for meeting the GGE2020=0.8GGE1990 target. Examples of these include: photovoltaics for energy generation, batteries for electric cars, materials for low-energy computing, nanocatalysts for energy efficient combustion processes and dynamic nano-lubricant systems for transport and power generation efficiency. Not only do these new technologies impact significantly on the major “energy user” industries served by the NMP programme they provide the underpinning technologies essential for the EU’s KBBE, ICT, ENERGY, ENVIRONMENT and TRANSPORT programmes to support their respective industrial sectors meet their own sustainability targets. To achieve the maximum benefit from these new technologies, attention must be also be paid to the development new analysis and metrology methods, standards, regulations and performance indicators for sustainability. Regulation and performance indicators need to be evidence-based and flexible to enable industry to respond to rapid technological and economic change. NMP is the lead cooperative programme in the DG Research for metrology science and standards. It is essential that a major focused metrology programme is developed to support Europe’s targets for sustainability. It could be part of or alongside the recently launched 22 Member States Article 169 European Metrology Research Programme.

xv


Research Priorities in NMP Sustainability •

A focused horizontal sustainability platform should be created within the NMP Programme to support the development of robust technologies for achieving the sustainability goals of the industries supported by the NMP Programme. NMP’s new horizontal programme should be provide Inter-service leadership for technology RTD planning within the European Commission’s horizontal sustainability initiatives and provide the new Commissioner for Sustainability with tools and evidence based processes for policy making for the practical delivery of Europe’s 2020 goals and targets for energy usage, greenhouse gases and climate change. A substantial new European research metrology research programme should be developed to support the NMP, KBBE, ICT, ENERGY and TRANSPORT programmes sustainability needs for new measurement technologies, and standards. Deploy NMP and metrology research and technologies to inform the development of evidence-based and flexible regulatory processes and performance indicators for all stakeholders of NMP, KBBE, ICT, ENERGY and TRANSPORT programmes.

xvi


Chapter 1

Fostering a Competitive and Dynamic Public-Private Environment 1.1 Improving Europeans’ Lives and Opportunities through the NMP Programme The world is undergoing a global technology revolution that is integrating developments in biotechnology, nanotechnology, materials technology, and information technology at an accelerating pace. Future technological developments will continue to integrate developments from multiple scientific disciplines in a “convergence” that will have profound effects on society. Examples of some of the integrated technology applications that may be feasible by 2020 include: •

Nanostructured materials with enhanced structural and functional properties

Small and efficient nanotechnology-enabled portable power systems

Mass-producible organic electronics, including solar cells

Smart fabrics and textiles

Nanotechnology-enabled sensors and computational devices in commercial goods

Nanotechnology manufacturing of more-complex structures via molecular assembly

Personalized medicine and therapies

Targeted drug delivery through molecular recognition

Biomimetic and function-restoring implants

Rapid bioassays using bionanotechnologies

Green manufacturing techniques (i.e., bio-based processes)

European industries large and small are bringing innovations into our lives, whether in the form of new technolgogies to address evniromental problems, new products to make our homes more comfortable and energy efficient, or new therapies to improve the health and well-being of European citizens. Organizations at the forefront of scientific and technological developments create high-quality, knowledge-intensive jobs with high wages. They make our economy more competitive and productive, giving us the means to achieve an even higher standard of living and better quality of life. Europe must continue to strengthen its knowledge base. Science and technology capacity is more widely distributed around the world today, with countries such as China and India moving 1


increasingly into higher segments of the value chain based on their cost advantages and considerable number of highly qualified personnel. To succeed in an increasingly competitive global arena, Europe must be at the leading edge of important developments that generate health, environmental, societal and economic benefits. Europe must also be a magnet for talented scientists and engineers. Our aging population, combined with a lower number of new scientists and engineers graduating from European Universities, challenge us to put in place the right conditions to attract, retain and develop the talent and ingenuity Europe needs. Building on our strong research foundation, we need to be more strategic, more efficient, more effective and more accountable for delivering science and technology results that make a difference in people’s lives. 1.2

Fostering the Knowledge, People and Business Advantages

Thus, the NMP programme’s science and technology policies need to be guided by the following four core principles: •

• •

1.3

Promoting world-class scientific and technological excellence in Nanoscience, Nanotechnology, Materials and Production Systems in relation to the needs of the European Industry. Focusing on priorities in basic and applied research in areas of strength and opportunity for Europe. Encouraging public-private partnerships and collaborations, involving the business, academia, research institutions and public sectors at home and abroad. Through partnerships, the unique capabilities, interests, and resources of various and varied stakeholders can be brought together to deliver better outcomes. Enhancing accountability and reporting practices to deliver and demonstrate results. Accountability is important because it puts the responsibility on those who are supported by public funds to demonstrate to taxpayers that results are being achieved. Encouranging Public-Private Partnerships

As Figure 1.1 demonstrates, the greater the benefits from research that accrue to the individual firm, the smaller is the role for public support. Research takes place along a continuum of activity, with an intermediate zone where public and private-sector research interests and activities intersect. It is this type of research that generates both public and private gains. There is a role for government in supporting it when there is a clear private-sector commitment as well. Research collaborations between the government, private and academic sectors takes many forms. These include joint research projects, which may involve all stakeholders in a setting of Open Innovation, formal sharing of facilities, networks of excellence, etc. As there considerable benefits to obtain, and insufficient economic incentives for the private sector to pursue them, there is a role for the European Commission to support such collaborations. Collaborations of this type only work when there is a sincere commitment by all parties that is matched by an allocation of resources to the joint effort. 1.4

Making Europe a World Leader in NMP Related Industries

Today Europeans are faced with the challenges of globalization that affects the European industry, economy, and academia on many levels. This means that the generation of new knowledge and know-how is no longer the privilege of only a few Nations. To promote industrial growth, a vibrant economy, and social welfare, Europe must maintain its leading position in all fields of Nanotechnologies, Materials Science and Engineering and Production Systems (NMP). 2


Figure 1.1. Public-private sector R&D roles This goal is certainly achievable. Innovations in NMP abound in nearly all European industrial activities, including environment, energy, agriculture, health, information and communication, infrastructure and construction, and transportation. In the present report, the future research and technological directions of the NMP programme for the period (2010-2015) are discussed. In particular, the report addresses the following areas of research and technological priorities in relation to the NMP programme: • • • •

Nanoscience and Nanotechnology Materials Science and Engineering Industrial Production Systems Integration of Nano-, Micro- and Macro- Manufacturing Systems and Processes

For each area, the following issues are addressed: • • • •

Scope/ objectives of the proposed science and technology research activities. Present-stateof-the-art in Europe and in the world. Required fundamental developments in relation to the application objectives. Potential market applications and relevant industrial sectors, etc. Expected economic and societal impact of the research and technological developments (i.e., 10% increase photovoltaics’ efficiency, etc.)

In what follows, detailed descriptions of the proposed areas of R&T activities are presented. 3


4


Chapter 2 Economic Impact of NMP

2.1

Introduction

The nature of the NMP programme is unique within Europe’s framework programmes’ cooperative RTD delivery structures. Its research underpins two major classes of manufacturing in which Europe has strong global competitive positions, namely the materials processing and engineered or manufactured goods industries The outputs of its research deliver innovative products, processes and services into the value chains of most other industrial sectors of strategic importance to Europe e.g. energy, transport, health and construction. Yet the NMP programme also support a number of complete value chains, from basic materials through to consumer goods within its own sphere: e.g. pharmaceuticals, personal care, household care and consumer goods. In addition, it is the lead programme for translational research in nanosciences and nanotechnology and thus spans the full range from technology push to demand pull in an exceptional period of scientific progress. The dynamics of all these interactions are illustrated below in Figure 2.1. Most importantly, NMP serves the largest numbers of SMEs of any of FP7’s cooperative programme and thus bears a special responsibility for their needs. Demand Pull

Converging Technology

Technology Push

Emerging Technology

Nano S&T

Advanced Processing

Advanced Engineering

Figure 2.1 The dynamics and challenges of NMP’s value chains and knowledge flows. 5


EAG Report on Future RTD of NMP

Hence, the NMP programme can rightly claim to be a major engine for growth, jobs, sustainability and societal impact throughout the whole of the European physical economy. As FP7 moves towards its midway point, the EAG has reviewed the direction and strategy for investment in cooperative research in nanosciences and nanotechnologies (N), materials (M) and new production technologies for the second half of FP7 (2010- 2013) against the following criteria: • Building the European Research Area (ERA) • RTD best executed at the EU level • Maximising synergy with EU Member States’ investments • Maximising economic and societal impact of Europe’s physical economy Given the severity of the current economic downturn and the vulnerability of its industrial sectors to it, the EAG has inevitably addressed the effects of this major perturbing factor in the 20102013 planning processes together with the leadership role NMP has in co-ordinating the three accelerated technology innovation platforms within the European Union’s recently announced €200 billion “Recovery Plan” to be funded as public-private partnerships (PPPs). 2.2

External Economic Analysis

2.2.1 EU RTD Competitiveness Since the launch of the European Research Area by Commissioner Busquin in Lisbon, March 2000 much progress has been made in orientating Europe’s total research capability, both privately funded and publically funded towards it goals and direction of travel, yet there is still much to be done. The European Commission’s recent report1 on science technology and competitiveness is instructive. Its key findings indicate that….. ….”between 2000 and 2006, R&D investment grew by 14.8 % in real terms in the EU-27 compared to 10.1 % in the US. There has been a significant increase in the R&D intensities of more than half of the EU Member States. However, as a result of significant increases in EU-27 GDP and relatively small increases in R&D expenditure by the larger Member States, overall EU-27 R&D intensity has decreased from 1.86 % in 2000 to 1.84 % in 2006. At the same time, R&D intensity in Japan, South Korea and China have all increased considerably. The main reasons for the decline in EU-27 R&D intensity are an insufficient growth in business R&D expenditure and the fact that EU companies have invested more outside of Europe, in particular in emerging research-intensive countries, than nonEuropean companies have invested in Europe. Tackling these issues will be important as we continue to pursue the strategy for growth and jobs in the years ahead”… Janez Potocnik, Commissioner for Research, Brussels, 2008. Details of key sources of investment in R&D1 are given in Figure 2.2 illustrating the relative “under- investment by industry.

1

“ A more research-intensive and integrated European Research Area – Science, Technology and Competitiveness key figures report 2008/2009, European Commission, EUR 23608 EN, 2008, ISBILLION 978-92-79-10173-1.

6


EAG Report on Future RTD of NMP

Figure 2.2 Business, Government and other sources of investment in R&D Within the report and in the OECD statistics it draws upon there are useful indicators of competitiveness that relate directly to the objectives of the NMP programme which are addressed in the following sections. 2.2.2 Value-added Europe’s manufacturing industry is extremely important to its economy. In 2008, the EU-27 external trade in manufactured goods €3226 billions2 an increase in exports by 3.1% compared to 2008. It contributes 20.2% of GDP (over €1711 billion in value added in 2006). Nearly 2.3 million enterprises, most of them SMEs, provide around 35 million jobs in the EU. Germany alone accounts for 26.3% of the total value added, around twice the individual shares of France, the UK and Italy. Motor vehicles are by far the top EU manufacturing products. Its chemical (15% of direct exports) and engineering (39% of direct exports) sectors have key enabling roles indirectly contributing to the GDP delivered by other sectors. High-technology industry occupies a larger part of the economy in the US than in the EU. The share of high-technology industry in total manufacturing value-added is about 50 % higher in the US (18.3 %) than in the EU (12 %). The “key figures” report suggests this difference appears to be R&D productivity as judged from the business expenditure on R&D (BERD) expressed as a percentage of manufacturing added-value. For the US this ratio is 30.1% for high technology industries1 compared to a 24.8% for the EU, in relation to industry sectors served by NMP and addressed by the EAG in its industry market sector analysis in this report. This latter observation has led the EAG to support the alternative conclusion in the Brueghel3 report: i.e.…”that the EU has tended to hang on to older lower-technology industries in preference to creating new hightechnology businesses”….

2

3

Federal Statistics office, Germany, EU 27 2008 Exports for manufactured goods, http://www.eds-destatis.de/en/tdm/archiv/2009_04.php “ Europe’s R&D: Missing the wrong targets, B van Pottelsberghe, Breughel Policy Brief, Feb 2008

7


EAG Report on Future RTD of NMP

2.2.3 Intellectual Property Again from reference [1]…..”There has been some increase in the number of patent applications by the EU-27 between 2000 and 2005 as judged by PCT patent applications4. EU-27 inventors increased in number somewhat more rapidly than those with US inventors, but less rapidly than those with inventors from Asian countries. US and Japanese inventions tended to be more concentrated than the EU in enabling technologies (biotechnology, ICT and nanotechnology). The Asian countries account for a rapidly growing share of ICT patents in the world.”

Figure 2.3 EU-27 manufacturing added-value vs. BERD for industry market sectors Building on the direct experience its members and the very large number of SMEs engaged in high-technology R&D within the NMP target sectors, the EAG endorses Commissioner Potocnik’s plea for “reduction of patent costs for high-tech SMEs, for a systematic removal of obstacles to the up-take of new technologies and for the development of markets for technologybased products and services, and for stronger cooperation between research, industry and education”.

4

Patent applications filed under the Patent Cooperation Treaty (PCT), at an international phase, designating the EPO.

8


EAG Report on Future RTD of NMP

Table 2.1

Relative Costs of Securing Patents

Though the greatest SME beneficiaries are in the sectors served by NMP, the solution to the problem is not in the gift of the NMP programme. The EU’s patent system has evolved over many decades from competition amongst Member States, the US, Japan and Korea. It has not adapted well to enhanced external competition that now includes China, India and Brazil. Simplification and cost reduction internally is urgently required within the EU to compete globally to generate trade, growth and jobs for Europe. The Commission has previously (2004) called "upon the Member States to forge closer cooperation amongst patent offices towards a more efficient global patenting system" ftp://ftp.cordis.europa.eu/pub/nanotechnology/docs/nano_com_en.pdf Table 2.2

Nanotechnology Patent Trends

The solution urgently requires a united vision and collective political support from the Member States. In relation to the NMP programme’s special interest in nanotechnology, Europe’s share of patents has shown a healthy increase relative to the US and Japan since 2000 (Table 2.2 below). This improvement is likely to be a result of significant increases in Member States’ national research programmes, EU FP programmes and industry. Although a leading edge indicator of innovativeness, patent data also suffers a lag as patents may take several years all applications to proceed to grant. During FP6, the EAG in its mid-point report5 argued for a substantial uplift of its budget from €1.3 billion (€400 million for nanotechnology) to €5.2 billion for FP7 (including nanotechnology). In the event, the EU sanctioned a budget of €3.4 billion for the current framework programme. A repeat of the patent share analysis at the end of FP7 is

5

Mid-term Assessment FP6 TP3 NMP, European Commission, Jan 2005

9


EAG Report on Future RTD of NMP

strongly recommended. Whilst the totality of translational nanotechnology research across the EU-27 is twice that emanating from all FP7 programmes active in this field of which the NMP programme is by far the largest, the NMP programme itself is much larger than any individual Member State’s own cooperative nanotechnology research programme. Thus NMP’s FP7 research is likely to have a leadership role, both directly and an indirectly, in nanotechnology intellectual property generation in the EU. Although NMP’s European leadership role within in Europe is acknowledged6 for taking nanotechnology forward towards safe and beneficial application, this is not the only critical technology needed by the high-value manufacturing sectors it supports. Biotechnology (bio-) and ICT (info-) technologies together with cognitive (cogni-) science are also important. Collectively, they form enabling technologies for product and process technology innovations in other industrial sectors (Figure 2.4)

Bio-

Micro-

Info-

NanoNano-

Materials Materials Materials

Production Production

Impact

Cogni-

Note: Cogni-science has an increasingly important role in the development of factories of the future7

Figure 2.4 Interactions Between, Nano-, Bio-, Info- and Cogni- Science within NMP With the above in mind, Europe’s intellectual property position appears less good, if patent data for nano-, bio- and info- technologies (NBI) are examined together as a group1. When the EU’s share of total world PCT patent applications is compared with the corresponding shares of PCT applications for the sub-set of biotechnology, ICT and nanotechnology, the EU-27’s the shares in nano-, bio-, info- technologies is much lower than the its corresponding share of total world PCT applications. The opposite is the case for the US. This indicates a concentration of US inventions, or specialisation, in these three economically important fields and implies that a larger proportion of EU-27 inventions are made in other fields possible in more mature or slower changing areas. Whilst this is a potential issue for the NMP, Health, KBBE, ICT and SSH programmes to address collectively, the nature of NMP’s multi-disciplinary technologies and its impact on growth areas indicates that there is a special need for NMP to address this challenge directly given the dynamics of knowledge flows that exists between these important specialisations and the programme’s value chain, illustrated in Figure 2.4.

6

EMERGNANO Report “Survey of research in Health, Safety and risks of nanomaterials, DEFRA, UK, April 2009 McGourlay, J., Ridgway, K., Davis, M., Challenger, R. and Clegg, C. (2009) Designing the Factory of the Future. Paper presented at Design for Human Performance, a one day conference organised by Arup, 26th February 2009, London. 7

10


EAG Report on Future RTD of NMP

2.2.4 Comparative Global Investment in Nanotechnology The nanotechnology research base is strong in Europe (particularly in nanomaterials and nanobiotechnology). A major factor in this achievement has been the EU’s strong public funding of nanotechnology research. In 2008, EU research spending on nanotechnology from all public sources was $2.6 billion (some 30% of the world total) compared with $1.6 billion in the US and some $2.8 billion in Asia.8 There are strong nanotech public sector funding programmes in Germany, France and the UK. The 7th Framework Programme will in addition allocate an average of €0.5 billion per year in funding for Nanosciences, nanotechnologies, materials & new production technologies. In Europe, over 240 research centres and 800 companies dedicated to the R&D of nanotechnology have been identified9 (see also Figure 2.5 below). As an additional comparison, the US National Nanotechnology Initiative (NNI) plans10 to maintain the US’s current rate of investment as for the foreseeable future as follows: 2008: $1,549 million (effective) 2009: $1,654 million + $140 million {from ARRA stimulus} (estimated) 2010: Request: $1,636 million Private R&D investment amounts to only $1.7 billion in Europe compared to $2.7 in the US and $2.8 billion in Asia11 and is consistent with general trend shown in Figure 2.2. Hence, corrective action via policy measures and perhaps enhanced investment in NMP activities beyond FP7 may be necessary to ensure Europe converts excellence in research into value adding goods, services, jobs and competitive positions in growth industrial sectors The market size for nanotechnology amounted to $147 billion in 2007 and is expected to grow to $1 trillion12 and possibly over $3 trillion by 2015.13 The United States constitute the biggest market for nanotechnology (40%) in 2007, followed by Europe (31%). Both regions are expected to amount to 35% of the worldwide market in 2015. As today, the majority of global sales will be attributed to manufacturing and materials (over 55%), followed by electronics and IT (over 23%). About 2 million nanotechnology workers will be needed worldwide by 2015. Almost 50% of these jobs are expected to be created in the US with Europe’s share amounting to less than 25%.14 Within Europe and the US, investment in nanotechnology research has led to the emergence of metropolitan nanodistricts15. The scale of activity can be measured by publications and patents and data for Europe is given in Figure 2.5 below. The Importance of large facilities, such as synchrotron radiation, laser and neutron scattering has been recognised by all major global trading blocks for supporting competitive advanced materials research. The EU’s GENNSYS16 White Paper provides a systematic review of Europe’s specialist facilities and their importance to its manufacturing industry base as a major step in opening up access to researchers across the EU and facilitating support to cooperative projects.

8

Lux Research Inc.(2009): “Nanomaterials of the Market Q1 2009: Cleantech’s Dollar Investments, Penny Returns” Conseil Economique et Social – France (2008) : "Les nanotechnologies" and AFSSET (2008):"Les nanomatériaux: sécurité au travail" 10 Personal communication to the NMP EAG Chair, from Professor Mike Roco, US NSF and NNI Senior Advisor, 29 May 2009 11 Lux Research Inc.(2009): “Nanomaterials of the Market Q1 2009: Cleantech’s Dollar Investments, Penny Returns” 12 National Science Foundation estimates see Red Herring (2001): “The Biotech Boom: the view from here”. 13 Lux Research Inc. (2009): “Nanomaterials of the Market Q1 2009: Cleantech’s Dollar Investments, Penny Returns”. 14 Roco, M.C. (2003): "Broader societal issues of nanotechnology", Journal of nanoparticle research, Vol. 5, No.3-4, pp. 353-360. 15 Shapira P., Youtie J. and Carley S., Prototypes of emerging metropolitan nanodistricts in the US & Europe (forthcoming, Les Annees, 2009) 9

11


EAG Report on Future RTD of NMP Legend Nanotechnology Publications 1990-2007* x 1 000 1.9 or less 2.0 – 2.9 3.0 – 3.9 4.0 – 4.9 5.0 – 5.9

/Leeds

6.0 – 9.9

Nanodistrict Cluster Assignments

DIV GEOG GOV LENT ONEOFF Tech Lead UNIV

Figure 2.5 Emerging Metropolitan Nanodistricts (Evidenced by No. Scientific Publications) Research into the safety, health and environmental (EH&S) impact risk management of nanomaterials, especially in relation to engineered nanoparticles, requires special consideration to ensure public confidence that high-performance nano-enabled products are safe to use. In this respect the recent UK DEFRA report on global nano-EH&S research activity and investment is Total investment EU = € 75.1 Million

Projects

€ millions

50

K U

m an y it z er la nd Ta iw an Sw

nc e

G er

d

No Projects

Fr a

la n

EU

Fi n

ar k

R D

en m

a hi n C

ze ch

C

da an a C

Be lg i

um

0

€ (Millions)

Figure 2.6 Pattern of Global Investment in Nano E, H &S Risk Research (-US) instructive6. Figure 2.6 illustrates the difference between the Member States and EU NMP approaches. The MS tend to have large numbers of investigator-driven smaller research projects whereas NMP favours much larger but collaborative research projects. In all cases, projects tend to be around 3 years in length on average indicating a combined annul investment of approximately €25 million per year. The US has a somewhat different approach. Funding is provided by 2 routes. The annual funding of E, H & S research by the NNI for 2008-2010 is approximately three times that of the EU and it Member S combined (Table 2.3).

12


EAG Report on Future RTD of NMP

Table 2.3 NNI E, H & S Budgets Year

(US$ Millions)

2008

69.7

2009

71.5

2010

82.7

Table 2.4 NSF Funded E, H & S Centres NSF Centres

Start up

Rice U (CBEN)

2001

UCLA (CEIN)

2008

Duke U (CFINT)

2008

Total Investment US $80 Millions

In addition, as Table 2.4 shows, the NSF has funded 3 centres of excellence, including the 2 largest as recently as 2008. The scale of the US investment is strategic and now sufficiently larger than the EU’s and this is putting Europe’s researchers at a disadvantage. More importantly it may have implications for future regulation of nanotechnology products and European competitivity. Ultimately the way forward will be through increased global cooperation in this research and thus Europe’s research needs to match US capabilities to deliver solutions to its own industries. 2.2.5 Global Investment in Materials and Production Technologies There are no comparable over-arching cooperative industrial research programmes for advance materials and production technologies amongst major global trading blocs. Such research tends to be rolled up within sector-specific or “demand-led” programmes. These programme areas are therefore unique to NMP and have justified special attention within this report to ensure: a) generic application, b) maximum economic and/or societal impact and Europe’s competitiveness. Materials innovations are used in practically all manufacturing industries and form important elements in the supply chains of many high-value manufacturing businesses such as aerospace, automotive, engineering, textiles, electronics, healthcare products and consumer goods. The EU is a world leader in advanced materials due to its world-class research base and major strengths in both producer and user industries. R&D in the key materials producing/using sectors16 is over € 44 billion per year in the EU compared to €25 billion in the US and €23.5 billion in Japan. The National Science Foundation in the US allocated $257 million of funding in the area of Materials Research in 200717 compared to an annual average of €90 million of EU funding for materials as part of the FP6 excluding support at the Member States level. Given that MS’s annual investment in nanotechnology for 2008 was approximately twice that by FP7, by analogy it is likely that the same ratio will also apply for Materials RTD public funding. Thus overall spending on materials research by Europe (EU+MS) is likely to be similar to that of the US. Advanced materials can serve as competitiveness and efficiency drivers for key industries whilst reducing resource dependence, environmental waste and hazards at the same time. Overall, advanced materials markets are expected to offer an additional annual volume within the EU of €55 billion over the next 5 to 7 years.18 There is considerable potential in the area of energy €19 billion (e.g. catalysts and membranes), environment €12 billion (e.g. polymers and smart packaging) as well as in the areas of health (e.g. tissue engineering), transport (e.g. catalysts) and ICT (such as optical fibres, semiconductors, sensors and memory devices). Figure 2.5 above, shows the importance of nanotechnology along with other technology platforms in advanced materials and intermediates. Recent bibliometric studies by Leydesdorff

16

Defined as chemicals industry (excluding pharmaceuticals), industrial metals, aerospace, and automotive. National Science Foundation (2009). See. http://www.nsf.gov/mps/dmr/bios/zkafafi/MRS_Talk_Spring-08.pdf 18 European Technology Platform on Sustainable Chemistry (SusChem 2008). 17

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and Rafols19, demonstrate (Figure 2.7 below) that the greatest number of nanotechnology publications are in the domain of interdisciplinary advanced materials research. Agri Sci

Geo Sci.

Infectious Diseases Ecol Sci

Env Sci & Tech

Chemistry

Clinical Med Biomed Sci.

Health Sci

Cognitive Sci Sci Materials Sci

Computer Sci

Physics

Note: a) b)

Diameter of circle = No of publications Distance between disciplines are inversely proportional to degree of interdisciplinarity

Figure 2.7 Relative Numbers of Nanotechnology Publications (2008) by Macro-Discipline and 175 Sub-Disciplines14 In Summary, there are a number of indicators that materials research will increasingly become the battle ground for delivering the benefits of industrial technologies: − − − − − −

The EU is world-leading in advanced materials sales ( ~80% >US and Japan) Strategic investment by the US, Japan and China in materials research programmes Strategic investment in large Facilities by US, EU, Japan and China to support materials research programmes Bibliometric studies of nanotechnology scientific publications Principle locus of industrial nanotechnology R&D investment20 Largest number of submissions to NMP calls per year in FP721

These observations indicate that greater concentration of activities and funding might be appropriate for the Materials area within NMP is justified for the 2nd half of FP7 and beyond.

19

Leydesdorff, L. and Rafols, I: “A global map of science based on the ISI subject categories”. JASIST 60(2): 348-362 (2009) Norden, M, Lux Research “ Nanotechnology Commercialisation: Stealth Success, Broad Impact, Euronanoforum, Prague, June (2000) 21 Tomellini, “NMP Directorate Report to EAG, 23 May, 2009. 20

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EAG Report on Future RTD of NMP

2.2.6 Likely Forward Trends A possible leading edge indicator of where the developed world is likely to invest in future RTD programmes can be derived from global foresight exercises1 (Figure 2.8):

Figure 2.8 World RTD foresight exercises for various socio-economic sectors Whereas methodology differences may mean absolute comparisons are unreliable, relative comparisons may be valid, especially for Europe versus North America and Asia. Manufacturing has much lower score than other sectors for Europe than for the other two global regions. This is unfortunate for three reasons. Firstly, it has an impact on economic growth for transport, energy, health and ICT. Secondly, it may adversely affect future government support for RTD in the manufacturing. Lastly, EU industry may further reduce its high-technology manufacturing R&D investment in Europe and increase it in regions outside the EU. 2.2.7 Pool of S&T Researchers in Manufacturing Since 2000, in contrast to business R&D investment, the EU has seen significant increase in education inflows and researchers1 (Figure 2.9).

Figure 2.9 Number of researchers (FTE thousands) by world region, 2000 and 2006

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EAG Report on Future RTD of NMP

The most significant global change since 2000 has been the doubling of the number of full time equivalent (FTE) researchers in China where the numbers of researchers (FTE) have almost doubled to approach the numbers in the US and EU. Encouragingly, the number of researchers in the EU has grown by around three times as fast in the EU as in the US and Japan in the same period. Importantly, the increase in the number of researchers in the EU has occurred primarily in the business sector. At the same time, R&D expenditure per researcher in the business sector decreased between 2000 and 2005 before increasing again between 2005 and 2006. Despite the increase in number of researchers in the business sector, by 2006 only 640,000 researchers were employed in the business sector in the EU compared to 1.1 million in the US. However, the EU still has a much lower share of researchers (FTE) in the labour force than the US and Japan.

Figure 2.10 Specialisations in high-growth scientific disciplines, 2004-20061: growth rate (%) of the number of scientific publications between the periods 2002-2004 and 20042006 It is instructive to examine the fields of specialisation of the EU’s pool of researchers in relation to skill sets importance to NMP’s industry sectors. Figure 2.10 provides a breakdown by discipline. A more detailed breakdown of disciplines1 indicates that chemistry, physics and most branches of engineering have shown a relative decline in researchers specialising in keys areas directly impacting on NMP’s ability to delivering new products, processes and manufacturing jobs. Few areas have actually experienced an increase in specialisation. Examples of these are: mathematics, statistics and instrumentation. Whilst important enabler’s of product and process development their benefits cannot be fully realised without sufficient numbers of researchers in the other disciplines. Lastly, a recent survey of EU business schools22 has shown that the numbers of university professors undertaking manufacturing business management research and MBA training has declined in the last 10 years as business schools have moved into banking, finance, marketing and service businesses. The rate of attrition will worsen further a large number of these professors are in their 50s and will retire in the next 5 years.

22

R Thorpe et al., British Academy of Management, 2008, unpublished survey of European Business Schools.

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Perversely, as the EU seeks to increase its investment in cooperative translational research in manufacturing in an extraordinary period of technology innovation, there appears to be insufficient support to Europe’s higher education sector to train young researchers in the key technical disciplines to deliver the results. Worse, the root cause of the current and serious global economic downturn has robbed the high value manufacturing industry of its ability to train the next generation of technology-fluent business managers Whilst, the introduction of the ERC programme and the enhanced budget for the Marie Curie programme in FP7 is welcomed as likely to increase the excellence of investigator-driven research and ultimately the pool of researchers in disciplines of relevance to NMP, its biggest effect near-term will be to increase Europe’s lead in the numbers of research publications per annum1. New measures are needed within the NMP programme to increase the gene pool of early stage researchers (ESRs: i.e. PhD students) and experienced researchers (ERs: post-doctoral fellows) engaged in translational cooperative research with industrial researchers. This could be achieved by providing larger number of research and industrial training opportunities for young scientists, engineers and managers within NMP’s projects. 2.2.8 Role of NMP in International Cooperation Many countries worldwide have identified NMP technical areas, particularly materials and nanotechnologies, for priority investment. With increasing globalisation in trade and industrial manufacture, it is important that Europe establishes firm technical co-operation under the Framework Programme with other developed and emerging economies for mutual benefit. Cooperation with countries like USA, China, India, Mexico and Brazil should be strengthened. In this context, we should take into account the fact that many of the western European countries have bilateral relationships with third countries. The EC should therefore look for areas where there will be clear added value from co-operation at the European level. Co-operation should focus on underpinning R&D, pre-competitive research areas such as characterisation, test and measurement and modelling work, global grand challenges and exchange of scientific manpower. 2.3

Internal Impact of Global Economic Change on NMP Operations

2.3.1 Overview of the Challenges As FP7 moves towards the it’s second half, any adjustments or re-balancing that NMP makes to its programme or modus operandi to achieve its primary objectives needs to take into account the following factors: − The pace of technological change − Market sector economic impact analysis − The global economic down turn The first two factors are addressed in detail in the succeeding chapters of this report. The last is addressed in the following section as this has a profound affect on the available NMP budget for the remainder of the framework programme and also on the programmes structure, instruments and likely shape for FP8. 2.3.2 Impact of Current Global Economic Situation While economic development has always been susceptible to normal economic cycles, manufacturing is being particularly hit hard by the current financial crisis and is experiencing its sharpest decline in decades. The latest data for November 2008 shows that output was 8.2%

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lower than a year earlier23 (Figure 2.11). This is equivalent to a loss in output of some €130 billion in full-year terms. EU exports to non-EU countries were 11% down in value terms in November from the previous year. The crisis has affected all manufacturing sectors, although not evenly across sectors and countries as is illustrated in Figure 2.12. The slowdown has been felt somewhat later in the newer Member States. Hence there may be further dramatic developments in 2009 as the crisis unfolds. Output in different sectors has been 10 8 6 4 2 0 -2 -4 -6 -8 -10 2008M06

2007M12

2007M06

2006M12

2006M06

2005M12

2005M06

2004M12

2004M06

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1995M12

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1991M12

1991M06

0

Figure 2.11 European Manufacturing Production Growth Rates 1991-20084

average growth 2001-6

average growth 2007

data November 2008 20.0 15.0 10.0 5.0 0.0 -5.0

EU manufacturing average

-10.0 -15.0 -20.0

Motor vehicles

Basic metals

Textiles

Rubber & plastic products

Wood & of products of wood

Other non-metallic mineral products

Fabricated metal products

Leather

Furniture; manufacturing n.e.c.

Electrical machinery and apparatus n.e.c.

EU manufacturing

Pulp, paper & paper products

Chemicals & chemical products

Publishing & printing

Machinery & equipment n.e.c.

Construction

Office machinery & computers

Scientific and other instruments

Food & beverages

Radio, TV and communication equipment

Other transport equipment

Coke & refined petroleum

Wearing apparel

`

Source: Eurostat

Figure 2.12 Growth of EU Manufacturing Production Sectors & Construction4 affected to different degree of severity with the largest reductions occurring in motor vehicles and basic metals, with output in the former industry falling by over 20% (Figure 2.11). Data on orders show that the engineering, non-transport equipment, office machinery, and radio/TV and

23

th

“Impact of the economic crisis on key sectors of the EU economy”, European Commission, DG ENTERPRISE, 4 February 2009

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communications equipment sectors have been severely affected, but because of production lags this has not shown up yet in the statistics. The decline of some industries such as textiles and semiconductor manufacturing may not simply be the result of the current crisis but may have roots in longer-term weaknesses of competitiveness. 2.3.3 EU Recovery Plan In response to the economic crisis, the European Union has generated a €200 billion Recovery Plan24, which will contain 3 cooperative technology research programmes25 embedded within it, to accelerate progress towards the following European objectives: •

Energy efficient (Green) Car

Energy efficient buildings

Factories of the future

These initiatives will each be financed by new public-private partnerships (PPPs). The details nature, governance, structures and operational processes for the three PPPs are currently under development6. They will be autonomous partnerships, make calls, carry out evaluations and manage portfolios of research projects against their respective strategic plans. The PPPs will be financed through restructuring the remaining FP7 budgets for NMP and its sister cooperative programmes (ICT, Transport, Energy and Environment) as set out in Table 2.5 below. Table 2.5

Cooperative Programme’s FP7 Budget Contributions to the 3PPPs (2010-2013)

Budgets (€M) Factories of the future Energy efficient buildings Green Cars Total

NMP 400 250 60 710

ICT 245 105 120 470

TRANSP.

ENERGY

ENVIR.

220 220

125 50 175

25 50 75

Total FP7 645 505 500 1650

Total EU efforts 1,200 1,000 1,000 3200

The NMP programme is the major contributor of funds to the 3PPPs for the reminder of FP7. The Factories of the Future initiative clearly lies within NMP’s domain supported by ICT. Leadership of Energy Efficient (Green) Car initiative will lie with Transport. The Energy Efficient Buildings is a somewhat more shared activity wherein NMP is the lead sponsor. With this profile, NMP is the logical choice for coordinating the joint development and harmonisation of the 3 public-private partnerships and another example of NMP’s long tradition in pioneering development of new RTD policy delivery mechanisms that become widely used across all thematic programmes and frameworks. 2.3.4 Impact of EU Recovery Plan on NMP Budget Deployment for 2010-2013 For the planning period in question, NMP’s remaining budget is €1968 million. The 3PPPs will take up some 39.6% of the budget and hence will have a significant perturbing effect on the strategic planning options for NMP for the remainder of FP7 as shown in Figure 2.13.

24

The Commission launches a major Recovery Plan etc, IP/08/1771, Brussels, 26 November 2008 EU Economic Recovery plan: Commission and Industry agree on swift implementation of public private partnerships in Research and Innovation IP/09/520, Brussels, 1st April 2009

25

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EAG Report on Future RTD of NMP 700 600

€ Million

500 400 300 200 100 0 2007

2008

2009

2010

2011

2012

2013

Year FFF (NMP)

EEB (NMP)

GC (NMP)

NMP Core RTD

Note: FFF = Factories for the Future; EEB = Energy Efficient Buildings; GC = Green Car

Figure 2.13 Effect of the 3PPPs on NMP’s Budget Profile for 2010-2013 In essence NMP will have 3 major focussed programmes and a core RTD programme. The PPPs will be targeted to three industry sector/EU grand challenges. The core RTD programme then becomes the vehicle for creation of new enabling technologies for all industrial and initiator of critical technologies for future industry sector/EU grand challenges. Whilst it is foreseen that few projected topic areas from the Nano S&T and Materials streams of the NMP programme will migrate from the 2010-2013 Work Programme to the Energy Efficient Building and Green Car PPPs, the primary affect will be on Production technologies where significant numbers of topics will move to the Factories of Future . It is likely that the Integration stream’s topics will remain largely outside of the PPPs as this stream will be increasingly important for integration of core RTD activities with the PPPs or for piloting potential new areas for FP8 Hence these new boundary conditions must be factored into the total planning for the remainder of FP7. Conversely, the technology priorities identified within the succeeding chapters of this report must support and inform the continuing development of the strategic research agendas (SRAs) and road maps of the 3 PPPs. 2.4

Lead Market Analysis

The NMP EAG has the task to give advice to the NMP leadership with respect to future funding of R&D activities through the European Commission within the remainder of FP7 and within FP8. The goals of this analysis are to: •

Use available statistical data to analyse trends for NACE market sectors in Europe.

Collect EAG Members' qualitative inputs for the analysis.

Draw conclusions on future R&D funding trends in the various market segments.

2.4.1 Scope The classification of market segments was made according to Eurostat NACE classification standard. As this allowed relatively easy access to the most consistent and complete source of European data available. However, this classification encounters significant limitations when used for determining future RTD priorities, such as:

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(a) Segments are often too broad to describe the dynamics of important sub-segments. For example, "machinery", "electrical equipment", chemicals, “radio, television, communication equipments” or “office, accounting and computing” give no precision for fast-moving or declining sub-segments needed for determining future RTD priorities. Other segments such as “Basic Metals” and “Non-ferrous Metals” proved not to be very useful in this analysis. (b) New and promising sectors are not taken into account in this classification since it uses 3-year-old data and a rigid structure developed that is slow to integrate major new sectors. (c) The pluri-disciplinarity of industries served by NMP and the complex technology needs of the EU’s grand challenges are not well matched by this segmentation. For instance, "molecular factory" or "innovative factories" or "photovoltaics" cannot be found within such the NACE classification or can be deduced from it. (d) The recent economic downturn has resulted in a sharp decline in several segments, which as yet is not reflected in the available statistics. Nevertheless, there was sufficient reliable statistical data for an initial quantitative analysis which was then refined for each sector by EAG Members bringing to bear their considerable sector knowledge and the results are presented below. This analysis is just one of the elements considered together with the analyses in the following chapters for determining the overall picture of EU industry's shape and prospects in this report. The NACE sector classification was as follows: Table 2.6 • • • • • •

Classification of Market Sectors in Europe

Machinery & equipment Basic metals Fabricated metal products Non-metal mineral products Motor vehicles, trailers & semi-trailers Other transport equipment, including: − Aerospace − Railroad & transport equipment − Ships & boats Chemicals & chemical products Rubber & plastic products Coke, refined petroleum products & nuclear fuel Medical, precision & optical instruments Pulp, paper & paper products Printing & publishing

• • • • • •

• • • • • • • • • • • • •

Wood products (excluding furniture) Furniture manufacturing Textiles Leather, leather products & footwear Wearing apparel & fur Food & beverages Electrical machinery & apparatus Office, accounting & computing machinery Radio, television & communication equipment Mining & quarrying (non-energy extractive industry) Non-ferrous metals Pharmaceuticals Construction

2.4.2 Source Material Used The following material was used: •

NACE statistical figures.

DG ENTR Analysis, dated February 4, 2009 “Impact of the economic crisis on key sectors of the EU economy.”

Inputs of qualitative elements from Experts of the NMP EAG.

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2.4.3 Portfolio Overall Analysis – a First Glance A first attempt has been made to represent the findings in a semi-quantitative portfolio diagram. The many various detailed parameters were summed up into two groups for each market: •

“Size”-parameter (composite of [value added + R&D investment])

“Growth”-parameter (composite of [value-added growth, patent growth + market growth)

The two composite parameters were then plotted in a single graph below in Figure 2.14.

Figure 2.14 Reprenstation of market sector position using a "size" and a "growth" indicator. "Size" indicator is based on value added and R&D investment (as a % of added value); "growth" is based on value-added growth (in % per year), market growth (expert evaluation) From the above graph, it is clear that Radio, Office, Vehicles, Medical, Pharmaceuticals, Chemicals and Machinery are all of significant “Size” and show stronger “Growth”, whilst sectors such as wood, Textiles, Coke, Printing, Metals, Pulp, Furniture and Leather are of rather limited “Size” and exhibit slower “Growth”. 2.4.4 Analysis of Individual Market Segments The analysis that follows summarizes the numerical trends collected. The descriptions are deliberately kept short since much of the detailed discussion of the technological aspects will be contained in other chapter of the overall NMP EAG report. The various segments were grouped under two broad categories due to similar nature in terms of R&D challenges and similar statistical behaviour. They are defined as "Investment goods for industrial production" and "Intermediate goods for industrial production". Machinery and Equipment: The value added is relatively large. The value added growth is rather small. The patent growth is intermediate. The potential is considered high since this is a true strength of the European industry. The specific R&D investment is relatively modest. The market growth is strong, but mainly for export. Recommendations: A substantial amount of R&D investment is warranted since the size and the potential is appreciable. To maintain the advantage in the international market innovation is a key to sustained success. 22


EAG Report on Future RTD of NMP

Electrical Machinery and Apparatus: This area is recognised as important and the quantitative analysis was consistent with this observation but there was insufficient expertise within the EAG to make specific recommendations Intermediate Goods for Industrial Production: In general terms, these segments are somewhat traditional but are facing common and tough challenges: •

Globalization of their suppliers and customers and fierce competition of emerging economies. Growth is large in emerging country but relatively moderate in Europe and other developed economies. Competition can be fought through close contact with customers, innovative products and services. Some segments are relatively protected by costs of transportation relative to cost of goods (electricity, cement, etc..). Some “niche” markets can lead to substantial differentiation with significant added-value but with limited impact on the whole added-value of the segment.

Most segments are energy intensive and face large energy challenges.

Strong environmental impact of the activity, especially for the climate change. This is a very large challenge with important technical adaptation ahead requiring heavy technical development and investment.

Primary energy (natural gas, petroleum, etc.) and secondary energy (electricity production) as such are not included in the NACE segmentation in the category under study here. Recommendations: Despite the above observations this is an important sector with large addedvalue. The climate change challenge will have considerable impact on their development. The ENERGY theme generally leads within FP7’s cooperative programme. But NMP brings innovative technology solutions via nano-, materials- and production- technologies in the “technology push” direction but plays a less significant role from a "market pull" direction. Basic Metals: The value-added is intermediate with a rather small added growth. Europe’s patent growth is very close to the worldwide average. Specific R&D investment exists but is relatively modest. The market growth is low in Europe: each 1% of RTD growth generates around 2% growth in emerging economies and only 0.5% in developed economies. Recommendations: R&D funding is relatively modest and thus corresponds to the actual needs, dealing with differentiation of products for customers (mainly transport, construction, domestic appliances, investment goods, packaging, etc.) However, Environmental challenges and energy efficiency are very important if Europe is to remain competitive. Of particular importance for Europe, is moving to a low-carbon economy. Other topics such as recycling, control of emissions and residues are also important. Non-ferrous Metals: The situation regarding this segment is very similar to that for “Basic Metals” previous one with a special emphasis on recycling. Fabricated Metal Products: The value added is relatively large because this segment is covers a wide range of activities with companies of very different sizes and particularly contains a large number of SMEs. The value added growth is intermediate and strongly linked to the down-stream sectors using metal products. The patent growth in Europe is slightly higher than the average growth worldwide. The downstream sectors that are particularly important include transport, Construction, etc. The sector’s R&D investment is generally small. Recommendations: The R&D funding is relatively small but could warrant some specific and targeted funding in good niche market opportunities with good export potential.

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EAG Report on Future RTD of NMP

Non-metallic Mineral Products: The value-added is relatively modest. The value-added growth and business expenditure on R&D are both intermediate. The patent growth is high due in part to ceramics and new potential specialty applications in nanotechnology. The overall potential is considered modest to intermediate. Recommendations: It is important to ensure sure that specific materials sub-segments such as ceramics and nanotechnology applications with substantial growth and IP potential are adequately funded. Given the extraction and production processes involved attention must be paid to managing the environmental challenge for this sector. Motor Vehicles, Trailers, and Semi-trailers: This is a very large segment with a rather large value-added growth. The patent growth, compared to the world average, shows that this industry is efficiently searching to differentiate to remain competitive. The potential is considered as high and should enable Europe to remain competitive against emerging economies. R&D investment is relatively large focusing on new development of vehicles with cheaper solutions, enhanced safety, smaller emissions (CO2, NOx, particulates, etc.). Despite the current recession market growth worldwide is strong though more limited in Western Europe. Recommendations: The sector warrants substantial R&D investment to enable Europe to retain its global leading position. Greater harmonisation of the strategic research agendas of the NMP and TRANSPORT themes is recommended for FP7 and beyond. NMP can bring innovative enabling technologies for virtually all aspect of end user products via its nano-, materials- and production- technologies. Chemicals and Chemical Products: The direct value-added of this sector relatively large. Its value-added growth is relatively large. Patent growth however is small. Specific R&D investment is relatively modest and market growth is modest. However it feeds both materials and enabling technologies into high added-value downstream sectors e.g. automotive, healthcare and energy. It also is a major player in the nanotechnology revolution. Recommendations: Overall R&D funding seems to be adequate but the segment has some promising sub-segments (nanotechnology, catalysis). Public perception is still an issue, although numerous efforts towards “Sustainable Chemistryâ€? have helped. Further work towards Sustainability in particular also the optimization of energy efficiency create significant potential for the strengthening this industry segment. Innovation will be focused primarily on promising sub-segments, like specialties, which have a good outlook for creating added-value. Rubber and Plastics Products: The value-added is intermediate. The value-added growth is relatively large. Patent growth is strong. The specific R&D investment is relatively modest. The market growth is modest. Recommendations: Over all R&D funding seems to be adequate but the segment has some promising sub-segments e.g. high-performance materials, nano-enabled intermediates and composites. This sector has many of the same characteristics as the Chemicals and chemical products‌ sector. Coke, Refinery and Petroleum Products & Nuclear Fuel: The value-added is low. The value added growth is relatively large. The patent growth is strong. The specific R&D investment is relatively modest. The market growth is small. Recommendations: R&D funding needs to focus on technologies that are considered sustainable for (e.g. low CO2 emission) and the technology supply for developing countries. Specific Subsegments addressing these opportunities should receive substantial funding.

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Medical, Precision and Optical Instruments: The current value-added is intermediate and it is a sector where the value-added growth and R&D investment is relatively large because of the range of industrial applications, new product opportunities offered by nanotechnology and the business efficiency gains that such devices offer to other manufacturing sectors and to healthcare providers. It is a sector where greater and greater precision is required to reap the benefits from new nanotechnology and materials. It is an area characterized by strong, global, multinationals and large numbers of specialized SMEs. European companies are strong, a number of multinational, global leaders are headquartered in Europe and have their main research and production sites, particularly in Germany, Scandinavia and the UK. However this sector faces strong competition from Japan and the US. The patent growth is low given the R&D investment and potential economic leverage and societal benefit available. The presence of a large number of globally competitive SMEs and the difficulties and costs of patenting in Europe may also be important factors to consider. The clinical diagnostics area is worth special note. Considerable growth potential is foreseen arising from nanotechnology for developing new in vivo contrast agents, detection systems and intelligent surgical devices. Whilst the clinical potential for new in vitro devices (IVDs) is high, European healthcare providers’ budget for IVD products has been flat (3% total budget) for the last 7 years. In addition, IVD testing is becoming increasingly centralized and outsourced to service providers focusing on cost. Overall he potential for the whole sector is considered to be good because of the high R&D investment and market growth forecasts. It is a sector that is supported by several major ETPs (e.g. Nanomedicine, ManuFuture SusChem, ENIAC etc)... Recommendations: R&D funding is substantial and seems to be warranted because of multiple positive trends. Measures for SME support should be encouraged. Measures to ensure that IP generation is increased, in line with the high R&D expenditure. Printing and Publishing: The global value-added is more than average and particularly high for Europe. Yet the value-added growth is small and the patent growth is average. Traditional segments are going out of business. The low current R&D investment seems appropriate overall. Recommendations: R&D needs to focus on electronic media and digital printing. Significant synergies are likely to occur with the Radio, television and communication equipment sector. Hence targeted support is recommended in these niche areas Pulp, Paper and Paper Products: The sector’s value-added and its growth is both relatively modest. The patent growth is world average: no real difference for Europe. The growth potential for conventional paper is limited in Europe but significant in emerging countries. R&D investment is small, except for higher value “niche” areas. This industry also is facing significant challenges relating to the environment and energy saving. Recommendations: R&D funding is rather small and the sector’s needs seem also to be small except in respect of the environment and energy usage. Wood Products (excl. Furniture): R&D Investment is low and seems to be appropriate for this sector. However, new considerations are becoming important. Wood prices are increasing because of high global demand. Wood is an important and sustainable construction material. Investment in specific enabling technologies may be justified for this sector (e.g. plant health and protection, paints, fire resistance). Europe’s position regarding genetically modified organisms (GMOs) needs also to be considered. Recommendations: R&D funding should focus on the competitiveness and sustainability of the forestry and forest-based industry sectors by building a multidisciplinary knowledge base enabling development of innovative, eco-efficient and cost-competitive products, processes and services. At the same time, active networking of producers and users of knowledge and 25


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technology is a prerequisite for accelerating product and process developments work in this sector Furniture: Europe’s wood-related industries face difficulties: e.g. slowness to adapt to the expanded market environment (Slovenia & Slovakia) and low capability to compete with other countries in this sector. Lack of innovation characterise this sector and places it in a disadvantaged position. In summary, growth, R&D and R&D potential are all apparently low. However, this is an important area for SMEs. In addition Europe’s product design capability in niche up-market sectors is respected globally. Hence alignment this design strength with new production and supply chain paradigms might an area to concentrate research in. Recommendations: R&D funding should be carefully focused on design and mass customization. Textiles and Clothing: Europe’s textile and clothing sector accounts for approximately 4.5% of total EU manufacturing production and 8.0% of manufacturing employment. It employs about 2.3 million workers in 208,000 enterprises which generate a turnover of about €211 billion with €5.6 billion of investments. SMEs are predominant in this industry. Textiles account for 3% of EU total exports in manufacturing. The value-added is relatively small. The value added growth is also relatively small. Patent growth is small. Potential for growth is available in certain niches segments, particularly in technical textiles and exploitation of Europe’s textile products design strengths. Dependence of employment is big. However, R&D investment is small and market growth is foreseen to be modest. Recommendations: R&D funding should be carefully focused on the sub-segments with growth potential: e.g. ‘smart textiles’, new supply chain paradigms and mass customization for clothing. Leather, Leather Products and Footwear: The characteristics of this sector are similar to that of the textiles and clothing sector. Recommendations: R&D funding should be carefully focused on the sub-segments with growth potential: e.g. ‘smart leather & footwear’, mass customization and rapid manufacturing. Wearing Apparel and Fur: The characteristics of this sector are similar to that of the textiles and clothing sector. Recommendations: R&D funding should be carefully focused on the sub-segments with growth potential: e.g. ‘smart textiles’ and mass customization. Food and Beverages: Food and beverages production represents large contribution to overall GDP. It is growing and shows significant continued growth potential. Substantial R&D funding is needed for the development of healthy food, specialty high-value food, anti-counterfeiting, food safety, bio-degradable packaging. In addition, security of food supply from within Europe is also important. R&D funding of food production should focus on the sustainability and ecological aspects of agriculture. Some sorts of beverages belong to heritage of European nations. Safe and soft nanotechnologies are likely to be important in several areas within this sector Examples include: a) nanoparticles for controlled extraction and release; b) nanocarriers for food; c) nanocapsules for delivery of nutrients; d) breathable films for food packaging; e) quality control – using of nanodetectors as a more reliable indicator than expiry date; f) beverage packaging; g) nanodispersed silicates in food packaging; h) carbon nanotubes for new types of packaging with improved functionality; i) controlled release of flavours; j) smart materials for encapsulation; k) nanoemulsions for fat reduction; l) Smart materials for encapsulation; m) micro fluidics for bubble release; n) supramolecular gels for novel ingredients for formulation and delivery of nutriceuticals; o) delivery of bioactive ingredients.

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The nanoscale materials are not new to the food and beverage sector. Nanoscale phenomena p already exploited in nutriceuticals and functional food formulation, manufacturing, and processing. Colloid science is an important ‘soft’ nanoscience and has been applied to food materials for a long time for example in food and beverages contain components and in processing (e.g. dairy products). Recommendations: Investment in this sector should be maintained. Spill-overs from the soft nanoscience generated in this sector may have benefits for other industrial sectors seeking ways to exploit nanotechnology in a safe manner. Notwithstanding, E, H & S risk aspects of engineered or ‘hard’ nanoparticles for use in this sector should be properly assessed within the NMP and KBBE cooperative programmes and research harmonised accordingly. Office, Accounting and Computing Machinery; This segment (which excludes electronic components, software or maintenance) is closely related to the ICT sector since it concerns a large part of its hardware base. Its value-added is large and its growth of in value-added is also relatively large. The short life-time of the equipment, the continuous demand for new functions and technological innovations needed all lead to a strong R&D investment. Patent growth is also strong. The nature of the rapid "replacement" market for a great deal of such equipment leads to a relatively overall modest market growth compared to other sectors. The potential though is considered very important since new services appear, including in conventional business as well as the high-technology sectors. Cost reduction of components and new demands arising from ‘beyond Moore's law’ perspectives should fuel growth. Recommendations: This is an important and strong sector worthy of continued R&D investment. Translocation of this high-value parts of this sector to far-eastern economies should guarded against by strengthening Europe’s R&D base. Radio, television and communication equipment: The value added is large. The value added growth is large and the patent growth is strong. The overall potential is considered very large. R&D investment is large and market growth is strong. Recommendations: This is a very important sector for Europe and in which it has a globalleading position in mobile communications. Its continued high R&D investment is warranted, particularly in mobile phones, communication equipment, internet infrastructure, wireless technologies and IT convergence. Introduction of interactive digital TV and new internet modalities can open up new markets. Large potential for NMP research exists, especially in human interfaces and in support of extension of Moore’s Law. Pharmaceuticals: Added value is medium to high. Growth potential is good. R&D investment is very high for good reasons including high knowledge content, high-capital investment, safety, efficacy and regulatory requirements. In recent years the costs of R&D have been increasing whilst the number of new approved active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) has gone down. The long R&D timescales for new drugs is an issue because of short life time left on patents when new drugs are launched. Price erosion by generic pharmaceutical manufactures after patent expiry is another. New API form and formulations for better therapeutic effect delivery from older licensed products; by for example nanotechnology options are being increasingly developed. Targeted delivery of nucleic acid or protein fragment agents via nanoparticle or nanocapsule agents offers new options. New paradigms are foreseen which involve both treatment and imaging. Against these benefits, safety considerations and the high costs of new treatments may be disincentives. Recommendations: From the perspective of NMP, the development of new approaches for decreasing lead-times to market and reduction of manufacturing costs will be essential for competitive advantage. The sector is crisis-resistant but competition from the US is strong and both China and India have identified this sector as strategic for their economies and hence 27


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Europe’s pharmaceuticals sector’s needs to defend its position. The ageing population will lead to sustainable economic needs. Cost is a big issue (DNA, proteins). European strength is in APIs and molecular biology, molecular medicine and manufacturing. Regulation is an issue in relation to tissue and bone regeneration. For example, stem cell delivery by nano-capsules could be covered by existing regulatory systems for pharmaceuticals or medical devices or both. Construction: The construction sector is a very large industry. It is characterized by a highly fragmented complexity by millions of unique projects. The economic impact of the construction sector also becomes clear if one considers that the total amount of materials required for construction purposes in Europe exceeds 2 billion tons per year, making it the largest raw material consuming industry26. Together with the fact, that 43% of Europe’s energy consumption has been related to building (lightening, cooling, heating and others), it is obvious, that the construction sector has a significant environmental impact. Actors operate at different scales: worldwide, European, national and regional. On one side some large players with a strong R&D&I background export European technology e.g. architecture design, tunnels, financial engineering, performance based building, etc. These global players invest increasingly in RDI. On the other side many incremental innovations are developed projects wise. And the industry is to some extend also steered by regulations with roots and needs at a local or district level. The challenge for the construction industry is to transform it into a performance oriented sustainable and competitive sector. Major societal needs have to be addressed: climate change and the Kyoto protocol, health, safety and security, accessibility and usability for all, preserving the natural environment, natural resources and our cultural heritage, enhancing the urban environment, maintaining a high level of efficiency and services of the infrastructure systems, optimizing the life cycle cost of the built environment.... The revolution that ICT brings in life will change the use of offices and houses as well as the building process itself. By improving functionality, durability and efficiency of materials and developing innovative combinations and processes to use the materials, significant changes for the environment and quality of life can be achieved. Recent advances in nanotechnology, nano-structured materials with enhanced structural and functional properties, modeling, analytical techniques and other technologies have the potential of creating breakthrough innovations in the production and use of building materials as well as in the whole construction process. The topic of Energy Efficient Buildings is included in the PPP initiative, but many other challenges linked to the NMP Priority are to be tackled. Recommendations: The sector is currently reinforcing its involvement in R&D activities, which was so far rather low, in order to transform it into a knowledge-based sustainable and competitive sector. The Energy Efficient Buildings challenge is dealt with through a PPP including research on materials, integration of technologies, and use of ICT for design and management purposes. Additional R&D a outside the PPP are needed to develop high added value construction materials (multifunctionality, durability, reliability, applicability, production…), innovative systems and technologies for a sustainable management of infrastructures and the development of underground spaces (retrofit, upgrade, management, new tunneling technologies…), to reduce the impacts of built environment and cities, to develop healthy, safe, accessible and stimulating urban and indoor environments for all (ambient assistant living), to improve safety and security within the sector (mitigation of natural and technical risks), and to implement new integrated processes (implementing ICT innovations and reshaping the industrial processes)”.

26

European Construction Technology Platform (ECTP) http://www.ectp.org

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2.5

Conclusions and Priorities for Research Direction

The EAG welcomes the observations made by Commissioner Potocnik at the recent Research Connections 2009 conference27 in Prague. In his review of FP7, as he approached the end of his term of office, he stated that…”The economic crisis is a good reality check for our programmes. Research is key to revitalising the European economy…..” Given the depth of the banking and finance crisis and the subsequent global recession, Europe must focus on the physical economy to search for routes to sustainable growth and jobs. Hence the EAG supports his view that “….It is time to boost, not cut spending on research and innovation and to lay a basis for recovery…..” This report provides economic and technical evidence that the NMP programme can make a substantial contribution to growth in Europe’s physical economy, by virtue of the enabling technologies it creates for the EU’s high-added value industrial sectors whilst addressing also its “grand challenges”. Arguably it will enable the EU to emerge from the recession earlier than otherwise but importantly in a competitive position for the long-term. 2.5.1 Conclusions from the External Economic Analysis •

The importance of the NMP industrial programme as a major engine for Europe’s growth, jobs and solutions to its grand challenges has been confirmed and is likely to grow as the major global trading blocks focus increasingly on the Physical economy.

World RTD investment forecasts indicate that Europe’s future investment intentions in manufacturing, energy, environmental technologies, health and transport are significantly lower than Asia and North America. This is a major EU challenge which for which further investment in NMP would provide EU leadership.

Establish strong international co-operation in R&D, with other key developed and emerging economies for mutual benefit and maximum leverage at the European level.

The scale of the investment collectively by the EU in nanotechnology is appropriate and competitive with the US, Japan, China and BRIC countries but must be maintained for the period in question for Europe’s industry to remain competitive.

There is evidence that the US is investing in research into the environment, health and safety risks of engineered nanomaterials at annual rate that is 3 x that of the EU.

The NMP programme has shown it is robust to harsh economic change and demonstrated both leadership and innovation in RTD policy creation and implementation in FP7’s new 3 PPP initiatives.

The PPPs enhances NMP’s industrial focus, contribution to grand challenges and its connectivity to ICT, Energy, Environment and Transport directorates in ways that could help shape future framework programmes.

Note: The relative underfunding of Europe’s R&D by manufacturing businesses cannot be solved by NMP research alone. Policy initiatives outside of NMP’s remit are needed to incentivize capital-intensive high-tech businesses and financial organisations to invest and for Europe to implement the Commission’s 2004 recommendations for reforming Europe’s patent system.

27

Janez Potocnik, Research Review, p6-7 Issue 9, May 2009

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2.5.2 NMP Priorities 2010-2015 Derived from the Internal Economic Analysis •

Focus on high-value manufacturing, energy, environment, healthcare, food and transport technologies.

Greater support is recommended for strength for all necessary intermediate stages of materials and products' research and development research to accelerate translation of emerging nano-, bio-, info- technologies towards exploitation.

Investment in nanomaterials E, H & S risk research must be maintained or preferably increased to US Levels to ensure Europe remains competitive with respect to global regulation developments.

The NMP’s E H & S nanomaterials collaborative projects and clustering for sharing knowledge are unique and should be encouraged play a leading role in global cooperation.

With 40% of the budget moved into the PPPs, tough decisions are required to focus the remaining budget for 2010-2013. A rational economic basis is provided in this chapter together with in-depth technology forecasts in the remaining chapters for Work Programme topic selection for maximising economic and societal impact.

The performance of the 3PPPs should be continuously monitored for purposes of informing the future planning of NMP’s industrial technologies cooperative RTD programmes.

This review indicates that NMP should seek increased funding beyond 2013 to maintain the momentum of Europe’s physical economy after it has emerged from the current recession and to build on: a) the learning from the PPPs and b) exploiting Europe’s global strength in intermediate materials and devices manufacturing

Europe’s Research and training capacities for high-technology manufacturing business management have declined at a time of growth in industrial need. Whilst the responsibility for addressing this issue lies with other directorates, as a practical measure NMP could introduce “on the job” opportunities for future manufacturing leaders as a special measure within all its projects.

Note: Given the sector it is in NMP has a special responsibility to SMEs. The current economic difficulties are likely lead to reduced funding needed for the creation and development of SMEs. Whilst fiscal remedies are beyond the remit of NMP, it is recommended the all calls especially encourage SME participation, particularly in the key intermediate materials and devices and supply chain innovation areas. 2.5.3 NMP Priorities Derived from the Lead Market Analysis The priorities are derived from both the quantitative analysis in Section 2.4.4 and the detailed sector-by-sector qualitative considerations in Section 2.4.5 and must be use only in conjunction with the technology priorities detailed in the following chapters for nanotechnologies, materials and production technologies to determining research funding priorities for existing markets. •

Amongst existing NACE classified sectors, several have emerged as favourable for focussed funding (Figure 2.14). In particular, these are: the electronics and communications industry; the transportation vehicle industry; the medical/pharmaceutical/ chemical industry and the machinery industry.

It is strongly underlined that many of sectors throughout the whole “Growth” Vs “Size” graph in Figure 2.14 have particularly attractive specialty sub-segments that need to be supported and nurtured by Europe. These areas are highlighted in the detailed comments and priority recommendations for each individual NACE sector in Section 2.5.

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Chapter 3 Nanoscience and Nanotechnology

N

anonoscience and Nanotechnoly are general terms that are employed to describe scientific

and technological developments dealing with the synthesis, characterization, properties assessment and modelling as well as fabrication of functional nanomaterials, nanostructures, nanodevices and nanosystems. It is the promise of radical new applications, amongst them energy storage, medical diagnostics, measurement and testing, nanotools analysis and drug delivery, robotics and prosthetics, where Nanoscience and Nonotechnolgy will potentially prove disruptive to existing products and market. Industrial sectors that can benefit from the advancements of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology include: Transport, Chemical / Biochemical Industry, Construction and Housing, Consumer and Household Goods, Defence and Security, Electronics and Information Technologies, Energy, Environment, Water, Food and Drink, Life Sciences and Healthcare, etc. There are at least three reasons for the current interest in nanotechnology. First, the research is helping us fill a major gap in our fundamental knowledge of matter. At the small end of the scale (single atoms and molecules) we already know quite a bit with tools developed by conventional physics and chemistry. At the large end, likewise, conventional chemistry, biology, and engineering have taught us about the bulk behaviour of materials and systems. Until now, however, we have known much less about the intermediate nanoscale, which is the natural threshold where all living systems and man-made systems work. The basic properties and functions of material structures and systems are defined here, and even more importantly, can be changed as a function of the organization of matter via “weak” molecular interactions (such as, hydrogen bonds, electrostatic dipole, van der Waals forces, various surface forces, electro-fluidic forces, etc.). A second reason for the interest in nanotechnology is that nanoscale phenomena hold the promise of radically new applications and more effluent products. Possible examples include chemical manufacturing with designed molecular assemblies, processing of information using photons or electron spin, detection of chemicals or bioagents with only a few molecules, detection and treatment of chronic illnesses by subcellular interventions, regenerating tissue and nerves, enhancing learning and other cognitive processes by understanding the “society” of neurons, and cleaning contaminated soils with designed nanoparticles. Finally, a third reason for the interest is the beginning of industrial prototyping and commercialization, and that governments around the world are pushing to develop nanotechnology as rapidly as possible.

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In Figure 3.1, four generations of nanotechnology products and their respective manufacturing methods and research foci are identified: Passive nanostructures; active nanostructures; three-

Figure 3.1 Four generations of nanotechnology products and processes dimensional (3-D) nanostystems and systems of nanosystems; and heterogeneous molecular nanosystems. Designing new atomic and molecular assemblies is expected to increase in importance, including macromolecules “by design� nanoscale machines, and directed multiscale self-assembling. Although expectations from nanotechnology may be overestimated in short-term, the long-term implications on healthcare, productivity and environment appear to be underestimated. It is clear, however, that even first and second generation nanotechnologies (which already exist) present major challenges in terms of understanding their social and environmental implications. The implications of what are seen as third and fourth generation nanotechnologies are profound and represent a significant step change in the challenges to the regulatory system and to the need for societal engagement. 3.1

Present State-of-the-Art

The rudimentary capabilities of nanotechnology today for systematic control and manufacture at the nanoscale are envisioned to evolve in four overlapping generations of new nanotechnology products with different areas of R&D focus (see Figure 3.1). First Generation of products (~ 2001-): Passive nanostructures, illustrated by nanostructured coatings, dispersion of nanoparticles, and bulk materials - nanostructured metals, polymers, and ceramics. The primary research focus is on nanostructured materials and tools for measurement and control of nanoscale processes. Examples are research on nanobiomaterials, nanomechanics, nanoparticle synthesis and processing, nanolayers and nanocoatings, various catalysts, nanomanufacturing of advanced materials, and interdisciplinary simulation and experimental tools. Second Generation of products (~2005 -): Active nanostructures, illustrated by transistors, amplifiers, targeted drugs and chemicals, actuators, and adaptive structures. An increased research focus will be on novel devices and device system architectures. Key areas or research include nanobiosensors and devices, tools for molecular medicine and food systems, multiscale 32


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hierarchical modeling and simulation, energy conversion and storage, nanoelectronics beyond CMOS, 3-D nanoscale instrumentation and nanomanufacturing, R&D networking for remote measurement and manufacturing, converging technologies (nano-bio-info-cogno) and their societal implications. Third Generation (~2010 -): 3-D nanosystems and systems of nanosystems with various syntheses and assembling techniques, such as bioassembling; networking at the nanoscale and multiscale architectures. Research focus will shift toward heterogeneous nanostructures and supramolecular system engineering. This includes directed multiscale selfassembling, artificial tissues and sensorial systems, quantum interactions within nanoscale systems, nanostructured photonic devices, scalable plasmonic devices, chemico-mechanical processing, and nanoscale electromechanical systems (NEMS), and targeted cell therapy with nanodevices. Fourth Generation (~2015 -): Heterogeneous molecular nanosystems, where each molecule in the nanosystem has a specific structure and plays a different role. Molecules will be used as devices and from their engineered structures and architectures will emerge fundamentally new functions. This is approaching the way biological systems work, but biological systems are in water, process the information relatively slow, and generally have more hierarchical scales. Research focus will be on atomic manipulation for design of molecules and supramolecular systems, dynamics of single molecule, molecular machines, design of large heterogeneous molecular systems, controlled interaction between light and matter with relevance to energy conversion among others, exploiting quantum control, emerging behavior of complex macromolecular assemblies, nanosystem biology for healthcare and agricultural systems, humanmachine interface at the tissue and nervous system level, and convergence of nano-bioinfocognitive domains. Examples are creating multifunctional molecules, catalysts for synthesis and controlling of engineered nanostructures, subcellular interventions, and biomimetics for complex system dynamics and control. Nanotechnology Vision for 2015 The following potential nanotechnology developments are expected by 2015: •

• • •

Half of the newly designed advanced materials and manufacturing processes are built using control at the nanoscale. The structure and function control still may be rudimentary in 2015 as compared to the long-term potential of nanotechnology. Suffering from chronic illnesses is being sharply reduced. It is conceivable that by 2015, our ability to detect and treat tumors in their first year of occurrence might greatly mitigate suffering and death from cancer. Science and engineering of nanobiosystems will become essential to human healthcare and biotechnology. This area is one of the most challenging and fastest growing components of nanotechnology. Converging science and engineering from the nanoscale will establish a mainstream pattern for applying and integrating nanotechnology with biology, electronics, medicine, learning and other fields. Life-cycle sustainability and biocompatibility will be pursued in the development of new products. Knowledge development and education will originate from the nanoscale instead of the microscale. Nanotechnology businesses and organizations will restructure toward integration with other technologies, distributed production, continuing education, and forming consortia of complementary activities.

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3.2

Nanomaterials and Nanostructures by Design

Many materials that appear to the naked eye to be of a perfectly continuous nature, are in fact made up of grains of crystallised matter with dimensions often of the order of the micron (one millionth of a meter, or 10-6m). These micrometric grains are of course very small compared with the dimensions of the objects generally made with such materials. However, they are very large compared with the dimensions of the atoms that make them up. Indeed, atoms have diameters ten thousand times smaller that these grains. Forty years ago, it was realised that the properties (e.g., mechanical, optical, electrical, magnetic, biological, etc.) of certain materials could be modified, improved or adapted in specific ways, if during their fabrication, the grains making them up could be made much smaller (i.e., on the nanometric scale). Today, they can be found in many fields of application, from cosmetics, through magnetic and electronic recording devices to precision cutting tools. Further research and developments are under way to invent or improve novel nanomaterials, exploiting the way their properties depend on the grain size. More recently, the term nanomaterials has also been used for materials made up from atom assemblages with dimensions of the order of a few nanometers. A priori, these atom assemblages, known as clusters, have nothing in common with nanomaterials as they were previously defined. However, by their very nature, they can too exhibit quite exceptional properties and are currently the subject of much scientific interest both on the level of fundamental research and for their prospective applications. The distinction between these two large families of nanomaterials can be justified by the following observation. In the first case, the synthesis of nanomaterials is based on a top-down approach, that is, nanomaterials made up from nanometic grains, are produced from standard bulk materials. In the second case, the synthesis of nanomaterials follows a so-called bottom-up approach, that is, it starts from atoms and molecules builds up nanostructures via a selforganization process (see Figure 3.2). Today, limited analytical tools and synthetic capabilities exist for large-scale manufacturing of nanomaterials. These tools provide impressive capabilities to measure, move, distribute, and

Figure 3.2 Manufacturing of nanostructures, nanodevices and nanosystems

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assemble atoms or molecules, but are generally unsuitable for large-scale manufacturing. The resolution of photolithography, for example, is currently about 100 nm and significant feature size reduction will be required to prepare the nanomaterials of the future. Methods to synthesize nanomaterials with defined properties and spatial resolution are also limited. One approach is the use of self-assembly to prepare new nanomaterials in which the primary interactions are weak covalent or non-covalent interactions. New, more powerful tools and robust synthetic methods will be needed to reveal and exploit the complex nature of the nanoscale and to manipulate atoms and molecules into nanostructures with defined structures. Thus, more robust, economical tools and synthetic processes will be required to advance the field from the laboratory to the manufacturing environment. Manufacturing processes and application environments pose significant challenges to the successful use of nanoscale building blocks. A typical nanomaterial, for example, is more reactive than its bulk counterpart and may be more sensitive to the surrounding environment. Processing methods may be required to address this sensitivity. The term “Nanomaterials and Nanostructures by Design” refers to the ability to employ scientific principles in deliberately creating structures with nanoscale features (e.g., size, architecture) that deliver unique functionalities (e.g., chemical, physical, biological, electrical, optical, etc.). The scientific and engineering challenges to be overcome to developing novel nanomaterials-based applications are enormous. Thus, systematic research to understand fundamentals and discoverybased R&D will proceed concurrently, each in forming and benefiting from the other. 3.2.1 Fundamental Understanding and Synthesis The largest barrier to rational design and controlled synthesis of nanomaterials with predefined properties is the lack of fundamental understanding of thermodynamic and kinetic processes at the nanoscale. The lack of basic scientific knowledge regarding the physics, chemistry and biology limits the ability to predict a priori structure-property- processing relationships. Thus, R&D is needed for the elucidation of kinetic and thermodynamic rules for synthesis and assembly that can be applied to rational design of nanomaterials at commercial scales, including hierarchical nanomaterials, from first principles. Research Priorities in Fundamental Knowledge

Develop models, theories, and experimental validation of physics, chemistry and biology at the nanoscale, including kinetic and thermodynamic principles guiding synthesis and assembly.

Basic knowledge of self-assembly processes, particularly those governed by non-covalent forces (e.g., understanding biological processes such as molecular recognition and templated synthesis and translation of these principles to man-made systems).

Develop new bottom-up methods based on exploitation of biological principles such as molecular recognition and templated synthesis, as well as supramolecular chemistry.

Understanding of nucleation, growth, and disassembly mechanisms.

Develop novel enabling technologies for the manufacturing of integrated hybrid organic/inorganic interfaces and systems.

Development of mechanisms controlling interfacial interactions in the production of nanoparticles (non-agglomeration), dispersions, nanocomposites, and ordered, spatiallyresolved nanostructures – especially understanding defect control and placement,

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uniformity and control, particle size control, and integration of dissimilar materials such as organic/inorganic/biological composites. •

Develop methods to reliably and easily functionalize surfaces to control interfacial interactions and agglomeration.

Develop new design strategies and paradigms for the controlled assembly of nanocomposite and spatially resolved nanostructures with long-range order.

Understanding of mechanisms controlling heterogeneous integration across time and length scales.

Develop a fundamental understanding of structure-property-processing relationships at the nanoscale and their influence on the macroscale behaviour (bulk) of materials

Understand the origin of unexpected nanoscale behaviour and develop the ability to predict behaviour for properties such as: hardness and ductility, electronic and optical properties, mass transport, reactivity, catalytic properties, thermoelectric and piezoelectric properties, magnetic properties.

Develop new high-throughput screening methods to determine structure-propertyrelationships. High-throughput nanoscreening has tremendous potential to reveal unique structure-property relationships and to identify new synthesis strategies.

New synthetic strategies for identified building blocks and assemblies that are amenable to combinatorial screening need to be developed.

New analytical methods will also be necessary, while existing analytical processes for understanding nanoscale properties will need to be applied cost-effectively to highthroughput methodology.

A database of key nanomaterial properties (e.g., physical, chemical, mechanical) that compares performance to bulk materials. This dataset will reveal unexpected similarities, differences, and unique attributes within groups of building blocks and assemblies. This database has to take into account that on the nanoscale the surface/interfaces play an important role, so not only material composition and size has to be taken into account but also the surfaces (influence of functionalization, dispersing agents).

Develop device and application design concepts and paradigms based on exploitation of the properties of the nanoscale.

Develop systems approaches to enable new, paradigm-shifting applications using nanomaterials.

3.2.2 Analytical Nanotools and Measurements Observing, correlating and understanding structure and function at the nanoscale is essential to developing reproducible Nanomaterials. To do this, analytical tool capabilities must move from static measurements of quenched samples to dynamic, real-time measurements. Chemical, physical, and temporal properties at the nanoscale must be monitored as reactions occur and as systems evolve (including living systems). Accurate and precise three-dimensional (3-D) characterization tools providing this capability are essential to the advancement of R&D in fundamentals and synthesis, manufacturing, and modeling as well as commercial production. New analytical tools are needed to:

Evaluate nanomaterials with a spatial and a depth resolution = 0.1 nm

Analyze buried interfaces

Analyze nanoscale biosystems 36


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Analyze high throughput in real time

Couple theory/modeling and experiment

Develop nanostructure/property relationships

Understand and bridge multiple length scales

Tool Specifications for Real –time Characterization

Three-dimensional tomographic capabilities

Spatial resolution of 1nm or less

Depth of penetration below 1nm

Applicable to sample volumes of 1µm3 or larger

Multiple probes for rapid, parallel measurement of identical properties or for simultaneous measurement of different properties

Fast acquisition speed to monitor kinetic processes in real time

Function in a manufacturing environment (e.g., on-line process monitoring)

Function in different environments (e.g., in-vacuo, in-vivo, and in-vitro)

Research Priorities in Analytical Nanotools and Measurements

The use of proximity probes to measure other chemical/physical properties, such as electrical or magnetic properties, with 1-nm spatial and depth resolution or better is limited by measuring tool technology. Achieving higher speeds as well as manipulating and matching parallel probes remain key issues for many technologies. A key challenge is the development of nanoprobes capable of measuring certain physical or chemical properties at the desired spatial resolution and with the appropriate depth of penetration. Current focus is on structural determination of chemical composition in 3-D. For the development of multiprobe or parallel-probe systems, improvements in nanofabrication are necessary to produce consistent measurements. Analytical tool requirements present numerous computer science and data management challenges. Large amounts of data will have to be processed, stored, managed, interpreted, and disseminated. Identifying statistically significant trends will be difficult. Managing access to data will also be a challenge. In this rapidly changing field, maintaining an up-to-date knowledge of key advances and the options generated by the many scientists in a diverse research community is a significant challenge. The research priorities identified for development of the ultimate analytical tool are based on existing measurement technologies. Novel approaches are needed to fully realize the potential of nanoscale material design. Examples of such novel approaches include combinatorial materials characterization approaches and “lab-on-a-chip” designs. Identifying and encouraging these novel approaches will be key for advancement in the field. •

Develop advanced methods and instrumentation (hardware and software) to provide chemical and physical properties and structural information in real-time, with 1-nm or less spatial and depth resolution—including, but not limited to: 9 Spectroscopies 9 Scattering techniques (Fourier Space) 9 Microscopies (Real Space)

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EAG Report on Future RTD of NMP

Integrate individual techniques into 2-D, real-time multi-probe systems. (Develop multiprobe systems that integrate imaging, scattering, and spectroscopy functions to enable higher throughput.) 9 Improved sample handling and manipulation 9 Miniaturization capability 9 Vibration isolation capability 9 Reproducible interprobe performance 9 Operation in-vacuo, in-vitro, and in-vivo

Complete integration of single probes and multiprobe techniques into real-time, 3-D imaging tomography 9 New data design algorithms 9 Assimilation of robust tools into manufacturing environments

Provide affordable access to specialized National and European tools and facilities

Build partnerships to ensure the development of high-end, next-generation analytical tools

Foster the commercial development of affordable, robust analytical tools suitable for both research and manufacturing environments

Develop effective data acquisition and management strategies and tools

3.2.3 Manufacturing and Processing Nanomaterials and products containing nanomaterials (e.g., nanotubes, inorganic powders, organic films, and coatings) are manufactured today with traditional manufacturing techniques and unit operations. These nanomaterials are prohibitively expensive for many applications due to high capital costs and low production volumes. Furthermore, byproducts, wastes, and impurities hinder commercial applications. Significant academic research is leading to discoveries of new materials. However, researchers are not focused on the requirements posed by scalable, cost-effective manufacturing. Robust and reliable production methods – consistently and correctly controlled at the atomic scale – are needed to significantly expand the commercial use of nanomaterials. In addition, production must be accomplished in a safe, environmentally friendly manner. Successful implementation of nanotechnology will require a strong commitment to process innovation (manufacturing). The traditional focus on materials science alone will not provide the breakthroughs needed to extract the full benefits of nanotechnology. Research to understand what material structures are required for a specific application must be developed concurrently with new processing capabilities. Biological systems found in nature provide excellent examples of highly controlled and organized architectures that generate complex materials. Developing similar controlled manufacturing capabilities will require a significant research effort with close interactions among diverse disciplines. Inherent in nanoscale manufacturing is the need to preserve the specialized functions available at the nanoscale during manufacturing and scaling the material to the macro or applications level. A variety of new processes (including self-assembly) will likely be needed to cost-effectively produce diverse nanomaterials. These processes are critical, as nanomaterials are often unstable and sensitive to the surrounding environment. Fundamental knowledge of both physical properties and chemical reactivity at the nanoscale will be necessary to manufacture nanomaterials and ensure their integrity in storage and use.

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Leveraging fundamental knowledge of particle nucleation, growth kinetics, and aggregation phenomena can lead to processes with superior particle-size control and obviate the need for downstream classification steps. This is imperative because extensive classification of nanoparticles needed to achieve discrete particle size ranges is economically impractical. Product consistency during scale up – from lab scale, to pilot scale, to commercial units – is essential for commercial success. The smooth transition from the laboratory to commercial introduction will depend on the availability of robust modeling and simulation tools that can predict experimental outcomes. Laboratory experimentation can be cumbersome and time consuming, and often does not completely represent the final manufacturing conditions. Computer-aided modeling and simulation can supplement physical experiments, accelerate future research, and speed the time to the market by a factor of 2 to 10. Nanoscale manufacturing R&D and high-volume, cost-effective production will not be possible without advanced analytical tools. The development of robust manufacturing methods with nanosized elements requires extensive process control. An effective control system requires accurate and timely measurements, rapid data assessment, and response parameters. Easy-to-use, economical tools for product assay and application-specific qualification are also needed. Integrating the process control components at the nanoscale will require a long-term commitment to R&D in diverse science and technology fields. The spectrum of invention required necessitates a series of parallel, intensely interwoven R&D activities. In order to minimize problems of dispersion and handling of nanoparticles processes for in-situ generation of nanostructures have to be developed. Another important topic is the long-term thermal and mechanical behaviour of (polymer) nanocomposites. The dispersion of nanostructures in a matrix is very often controlled by kinetics, which means that the thermodynamically stable state is not reached during processing. Therefore, the tendency of nanocomposites to change the state of dispersion for example, during thermal cycling, could lead to unwanted changes of mechanical behaviour which is not known from classical composites. Research Priorities in Manufacturing and Processing

Develop Robust Scale-Up and Scale-Down Methodologies for Manufacturing Current methods used to isolate nanoparticles from reaction media and to separate powders and solid materials (e.g., purification, separation, and consolidation techniques) result in low yields (especially at low volumes), relatively large amounts of precursor waste, compromised performance, and finished products that cannot easily be reproduced. Realization of the full potential of novel nanomaterials is impossible without suitable processing techniques that go beyond miniaturized traditional manufacturing. Manufacturing approaches that utilize mass production techniques, modular assembly with building blocks, and integrated assembly are needed to reduce costs and accelerate the entry of nanomaterials into commercial application. This will require basic physical and thermodynamic data that do not currently exist. For example, reliable and robust processes cannot be developed presently at low volumes. •

Develop models and documented design tools to scale up or scale down processes quickly and effectively

Design and develop processes to engineer materials at the device level that retain properties of the nanoscale (e.g., retention of nanograins in sintered consolidated material)

Develop reliable passivation techniques to allow safe handling and preservation of nanomaterial functionality

Develop processes for nanomaterial emissions control

Develop purification and classification processes 39


EAG Report on Future RTD of NMP

Develop Novel Manufacturing Techniques for Hierarchical Assembly Manufacturing strategies and efficient modular tools that utilize integrated synthesis and assembly methods to manufacture nanomaterial building blocks are needed. •

Develop robust reproducible self-assembly techniques that integrate synthesis and assembly functions of manufacturing and minimize labor and energy input

Develop efficient modular tools for building-block assembly

Develop Dispersion and Surface Modification Processes that Retain Functionality Once produced, a nanomaterial (e.g., nanoparticles, nanotubes) often needs to be modified for use in a specific application. Retention of the unique magnetic, electronic, mechanical, or other properties is critical. Processes and design techniques are needed to allow new nanomaterials and devices to be scaled up rapidly and with cost-performance profiles that exceed competing technologies. •

Develop techniques for direct measurement of dispersion characteristics and surface modification in the manufacturing environment

Develop the ability to address contamination in the process

Develop a broad library of scalable surface functionalization and compatibilization techniques for modifying and dispersing all families of nanoparticles while retaining functionality

Develop Process Monitoring and Controls for Nanomaterial and Product Consistency Real-time, in-line measurement techniques are needed to provide reproducible control of properties such as particle size and distribution. Improved analytical tools and process control will go a long way to achieving zero defects in final materials, reducing waste, and turning nanomaterial manufacturing into a commodity. •

Develop robust, rapid quality control (QC) tests

Develop “smart” responsive control systems for real-time processing based on improved analytical tools that provide on-line imaging techniques

Integrate Engineered Materials into Devices While Retaining Nanoscale Properties Incorporating nanomaterials into devices and products will require their integration into heterogeneous materials, including organic/organic, organic/inorganic, and biological/organic materials. Integration methods will need to be cost-effective, environmentally friendly, and less labor – and energy – intensive than conventional methods. •

Develop manufacturing methods that cross material-scale boundaries

Develop and design processes that integrate engineered materials at the device level while retaining properties of the nanoscale

Removal of Impurities from Raw Material Precursors to Meet Product Specifications Applications for nanomaterials are often very sensitive to impurities (e.g., electronics, optics, medical devices) and have narrower tolerances than applications in commodity markets. Impurities in precursor materials must be removed or they can be carried forward to final products at levels that cannot be cost-effectively removed. Processes based on liquid precursors (chemical nanotechnology, sol-gel-processing) are advantageous in this respect, compared to powder based techniques. 40


EAG Report on Future RTD of NMP

3.2.4 Modelling and Simulation Robust, high-confidence models and simulations are needed to predict the properties and behaviours of new nanomaterials and assembled systems across scales – from synthesis of particles through their integration into devices, and finally, to their performance in final products. Models and simulations will aid the development of synthesis and assembly protocols that impart and preserve required functional properties across scales. At the application level, they will define the functional needs and probable designs of nanostructures. A new modeling paradigm is needed to combine lessons learned from experiments across the field of nanotechnology. It will be used to extrapolate properties (such as electronic, chemical, structural, toxicological, and environmental properties) from known conditions and apply them to novel cases. These models will be able to help design experiments, increase the efficiency of research, recognize and assess emergent properties, accurately predict performance, reduce the required number of design iterations and experiments, and reduce the number of tools required for design. Ultimately, a library of validated protocols will couple modeling and experimental results and will help researchers find customized material solutions for specific needs. The ability to develop accurate predictive models will depend on theoretical understanding of chemistry and physics fundamentals, methods that bridge time and spatial scales, data protocols and standards, and an a priori focus on the requirements of manufacturing during model development. Research Priorities in Modelling and Simulation

Develop Fundamental Models to Accurately Predict Nanostructure Formation Models of fundamental material properties at the nanoscale are needed, as well as models to screen formation and synthetic pathways. An understanding of nanoscale chemistry and physics, in addition to newly discovered nanomaterials, will encourage an understanding of nanostructure formation processes. This data could be used to develop models and simulations with predictive capability that accelerate research and integration. •

Develop methods to include chemistry (reaction and degradation) in force-field modeling to understand nanostructure formation

Modeling of the chemistry of deformable interfaces

Integrate the chemical functionality of nanomaterials into models

Link molecular simulation to constitutive models

Develop methods for comparing equilibrium, non-equilibrium, and kinetically trapped systems

Develop Methods for Bridging Models of Different Scales Accurate predictive models and simulations linking nanoscale properties across time and length scales to specific macroscopic properties are needed. These models will help enable the design and engineering of nanomaterials. •

Link modeling and simulation results to experimental data

Simultaneously incorporate atomistic and mesoscale techniques in ab initio methods to predict properties or extract atomistic contributions from observed properties

Develop advanced molecular dynamics (MD) simulation methods

Develop models of properties that apply to industry and consider unique scaling laws from nano to meso to macroscale (e.g., mechanical, electrical, magnetic, optical, convective 41


EAG Report on Future RTD of NMP

transport [heat, momentum, mass], diffusion, thermodynamic equilibria, including adsorption, surface-surface interaction, and chemical reaction) •

Extend models to recognize and predict new and unexpected emergent properties of selfassembled systems

Expand models to understand and predict toxicology and environmental impact

Develop and validate extensions of continuum models from the macroscale to the nanoscale

Combine simultaneous effects (such as flow dynamics and thermodynamic driving forces) to provide a powerful tool for evaluating potential technologies

Integrate ab initio and combinatorial modeling approaches to improve simulation efficiency

Improve Research Infrastructure to Support Model Advancement •

Support and integrate National and European Research Centers for advancement of nanoscale modeling, simulation, and informatics: 9 Develop and validate new models and simulation methods 9 Provide an intellectual focus for the research community (actual centers, not ‘virtual’ centers, as personal interactions are vital to cross-fertilizing techniques) 9 Conduct multidisciplinary research with a team focus 9 Facilitate sabbaticals for industrial and academic researchers

• •

Develop new computational architectures for breakthrough performance in quantum mechanical simulation and calculation Develop information exchange protocols and infrastructure for data acquisition, interpretation, and dissemination

3.2.5 Environment, Safety, and Health As with any new material, broadscale nanomaterial commercialization will require an understanding of the material’s environmental, safety, and health (ES&H) impact, and the development of exposure and handling guidelines for production, transport, use, and disposal. Generally accepted ES&H protocols will have a significant impact on attracting employees to support accelerated scientific research; manufacturers willing to fabricate with nanomaterials; consumers willing to purchase entirely new products or products with new attributes; and a public eager to gain the benefits provided by nanomaterials. This involves identifying human health and environmental hazards, determining human and environmental exposure, and establishing an exposure-based risk assessment to indicate the probability of adverse effects. While some data can be applied broadly to classes of materials, studies are often material-specific, particularly when related to reactivity, toxicity, and other areas. The use of approaches similar to those currently employed, and the use of existing knowledge and databases will be necessary to establish safety guidelines for nanomaterial research, production, and commercial application. Today, knowledge is just emerging on environmental chemistry/transport and toxicokinetic processes applied to nanoscale materials. Developing this understanding is a significant challenge for this young industry because the form, quantities, and, in some cases, specific types of nanomaterials have not been defined by commercial applications. Nevertheless, the industry will benefit significantly from addressing these issues early in the technology development process. 42


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Tools and protocols (i.e., validated test methods) are needed to characterize nanomaterials and their environmental and health effects. Tools that allow detection and quantification of nanomaterials in the environment and workplace are critical to accurately assessing potential concerns. Protocols that employ relevant existing experimental data, models, and materialspecific evaluations are needed to determine long-term and life-cycle impacts. Because of the breadth of potential nanomaterial types, initial studies should adopt a model-material approach. Handling guidelines need to be developed immediately to support commerce today and will need to be updated as new materials and new information become available. A shared database that structures, qualifies, and interprets all relevant data should be developed and accessible for broad use. While industry has several examples of databases that can be used individually or collectively as templates, enhancements will be required to accomodate categories and key properties specific to nanomaterials. Information in this database can include physical properties, exposure information, toxicological properties, fate and behaviour, ecotoxicity environmental chemistry.. To develop the database, assessment processes for nanomaterials will need to be generated. In parallel with this, development of approaches which encourage data sharing are needed. Accurate information about benefits and any costs associated with nanomaterials must be widely available. High public acceptance is crucial to the development of an economically viable nanotechnology industry. Independent, government-sponsored research is vital to establishing consumer confidence in nanomaterial development and use, and in validating industrial efforts in this area. The anticipated growth in nanoparticle utilization warrants parallel efforts in hazard identification, exposure evaluation, and risk assessment. In Table 3.1 the priority research needs in Environmental, Health, and Safety for nanoscale materials are presented. Research Priorities in EHS

Based on the above analysis on nanotechnology-related EHS research, needs for new or increased research efforts have been identified in several areas. To address these gaps, rebalancing within and among these five research categories, particularly in the near term, should focus on the following: Instrumentation, Metrology, and Analytical Methods (all near-term) •

Develop methods for identifying and measuring the critical parameters (number, surface area and mass concentrations) related to nanomaterials in workplace air in real time. Particular focus should be given to high aspect ratio nanoparticles (HARN)

Develop analytical methods for identifying and measuring the critical parameters related to nanomaterials in biological systems, the environment, and the workplace

Develop new quantitative nanoscale metrologies and databases of properties

Develop methods for standardizing assessment of particle size, size distribution, shape, structure, and surface area

Increase efforts to develop certified reference materials, specifically for toxicology and environmental studies

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Table 3.1

Priority EHS Research Needs for Engineered Nanoscale Materials

Instrumentation, Metrology, and Analytical Methods

• Develop methods to detect and quantify nanomaterials in biological matrices, the environment, and the workplace • Understand how chemical and physical modifications affect the properties of nanomaterials

• Develop methods for standardizing assessment of particle size, size distribution, shape, structure, and surface area • Develop certified reference materials for chemical and physical characterization of nanomaterials • Develop methods to characterize a nanomaterial's spatio-chemical composition, purity, and heterogeneity

Nanomaterials and Human Health Overarching Research Priority: Understand generalizable characteristics of nanomaterials in relation to toxicity in biological systems. Broad Research Needs: • Develop methods to quantify and characterize exposure to nanomaterials and characterize nanomaterials in biological matrices • Understand the relationship between the properties of nanomaterials and uptake via the respiratory or digestive tracts or through the eyes or skin, and assess body burden • Understand the absorption and transport of nanomaterials throughout the human body • Identify or develop appropriate in vitro and in vivo assays/models to predict in vivo human responses to nanomaterials exposure • Determine the mechanisms of interaction between nanomaterials and the body at the molecular, cellular, and tissular levels

Nanomaterials and the Environment

• Understand the effects of engineered nanomaterials in individuals of a species and the applicability of • • • •

testing schemes to measure effects Understand environmental exposures through identification of principle sources of exposure and exposure routes Evaluate abiotic and ecosystem-wide effects Determine factors affecting the environmental transport of nanomaterials Understand the transformation of nanomaterials under different environmental conditions

Human and Environmental Exposure Assessment

• • • •

Identify population groups and environments exposed to engineered nanoscale materials Characterize exposures among workers Development and validation of exposure models Characterize exposure to the general population from industrial processes and industrial and consumer products containing nanomaterials • Characterize health of exposed populations and environments • Understand workplace processes and factors that determine exposure to nanomaterials

Risk Management Methods Overarching Research Priority: Evaluate risk management approaches for identifying and addressing risks from nanomaterials • Understand and develop best workplace practices, processes, and environmental exposure controls • Examine product or material life cycle to inform risk reduction decisions • Develop risk characterization information to determine and classify nanomaterials based on physical or chemical properties • Develop nanomaterial-use and safety-incident trend information to help focus risk management efforts • Develop specific two-way risk communication approaches and materials

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Nanomaterials and Human Health •

Develop and validate methods to quantify dose-response or structure-activity relationships, including parameters for dose and response (near-term; links strongly to metrology) - Determine measurement parameters relevant for classes of nanomaterials (in priority order based on reasonable expectation of exposure and of hazard). - Develop methods to quantify and characterize biological response.

Translate in vitro test results into in vivo models

Extrapolate data to human exposures (mid- to long-term)

Nanomaterials and the Environment •

Evaluate and modify currently accepted test protocols for assessing effects in individual biological receptors, and improve dose-response characterization

Identify' principle sources of, and routes for, exposure to environmental receptors based nanomaterial/commercial product manufacture

Identify key nanoparticles

physical/chemical

properties

affecting

transport/transformation

of

Results from these near-term efforts should assist in later development of new test protocols for assessing effects in biological receptors; improve understandings of ADME (absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion) in relevant receptors; and development of predictive tools and robust testing schemes to streamline reviews of commercial nanomaterials. In the areas of exposure, and transport and transformation, again predictive tools and models should result which increases the ability to judge the overall exposures to commercial nanomaterials throughout their life cycles. Finally, work from all of these areas will contribute to evaluating the potential for higher-level environmental effects. Human and Environmental Exposure Assessment •

Identify population groups and environments exposed to engineered nanoscale materials

Characterize exposure to the workers and to the general population from industrial processes and industrial and consumer products containing nanomaterials

Characterize health of exposed populations and environments

Risk Management Methods •

Develop risk characterization information to determine and classify nanomaterials based on physical or chemical properties

Develop nanomaterial-use and safety-incident trend information to help focus risk management efforts

Expand exposure-route-specific risk management methods research and life cycle analysis research on the basis of nanomaterial use scenarios expected to present greatest exposure and potential for health or environmental effects

Particular emphasis should be given to the development of methods to detect nanomaterials in biological matrices, the environment, and the workplace. The need for this research emphasis spans the entire framework, from the synthesis and use of nanomaterials to the detection and characterization of materials as a function of exposure. 45


EAG Report on Future RTD of NMP

The member agencies have examined each of these particular needs carefully, and with respect to each gap, the agencies have agreed within the interagency context to assume the roles identified below to address these gaps in a manner consistent with their specific missions and available resources. Implementation of Strategy for Nanotechnology-Related EHS Research •

Support broad base of research to facilitate regulatory decision making and to expand the horizons of nanotechnology-based applications for health and the environment.

Coordinate existing, and foster expanded, agency efforts to address priority EHS research needs and identified gaps.

Establish regular review process.

Facilitate partnerships with industry.

Coordinate efforts internationally.

Focus on development of consensus-based documentary standards to support oversight of nanomaterials research.

Facilitate wide dissemination of research results.

3.2.6 Standards and Informatics Reference standards, standardized methods for synthesis and analysis protocols, and effective information management and communication are vital to the development of nanoscience and nanotechnology as a new discipline. They each will make an essential contribution to accelerating the pace of discovery and commercialization. Standardization is critical to scientific communication and commerce because, in order to build on lessons learned, researchers need to quickly convey scientific discoveries across disciplines. On the user front, consumers must be able to compare material attributes. Informatics requirements are significant. The sheer volume of data and its effective application will require extraordinary computational and management capabilities, as well as the development of organization systems and structures that foster communication and assist in the application of new technologies. Research Priorities in Standards and Informatics

Develop Standard Procedures for Nanomaterial Synthesis •

Develop reproducible methods for synthesis of high-quality nanomaterials with agreedupon analytical criteria

Conduct round robins to validate synthetic methods

Publish validated synthetic methods in dedicated, peer-reviewed publications

Develop a Set of Reference Materials for Property Measurement Standardization •

Identify appropriate reference standards for the industry

Manufacture a commercially available library of high-quality standard reference materials for property measurements and disseminate it throughout the industry

Conduct round robins to calibrate reference materials and standards

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Develop Standard Methods for Physical and Chemical Property Evaluation •

Identify the best methods for obtaining any given physical or chemical property

Rapidly disseminate round robin results to tool and method developers

Ensure that certified methods possess the flexibility to adapt to novel approaches and incorporate key lessons learned to maintain the most up-to-date practices

Develop statistical evaluation techniques for validation and analysis of the properties of nanomaterials

Conduct round robins to validate standard methods

Document standard methods in International Union of Pure Applied Chemistry (IUPAC), and other publications

Develop Computational Standards to Improve Information Processing and Transfer for Modeling and Simulation •

Develop an accessible and searchable European Data and Model Repository to improve information processing and transfer for modeling and simulation

Establish standards for communication between modeling modules

Define common taxonomy and units

Provide remote communication to link experimentalists to modelers to facilitate virtual collaboration

Develop library of validated modeling and simulation protocols that can be accessed by industrial users

Develop Standards for Material Evaluation in Applications •

Standardized and readily implemented (i.e., robust and economical) quality control (QC) protocols are required to measure key physical and chemical properties of nanomaterials

Develop standard micro- and macro-scale integration platforms for measuring the properties of imbedded nanomaterials and devices

Establish Internationally Recognized Nomenclature Standards •

Define and document a common nomenclature including taxonomy and units (e.g., similar to the IUPAC)

Develop a common language for nanotechnology practitioners (definitions, glossary of terms, etc.)

Establish the Organizational Infrastructure and Other Requirements to Foster Standardization and the Development of Standards •

Develop internationally recognized calibration standards, validated measurement technologies and robust protocols

Develop stable property evaluation methods; standard methods, protocols, and statistical evaluation techniques for validation; and conduct round-robins to calibrate standards, validate equipment, and determine reliability

Develop commercial sources for standardized materials and instrumentation 47


EAG Report on Future RTD of NMP

3.2.7 Dissemination, Education and Training Accelerating scientific discovery into technological innovation will require information sharing, knowledge transfer, and technology transfer in rapidly emerging areas. The speed of research and the use of research results will be dictated by the effectiveness of the infrastructure, and government, university, and corporate policies. A culture change that includes information sharing - among government, universities, and companies - will help the community to focus on developing and commercializing nanotechnologies in the near term. The breadth of knowledge and expertise is viewed as imperative for scientific breakthroughs in nanoscience and nanotechnology. Attracting and preparing a technically qualified workforce is a major challenge. In addition to an educated workforce, an informed public that can draw an accurate perception of the risks and benefits of nanoscience and understand the opportunities enabled by nanomaterials is essential for their commercial success. The rapid progress in nanoscience discovery and its transition into innovative nanotechnology will require a highly trained workforce, especially innovative scientists and engineers with doctoral degrees. 3.3

Manufacturing of Nanostructures, Nanocomponents and Nanosystems

The long-term vision of all nanotechnologists has been the fabrication of a wider range of materials and products with atomic precision. However, experts in the field have had strong differences of opinion on how rapidly this will occur. It is uncontroversial that expanding the scope of atomic precision will dramatically improve high-performance technologies of all kinds, from medicine, sensors, and displays to materials and solar power. Atomically precise manufacturing (APM) processes use a controlled sequence of operations to build structures with atomic precision. Scanning probe devices achieve this on crystal surfaces. Biomolecular machines achieve this in living systems. In both technology and nature, the components of complex atomically precise systems are made using APM processes. Recently identified approaches for using products of today's APM to organize and exploit other functional nanoscale components show great promise. Building on achievements in other areas of nanotechnology, they point to capabilities that could prove transformative in multiple fields, expanding the set of nanoscale building blocks and architectures for products. Atomically precise productive nanosystems (APPNs) are nanoscale APM systems that are themselves atomically precise. Biological APM systems are all APPNs. As APM technologies are drawn upon to work with a wider range of materials, APPNs will become applicable to wider and wider ranges of products. Robust physical scaling laws indicate that advanced systems of this type can provide high productivity per unit mass, and requirements for input materials and energy should not be exceptional. These considerations and experience with the bio-based APPNs suggest that products potentially can be made at low cost. With further development and scale-up at the systems level, arrays of APPNs will be applicable to the production of streams of components that can be assembled to form macroscale systems. These characteristics of scale, cost, and performance point to far-reaching, disruptive change that spans multiple industries. No alternative to APPNs has been suggested that would combine atomically precise production of complex structures with the potential for cost-effective scale-up. The main reasons why atomically precise manufacturing (APM) and atomically precise productive nanosystems (APPNs) merit high priority are: •

Atomic precision is the guiding vision for nanotechnology.

•

Limited atomically precise fabrication capabilities exist today. 48


EAG Report on Future RTD of NMP

Prototype scanning probe based APM systems exist in the laboratory and demonstrate atomically precise operations on semiconductor systems.

Nanoscale APPNs exist in nature and fabricate uniquely complex atomically precise nanostructures in enormous quantities.

Improved atomically precise technologies will enable development of next generation APM systems.

Next-generation APM systems will enable development of more advanced atomically precise technologies.

Nanosystems in nature demonstrate that APPNs can produce solar arrays, fuels, complex molecules, and other products on a scale of billions of tons per year, at low cost, with low environmental impact and greenhouse-gas absorption.

Arrays of artificial APPN modules organized in factory style architectures will enable fabrication of AP products on all scales and from a wide range of synthetic materials: photovoltaic cells, fuel cells, CPUs, displays, sensors, therapeutic devices, smart materials, etc.

Across a wide range of devices and systems, pursuing the ultimate in high performance drives toward atomic precision, as only atomic precision can enable optimal structures.

Potential products of APM are applicable to familiar nanotechnology objectives in energy production, health care, computation, materials, instrumentation, and chemical processing. These include: Precisely targeted agents for cancer therapy; Efficient solar photovoltaic cells; Efficient, high-power-density fuel cells; Single molecule and single electron sensors; Biomedical sensors (in vitro and in vivo); High-density computer memory; Molecular-scale computer circuits; Selectively permeable membranes; Highly selective catalysts; Display and lighting systems; Responsive (“smart”) materials; Ultra-high-performance materials; Nanosystems for APM. The most attractive early applications of APM are those that can yield large payoffs from small quantities of relatively simple atomically precise structures. These applications include sensors, computer devices, catalysts, and therapeutic agents. Many other applications, such as materials and energy production systems, present greater challenges of product cost or complexity. In Table 3.2, an overview of atomically precise technology developments and applications is presented. 3.3.1 Research Directions in Atomically Precise Fabrication Methods Atomically precise structures consist of a definite arrangement of atoms. Current examples include: •

Self-assembled DNA frameworks

Engineered proteins

Crystal interiors and surfaces

Scanning Tunneling Microscopy (STM)-built patterns on crystal surfaces

Organic molecules, organometallic complexes

Closed-shell metal clusters and quantum dots

Nanotube segments and ends

Biomolecular components (enzymes, photosynthetic centers, molecular motors).

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Table 3.2

Atomically Precise Manufacturing and Future Applications

Development Area Atomically Precise Fabrication and Synthesis Methods

Atomically Precise Components and Subsystems

Atomically Precise Systems and Frameworks

Applications

Horizon I

Horizon II

• Bio-based productive nanosystems (ribosomes, DNA polymerases) • Atomically precise molecular selfassembly • Tip-directed (STM, AFM) surface modification • Advanced organic and inorganic synthesis • Biomolecules (DNA- and proteinbased objects) • Surface structures formed by tipdirected operations • Structural and functional nanoparticles, fibers, organic molecules, etc.

• Artificial productive nanosystems in solvents • Mechanically directed solutionphase synthesis • Directed and conventional selfassembly • Crystal growth on tip-built surface patterns • Coupled-catalyst systems • Composite structures of ceramics, metals, and semiconductors • Tailored graphene, nanotube structures • Intricate, 10-nm scale functional devices • Casings, “circuit boards” to support, link components • 100-nm scale, 1000-component systems • Molecular motors, actuators, controllers • Digital logic systems

• Scalable productive subsystems in machine-phase environments • Machine-phase synthesis of exotic structures • Multi-scale assembly • Single-product, high-throughput molecular assembly lines

• Artificial immune systems • Post-silicon extension of Moore’s Law growth • Petabit RAM • Quantum-wire solar photovoltaics • Next-generation productive nanosystems

• Artificial organ systems • Exaflop laptop computers • Efficient, integrated, solar-based fuel production • Removal of greenhouse gases from atmosphere • Manufacturing based on productive nanosystems

• 3D DNA frameworks, 1000 addressable binding sites • Composite systems of the above, patterned by DNA-binding protein adapters • Systems organized by tip-built surface patterns • Multifunctional biosensors • Anti-viral, -cancer agents • 5-nm-scale logic elements • Nano-enabled fuel cells and solar photovoltaics, • High-value nanomaterials • Artificial productive nanosystems

Horizon III

• Nearly reversible spintronic logic • Microscale 1 MW/cm3 engines and motors • Complex electro-mechanical subsystems • Adaptive supermaterials • Complex systems of advanced components, micron to meter+ scale • 100 GHz, 1 GByte, 1 µm-scale, sub-µW processors • Ultra-light, super-strength, fracture-tough structures

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These examples illustrate some limits of fabrication capabilities today. The only large structures are simple and regular—crystals; the only complex, 3D structures are polymers—proteins and DNA. Atomically precise, STM-built patterns are at a very early stage of development. The remaining examples represent components with a broad range of functions. What is lacking is a systematic way to combine components to build complex systems. Physical principles and examples from nature both indicate the promise of extending atomically precise fabrication to larger scales, greater complexity, and a wider range of materials. Table 3.3 outlines how various aspects of atomic precision (control of feature size, surface structure, etc.) enable useful properties and applications, many of which have revolutionary potential. The range of techniques to produce atomically precise structures is already broad, and broader applications will follow as production techniques are augmented with methods of greater power and generality. To understand the promise of atomically precise technologies, it helps to draw a clear distinction between what we can do with today’s level of technology, and what we can identify as targets for longer-term research and development, requiring advances in crucial enabling technologies. Techniques for implementing atomically precise systems are often based on atomically precise tools. For example, organic synthesis depends on organic reagents; atomically precise biopolymeric structures are built by molecular machine systems made of similar materials. Thus, atomically precise manipulation of surfaces could benefit from the use of atomically precise tooltips. Some of the anticipated developments derive directly from the achievement of intermediate, enabling goals. Consequently, intermediate goals are of special strategic importance in formulating plans for technology development. The promise of atomically precise fabrication springs from the diversity of techniques and approaches that have emerged, and from the many ways in which these might be combined to move the field forward. This diversity, however, complicates any attempt to describe pathways and levels of anticipated development. The following sub-sections present techniques for fabricating atomically precise structures, as well as a brief survey and assessment of coarser resolution technologies (e.g., nanolithographic methods) that can facilitate the development or application of atomically precise systems, including productive nanosystems and their products. The products of these fabrication and synthesis methods are often tenable building blocks and components for larger-scale assemblies (i.e., components and devices). The process of design can be thought of as the sequence of exploring and choosing from the array of designs possible within a fabrication technique, building the target, testing it against the criteria for the application, refining the design choices, and repeating. Ideally, an atomically precise fabrication method would provide: •

Reliable control of the 3D location of each atom in the design

Many possible design choices - Many types of subunits - The ability to freely choose between subunits at many locations - The ability to build large structures, with many total design options

Rapid turnaround times for designs

Ability to build many instances of a design.

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Table 3.3

Atomically Precise Structural Control

Aspect of atomic precision

• Materials with novel properties (optical, piezoelectric, electronic...) with extremely broad applications • Defect-free materials that achieve their ideal strength, conductivity, transparency • Absence of statistical fluctuations in dopants enabling scaling to smaller gate size • 3D bandgap engineering for systems of quantum wells, wires, and dots • Systems of coupled spin centers for novel computer devices, quantum computing

Precise internal structures

Atomic-scale size

Enabled features and applications

feature

• High frequency devices, new sensors, high powerdensity mechanisms • High density digital circuitry, memory (up to ~1020 devices per cm3)

Precise patterns of surface charge, polarity, shape, and reactivity

• Unique alignment of complementary surfaces for atomically precise self-assembly of complex, manycomponent structures • Precisely structured scanning-probe tips for atomically precise manufacturing, improved scanning probe microscopy • Molecular binding, sensing of specific biomolecules Stereospecific and chiral catalysis

Atomically smooth, regular surfaces

• Minimal scattering of electrons for low resistance nanowires, ideal electron optics • “Epitaxial” alignment of matching surfaces for atomically precise self-alignment, high-strength interfaces • Non-bonding, out-of-register surfaces for sliding interfaces with negligible static friction

Precisely identical structures

• System designs can exploit fine-tuning of properties • System designs can exploit symmetries among identical components • Reproducible behavior simplifies fault identification

Research Priorities in Atomically Precise Fabrication Methods

Atomically Precise Self-Assembly •

DNA Atomically Precise Self-Assembly

DNA Structures & Limitations.

Protein Self-Assembly

Organic Synthesis Scanning-Probe Based Nanofabrication •

Selective Deprotection and Patterned Atomic Layer Epitaxy (PALE)

Placement-Based Scanning Probe Mechanosynthesis

Scale-up of APM Production

Research Directions

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Hybrid Fabrication Atomically Imprecise Fabrication Methods •

Electron Beam Lithography

Block Copolymer Lithography

Nano-imprint Lithography

Dip-Pen Nanolithography™

Dielectrophoretic Assembly

Plasma Assisted Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD)

Partially Ordered Chemical Self-Assembly

Challenges in Atomically Precise Manufacturing •

Challenges for Bio-Based APM of Large, Complex, Functional Nanosystems

Modular Molecular Composite Nanosystems (MMCNs)

Challenges for Tip-Based APM in Process Development and Scale-up

Position of APM in Current Nanotechnologies

3.3.2 Challenges in Atomically Precise Components and Systems The applications of any manufacturing system depend on the structural frameworks, functional elements, and systems that can be built using it. The same holds with atomically precise manufacturing (APM). This section gives a brief overview of APM capabilities related to product structure and function. It is not intended to serve as a complete survey. In recent years, billions of dollars have been invested in exploring and developing functional elements on the nanoscale. These include: •

Organic molecules and organometallic complexes with useful optical and catalytic activities.

Closed-shell metal clusters and quantum dots with unique electronic properties.

Nanotubes with extraordinary strength, stiffness, and conductivity.

Lithographically patterned electronic devices with features smaller than macromolecules.

Biomolecular devices with the diverse photochemical, mechanical, catalytic (etc.) activities essential to photosynthesis, motion, and metabolism in living cells, including APM functionality.

APM-based fabrication will leverage past research investments by providing a new means to organize and exploit these functional elements, creating nanosystems at a new scale of size, complexity, and sophistication. Functional Elements and Systems Enabled by APM Advances in APM will enable a wider range of materials to be patterned with atomic precision. The resulting expansion in the range of functional devices will generically enable higher performance, greater stability, and longer functional lifetimes. A few of the devices expected to become feasible along this development path include: 53


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Circuitry based on integrated nanotube conductors, semiconductors, and junctions.

Arrays of identical or smoothly graded quantum dots, promoting controlled transfer of electrons and electronic excitations.

Digital devices based on transitions in precisely coupled spin systems.

Nanoscale memory cells organized into 3D crystalline arrays with ≥1018 bits per cubic centimeter.

Catalytic molecular transformations.

machinery

that

couples

mechanical

energy

to

chemical

Advances in APM-enabled device fabrication will combine with other fabrication techniques to expand the technology base for development of atomically precise systems. Application Development Opportunities for APT APM includes not only advanced productive nanosystems, but also a range of nanoscale fabrication technologies that are themselves rapidly evolving: •

Atomically precise, computer-controlled deprotection of surfaces for selective growth

Molecular manipulation using scanning probe microscopes

Controlled self-assembly of atomically precise building blocks

Exploitation of existing (e.g., biological) productive nanosystems

Organic synthesis of modular, extensible nanoscale structures.

These existing APM technologies have broad utility in themselves and have been identified as enablers for productive nanosystem development. Technologies relevant to APM include advanced functional nanosystems, which incorporate products of APM. The application potential is significant and wide reaching when one considers that atomically precise functional nanosystems will impact the development and evolution of a great number of applications, including energy production, health care, computation, smart materials, instrumentation and chemical production (Catalysts) during the next 10 to 20 years. These applications are the drivers for the development of APM, atomically precise functional nanosystems, and ultimately productive nanosystems. Some applications will employ hybrid systems, such as nanolithographic structures interfaced to atomically precise devices,others will leverage the hybridization of controlled self-assembly with atomically precise targeting tools, and still others will utilize the as yet undiscovered integration of the individual pathways and technologies that are discussed in this Roadmap. Advanced functional nanosystems—products of APM—will lead to the innovation of productive nanosystems. These, in turn, will advance APM, enabling yet more products and applications. Thus, a focus on technologies and applications relevant to APM will facilitate the emerging revolution of productive nanosystems, and hence will support the vision articulated by this Roadmap initiative. The grand challenges for clean, efficient, and cost-effective energy and long awaited breakthroughs in targeted multi-functional in-vivo and in-vitro therapeutics and diagnostic devices for cancer and other diseases are two of the most compelling drivers to advance the development of atomically precise technologies. From the industrial point of view, the most attractive near-term applications for Atomically Precise Technologies are those which are high-value applications that exploit the atomic precision of an APM output and are enabled with a very small volume of atomically precise matter. Good candidates for these applications are sensors, metrology standards, and quantum 54


EAG Report on Future RTD of NMP

computing. Although an application with a very large market would be ideal, the initial applications may very well be niche applications with a modest market. This hypothetical niche market might not be worth the initial investment of developing APM, However, for a company bold enough to make that investment, once such an application demonstrated the feasibility and efficacy of APM, the investments to develop slightly more ambitious products would follow. Growing revenues from those products would start the economic drivers that would produce the manufacturing throughput and capability to capitalize on the applications listed below and many others. 3.3.3 Challenges in Fabrication Methods and Enablers AP fabrication and assembly methods are often divided into top-down (directed by scanning probe tips) and bottom-up (directed by AP self-assembly of complementary interfaces) methods, but with a gray area between. Because of the many overlaps in the technical challenges for these fabrication approaches, however, those listed below are not categorized in these terms. Atomically Precise Tools •

Stable, reproducible, atomically precise scanning tunneling microscope tips with atomic resolution imaging capabilities.

Atomically precise tool tips designed to capture atoms, molecules, or other building blocks in precise, reliable configurations, and to transfer them to other structures through a precise, reliable operation.

Smart tool tips that are able to sense whether a building block has been captured by the tip and when it transfers from the tip to the desired location.

AP stamps, molds, and nanoimprint passivation/depassivation operations.

Closed-loop nanopositioning systems with resolution < 0.1 nm and 3 or more degrees of freedom, and small-footprint systems to implement array-based parallelism.

templates

that

enable

parallel

Atomic Resolution Processes •

Technical improvements in atomic layer epitaxy and atomic layer deposition.

Multi-material patterned atomic layer epitaxy.

Methods to accommodate lattice mismatch in heteroepitaxial 3D structures.

Highly selective depassivation of surfaces (in support of multi-material ALE).

Highly selective and layer-by-layer etches (removal of sacrificial layers deposited by multimaterial ALE).

Robust protection layers to preserve the atomic precision of the output of APM.

Deprotection-based AP mechanosynthesis methods (for example, by tip-directed H depassivation of atomic sites on Si surfaces to direct subsequent growth steps).

AP functionalization of surfaces.

In situ generation and separation of radicals for atomic resolution processing.

Atomic defect inspection.

Atomic defect repair (adding and removing atoms).

Atomic resolution etching. 55


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Additive covalent mechanosynthesis methods (direct, AP placement and bonding of reactive molecules and molecular fragments).

Additive non-covalent mechanosynthesis methods (direct, AP placement of building blocks that self-align and bind non-covalently).

Ribosome-like mechanosynthesis of AP polymers that subsequently fold or bind to form AP polymeric objects.

Binding sites for collecting feedstock molecules and building blocks used in mechanosynthesis.

All of the above in liquid phase.

Atomically Precise Components and Building Blocks •

Catalogues of atomically precise building blocks (organic or inorganic, natural or synthetic) organized by functional properties.

Improved processes for the production and purification of these building blocks.

Building blocks fabricated by atomically precise top down method.

Self-aligning building blocks that enable AP results from less-than-AP positional control during assembly.

Monomeric building blocks for ribosome-like mechanosynthesis of AP polymers (that can subsequently fold or bind to form AP polymeric objects).

Monomeric building blocks for mechanosynthesis of highly cross-linked AP structures.

Lower-cost production of DNA through bioengineering to exploit and improve the utility of DNA-secreting bacteria.

Improved design software for folded protein structures, and for new classes of folding polymers based on new monomeric building blocks.

Modular Molecular Composite Nanosystems (MMCNs) •

Capabilities for engineering proteins with AP binding to DNA frameworks and functional components

Extension to a wider range of structures of the recent “origami” technology for building configurable, 3D, millionatom-scale DNA frameworks.

Exploiting the dense arrays of distinct, addressable, AP binding sites generated by DNAbased structures to organize 3D patterns of non-DNA components.

Developments that exploit and extend the enormous set of DNA-like, DNA-binding polymers to expand the functional repertoire of structural DNA nanotechnologies.

Developments in protein engineering to produce a wider range of functional, relatively rigid AP polymer objects with greater reliability.

Systematic methodologies for building MMCNs in which proteins bind specific functional components to specific sites on DNA structural frameworks, for example, by exploiting zinc-finger based proteins with sequence-specific binding.

Theoretical and experimental on applications that can exploit systems with large numbers of distinct, functional nanostructures organized in 3D patterns on a 100 nm scale.

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Means to interface MMCNs with nanostructured substrates patterned by tip-directed AP fabrication and by non-AP nanolithography.

Development of Scanning-Probe Based APM Systems In addition to the component-level and process-level research challenges described above, the realization of scanning-probe based APM systems will require system-level development work. Designing the system architecture for a particular APM technology will set the requirements for its passive and active systems. We believe some of the nearer term areas of useful research for active systems for APM will include: •

Microscale nanopositioning systems used to carry out the spatially addressed atomically precise fabrication technique to be implemented, such as deprotection-based or additive mechanosynthesis.

Power and information distribution systems to control arrays of microscale nanopositioning fabrication systems.

A global alignment and nanopositioning system to control the position of an array of fabrication units relative to a workpiece.

Inspection and metrology systems.

Material transport systems for both feedstocks and finished products.

Development of Early-Generation Productive Nanosystems Existing APPNs are self-assembled biopolymeric mechanisms that fabricate biopolymers (proteins and nucleic acids) under the direction of DNA. To extend the scope of APM based on productive nanosystems, a natural direction is to develop analogous systems that can link different kinds of monomers in order to broaden the range of materials that can be used to make AP polymer objects. This approach can enable the production of higher-performance AP products by improving the stability, predictability, rigidity, and functionality of the structures, accomplishing this by using (for example) novel backbone structures, denser cross-linking, and monomer side-chains with special functional properties. This approach to APM is clearly complementary to scanning-probe based methods, as each can make products that the other cannot. This objective suggest a range useful research challenges that are useful or necessary to meet in order to develop early-generation APPNs and products of practical utility: •

Design and evaluation of competing architectures for broadly ribosome-like APPNs, in order to prioritize options for meeting the following challenges.

Development of competing options for backbone structures. Monomer accessibility, reactivity and cost are considerations, as well as the properties of the resulting structures.

Development of nucleic acid (or analogous) adapters to bind sequences of monomers in accordance with base sequences in DNA strands.

Development of mechanisms for binding and transporting sequences of monomers to a reaction site where they are linked and removed from their carrier.

Provision of high-purity feedstocks of correctly coupled monomers and adapters (purity is a constraint on defect rates in the product structures).

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Development of monomers and linking mechanisms that enable the production of densely cross-linked AP polymeric objects of high stability, strength, rigidity, and overall robustness.

Further development of pairs of interface structures and moities that can be covalently “locked” to give self-assembled products higher stability, strength, and overall robustness.

3.4

Nanotechnology Applications for Selective Industrial Sectors

Among the highly industrialized countries there is fierce competition in the energy, electronics, information, environment and life-science industries which are regarded as the key industries in the 21st century. In these industries as well as in several others (e.g., construction/housing, chemical/biochemical, etc.) developments in nanosciences and nanotechnologies are of paramount importance to the technological innovation and world-wide competitiveness of the industries. 3.4.1 Life Sciences and Health Care Nanotechnology, all agreed, stands a good chance of revolutionizing the practice of medicine. And radical changes might be what are needed to handle an onslaught of aging European population, who will soon need everything from hip replacements to insulin-monitoring kits to Alzheimer’s treatments. There is a growing demand for healthcare, and it makes sense to use Nanotechnologies to create a new and improved generation of medical treatments and devices. In general, nanotechnology is a key enabler to meet the challenges in healthcare, by making medicine more “predictive, pre-emptive, personalized and participatory”, and, in addition provide novel therapeutic approaches, e.g. by providing opportunities for regenerative medicine. Research Priorities

It is difficult to accurately predict the timescale of developments, but it is anticipated that within the next few years the application of nanomaterials and nanotechnology-based manufacturing will have an established role in medical technology. Some surgical aids already benefit from nano-structured material, such as surgical blades with nanometre-thick diamond coating and surface roughness in the same order of magnitude, and suture needles incorporating nano-sized stainless steel particles. Other nanotechnological approaches might allow for nanosurgery, a minimally invasive alternative to traditional surgery, based on nanoneedles and laser technologies such as optical tweezers and “nanoscissors”. In the future, a modular approach to construct delivery systems which combine targeting, imaging and therapeutic functionalities into multifunctional nanoplatforms may allow for new refined non-invasive procedures. These nanoplatforms would localise to target cells, enable diagnostics and subsequently deliver therapeutics with great precision. Such modular approaches to nanodevice construction can potentially be more powerful than current treatment modalities, but are inherently more complex than existing small molecule or protein therapeutics. Another important field of application for nanotechnology are biomaterials used for example in orthopaedic or dental implants or as scaffolds for tissue engineered products. If the design of for example a hip implant is carried out at nanolevel, it might become possible to construct an implant which closely mimicks the mechanical properties of human bone, preventing stressshielding and the subsequent loss of surrounding bone tissue. Furthermore, surface modifications at nanolevel of biomaterials or their coatings might greatly enhance the biocompatibility by 58


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favouring the interaction of living cells with the biomaterial, especially by their beneficial effect on cell adhesion and proliferation. Together with the control of nanoporosity allowing vascularisation and the growth of cells inside the biomaterial, the nano-structured surfaces of biomaterials also allow the creation of novel types of scaffolds for tissue-engineered products. Medicine The applications of nanoscience and technology to medicine will benefit patients by providing new prevention assays, early diagnosis: nanoscale monitoring, and effective treatment via mimetic structures. Potential research areas are: •

Systematic studies of nanoparticle surface-biological colloid interactions for the design of biocompatible materials are needed. Better understanding of surface bio-compatibility microscopic understanding of surface interactions for improved surface design;

Tissue substitute materials need to be based on nanoscale 3-D structures with controlled porosity and architecture. Orientation of biopolymers to control mechano-biological properties.

Nanobiosensors need to be developed for early diagnosis;

Multifunctional engineered nanostructures with controlled surface and bulk properties for sensing and targeted transport across in-vivo barriers: epithelial, cell membrane or cell organelle for selective therapeutics require to be produced;

Nanostructures for augmentation of imaging and conventional therapy (viz radiotherapy for cancer);

Extracellular scaffolds for organ/tissue (e.g. liver, kidney, nerve) architectures for multicellular functional integration and to create viable replacement organs. Mimicry of natural architectural arrangements of tissues with regard to nanoscale orientation and multiplexing of extracellular polymers. Controlled scaffolds for selfassembly of tissue architectures as the basis for organ regeneration incorporating complex tissue architectures.

Construct nanomachines and nanotechnology-enabled microsystems for cell and tissue repair at both molecular and cell organelle levels;

Cell biology studies for correlating nanostructure interactions in the cell, the tissue matrix and intact tissue;

Surface functionalisation of nanoparticles for chemical and physical environmental sensing, coupled with non-invasive techniques for registering their response. Systems for continuous multi-site/ multi-organ monitoring for both pre-symptomatic diagnosis and early therapy need to be generated.

Nanostructure design for mimicking viral and other natural particles to deliver drugs, gene therapies and cell repair systems to selected tissues; a vital area for traversing natural tissue barriers;

Nanoparticle trafficking and disposal need to be understood in order to be able to harness such materials clinically;

Controlled drug release (tissue location, kinetics);

Develop intelligent nanostructure interfaces for distributed in-vivo monitoring and ‘microscopic’ tissue repair: high resolution tissue imaging;

Monitoring and high level modelling of physiological systems;

Nanomarkers i.e. gold particles in brain tumors for enhanced medical imaging. 59


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New selective imaging techniques at nanometer resolution for diagnosis and toxicology;

Characterisation and imaging of chemical and structural features;

Development of miniature devices for in-situ sensing and/or treatment;

Improvement of drug targeting and delivery using nanoscale vectors for increase of effectiveness;

Development of photo-activated radiotherapy with nano-particles acting as enhancers;

Dynamic functional radiography with specific synchrotron contract enhancement;

Radiation source for activated phototherapy;

2-D and 3-D imaging of composite nanostructured implants;

Nanoscaffold-based tissue engineering;

Synthesis of new functional and "intelligent" nanomaterials for long-term treatment.

Disease Diagnosis •

Nanotechnology could improve in-vitro diagnostic tests by providing more sensitive detection technologies or by providing better nanolabels that can be detected with high sensitivity once they bind to disease-specific molecules present in the sample;

Nanomedicine may permit earlier detection of a disease, leading to less severe and costly therapeutic demands, and an improved clinical result. Conceptually novel methods, combining biochemical techniques with advanced imaging and spectroscopy provide insight to the behaviour of single diseased cells and their micro - environment for the individual patient;

Multifunctional contrast agents for medical imaging: New compounds directly responsive to biological activities. Efforts should be made to produce new diagnostic molecular imaging agents, but the most challenging part of this is delivering these multifunctional compounds to well identified targets.

Therapy •

Targeted delivery systems will play the central role in future therapy. Nanocarried agents, with or without image-guidance and local activation, will allow a localised therapy which targets only the diseased cells, thereby increasing efficiency while reducing unwanted side effects;

The blood brain barrier usually prohibits brain uptake of larger molecules, which excludes many potential drugs for neurodegenerative or psychiatric conditions and in brain tumours. Nanocarriers with special surface properties may offer new and efficient options to carry a therapeutic payload through the blood brain barrier to deliver multiple therapeutic agents at high local concentrations directly to the target;

Magnetic liposomes and binary shell poly-ferrofluids can be charged with high concentration of drug atoms and can be injected intraarterially and concentrated at the area of interest by magnetic gradients. Optimisation of the stability and biocompatibility of the compounds is to be strongly developed;

Pluripotent stem cells and nanobiomaterials will be essential components of multifunctional implants which can react to the surrounding micro-environment and facilitate site-specific, endogenous tissue regeneration to be used to repair traumatised, degenerated or infarcted organs; 60


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Tissue engineering encompasses the use of cells and their molecules in artificial constructs that compensate for lost or impaired body functions. It is based upon scaffold-guided tissue regeneration and involves the seeding of nanoporous, biodegradable scaffolds with donor cells, which differentiate and mimic naturally occurring tissues. Potential clinical applications of tissue engineered constructs include engineering of skin, cartilage and bone for autologous implantation.

3.4.2 Energy: Conversion, Storage and Efficient Use The science and technology of the extremely small, nanotechnology has the potential to transform the way we produce, store, consume, and conceive of energy. Realizing this potential, however, is no easy task. Ensuring clean, reliable, and affordable energy to a growing populace is arguably the greatest challenge that policymakers face in the 21st century. Experts argue that nanotechnology advancements in this field are key to making energy production and consumption more efficient while providing new ways to harness energy from clean renewable sources. Thus, breakthroughs in nanotechnology can open up the possibility of moving beyond our current alternatives for energy supply by introducing technologies that are more efficient, inexpensive, and environmentally sound. Efficient energy conversion. Energy is all around us, but often inaccessible. We must grab hold of it and convert it into a usable form. Currently, we extract chemical energy for coal, oil and natural gas because these energy-rich materials come in convenient forms. As fossil fuels grow scarce and increase in value, nanotechnology could be used to reduce losses during energy conversion. For instance, nano-engineered catalysts could improve the conversion of crude oil into various petroleum products, as well as the conversion of coal into clean fuels for generating electricity. Over the long term, it would be wise to improve our ability to convert sunlight into electricity, the easiest form of energy to use. Common commercially available solar cells have an efficiency of about 12 percent; some laboratory models achieve 30 percent. Researchers are testing many different ways to boost energy conversion by fine-tuning the material properties in solar cells, and it is quite likely that the problem will be solved using nanotechnology. Some prototypes have embedded carbon nanotubes in them, while others take advantage of nanocrystals or clusters of atoms called quantum dots. However, we still understand little about the fundamental processes behind various energy conversions, including sunlight to electricity, heat gradients to electricity and nuclear fusion to electricity. “We need tools that will allow us to interrogate our conversion questions”. Efficient energy storage. Once energy has been made available, it must be stored so that it can be used as needed. In the near term, nanotechnology could be used to create appliances and other products that can store energy more efficiently - that is, take up charge and hold it over time. Many research groups are working on better batteries, often using engineered nanomaterials. “Energy storage is a very good problem for nanotechnology to attack in the short term, partly because issues of complexity may not be important”. Batteries are the most fundamental and convenient method of energy storage: they are lightweight, portable, and often rechargeable. Storage capacity, lifetime, and safety are the measure of battery quality, and each category can be improved with nanotechnology. Nanoporous materials enable faster discharge in battery electrodes; carbon nanotubes can enhance their efficiency and conductivity; and ceramic nanoparticles can improve safety profiles by expanding 61


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the range of battery operating temperatures. But the hard science of batteries, for many is the less interesting part of the story. What can nano-enabled batteries actually do? Nano-enabled batteries have already begun to emerge in portable electronics. Manufacturers are utilizing the surface area advantage of carbon nanofibers and nanotubes in lithium-ion batteries to create batteries that supply energy for longer periods of time with the same amount of electrode material. Mobile phones, power tools, and iPods have already been granted longer lives, but improvements in the storage capacity of larger batteries, such as those used to power vehicles, are well underway. Several automotive and chemical industries are currently engaged in energy storage commercial activities including: •

Incorporation of multi-walled carbon nanotubes into lithium battery electrodes.

Use of nanostructured electrodes to create lithium-ion batteries.

Development of battery electrodes and separators based on nanoparticle technology for electric and hybrid-electric vehicles.

Production of nano-enhanced catalysts for electrode membrane, direct methanol, and phosphoric acid fuel cells.

Manufacturing of nickel, copper and silver nanoparticles for applications including fuel cells.

Efficient energy transmission. For now, energy is not typically generated right where it is needed, so we must have ways to transmit it. Nanotechnology could be used to create new kinds of conductive materials that lose very little energy as electricity moves down the line. Many research groups are investigating whether nanowires and nanocoatings could reduce losses in electrical-transmission lines. In the longer term, the need for efficient energy transmission might disappear if energy is converted and stored locally. Efficient energy use. Nanotechnology could lead to breakthroughs that indirectly conserve large amounts of fossil fuels. Nanomanufacturing might also enable us to make all kinds of products using less energy. For instance, nanosensors might be used to track energy use and help minimize waste. In every case, though, new processes, products and alternative energy sources will need to be thoroughly evaluated, “It is important to avoid well-meaning but thoughtless applications and to always ask, ‘How clean is this new technology?” Research Priorities

A great challenge is to identify the priority research directions with high potential for producing scientific breakthroughs that could dramatically advance solar energy conversion to electricity, fuels, and thermal end uses. Nine key areas of energy technology in which nanoscience and nanotechnology can have the greatest impact can be indentified: •

Scalable methods to split water with sunlight for hydrogen production

Highly selective for clean and energy-efficient manufacturing

Harvesting of solar energy with 20 percent power efficiency and 100 times lower cost

Solid-state lighting at 50 percent of the present power consumption

Super-strong light-weight materials to improve efficiency of cars, airplanes, etc. 62


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Reversible hydrogen storage materials operating at ambient temperatures

Power transmission lines capable of 1 gigawatt transmission

Low-cost fuel cells, batteries, thermoelectrics, and ultra-capacitors built from nanostructured materials

Materials synthesis and energy harvesting based on the efficient and selective mechanisms of biology

The strategy for achieving these targets lies in growing the R&D efforts in six cross-cutting enabling research areas listed below: •

Catalysis by nanoscale materials

Using interfaces to manipulate energy carriers

Linking structure and function at the nanoscale

Assembly and architecture of nanoscale structures

Theory, modeling, and simulation for energy nanoscience

Scalable synthesis methods

3.4.3 Environment (Air, Water and Soil) Maintaining and restoring the quality of water, air and soil, so that the earth can sustainably support human and other life, is one of the great challenges of our time. The scarcity of water, both in terms of quantity as well as quality, poses a significant threat to the well being of people, especially in the developing countries. Environmental nanotechnology is considered to play a key role in shaping current developments in environmental science and technologies. Advances in materials at the nanoscale have stimulated the development and use of novel and cost effective technologies for remediation, pollution detection, catalysis and others. There are great hopes that nanotechnology applications and products will lead to a cleaner and safer environment. Great hope is also placed on the role that nanotechnology can play in providing efficient and cheap access to clean water for developing countries. Particles in the nanosized range have been present on earth for millions of years and have been used by the mankind for thousands of years. Figure 6.6 shows that nanoparticles are naturally present in our environment in the form of aerosols, in aquatic systems as colloids, and in soils and the subsurface in a variety of biogenic and geogenic materials. Nanoparticles are also formed as an unintended by-product from human activities during combustion of fossil fuels or biomass and are deliberately produced as engineered nanoparticles in a wide variety of forms. These particles are either released unintentionally into the environment or are introduced on purpose (e.g., during remediation of polluted soils, etc.). Nanotechnology and Water Treatment There are about 1 billion people in the world, mostly in developing countries, whom have no access to potable water and a further 2.6 billion people lack access to adequate sanitation. In addition to the well-documented economic, social, and environmental impacts of poor water supply and sanitation, the health and welfare of people, especially of vulnerable groups such as children, the elderly and poor, are closely connected to the availability of adequate, safe and affordable water supplies. The world is facing formidable challenges in meeting the rising demands of potable water as the available supplies of freshwater are decreasing due to extended droughts, population growth, more stringent health-based regulations, and competing demands 63


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from a variety of users. Moreover, increasing pollution of groundwater and surface water from a wide variety of industrial, municipal, and agricultural sources has seriously tainted water quality in these sources, effectively reducing the supply of freshwater for human use. Although the nature of pollution problems may vary, they are typically due to inadequate sanitation, algal blooms fertilized by the phosphorus and nitrogen contained in human and animal wastes, detergents and fertilizers, pesticides, chemicals, heavy metals, salinity caused by widespread and inefficient irrigation, and high sediment loads resulting from upstream soil erosion. Several compelling visions for using nanotechnology in clean water technologies can be described: Desalination. One way to expand the availability of drinking water in coastal communities is to turn to the sea. Technologies for removing salt from seawater already exist, with desalination plants operating in the Middle East and one nearly ready to start up in Tampa, Florida. The trouble with desalination is that it currently requires a lot of energy, so it is costly and all but guaranteed to grow more expensive in the future. There is a critical need to design alternative desalination methods that are more efficient. For example, to develop smart membranes with antimicrobial surfaces and embedded sensors that can automatically adjust membrane performance. Nanotechnology is likely to play an important role in meeting that challenge. New energy technologies that exploit nanotechnology might also have an impact on desalination. Personal water treatment. To really have a global impact on the availability of clean drinking water, new technologies will be needed to treat water at its point of use. That is, people should have at hand a device that enables them to purify water at the tap, at the well, or in their residences. The idea is to dismantle the current model of centralized water-treatment plants and to replace it with small, strategically placed treatment systems that meet the water needs of population clusters. Such satellite treatment systems would be particularly useful in developing countries, where big plants are still rare and there is a tremendous need for cost-effective ways to bring clean drinking water to communities. Small-scale water-treatment systems, it has been suggested, would also make less attractive targets for bioterrorists than would big plants. Community-based water treatment would be most effective if it could be customized to remove the specific contaminants found in a local water source. That would most likely require nanotechnology. Nanosorbents, nanocatalysts, smart membranes, nanosensors and other kinds of nanotechnology could serve as the basis for new, smallscale water treatment systems. The goal of personal water treatment might actually prove easier to reach than the goal of integrating nanotechnology into existing centralized water treatment plants operated by public utilities, one participant noted. Emerging pollutants. Unfortunately, new kinds of pollutants are being continually discovered in water resources, even while we still deal with old problems such as lead, pesticides and E. coli. Waterways now contain trace quantities—which have obviously added up—of personal-care products such as sunscreens, medicines of all kinds and flame retardants and plastic residues that slough off consumer products. Some of these materials have been shown to have deleterious effects on fish and other wildlife, and they might also cause subtle health effects in people. Water-filtration technologies have not kept pace with emerging pollutants; no methods are currently available to remove most of them. Nano-enhanced water filtration could be developed to target these new contaminants. Moreover, as one physicist put it, “This could become even more important to do if new, nanomedicine-based pollutants started to enter the water supply.” Advanced methods of water purification using nanotechnology might prove to be the only viable strategy for keeping a wide variety of nanomaterials off the growing list of emerging pollutants.

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Because environmental research is a multidisciplinary field, a single effort or centre cannot address all the key challenges. It is at the nanolevel that physical changes and interactions with contaminants determine the designed decontamination process efficiency. Therefore, an integrated and multidisciplinary approach of key problems in environmental research and industry is required. Nanotechnology will help solve some of the pressing problems of this century in a rapidly changing world needing to adapt to a sustainable way of living. Environmental nanotechnology can particularly help in the following applications fields: •

Supply of clean water for the world in a cheap and efficient matter.

Treatment of groundwater and waste water.

Indoor and outdoor air purification by photocatalysis.

Cleaning and restoration of affected and polluted natural resources (water, air, soil).

Monitoring the state of the environment through cheap real-time pollutant analysis using low-cost sensors and biosensors.

Prevention of pollution through cleaner, less wasteful manufacturing and the use of less toxic materials.

More efficient catalysts to help reduce industrial and vehicle emissions.

Cleaner and more efficient energy production and storage systems.

Methods of CO2 sequestration by reaction with nanostructured minerals.

3.4.4 Chemicals, Consumer and Household Goods Chemical Technology Europe is a world leader in chemicals production and the chemical industry is the third most important sector in the EU, with 3 million employees in 24 000 companies, of which 96% are small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). However, Europe’s proportion of the world trade in chemicals has dropped from 32 to 28% in the past decade, despite an increase in sales from EUR 14 billion in 1990 to EUR 42 billion in 2002 . To sustain growth, it is mandatory that the chemical industry develops a strategic research agenda to achieve a balance between longterm technology-driven and short-term market-driven research. Materials technology has been identified as one of several strategic areas for European innovation – having huge potential to transform the chemical industry and to create opportunities for new European companies. In addition, due to its many applications, it can have a significant impact on society and promote the development of new sustainable technologies. Developments within the field of materials technology in most cases necessitate the involvement of nanoscience and nanotechnology. Nanotechnology will: •

Provide an understanding and control of surface phenomena that may lead to exploitation of surface functions e.g. in catalysis, electrodes, sensors, and their interfaces with gases paving the way to new and improved materials and devices.

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Allow the use of nanoparticles in composites and as coatings through an understanding of their special interfacial properties.

Help to determine the stability and safety of new nanoparticles in dry, wet and colloid forms.

Vision for the Chemical Industry •

The identification of opportunities is accelerated, in close co-operation with partner industries down the value chain, leading to new and improved functionalities.

Manufacturers will combine the benefits of traditional materials and nanomaterials to create a new generation of nanomaterialenhanced products that can be seamlessly integrated into complex systems.

Nanomaterials will serve as stand-alone devices, providing unprecedented functionality.

The convergence of market demand and innovative technology development will create many opportunities for new enterprises in the materials sector, amongst which will be new high technology leaders.

Innovation in this area will drive many innovative, high-value applications in the downstream industries.

Nanomaterials for the Chemical Industry •

Nanoparticles 9 Organic/inorganic pigments (e.g. UV-VIS-NIR pigments), 9 Inorganic functional particles (e.g. ZnO, CdS), 9 Organic functional particles (e.g. dendrimers).

Nanostructured materials 9 9 9 9

Nanocomposites (e.g. functionalised responsive resins, ...), Thermoplastics (e.g. with increased thermal conductivity, ...), Foams (e.g. nanoporous foams for better insulation, ...), Formulations (e.g. agricultural products, cosmetics, pharmaceuticals – with controlled delivery of actives).

Nanostructured Surfaces 9 Catalysis (e.g. more efficient, more selective catalysts, ...), 9 Functional coatings (e.g. anti-fog/anti-soil, ...), 9 Electronic components (e.g. printable electronics, E-paper, ...).

3.4.5 Food & Agro-Biotechnology In the food industry alone, experts estimate that nanotechnology will be incorporated into $20 billion worth of consumer products by 2010. Five out of ten of the world’s largest food companies are aggressively exploring the potential of the really small to make really big improvements in packaging, food safety, and nutrition. Similarly, in agriculture, some of the world’s largest makers of pesticides, fertilizers, and other farm inputs and technologies are betting on nanotechnology to bring unprecedented precision to crop and livestock production.

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These applications are commonly known as “agrifood nanotechnology”. However, while it is clear that agrifood nanotechnology is expected to become a driving economic force in the longterm, less certain is precisely what to expect in the near-term. Some of the key questions include: •

What individual products are moving rapidly through the pipeline?

What impact will these products have on the farming and food production chain?

When these products arrive in the grocery store and on the farm, is there any reason to be concerned—or excited—about putting them in our bodies or using them in our environment?

Today, there are only vague and general answers to these questions. However, if we are to manage the potential health or environmental concerns these products raise and, ultimately, realize their promised benefits, it is critical that we better understand and anticipate food and agriculture applications of nanotechnology. Agriculture Future nanoscience and nanotechnology developments in agriculture include: •

Increase of soil fertility and improvement of crop quality and production by optimising and minimising the intrants.

Improved knowledge of raw materials associated with agriculture.

Development of new sustainable transformation processes.

Development of slow release fertilisers for plants and nutrients and medicines for livestock.

Development of dedicated nanosensors to monitor the health of crops and farm animals

Development of novel magnetic nanoparticles to remove soil contaminants.

Research Priorities

Acquire knowledge of hierarchical structures in plants (from the nanoscale in the tissues to the global properties of the plant) and modelling in order to optimise their transformation (wood, 2nd generation bio fuels, fibres).

Tailor syntheses of new nanostructured biocatalysts in order to modify the agroresources in the green chemistry context.

Develop new smart delivery nanosystems for prevention, improved diagnostics and treatment of animal and crops deseases.

Improve the compatibility between productivity and nutritional quality.

Optimise the use of nanoparticles-based pesticides: pesticides can be easily taken up by plants if they are in nanoparticle form. They can also be programmed to be “time-released”.

Develop nanosystems for improving the bioavailability of “healthy” biomolecules such as antioxidants, polyphenols, vitamins.

Develop autonomous nanosensors for real-time monitoring.

Increase the efficiency of nanostructured biodegradable materials.

Mimic the nanostructured natural assemblies in order to build “stimulable” materials from agroresources.

Decrease the chemiclas usage in agriculture and reduce air and soil pollution, especially, in ground water; development of nanobased filters and catalysts to reduce pollution. 67


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Improve the agricultural techniques for the production of both healthy food and well-suited resources for non-food uses as materials or biofuels.

Food Sciences and Technologies Most raw materials of foods are of natural origin and as such have been built up from functioning nanosized elements. This chapter focuses on the implications of nanoscience and nanotechnologies on food, and how developments in this area may lead to greater choice and freedom for consumers. All aspects of human life critically depend on food availability. Therefore, global changes will affect food production and the foods locally available for consumption. Key drivers for research are the impact of global warming on crop production and shelf-life, dietary needs, mitigation of disease predisposition, food-mediated preventive health care, etc. These drivers will lead to specific demands on food functionality. Nanoscience and micro- and nanotechnologies will become important factors in facing these challenges. Ultimately, these developments will lead to specific demands on food functionality. The micro- and nanostructure of food which will impact nutrition include (Figure 6.9): •

Nutrient release in the gastrointestinal tract (glycaemic index, satiety feeling, health benefits, e.g. protection from bowel cancer, proliferation of minerals and trace elements through gut wall).

Nanotoxicity – it has become clear that nanoparticles can affect biological systems and the long-term effects of these particles is as yet largely unknown.

Nutriceuticals.

Encapsulation of flavours and vitamins.

Food processing, packaging transportation.

Food drying and rehydration.

Food waste handling.

Processing must retain the safety of the food and reduce food waste and fouling by energyefficient processes. Nanoscience can be expected to contribute to improved biosensors and rapid/online tests for food borne pathogens. Packaging is required to ensure not only protection from immediate spoilage, but also to enhance shelf-life. Nanoscience can be expected to deliver: •

Smarter packaging.

Better biodegradability.

New inks and barcodes for spoilage alerts.

Enzymatic routes to the breakdown of organic material for the production of new raw materials to be used by other industries.

Biofermentation.

The link between the different structures at the nano- and microlevel in food texture.

Thermodynamic aspects of nanofood materials.

Targeted food design.

Interaction between food and the body.

Nature and nanofood materials. 68


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Synergy of nanofood science and industry.

Food processing.

Product engineering.

Food quality assurance and safety.

Food packaging.

3.4.6 Nanotechnology Application in Fibers, Fabrics and Textiles Technology is becoming increasingly prominent in our daily lives, in many ways alleviating and in other ways fuelling the demands of modern living. Huge opportunities exist in the textile market to extend the functionality and performance of textiles to meet these demands. The advent of smart nanotextiles will revolutionize the clothes we wear, the furnishings in our homes, and the materials used in industry. This coming revolution has heightened the expectations of textile performance, and there is a great demand for “smart fabrics” that are more perceptive of the surrounding environment. Technical and functional textiles may be enlisted in wealth of applications ranging from military and security to personalized health-care, hygiene and entertainment. Advancing the current functionalities of textiles while maintaining the look and feel of the fabric is where nanotechnology is having a huge impact on the textile industry. The market for textiles using nanotechnologies is predicted to reach €13 billion in 2007 and climb dramatically to €110billion by 2012. Textiles, being a pervasive and universal interface, are an ideal substrate for integrating sensors to monitor the wearer and the environment. Textiles offer a versatile framework for incorporating sensing, monitoring, and information processing devices. Smart textiles can sense and react to environmental conditions or stimuli, for example, from mechanical, thermal, chemical, electrical, or magnetic sources. Some are termed “passive smart textiles”, capable of sensing environmental conditions, whereas “active smart textiles” contain both actuators and sensors, such as thermoregulating garments that maintain the wearer’s body temperature. Therefore, the fundamental components within smart textiles are sensors, actuators and control units. The sensing elements, data transmission and processing must be integrated into the textile while retaining the usual tactile, flexible and comfort properties of clothing in order for the smart textile to be practical. Much work in the field of smart clothing features conventional electronics overlaid onto a textile substrate and the problems of connections, bulkiness, wearability and washability are well documented. A means of seamless integration is required to develop true textile sensors. This is why nanotechnology is key to the smart textiles industry, enabling the incorporation of new functionalities at various productions stages – at the fiber-spinning level, during yarn/fabric formation, or at the finishing stage. Research Priorities

Nanotechnology has been growing by leaps and bounds in the last decade. It has numerous applications in almost every major industry, including textiles. There is a considerable potential for profitable applications of nanotechnology in cotton and other textile industries. Its application can economically extend the properties, performance, and hence values of textile processing and products. Predominantly cotton fabrics may efficiently be made fire retardant, shrink proof, crease resistant, water and stain resistant, and even water repellant, while still maintaining the cotton’s well admired, excellent comfort character, and aesthetics. By deploying nanotechnology, ultra-strong, durable, and specific-function-oriented fabrics can be efficiently produced for a 69


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number of end-use applications, including medical, industrial, military, domestic, apparel, household furnishing, and much more. It is now conceivable that by combining the optical fibers, micro mirrors, functional coatings, and electronics, customized fabrics and garments can be developed, which will change their colors as per the consumer’s desire and taste. The textile industry certainly has the biggest customer base in the world. Therefore, the advances in the customer-oriented products will be the main focus for future nanotechnology applications, and the textile industry is expected to be one of the main beneficiaries. However, it goes without saying that there certainly are some limitations and unknown health risks pertaining to the rapid development and growth of nanotechnology and also their end-use products. For example, it is extremely difficult and complex to process carbon fibers of < 200 nm with traditional textile practices and procedures. Regarding safety of personnel involved in production, conversion and even use of nano-fibers and their products, we still do not know of any short-term or long-term (unknown) health risks, especially the probable risks of pulmonary (lung) diseases due to the “nano-size” of the particles involved. The Washington Post recently had raised an alert to this effect. Developments in smart nanotextiles may affect many aspects of our daily lives and produce clothing that is contextually aware. New materials integrating novel technologies enable passive, noninvasive sensing of wearers and their environs. A major problem in wearable computing at present is the interconnections, with conventional silicon and metal components being highly incompatible with the soft textile substrate. By integrating technology at the nanoscale, the tactile and mechanical properties of the textile may be preserved, retaining the necessary wearable and flexible characteristics that we expect from our clothing. Smart textiles must be flexible enough to be worn for long periods of time without causing any discomfort in order to become a viable and practical product. Smart textiles have a large range of applications, often starting as a highly specialized applications before becoming a more generally available consumer product. This is an area of interdisciplinary research that must involve materials research, sensor technologies, engineering, wireless networking, and computer applications. Creating a wearable garment integrates textile and fashion design with input from the end users, such as healthcare workers, defence forces, and sports physicians. Market trends suggest great opportunities for nanotechnology within the textile market, given the current pace of development, smart nanotextiles will form a ubiquitous part of our lifestyle. Our clothing is becoming contextually aware and is learning to adjust to suit the individual needs of the user. 3.4.7 Information and Communication Technologies Nanotechnology-enabled electronics seem to have the potential for many advances in the coming years. However, the path of integrating new nanoscience discoveries into commercial applications, particularly in the case of integrated circuit and chip design, is extremely challenging. Unlike many other areas in which nanotechnology is only just beginning to play a role, nanotechnology and nanotechnology-related processes have been enabling technologies within integrated processors since the 1990s. However, to continue Moore’s Law, new advances in both materials and processes are needed. Maintaining Moore’s Law will require smaller features and even thinner films. However, as these features continue to shrink, fundamental physical and electrical properties change and no longer meet the requirements necessary for integrated circuits to function. Scientists and engineers will need to discover strategies for introducing nonclassical complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) designs and new dielectric materials into existing manufacturing techniques, while at the same time not dramatically increasing the cost of production per chip. Possible candidate technologies include single-gate non-classical CMOS designs—for example, 70


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transport-enhanced field-effect transistors (FETs) that use strained semiconductor layers to enhance electron mobility, ultra-thin-body silicon-on-insulator FETs, and source/drain engineered FETs that are designed to maintain the source and drain resistances relative to the channel resistance. Other candidates include multiple-gate nonclassical CMOS designs. As the name implies, these deigns incorporate multiple gates to help provide better control of the current through the transistor channel. In multiple-gate designs, the electrical current may flow either horizontally, in the plane of the substrate, or vertically, out of the plane, depending on the specific architecture of the FET. Beyond the 45-nanometer technology node, scientists and engineers will need to discover methods implementing non-CMOS devices and architectures into CMOS platform technologies. It is assumed that the scaling of CMOS device and process technologies will probably end by the 16-nanometer technology node (7-nanometer channel length) sometime around 2019. Possible candidate technologies mentioned for this time frame include carbon nanotube FETs, onedimensional semiconductor nanowire FETs, single electron transistor designs that transport current between the source and drain one electron at a time, resonant tunnelling diodes, devices based on quantum effects observed in superconducting materials, and quantum cellular automata that process and transmit information through isolated, interacting cells or quantum dots. However, other advances in nanotechnology may allow conventional processors to be fabricated on a greater range of substrates and materials (i.e., polymers). This would enable relatively simple computational devices to be integrated into a wider range of commercial goods, including fabrics for specialized applications and commercial packaging. However, all of these technologies are at the very early stages of development. Much research is still needed in producing these devices in large quantities and at the extremely tight tolerances required for the semiconductor industry. In addition, while there has been some progress in novel nanotechnologically-enabled innovations in individual devices that may take the semiconductor industry well past the next decade, very little research has been conducted on how to integrate the next-generation transistor (let alone 106 of them) into a single computer chip. Furthermore, little research has been performed on architectures using nano-enabled technologies and the potential limitations that may exist for such densities. In addition, the costs associated with the design and construction of integrated chip fabrication plants (fabs) is extremely expensive. The approximate total building costs for a facility that produces computer chips using 200-millimeter wafers are between €1 and €1.2 billion. The 300millimeter fabs cost on the order of €2.7 billion. The larger the wafer, the greater the number of individual chips that can be produced simultaneously. Therefore, by using larger wafers, the industry can reduce costs by taking advantage of economies of scale. However, the cost associated with introducing non-CMOS materials (e.g., carbon nanotubes) or additional fabrication steps, such as those associated with nonclassical CMOS designs, will likely increase overall cost for fabricating individual chips and may increase the total costs for individual fabs. Advanced Data Processing. Data processing and data storage are the fundaments of all Information Technology. Up to now the continuous increase of data processing and data storage capability at lower costs has been made possible by the so-called Moore’s Law. Since a few years, typical size of elementary devices (transistors and memory cells) has decreased below the 100nm barrier, but already before that, quantum-mechanical effects (like tunnel effect) possible only on the nanometer scale, have been at the base of the working of the devices. Quantum effects and statistical variability are impacting future growth of the sector, and most common used memory technologies, like DRAM and Flash are likely to meet fundamental limits in the near future. Research in the field of new materials, both inorganic and organic, to support new 71


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memory architectures and new device concepts beyond the 32nm node are strongly requested. The research must be support by modelling of nanoscale effects like interface properties of very thin layers, mechanical and thermo-electrical stress, quantum effects and “ab initio” calculation of material properties, to support the development of engineered materials. New technologies for he controlled deposition (or removal) of very thin layers (a few atomic or molecular layers) are required, as well as proper metrology tools. Self-assembly concepts on existing templates could help pushing the limits of conventional lithography. In the production area, integration of advanced metrology tools, able to operate on the scale of nanometers, in the production lines for advanced Nanoelectronics is a must, as well as their close integration with deposition and etching tools, for precise process control. A close coordination with the calls of IST Theme would be desirable. Data Transmission. Wireless communications are at the base of today Communication technology, ranging from world spanning networks, like GSM, UMTS and GPS, to very short range data transmission, like Bluetooth, supported by a backbone of optical fibres. There is no short term limit to the growing need for more communication bandwidth, which is pushing towards the development not only of new protocols and device architectures but also towards new technologies. In the field of optoelectronics, new materials are needed for less expensive and more efficient optical fibres, low cost and miniaturized optical and opto-electronics components, like laser modulators (quantum well lasers are already now an established technology), amplifiers, couplers and receivers. New materials and new device concepts are also needed to replace electro-mechanical components in RF transmission. Sensors and Actuators. A large part of the increasing pervasiveness of Nanoelectronics is related to the availability of sensors, which convert physical and chemical data into electrical information that can be handled by high density logic, and by actuators that can convert back control signals into physical actions, in general through power devices. While mechanical sensors (accelerometers, pressure sensors) are in general working on the micrometer scale, there is a growing interest towards the so-called nano-MEMS, that exploit the enhanced sensitivity of nanometer size mechanical structures for chemical and biological sensing. Dedicated production processes for low cost and tight control of material properties are still missing. Another promising field, especially for medical applications, can be the development of micro-actuators, based on physical effects, like piezoelectric effect, magneto-striction and similar, and controlled by small electrical stimuli. They can be used for micro-valves, drug dispensers, but also for RF tuning and similar applications. The final target could be something similar to an artificial muscle fibre that could lead to a variety of applications. Displays. Digital displays have replaced analogue ones, and flat screeb technology has replaced old CRT tubes. Even if Europe has no longer any significant production activity in this field, the introduction of new low cost, low power technologies could change the picture. Especially interesting are flexible displays, for portable applications, which could be the base for a real “electronic newspaper” (with wireless connection) or “electronic book” (with a Flash memory card). New technologies based on organic material, thin active films on plastic substrates, “electronics ink” based on suspension of nanoparticles are requiring both material development and progress in the field of nano-science. A special attention should be devoted to solid-state lighting that offers the promise of a significant reduction in power consumption for illumination. New materials and new device concepts, based on nanoscale structures, coupled to an in-depth understanding of mechanisms is needed to reduce production costs.

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System Integration. The increasing demand towards lower costs, lower power dissipation and portability is forcing the integration of several devices in the same package, and the development of power scavenging technologies. In-package device integration is requiring new technologies for heat removal that could profit from the introduction of new materials, like Carbon nanotubes, with very good heat transmission properties along preferred direction. Device sealing and antiscratch protection require thin protecting layers of hard materials that can be deposited at very low temperature. Conventional device assembly technology based on low temperature melting bumps is anyhow implying a total thermal budget, in case of multiple chips, that it is hardly compatible with advanced technologies. Low temperature assembly technology, based on surface forces that are present on the nanoscale could help solve the issue. Energy scavenging is a key technology for autonomous devices that are required in medical applications and sensors networks. Present approaches are based on micro-mechanical generators, but other sources, like temperature differences, vibrations and chemical reactions, operating on the nanoscale should be investigated. 3.4.8

Civil Security

Security is becoming an increasingly important facet of global society. The issues are many-fold and include protecting citizens and state from organized crime, preventing terrorist acts, and responding to natural and man-made disasters. Nanotechnology applications for civil security can be divided into four broad areas: •

Detection, including imaging, sensors and sensor networks for the detection of pathogens and chemicals.

Protection, including decontamination equipment and filters, and personal protection.

Identification, including anti-counterfeiting and authentication, forensics, quantum cryptography and the market for counterfeit and grey goods.

Societal impacts, including current regulatory and ethical frameworks, potential impacts on ethics and human rights, and public perception.

Detection The ability to accurately and rapidly detect different substances (chemical and biological), objects and people is key to preventing many civil security problems. Improvement in detection technologies is driven by reduction in device size, increased sensitivity and selectivity, and the possibility of hidden detection systems. MEMS already offers advances in this sense, however nanotechnologies should provide further improvements, as well as easier to use and cheaper detection devices. Research Priorities

The topicality of civil security stimulates the support of technological advances by authorities as well as companies which see interesting market opportunities. Indeed, new detection devices are not only developed to replace or enhance currents ones, but to embed systems in public places in order to limit accidents as well as terrorist attacks. This requires cheaper devices that are easy to use, and able to detect a variety of agents quickly and with a high degree of accuracy. To achieve this requires nanotechnology advances. Nanotechnologies have applications in several imaging devices (X-ray, infrared, THz detection), but it is in the range of biological and chemical detection that they are the most advanced. Biotechnology advances using nanoparticles and quantum dots as bio-detectors, have allowed rapid progress in security applications. Rapid 73


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progress has also been made in the field of chemical detection based on carbon nanotubes. Finally, nanotechnology offers the possibility of multiplexing, or performing analyses on a number of different targets on the same sensor in an array form. This application may be more of a mid- to long-term prospect, but will highly facilitate detection and accelerate results. The most impressive advance allowed for by nanotechnology development is the possibility of autonomous sensor networks. These networks will be able to not only capture data but process information, transmit it, and communicate with others sensors in potentially hostile environments. The extremely small size of these devices, in addition to a very low price, could make them next generation of sensor for civil security. Indeed they have the potential to limit the requirement for human intervention in dangerous places. Protection The physical protection of critical infrastructures, rapid response and rescue teams, and civilians against various forms of terrorism and organized crime is one of the most important tasks for future civil security in Europe. The main research and application topics for improved protection solutions are developing in relation to risks from the proliferation of chemical and biological warfare agents or dangerous goods and from the need for better protective systems against explosives, projectiles, and fire, especially in personal equipment for rescue forces. In addition to such intentional dangers, the growing potential risk of natural and man-made disasters or industrial accidents in an ever-increasing interconnected world, also requires new and robust protection solutions to minimize the raised vulnerability of vital infrastructures and supply chains on a local and transnational level. Research Priorities

The main research targets in this field are related to the: •

Development of smart nanoparticles or tuneable photocatalysts that recognize and sequester or destroy specific toxins.

Smart and designed nanostructured membranes with controlled porosity for selective migration and separation.

High surface area materials with templated structure and nanofibres or nanotubes with improved and selective adsorption/neutralization of agents and radioactive materials;

“Prophylactic” nanostructured solutions, which include e.g. drug delivery platforms, nanostructured reactors in skin creams or nanostructured materials for wound cleaning and treatment.

There are two major research lines for the development of future passive and active personal protective systems. In the near-term, the application of nanomaterials will have a strong impact mainly in the enhancement of standard and established passive textile protection products. Within a timeframe of 5-10 years, the further dispersion and use of nanomaterials and nanocoatings with enhanced or new physical properties is expected to have a key role in the development of flexible, wearable and smart passive or active protective systems tailored for remote and embedded monitoring of rapid response and rescue personnel. Important research targets and concepts which have been pursued or are now being developed are related for example to: •

Nanocomposites with tailored properties for wearable or integrated protective systems in protective clothing or equipments and in building structures;

Multifunctional nanofibres and garments for smart textiles (sensoric, biological and chemical decontaminating, high strength); 74


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Magneto-restrictive or shear-thickening nanofluids for passive and active protective systems (“Liquid Armour”);

Tailored and switchable nanocoatings for electrostatic and electromagnetic shielding of components in security related computer and communication systems;

Nanomedical applications based e.g. on biodegradable nanospheres or controllable magnetic nanoparticles in active personal protective systems.

Identification The section gives a brief overview of the various nanotechnology developments that are focused on identification of goods, products, and devices and verification of personal identity. The first part provides an overview of the various authentication and anticounterfeiting solutions being pursued for brand protection such as nanobarcodes and nanoparticles. This is followed by an overview of the tools and techniques used in forensics for detecting fingerprints and forgeries and confirming the identity of objects. The third part provides an overview of the potential of quantum cryptography in secure information transfer. While some of these technologies are under field trial, others are not likely to be implemented for many years. In the final part, the market size of counterfeit and grey products has been presented to emphasize the seriousness of the problem. Research Priorities

Nanotechnology applications in identification of products are increasing. Development work related to identification technologies is being conducted both through start-up companies and established multi-nationals. There are a range of issues which need to be considered such as who controls the reading of the covert codes. The new identification techniques offer the promise of reducing the piracy of goods and products. With overproduction leading to creation of grey markets, it is imperative that EU governments should, through tax incentives, support the development of identification technology in order to stop fraud. However, ethical issues regarding privacy have been raised relating to RFID tagging of products. Whether nanobarcodes or other new methods of identification will face the same treatment, remains to be seen. Nanoscience and nanotechnology know-how is having an impact on forensic studies. Tools for analysis such as SPM and SEM are being widely used to solve crime by analysing evidence at the nanoscale. The analysis work is principally being carried out within government agencies. However, the development of analytical tools and methods is being carried out in large companies. Further development is expected to help law enforcement agencies successfully solve difficult crimes using partial evidence such as latent fingerprints and DNA. Quantum Cryptography is expected to provide a highly secure method for encrypting data transfer on the Internet. However, there are many outstanding challenges that need to be addressed before quantum computing can become a reality. 3.5

Conclusions

Nanotechnology spans over many areas including, nanoparticles, nanocomposites and customdesigned nanostructures, that find applications from polymer additives to drug delivery systems and cosmetics. Especially, nanotubes are of great interest for many applications like storage, transport, separation, drug delivery, thermal isolation, photonic and electronic applications or templates.

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The largest barrier to rational design and controlled synthesis of nanomaterials with predefined properties is the lack of fundamental understanding of thermodynamic, kinetic and quantum processes at the nanoscale. Today, the principles of self-assembly are not well understood nor do we have the ability to bridge length scales from nano to micro to macro. This lack of basic scientific knowledge regarding the physics and chemistry of the nanoscale significantly limits our ability to predict a priori the structural and functional properties of nanomaterials and their processing behaviour. Profitable research will result in the development of kinetic and thermodynamic rules for synthesis and assembly that can be applied to the rational design of nanomaterials commercial scales (including hierarchical nanomaterials) based on first principles. Manufacturers will combine the benefits of traditional materials and nanomaterials to create a new generation of nanomaterials-based products that can be seamlessly integrated into complex systems. In some instances, nanomaterials will serve as stand-alone devices, providing unprecedented functionality. Nanotechnology is an integral part of almost all developments regarding new functionalised materials and products, as mentioned above. The wide range of nanotechnology-based industrial applications includes: •

Life Sciences and Health Care

Energy: Conversion, Storage and Efficient Use

Environment (Air, Water and Soil)

Chemicals, Consumer and Household Goods

Construction and Housing

Food & Agro-Biotechnology

Fibers, Fabrics and Textiles

Transport: Aircraft and Automotives

Civil Security

Many of the potential applications are based on exploiting effects that are part of our current understanding of science. However, producing structures and operating at the atomic level will produce novel effects that will stimulate new science and hence lead to new applications. The market for nanomaterials has been estimated by analysts to be €700 to 1,000 billion by 2011. As new materials and applications are used by the human society, the possible impact of nanomaterials on the environment and human health has to be considered. Such impact studies have to be done by industrial, NGO or independent national scientific groups, as current knowledge is inadequate for risk assessment of nanoparticles and fibres. As materials exhibit unique properties at the nanoscale level, which affect their physical, chemical and biological behaviour, the potential hazard of nanomaterials needs to be considered in parallel with their potential benefits on a case-by-case basis.

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Chapter 4 Research Priorities in Materials Science and Engineering

N

ew materials with tailored properties and the ability to process them efficiently are crucial

for new product development in many industries. The materials that define the present age are many more than simply silicon and uranium, literally in the tens of thousands and in many areas of technology. New and improved materials are unique in providing a foundation for new breakthrough technologies as well as more incremental improvement of products across the whole spectrum of industries. The majority of advanced materials solutions (e.g. in Transport, Energy, Health, Building and many other sector) are based on a multi-materials approach and/or design. The demands of tomorrow's technology translate directly into increasingly stringent demands on the materials involved - their intrinsic properties, their costs, their processing and fabrication, and their recyclability. Uniquely amongst research areas, new materials often appear at the heart of many innovations in virtually all priority areas covered by the industrial programme of FP7 and cover all areas of science and technology including disciplines ranging from quantum physics to biology and everything in between. NMP aims to support Europeâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s drive to be the world-leading innovator and supplier of advanced materials adding high value and a competitive advantage to industrial products in key sectors. The present programme is designed to tackle the multiple challenges currently facing European industry, with accelerated demands for higher quality and higher added-value products, rapidly increasing competitiveness from Asia and elsewhere and the needs for restructuring, particularly of the energy and transport sectors brought on by the recent financial crisis. New and advanced materials play a central role in supporting many of the priority areas in FP7, particularly health, ICT, transport and energy. Special attention is also given to the three EU PPPs (Manufacturing of the future, Energy efficient buildings, Green car). Materials research is closely intertwined with the Nanotechnology programme within NMP with no clear borders: and no effort is made to artificially separate the two. Similarly, the exploitation of new materials is intimately linked to new production technologies, also addressed in NMP.

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4.1

Enabling Technologies, Cross-cutting Research Directions and Challenges in materials

Basic and applied materials science research activities are quite often so intertwined, that they are indistinguishable. The importance of basic science is highlighted by the fact that 30% of the gross domestic product in the US and other industrialised nations is derived from products based on science of quantum mechanics28. On a fundamental level, new materials discoveries lead to new applications in unpredictable ways, often in multiple functions and with applications in different sectors. Exercising an ever increasing degree of control over synthesis down to the single atom level under increasingly extreme conditions of pressure, temperature and non-equilibrium conditions, leads to an increasing degree of predictability of materials’ properties at different length scales from the microscopic (including nanoscale) to the macroscopic via multiscale modelling and simulation tools. Such control over matter requires cutting edge experimental and theoretical tools, where Europe’s competitiveness is directly related to its ability to maintain advanced technology in experimental facilities and continuously develop new microscopic analytical tools for probing not only static nano- and mesoscale textures but also dynamic properties on different timescales. Time-domain spectrosopies (X-ray, electron, optical and neutron) in synergy with new accompanying theoretical models give information on not only the “wiggling and jiggling” of atoms (quoting Richard Feynman), but also on electron and spin dynamics which lead to functional behaviour and for instance the development of ultrafast spin memories.

Figure 4.1 A diagram showing the importance of enabling technologies and fundamental understanding on the basic needs of European society and industry sectors. The greater emphasis on the fundamental understanding of materials will lead to a more firm theoretical basis and qualitatively better control over their properties, so that improvements can be made more efficiently and reliably. Particular attention should be given to understanding materials’ behaviour from the atomic/nano-level via the microstructural level to the macrostructure level using advanced analytical techniques in combination with computer

28

Physics World, 2009

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modelling. This approach applies to both the improvement of conventional “bulk” materials, such as steel and composites, as well as to new functional materials for increasingly smaller, “smarter” devices. Europe has the capabilities to provide the required fundamental knowledge, but needs to increase its investment in this area if it is to remain competitive amongst growing competition from the rest of the world.

Figure 4.2 A schematic representation summarising some challenges in characterisation of new materials, particularly bulk inhomogeneous systems, buried interfaces and surface states. The diagram discribes studies only. The study of dynamics forcharacterizing functional states needs techniques which probe on different timescales. Technology-push and industry pull both need equal consideration. Whilst stimulating the creativity of Europe’s research scientists at the fundamental level, the NMP programme also attempts to define clear aims regarding industrial application. Some technology breakthroughs are expected to lead to new opportunities for tackling the grand challenges posed by demands for clean and efficient energy, health, information technology etc. With respect to the industrial usefulness of new advanced materials, it is crucial that their behaviours are studied under operating conditions (e.g. structural durability and system reliability) in the early stages of development by both experimental methods and virtual methods. Current industrial needs and consumer awareness also require a proper assessment of the environmental impact, safety and energy consumption throughout all stages of materials synthesis, processing, use and recycling before products are commercialized. Characterisation and New Instrumentation Methods

The accelerated pace of development of characterization methods and instrumentation, resulting in increasingly rapid advances in the development of entirely new materials, as well as tailoring of existing materials to achieve new functionalities dictates that special attention should be given to this area. Thus the development of new characterization tools and technologies together with the formation of critical European infrastructures should be given a high priority. This is of particular importance in the context of multicomponent materials systems, where existing 79


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characterization and modelling tools in many cases are not suitable for such complex materials or devices. Whilst long-range ordered states of matter can be investigated with 20th century techniques such as X-ray diffraction, new 21st century functional materials cannot be understood without detailed knowledge of local nanoscale structure. This structure is often changing with time on femtosecond timescales, and the details are only now becoming accessible to investigators. Techniques such as SAXS, XAS (EXAFS, XANES…), and high-energy neutron diffraction gives local nanoscale, or sub-nanoscale information, and are continuously being developed Snapshots of local electronic structure in time are given by time-resolved optical, electron diffraction and time-resolved angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy for example. New techniques are desperately needed to record “movies” of local lattice, magnetic and electronic structure with femtosecond resolution to enable a better understanding for designing the new functionalities needed to meet new opportunities and challenges. At the same time, we need significantly better information on electronic self-assembly of nanostructures within the bulk as well as on surfaces, to be able to make serious advances in the field of composites and other useful materials. Thus new microscopy techniques, particularly for bulk and buried interface studies are crucial for the development of new materials and multicomponent systems with tailored properties. Every so often, unpredictably, new materials are discovered which lead to the formation of new products and even whole new industries. They often challenge our understanding of matter on a fundamental level to such an extent that we are forced into new paradigms in basic science. When they emerge, it is impossible to predict their practical value and predictions of usefulness can be far outside reality. It is just as likely that entirely new applications emerge which were not conceived at the time of discovery. EU policy for Materials RTD needs to include effective methods for assessing the potential of newborn materials or new forms of known materials early in their life, so that a critical mass of knowledge can be built up. Such knowledge will lead to competitive advantage regarding their readiness for development into products. Targeted funding is recommended for such emergent materials to determine their value and develop a critical understanding of their properties. Such funding should focus on the embryonic stage and encourage groups to form around them to study basic synthesis, characterization and potential applications. Examples of current materials of interest include: a) layered organic and inorganic compounds (graphene, chalcogenides, oxides...); b) superconducting pnictides,; c) transition metal chalogenide and chalcohalide nanowires and d) nanostructures, inorganic semiconducting nanowires...) Modern multicomponent microstructures tend to incorporate structural building blocks with typical length scales well below a micron, wherein each microstructural feature tends to play its role for a particular structural property or functionality. Taking advantage of the high intensities available at large X-ray and neutron facilities, in-situ studies, where materials are tested under working conditions can provide phase-dependent information on the evolution of the microstructure under deformation, temperature etc. These new testing methods will contribute to the understanding of complex microstructures and provide input for upgrading predictive computational models which are now only valid for simple microstructures. This is a new emerging field where material scientists and engineers should work together with the beam line experts at these large facilities together with the industrial sectors specialized in the development of such materials. Europe’s large facilities should be connected to pool their knowledge and resources for maximum synergy.

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EAG Report on Future RTD of NMP Modelling, Understanding Complexity and Nonlinearity, Functionality by Design and Bottom-Up Approaches to New Materials

To understand and develop the functional properties of new materials and tailor them for specific applications, a wide and concerted approach, incorporating synthesis, characterization and modelling is required. For example, in complex transition-metal oxides, the interactions between the electronic spins, charges, and orbitals produce a rich variety of electronic phases. The competition and/or cooperation among these correlated-electron phases can lead to the emergence of surprising electronic phenomena and functionalities and form the basis for a new type of electronics. Advanced new modelling tools need to be continuously improved and developed, so that they can be used for predictive tailoring of new and existing to enhance their functional properties. The aim is to coerce matter into displaying emergent behavior by control of materials parameters. Modelling of complex emergent behaviours arising from non-linear interactions between electrons, lattice and spins need significant efforts for the theoretical understanding of these materials for commercial applications Since nano- and micro-structures of engineering materials tend to have high complexity at different length scales where macroscopic properties are dominated largely by the presence of interfaces, modeling and simulation approaches at all length-scales have to be upgraded in order to incorporate these effects. Such simulation techniques are needed in all industrial sectors, examples of which include the car industry, nuclear fusion and fission and the aerospace industry. Although different chemical components may be used, applications are often dealing with the same type of microstructures where high interface densities are play a key role. The natures of such interfaces are poorly represented by current predictive models. Thus it is important that the industrial and research communities combine their resources to obtaining fundamental insights and develop better predictive models. Surfaces, adhesion, interfacial phenomena are clear examples of cross-cutting R&D. Development of understanding, both experimental and theoretical, of surface phenomena is crucial in a huge variety of fields, ranging from spintronics to composites. New high-resolution experimental techniques have led to new discoveries of interfacial phenomena on the molecular scale. These have led recently to breakthroughs in nanoelectronics, adhesives and tribology (friction reduction) amongst others. For example, carbon nanotubes with curved ends form artificial surfaces which mimic gecko feet, while layered chalcogenide nanomaterials lead to large reduction of friction, with huge potential impact for energy saving through novel dynamic lubrication systems. Assessment of potential risks to health or the environment

Commercialization of any new materials will require, in a proportionate way, a consideration of the materialâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s potential environmental, safety, and health (ES&H) impact, and, if appropriate, the development of exposure and handling guidelines for production, transport, use, and disposal. This involves identifying human health and environmental hazards, determining human and environmental exposure, and establishing an exposure-based risk assessment to indicate the probability of adverse effects of the materials and the products which are developed. Approaches for nanomaterials have been described in detail in section 3.5 but these are equally appropriatete for other types of novel materials.

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The cross-cutting priorities are summarised as follows: •

Understanding complexity and non-linearity as well as materials functionality by design, using bottom-up approaches including computational modeling to achieve complex functionality through tailoring on many scales of length.

Development of new instrumentation and analysing methods, including those around synchrotron and neutron facilities is deemed essential for testing in-situ and tailoring new and existing materials for specific applications.

Surfaces and adhesion and interfacial phenomena (including catalysis) are seen collectively as a cross-cutting research area, leading to multiple functionalities for high-added value materials.

Early characterization and prognosis of new materials´ behaviour in components and devices under operating conditions.

Early assessment of the potential risks to health or to the environment arising from the new materialises or from applications of these materials.

4.2

Priority Areas in Response to Basic Needs of European Society

The main body of materials research in the near future will addresses the needs of European society as defined by the grand challenges, such as health, energy, the environment, quality of life etc. Projecting from the astonishing progress in materials science observed in the last century, we can envision new developments that previously might have seemed unimaginable. NMP’s Materials research programme identifies the key opportunities and challenges for Material Sciences, from basic research to societal needs and from resource utilisation to environmental protection. To illustrate the broad scope of targeted research, photovoltaics, for example, have wide applications in energy generation for the grid, in cars, in construction, in mobile devices, as well as in space and aeronautics. Light weight composites are used not only in aerospace and automotive, but also in housing, sports, health, electronic device housings and wind energy. New sensor materials which are typically discussed under electronics have applications in medicine, safety and all over the transport sectors. High temperature, high-power materials are used in cars, energy generators, aerospace and security amongst other applications. The broadest of all are the uses for multifunctional materials with tuneable electronic properties in ICT; opto-, piezo-, ferro-, bio- devices; in computing as memories; switches; smart sensors and controllers. 4.2.1 Materials for Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) In Europe, ICT is one of the largest high-value added market sectors that is also the key enabler for other industrial segments where Europe has leading position, like communications, automotive and industrial equipment. European semiconductor industry is facing a drastic paradigm change: the increasing costs of R&D on CMOS scaling and of manufacturing plants have forced all companies, save a few US and Asian giants to share R&D development in common locations (e.g. the IBM alliance) and to make increasing use of foundries. A similar trend is evident also in display industry where the manufacturing of large solid state displays has completely, and probably irreversibly, moved to Asia. The future of European ICT industry is therefore in an increased focus on product differentiation through design and added functions (like RF, power and sensors) often developed in close cooperation with final users, while new opportunities are opening in new markets driven by European initiatives in sectors with a strong social impact like health and wellness, security and energy saving. In the long term, disruptive technologies could completely replace CMOS technology that is nearing its limits, economical 82


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rather than physical, opening fully new scenarios. A special mention deserves the European equipment and material industry for ICT that has achieved world wide leadership in some specific sectors, like lithography, SOI and deposition equipment for solid state lighting, even if major customers are completely outside Europe. Further scaling of CMOS technologies and memories: in the first place substrates for high performance applications, including thin layers of high mobility materials on insulating substrates (stressed Si, Ge, III-V or graphene) and materials for stress engineering, new dielectrics, material for low resistivity interconnections and heat removal. New materials are required for high density memories, since the current charge storage mechanism are reaching their physical limits. Magnetic materials for new concepts of magnetic storage, complex metal oxides or organic materials for resistive memories and ferroelectric materials for innovative architectures are the most promising candidates. New materials are needed also to push lithography beyond the present limits, including chemically amplified resists, environmental friendly replacement of current materials and self-organizing block copolymers. Power electronics will be one of the key technologies in the coming years to support the increasing concerns about energy saving, environment protection and the use of sustainable energy sources. New materials need to be used and caharacterized for high temperature electronics, both in the field of wide gap semiconductor as for high reliability interconnections. RF technology will play an increasing role moving to the mm wave range both for wide band communications and for radar and imaging devices to be used in safety security applications. At the same time very low cost RF technology will be required for sensor networks. Special substrates for RF devices will be one of th main requirements. A very promising field are periodic structures can simulate media with propagation constants as if they were effectively uniform magneto-dielectric media with the refraction indices both greater and smaller than unity. "Metamaterials" based on 3D nanostructures, original frequency-selective surface and dichroic surface designs can allow the development of controllable multi-frequency, multipolarized, wideband antennae with highly improved weight and volume without degradation of performance. Further integration of active components such as MEMs or ferroelectrics into antennae offers substantial potential for commercializing these products and with cost reduction. New techniques are needed for modelling of these architectures, analysis and characterisation. Smart/intelligent systems utilize active and controllable materials as sensors/actuators to respond to environmental changes for next-generation machines and structures. This requires the combination of active and passive material systems, often including the coupling of relevant mechanical, electrical, magnetic, thermal, or other physical/chemical properties which can be used for integrated composite system design and development of smart technologies. Materials for energy scavenging and storage on the sensor scale are needed for autonomous sensors. Especially materials for biological sensors to be used for health and security application could open important markets, e.g. for personalized, remote and home healthcare. Integration of Smart System will be strongly based on 3-D integration in package, New materials will be needed for device interconnect in package, heat removal and reduction of environmental impact. Large areas electronics is already a reality for flat panel displays, which are now a monopoly of Asian companies. However a large number of new applications could be developed based on advancement on organic polymers and small molecules as well as nanoparticle dispersions, and organic/inorganic hybrids. These unconventional materials have the potential to combine lowcost manufacturing, multiple functionality and ease of integration needed for the next generation of macroelectronic systems. Whilst the technological need for macroelectronic devices is wellestablished, there are still many fundamental materials issues that remain unresolved. Basic research problems (e.g. charge transport, structure/ property relationships, electrical and

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environmental stability and materials compatibility) as well as systems processing need to be addressed. Transparent conducting and semiconducting materials could give a significant contribution to the exploitation of technologies mentioned above by enabling new active optoelectronic applications such as roll-up displays and electronic paper. Among the main topics there are transparent semiconducting amorphous mixed metal oxides such as In-Zn-O fo transparent transistors. However, important fundamental questions regarding the basic materials science, electronic structure, doping mechanism, and limitations of these materials are open and very active topics of research. Current challenges involve lower resistivity and higher transparency over extended wavelength ranges, room temperature deposition, and fabrication of p-type transparent conductors and semiconductors for high-performance devices based on p-n junctions. Optical nanostructures for chip scale integration and nano-scale (sub-wavelength) processing of light are of increasing importance in the photonics industry. The integration of periodic tuneable, resonant, or non-linear structures into photonic devices, will allow higher performance at smaller size and lower cost, revolutionizing many aspects of the telecommunication and computing industries. The dream is to replace cable and copper interconnects in as many places as possible with these devices at highly reduced price and increased performance with millions of these in personal computers. As a priority, the physics behind the electromagnetic response of 3dimensional nanostructures, plasmonics, MOEMS and photonic crystals still needs to be better understood and modelled. Fundamental research towards creation of low-loss plasmonic materials (engineered metal alloys) is necessary before such plasmonic devices can become competitive. A close connection with potential user is also needed in order to establish a coherent roadmap for technology development. Spintronics is a very active and multidisciplinary field even if the hope to replace electron transport in logic devices has been frustrated by the lack of an equivalent of the transistor. However important applications exist for memories quantum information and sensors and provide new opportunities for materials science. The search for ferromagnetic materials with Curie temperatures higher than room temperature remains a challenge. Self-organized surfaces are of increasing interest. The properties of low-dimensional structures like graphene, metallic and semiconducting nanowires, semiconductor heterostructures and artificial lattices are getting increased attention for a wide variety of applications, from information processing, to RF devices, sensors, high temperature superconductors, optoelectronics and quantum computing. The issues to be addressed include appropriate modelling tools, controlled atomic-scale fabrication and characterization, including ion implantation and semiconductor heteroepitaxy. Among the longer term topics, organic and molecular electronics and bio-inspired materials can play a very important role. The development of new paradigms in molecular and Nanoelectronics depends crucially on the development of new materials which have electronic functionality and behave controllably on the nanoscale. Current examples are organic semiconductors, molecular switches, non-linear molecular complex functional materials and materials for molecular scale interconnection. New materials are constantly appearing for the construction of molecular and nanoscale circuitry, but so far there is no clear technology which can be used to create large scale circuits on the sub-10 nm scale. New materials and processes are needed for controlled self-assembly at these very small scales leading to large scale integration. While a replacement of conventional electronics could take place only on a rather long time scale, niche applications for low cost, low complexity circuits could help to drive the technology development. An additional opportunity is the application of bio-inspired or biomimetic electronic structures in miniaturized integrated sensors for healthcare applications (see also 4.2.3). 84


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Topics of particular interest are: •

New magnetic materials for memories, sensors and spintronic (1,2)

New materials for molecular electronics and nanoelectronics, including low-dimensional materials (1)

Multifunctional materials for electronics, including complex metal oxides for dielectrics and memories (1,2)

Materials for smart systems, packaging and substrates (1)

Organic and hybrid materials for large-area functional systems, barrier coatings for flexible screens (e.g. OLED), wave guides for optical back planes, lithography (1)

Metamaterials and photonic materials for optics, optoelectronics and wireless communications (1-2)

New material for organic and polymer electronics.

4.2.2 Materials for Energy Of all the energy consumed in the world, approximately 70% originates from fossil fuels. Energy consumption is increasing steadily, and is predicted to double well before 2050. With increasing awareness of the implications of fossil fuel consumption on global climate, and dwindling fossil fuel supplies, alternative energy generation and increased efficiency of consumption are a high priority. This presents a major challenge for the current technologies. Europe has had to turn to alternative sources earlier than some other regions because of its lack of fossil fuels, which has given it an opportunity to lead in alternative energy generation and efficient energy consumption. Generation of energy is crucially dependent on new materials. Recently, significant developments have led to a shift of focus in the science of light-harvesting materials with ideas borrowed from biology which bear little relation to traditional solar-cell technology. New materials are being developed for the specific objectives of high-efficiency, low-cost energy acquisition based on molecular and hybrid systems using diverse new architectures. Nextgeneration and nanostructured solar cells have attracted significant recent interest since they offer the promise of both high efficiency and low cost. High efficiency is achievable because nanostructure and other novel materials may enable several advanced-concept solar cell designs that can exceed the one-junction efficiency limits, such as solar cells utilizing multiple exciton generation or intermediate bands. Further, through processes such as up/down conversion, improvement of existing solar-cell efficiencies may be achieved through the addition of coatings, e.g., containing nanostructures. In addition to their efficiency potential, nanostructured solar cells offer the promise of low-cost since substantial research efforts are focused on developing lowcost self-assembly approaches to fabrication. While generalized efficiency-limit calculations have predicted high efficiencies for the next-generation and nanostructured solar cells, substantial fundamental theoretical and practical challenges still exist in their implementation. Similarly fuel cells, membranes and thermoelectrics can be improved with nanostructuring. As for fuel cells, better efficiency and durability at lower cost are required, which calls for high-performance membranes, efficient catalysts or electrolytes. More generally, the implementation of the hydrogen economy raises challenges for the development and discovery of new materials and nanomaterials for hydrogen production (e.g. solar water splitting), storage and transportation. With increasing attractiveness of wind power generators, increasing the size of the windmills is now limited by the mechanical strength of propellers and gears. There is an important possibility of increasing the capacity of such systems through increasing their size, where new metallic or composite materials could play and essential role. 85


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In energy production and transportation, new materials with useful conducting and superconducting properties will have a significant impact on our society in practical systems for the transmission of large electrical currents over long distances without energy losses. Enormous amounts of energy can be saved by using superconducting materials to replace normal conductors for transporting and delivering electrical energy, with a large number of related applications (motors, transformers, generators and even information processing circuitry). The widespread use of superconducting materials is limited by their relatively low operating temperatures, and above all the materials properties, which are unwieldy for making wires. New materials are being discovered periodically (such as cuprates and very recently pnictides), but research into increasing critical temperatures and finding materials more suitable for applications is still desperately needed. New ceramic materials will also play an important role in this area. For energy management and conservation, new materials with light-weight construction will greatly enhance the efficiency and environmental sustainability of surface and air transport. Further research into the study of fundamentals of ion transport and interfacial phenomena in advanced materials, including ceramics, glasses, polymers, composites, and hybrids, will allow better design, fabrication, and performance of energy storage devices. The demand for highly sophisticated mobile electronic systems and cars has created an enormous demand, and a clear gap exists between what energy storage elements can provide and what current systems can deliver. New materials play a key role in designing new electrodes for portable power systems. Conventional energy production from coal and gas continues to be important for Europe. These generation plants will need to include CO2 capture and sequestration (CCS). The limit is imposed by the materials of heat exchangers which do not withstand sufficiently high temperatures in a corrosive environment. New materials are required for this application. Transportation of CO2 in the critical state will require adaptation of existing metallic grades to fulfil the new corrosion requirements. New generation of fission and fusion power plants will be an important future option in Europe for the production of energy without CO2 emissions. These applications require new materials that are radiation and creep resistant because of the very harsh operating environments. Collaboration between fusion, fission and classical metallurgical communities is currently lacking but should be encouraged in order to harness the benefits from concerted research. The potential world wide energy saving of even small reduction in friction in mechanical applications is enormous. The field is still in its infancy and addressing problems with processing, environmental issues, optimization of synthesis as well as new materials and applications in lowfriction composites is essential. Wear resistant materials (reduction of wear and friction) can result in large energy savings. New chalcogenide and chalcohalide nanomaterials (nano-onions, multishell fullerenes, molecular wire bundles) have recently emerged as new examples of tribological additives to oil and composites to reduce wear and friction. Nano structured diamond-like carbon bearing surfaces triggering nanolayered dynamic lubricant systems may also play an important role in power trains and re-manufacturing of critical components The energy problem can be divided into the following challenges in new materials : Energy generation •

Next-Generation and Nano-Architectured Photovoltaics (1)

New materials for windmill propellers and gears and other forms of mechanical power generation (hydro-, geothermal- etc.) (1)

High-performance new materials for fuel cells and for the hydrogen economy (1-2)

New materials for next new generation of power plants, new materials for operating at higher temperature temperatures, new materials for powerplant heat exchangers (1) 86


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Light weight, high temperature resistant materials for energy generation (e.g., CMC), (1-2)

New Molecular Energy Harvesting Materials (3)

Energy transmission, distribution and consumption •

Energy transport: new superconducting materials (3)

Energy saving materials (e.g. tribological materials) (1)

New materials for high pressure pipelines for Gas and CO2 transportation (1)

New materials for energy transport, new materials for thin film thermovoltaics (1-2)

Energy storage •

Energy storage, incl. hydrogen storage, solid-state ionics (1)

Mobile energy, battery materials (1)

Without new discoveries in material science, the required breakthroughs in any of the above areas will not be possible. 4.2.3 Materials for Health As the European population ages, new paradigms are required to provide high quality personal medical care as well as a higher demand for health prevention in order to reduce increasing medical costs and improved quality of life. Pharmaceutical, diagnostic, and prosthetic technologies rely on advances in new materials for drug delivery, sensors for personalised diagnostics, and prosthetic materials for 21st century bionics. Biological materials exhibit unique mechanical properties resulting often from their complex hierarchical structures that span the nanometer- to mm-length scales. The understanding of the mechanical properties of such systems requires unique experimental, theoretical, and computational formulations. The unique mechanical properties of biological materials are often attributed to their nanostructure details and hierarchy. Understanding the mechanics of these systems is important for designing both replacement materials for medical applications and as models for new structural materials that mimic biological design for industrial applications. It is imperative that fundamental understanding and realistic prediction methodologies of mechanical responses in these systems are created. This requires collaboration between many disciplines of engineering and science. A wide variety of optical detection methods are currently under investigation to address anticipated needs in biomedical applications such as lab-on-a-chip devices. Often the key challenge is how to adjust materials’ properties to enable sophisticated detection schemes in a highly integrated manner. Moreover, the materials properties must be tailored to the chemistry and biology of the detection mechanism. These challenges can best be solved by interdisciplinary cooperation that includes material growth, characterization, fabrication, and integration. Material systems used in biosensors are broad-ranging, including noble metals, silica, thermal oxides, multilayer dielectrics, semiconductors: silicon, GaAs, etc., FePd, piezoelectrics, and many nanowires and nanotube materials among others. Structuring of the materials includes the formation of diffraction gratings, waveguides, and resonant cavities, using etches, soft lithography, metal deposition, surface-state control, etc. The materials science and tissue engineering communities are increasingly overlapping in recent years. Tissue engineering requires basic science knowledge of cell-material interactions and the manipulation of these interactions to create new materials and promote appropriate cell behaviour. In addition, scale-up of these materials for potential products, involves challenges for bioreactor design, regulatory concerns, tissue preservation and sterilization. The recent advances 87


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and activities in the field of stem-cell biology must also be included for their potential impact on the field of tissue engineering. Many of the major breakthroughs and paradigm shifts in medicine to date have occurred due to innovations in materials and/or application/implementation of materials science in clinical medicine. Artificial heart valves, implantable cardiac devices, limb prosthesis, cardiovascular stents, orthopedic implants, and artificial skin are just a few examples of the numerous applications of materials science in modern-day medicine. The past two decades have seen the emergence of some of the most exciting avenues for innovation, with new functional materials as its core including: sustained drug delivery systems, gene therapy, regenerative therapies, and targeting technologies primarily for imaging and tumor treatment. This tremendous development of new materials in recent years has been driven to a large extent by needs in these emerging areas. Nanotechnology promises to take materials innovation to another level through bottom-up design of probes and systems that precisely deliver information to cells and tissues on demand, which when combined with microfabrication technologies has the potential to revolutionize the detection and treatment of diseases and rectification of damaged tissue. Some of the emerging examples of this promise include lab-on-a-chip, pharmacy-on-a-chip, and synthetic liver substitutes. The abilities of biological organisms to recognize foreign substances are unparalleled and have to some extent been mimicked by researchers in the development of biosensors. The use of bioreceptors from biological organisms or bio-inspired systems, i.e., receptors that have been patterned after biological systems, has led to the development of new means of biochemical sensing and analysis that often exhibit the high selectivity of biological species. These bioinspired recognition elements (biomimetic probes, molecular imprints, plastic antibodies, DNA aptamer probes, biofunctional materials, etc.), in combination with advanced sample preparation approaches, and with various detection methods (acoustic, electrochemical, (magneto)optical, mass-based, etc.), have created the rapidly expanding fields of bio-inspired transduction systems and related technologies. A forum that integrates interdisciplinary research, development and application is critically needed to present the most recent advances in instrumentation and methods, and confront these with potential use and clinical challenges and needs in the emerging field of bio-inspired transduction. A number of debilitating and deadly diseases (e.g., Alzheimer, AIDS, cancer, etc.) affects tens of millions of people worldwide every year. The need for breakthrough technologies, which have the potential to significantly impact conventional treatment and contribute to improved methodologies towards prevention, diagnostics, imaging, and therapies, is a daunting task. In order to meet this challenge, many scientists, engineers, and medical researchers have looked to nanotechnology as a disruptive technology, offering hope for those afflicted with one of these diseases. Multifunctional nanodevices capable of detecting disease at its earliest stages, pinpointing its location within the body, and delivering therapeutics, is a long-term vision shared by many for in-vivo application. Consequently, research in this field brings together synthesis of nanofunctional materials, surface chemistry/coatings, identification of targeting agents, and physical/chemical transduction mechanisms, to name a few. In the case of in-vitro diagnostics and drug discovery, on-chip agent processing (e.g., preconcentration and separation), nanostructural fabrication, and overall systems integration are additional considerations. However, as with all new technologies, leveraging the unique behaviour of nanomaterials, structures, and devices also introduces the potential for unique and unforeseen toxicological impact to patients and possible surrounding environments.

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Materials issues of relevance for improving health in European society are : •

Mechanics of Biological and Biomedical Materials (1)

Electronic Materials for Sensors in Biomedical Applications (1)

Materials in tissue engineering, scaffold, (multiscale) architectures, new materials avoiding biofilm generation (2)

Advances in Material Design for Regenerative Medicine (2)

Drug Delivery, and Targeting/Imaging including related technologies (1)

Bio-Inspired Transduction (2-3)

Nanofunctional Materials, Applications (1-2)

Magnetic nanostructures for bio (1)

(Integrated)

Structures,

and Devices for

Biomedical

4.2.4 Materials for Enhanced Quality of Life The quality of life of European citizens can be enhanced dramatically by the use of new materials for more efficient and sustainable transportation and better mobility, improved materials for energy efficient housing and lighting, advanced clothing, quality of food and water. Improved coatings for replacing paints which need constant attention, smart internal and external coatings with self-cleaning properties and responsive to changes in the environment or surfaces with antifouling properties able to recognise and destroy pollutants and corrosion agents. Construction

The building and construction industry is facing a major challenge because of its very large impact on the climate. Solutions come from new cheap and energy efficient building for the developing countries and the possibility to refurbish old buildings with improved energy efficiency in mature countries. For this purpose, new industrial routes are required, involving more sophisticated production means and materials. Such materials include new insulating properties, capacity to regulate heat transfer through variable surface coating or phase transformation materials, while efficiently sustaining accidents such as fire or earthquakes. Active equipment such as heat pumps, PV panels, etc. also requires development of specific materials. Finally, the infrastructure such as bridges rails and roads in mature countries is becoming progressively obsolete and ambitious renovation programs are foreseen in the near future. New solutions, making use of the best of new materials are required to realise them efficiently. Priority issues are: •

Materials with improved insulation properties (1)

Phase change materials, energy saving materials, smart windows (1)

Material with improve resistance to earthquake, fire, etc. (1)

Thermal insulation and thermal control of buildings, more efficient lighting, adsorptive or catalytically active materials to improve air quality, can be efficiently cleaned and reduce health hazards in buildings, electrochromic glass panes, self-cleaning surfaces, reinforced concrete for light weight construction (1)

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Materials will evolve in the next ten years in order to follow step-by-step the strict emission reduction requirements and the increasing demand for structural performance and multifunctionality. Lightweight overall requirements will be an important objective that could be achieved through focused material development and more efficient and rationalized deployment, with innovative design. Moreover, the emerging needs for the industrialization of new countries will affect the availability of materials around the world. The drivers for the evolution of automotive materials application can be identified as: i) emerging strict requirement in terms of reduced weight and improved structural safety; ii) innovative and personalized vehicles; iii) environmental and sustainability issues; iv) the socioeconomic climate; v) regulatory climate; vi) changed map of end users. New materials will need new manufacturing systems, including new forming, joining, assembly, surface protecting and painting processes. Pre-competitive effort is needed to upscale innovative materials fabricated in research laboratories for fabrication in industrial plants. In particular, emphasis should be placed on the integration of new materials into macro-scale assembly lines and set-up automotive manufacturing processes from base material to recycle-reuse, in terms of cost, investment and the environment. The development of new generations of electrical motors or fuel cells also requires new materials with enhanced magnetic properties or ionic conductivity properties. In addition, the need to decrease the weight of vehicles further will require much research into new metallic and polymeric materials. Furthermore, the advent of nanotechnologies offer today a unique opportunity to design artificial materials whose properties can be tailored to meet the next generation of vehicles’ requirements. The expected impacts are: • Improved transport efficiency (reduced fuel consumption, pollution and costs) and safety; • The use of innovative and effective integration of emerging and developed mixed material integration technologies; • Penetration of mixed material structure concepts; • New manufacturing processes for the automotive industry (OEM + tier-1 + suppliers + SMEs) Novel combinations of new materials for composites will introduce new functionality and new uses. Issues which are currently of great importance are controlled homogeneous dispersion, ordering and prevention of aggregation. Progress is hindered to a great extent by the lack of efficient and detailed experimental techniques for the study of nanoscale structure of embedded materials, such as carbon nanotubes, nanowires, etc. within a host matrix. Introducing superior fibers made of oriented nanorods or nanowires dispersed together in a controlled manner will lead to superior strength and modulus combined with sensing and actuating properties. Using the same nano inclusions used for mechanical enhancement for sensing and health monitoring and upgrading the mechanical properties for actuating purposes. In aeronautics, this will enable active control of aerodynamic profiles under any flight conditions to gain maximum performance, even in extreme conditions, whilst reducing energy consumption. Weight reduction is a major issue in aircraft turbines as well, requiring newly developed high temperature resistant materials such as ceramic matrix composites (CMC). Self-healing of small damages in the bulk or surface of the structure using self-assembly processes of the nano inclusions. The ability to respond to sudden high-stress/deformation or adapt the structure to high deformation rates caused by energetic impact or explosion combined with fire resistance will be important. To produce smart coatings that repel any dust, dirt, water or ice from bonding to the surface with self-cleaning properties. For future aerospace systems the structure should have an 90


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active role in overall performance. These next generation active structures will dynamically react as sensors/actuators to respond to flight conditions. This requires the development of advanced materials with well controlled internal nano inclusions in their structures. The internal nests are expected to be composed of nano tubes/rods/dots arranged in well-defined oriented structures and with interconnections between them. Space materials need to be resistant to the effects of UV + atomic oxygen for the bulk and as well as for the external coating. High amplitude actuating capabilities are necessary in order to be able to open and control solar cells/antennas location and orientation. This will eliminate extra load on mechanical systems performing these operations and using the structure for this purpose. Selfhealing capabilities integrated in the structure based on self-assembly properties of the nano inclusions. This will enable the structure to overcome damages caused by small debris or radiation damage. In this way the structure will be immune against accumulating damage caused by long exposure in space environment. Important future materials for transport: •

Lightweight materials for automotive, aeronautics, and space applications (1)

Multifunctional materials for car interiors, adaptive materials for shock absorbers and new actuator concepts (1)

Matrials for new generation of motors for automotive: Hybrid, electrical, fuel cells (1).

Materials for new engine in aeronautics: higher efficiency through higher temperature (1).

New material withstanding UV and atomic oxygen damage for space (1).

Clothes and Multifunctional Textiles

Technical filters and membranes are used in an almost unlimited field of applications spanning industry, buildings, transport systems, energy infrastructure, the environmental and agricultural field as well as the healthcare and consumer sectors. In all these areas filters and membranes ensure either the very functioning of the overall system in which they are integrated or improve its efficiency, safety, environmental friendliness or longevity. They are often small and practically invisible components but with a very high-added value and are therefore subject to very strict quality, reliability and durability requirements. Generally increasing energy costs and the need to combat climate change as well as new requirements for quality, reliability and safety are offering excellent opportunities for further substantial extension of the use of fibre- or textile- reinforced lightweight structures in all kind of constructions. First market products and prototypes produced with these structures have shown their high potential in significantly reducing component weight, which in turn leads to reduced energy consumption, as well as improved mechanical properties. High-strength profiles made of fibre reinforced materials have been successfully used in special construction of bridges and smaller buildings. With the newest development of fibre reinforced materials for concrete construction a much wider field of application has been opened up. In the transport sector light-weight fibre and textile reinforced composites have revolutionized the designs and fuel efficiency performance of the latest generation of aircraft and are expected to offer equally great potential for applications in road, rail and water-borne transport systems. In the field of energy generation, transmission and storage applications range from light-weight turbine and rotor blade constructions to flexible fuel transportation, storage and piping systems. Many of the materials that patients and healthcare workers come into contact with are textilebased and as such the products of developments fibres, fabrics and their integration into end products. These range from advanced wound care dressings to absorbent gauze, from simple 91


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patient gowns to complex individually designed pressure garments and from absorbable sutures to compression hosiery. The combination of the technologies to produce them with new emerging materials and processing options has the potential to produce a wide variety of medical products which can offer significant benefits to patients and healthcare professionals such as: • Aid for treatment, care and comfort of patients. • New approaches to the remote/non-intrusive monitoring of the condition of patients. • New approaches for preventative healthcare through monitoring and indicating early diagnostic symptoms. • Improvements in infection control. • Improvements in conventional textiles to maximize their functional usefulness. Summarizing relevant topics: •

Multifunctional textiles for medical applications (1)

Advanced fibrous materials and technical textiles for smart filters and membranes (1)

Light-weight textile and composite structures for high performance technical applications (transport, construction, energy) (1)

Food and Water

Materials in contact with food are increasingly under scrutiny. In particular barrier properties are a key element for avoiding unwanted molecules to diffuse into food. This concerns all pipes, tubes and packages in contact with food. The ability of the material to avoid the formation of biofilms and to withstand cleaning and pasteurization processes is also very important. In this respect, new surface fictionalization through appropriate treatment of the materials (polymers or metals) has the greatest potential in the future. The global footprint of packaging is of concern to the society, requiring a significant effort to lower this impact through reduced use of raw materials for a given application and improve its ability to be recycled. This issue is particularly important for polymers. Only limited solutions are currently available and which do not cover the wide range of materials used for these applications. Water management will also represent a very important issue in the future. New materials can lead to cheaper technology for cleaning the water and, for some important regions of the world, to remove salt from sea water. This research will include materials development for efficient resins and corrosion-resistant containers. Issues in food and water production: •

Packaging design: Multi-layered materials with improved food contact (1)

Barrier coatings for food packaging materials (1)

Optimized food packaging materials with less bacterial impact and better emptying (1)

New materials avoiding biofilm generation (1)

Smart safe surfaces avoiding microorganism growth (1)

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4.2.5 Materials for the Environment Numerous advance materials applications for protection of the environment will be very important. This includes the development of dedicated sensors for a wide variety of harmful compounds. Nanoscale sensors with corresponding sensitive materials will be of high priority. It also means that active research programmes will be needed for the substitution of harmful chemical species in a wide variety of applications: for example, removal of chromium (VI) in surface treatment, reducing zinc for anti-corrosion and removing heavy metals and Nickel. The new REACH regulation will prohibit many chemical compounds or species used in polymers or in processing of chemicals in the chemical or materials industries. In the same fashion, there is a large variety of compounds that are produced as bi-products during these processes and that need be converted into safe and useful products. Materials for CO2 capture and storage are of immediate need in reducing the effects of emissions on the atmosphere arising from human activities.

Important new materials with environmental impact: •

Biogenic raw materials, Resource (energy+material) efficient production technologies (gas phase processes e.g. plasma processes) (1)

Materials with enhanced corrosion resistance to corrosion in new gas and liquid treatments.(1)

Materials with very low environmental footprint: lighter gages, recyclable content. (1)

Materials for highly selective membrane systems for water treatment and purification (1)

Materials for CO2 capture and storage (1)

4.2.6 Materials for Security and Safety European Member States have increasingly had to deal with terrorist attacks, sudden climate changes and catastrophes causing extensive personal and material damage. New materials can lead to better sensor technologies for detection of explosives (at airports for example), toxic agents and biohazards at low concentration. Smart materials for personal protection and/or buildings such as hospitals, airports, homes and vehicles are becoming increasingly important. New functional textiles might recognise and neutralise toxic agents. In addition, new sensor systems could help to detect chemical or biological threats and play an important role as components of security systems. Materials of relevance for safety and security: •

Multifunctional materials for electronics (1)

Materials for Smart Systems, (1)

Materials for sensors, particularly chemical and biochemical sensors (1)

4.3

Horizontal Issues and Implementation

Infrastructure Links

Not only breakthroughs, but also steady progress in materials research is strongly linked to advances in characterisation techniques. Some are lab-based, while many others are performed at joint facilities, gathered around synchrotron or neutron radiation sources. All are expensive and 93


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essential. It is important to link NMP’s materials research programme to these facilities. Standardization of characterization techniques and uniform interpretation of measured data are serious concerns, especially in electromagnetic characterization of complex materials and surfaces. NMP’s new Article I69 European Metrology Research Programme and national metrology institutes should play a key role in standardization. Within this arena are medium-scale facilities, which are specialist centres which Member States are building and maintaining which will be of particular importance. Some facilities are built using regional restructuring funds. These should be expanded and encouraged, in close connection with the NMP programme. The setting up of a liaison between the two relevant Directorates of the Commission would be essential for the realisation of these important goals. The procedure for the procurement of the priority topics Topics listed in this document were selected by starting from bottom-up research activities on the basis of a transparent, traceable and easily updatable procedure. A skeleton set of priorities was defined from up-to-date sources such as EMRS and MRS topics in 2008 and 2009 and topical reviews and articles in high impact factor journals. From the “industry pull” side, the priorities of the European Technology Platforms (ETPs), particularly EuMat, ENIAC, ESTEP and SusChem were given particular consideration and many of them are directly embedded throughout this document. The European priorites were then compared to those of related national agencies within Europe and outside, (e.g. US DoE Materials Science programme, DARPA, NSF, Japan’s AIST etc.) The priority topics at various stages in writing this document were exposed to scrutiny from a wide scientific community by EAG members, including directors of various institutions with expertise in materials science across Europe. Education and Training

Education and training in materials science are the aims of the People programme, particularly programmes which enhance the mobility of young researchers. In practice the Mobility Programmes Marie Cuie Initial Training Networks (ITN) are often complementary to NMP’s projects, and the subject matter often overlaps. It is deemed important that it should be recognised that complementarity gives added value to research projects which have common themes. Thus coordination on thematic priorities between the People programme and the NMP programme has important added value, reduces overlap, and improves focus, particularly for the enabling technologies and cross-cutting topics with wide applications in science and technology. Metrology and Standards

There is a well-defined need for an agreed infrastructure of measurement methods and standards when developing new characterisation techniques or characterising existing materials for new properties. It is clear that the extensive data published on new nano-enhanced materials is of limited value as the materials are not well characterised, and the measurement methods and equipment traceability not described. Development of this infrastructure will be encouraged alongside development of the materials and methods themselves. Sustainability or eco-design approaches

There is increasing interest in the sustainable use of materials as an integrated part of “ecodesign” in all application sectors (e.g. defence, aerospace, automobile). However, there is an outstanding need for sourcing good quality data and developing appropriate modelling approaches to inform these activities. Firstly, there is a need to collect and validate the data used to underpin sound characterisation of the potential impacts arising from materials used (e.g. to 94


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quantify embodied and usage energy, emissions etc. for assessment of environmental impacts) and, secondly, models developed for evaluating the sustainability of materials in various different applications require verification using case studies ((e.g. when a coating is banned or unavailable, to allow a complete substitution that does not require any coating, rather than a minor “responsive” change to another coating that is likely to be banned as well eventually). These studies will need to particularly consider the need for: • New material applications with sustainability aspects as part of the initial design. • Material substitution e.g. to reduce dependence on scare resources, and aiming to eliminate any materials associated with disproportionately large potential impacts e.g. small masses of highly toxic or high energy-consuming materials. • Where a material cannot be wholly substituted for another, reducing the use of materials associated with i) excessive costs which may jeopardise the viability of engineering projects; ii) unacceptable social impacts e.g. produced in a manner deleterious to human health or iii) considerable environmental impacts e.g. listed in REACH and similar legislation world-wide. Identifying such materials is beneficial, in that it highlights where research is urgently required to identify new high performance materials that meet specifications and/or innovation is required in component design to overcome the need to use these materials. Such materials may be encountered during manufacture, use and recycling/disposal of engineering components, thereby requiring a life cycle approach to developing appropriate modelling techniques and an understanding of industrial ecology in the sector more generally. While “eco-design” is commonly employed in application sectors, currently practice is variable and a standard set of approaches would be beneficial and ensure more consistent application of sustainability principles. Life-cycle Considerations

To meet the Resource Efficiency challenge, it is essential to consider the life cycle of the resource, which typically encompasses multiple product lifetimes. Opportunities to improve the resource efficiency and decrease carbon intensity of products are not limited to a specific stage of the life cycle and improvements at one stage may have an adverse impact on others. The greatest benefits accrue by moving from a linear life cycle (extract-consume-waste) to a closed loop processes such as cradle-to-grave or cradle-to cradle resource management. Work and approaches to be encouraged and supported: • Substitute risky or high environmental impact materials • Close the life-cycle loop to allow multiple product lives from the same material resource • Dematerialise to reduce the amount of material necessary to deliver consumer benefit • Reduce energy intensity on a life cycle basis. Technological, economic and political preconditions, consequences and potentials of developing new materials.

New technologies cannot be regarded in isolation but have to be subjected to a comprehensive analysis of their interactions with their fields of application to assess their potentials and preconditions. This is linked to a series of questions: • Products: How do nanomaterials change the properties of the products they are used to produce and the requirements for their correct application? This includes issues of component reliability and lifespan. In particular, Eco-conception is only beginning to be applied in design of new products. This methodology only uses very limited data set to 95


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• •

guide the choice of designers between different possible solutions from an environmental impact point of view. Enriching this methodology for a better choice at the design phase would be of high value for the global impact of our society on nature. Manufacturing and processing: Which preconditions do users have to meet with regard to manufacturing and processing and the associated technologies? Which downstream production technologies are necessary for mass production? In particular, there is a strong link between the properties of a material, its global environmental footprint and the way it is produced. This chapter focuses mainly on the properties that can be gained by the development of new materials for a given application. However, the production step cannot be ignored since it may be the most important part in the life-cycle analysis. In other cases, the end of life treatment of different materials could be the most important part of the impact Environmental compatibility: New materials not only have new properties, but may have unwanted effects on the environment. This is why the environmental compatibility of new materials should be investigated and evaluated from the outset through E, H & S of risk research and toxicology. There are links here to the principles and experience developed thorough the REACH Regulation (Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and Restriction of Chemicals). Qualification requirements: Which qualifications and competences do potential users have to develop or acquire in order to be able to successfully use these materials? Consequences for SMEs: What do SMEs see themselves confronted with when applying new materials, for example with regard to their own R&D efforts, qualifications or investment? Macroeconomic effects: How does the development and application of new materials affect the wider economy, for example the investment cycles in individual enterprises or along the value added chain? Application potentials beyond the sector responsible for development: Which other users could profit from the development of new materials so that secondary synergy effects are produced? Acceptance and demand: Do new technologies reach the necessary level of acceptance among users and in society and which measures can be implemented to increase their acceptance?

Implementation

Because of their very wide importance to other related R&D fields, the enabling technologies, cross-cutting research areas require a continuous approach in the calls for proposals, while targeted R&D areas can be more focused. Nevertheless, the publication of a roadmap for the entire period 2010-2015 is deemed important to ensure adequate time for planning and coordination by researchers across Europe in anticipation of future calls. Materials development has to be accompanied by development of suitable technologies for pilot scale production of these new materials in order to provide a link to production oriented research programmes in NMP or to the production of goods directly. To ensure effective use of resources, joint calls with other priority areas and links to complementary infrastructure programmes and infrastructure centres such as ESFRI Centres of Excellence are deemed of high importance to enhance the effectiveness of European R&D in materials and an efficient way to support characterisation facilities. To ensure rapid and effective technology transfer to industry particular attention needs to be paid to start-ups and SMEs, and particularly their patent issues. Examination of how 96


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commercialization or turning research results into products can be accelerated via suitable support models, actor constellations and partnerships. Can the new management tools being create for accelerated radical innovation (ARI) be developed for supporting these key groups? Especially for start-ups, working with nanomaterials is riddled with prerequisites and risks arising form the high costs for development and prototypes. A longstanding and unsolved problem which affects not only NMP, but many other priority areas as well, is the often crippling administrative burden required in the interest of â&#x20AC;&#x153;accountabilityâ&#x20AC;?. More emphasis is needed on monitoring the real problems, scientific and technological, which arise during the course of normal projects, with the aim of increasing scientific accountability and gathering appropriate data for compiling credible and pertinent performance indicators. Innovative approaches are needed to monitoring which will significantly reduce the load of coordinators and their staff. The use of modern bibliometric methods, such as project h-factors and impact factor sums are two prominent examples. Finally, to adequately address the rapid advances in the field and future developments, special attention is required to future and emerging materials technologies in similar ways already afforded by the very effective Energy and ICT FET Open calls. 4.4

Conclusions

The future of materials technology is driven by societal needs. New materials form the foundation for myriads of innovations in a wide spectrum of industries and link directly into major applications sectors. Hence material science plays an exceptionally important role as a fundamental enabling science and technology for downstream applications in virtually all other priority areas of the FP7. For the programme to have the desired impact, it will need to mobilise the best multidisciplinary teams across Europe with intensive cooperation among academia, national institutes and industries. The present document summarises general recommendations and makes the case for enhanced R&D in Materials and suggests a number of cross-cutting measures which are particularly relevant for materials research. It also lists the priorities for the next programme period 2010-15 procured on the basis of a transparent, traceable and reproducible procedure. The importance of cross-cutting and enabling technologies is emphasised, including the development of new characterisation and instrumentation methods, modelling and understanding of complexity, nonlinearity and functionality both by design and through bottom-up approaches. Targeted funding is recommended for new emergent materials to determine their value and develop a critical understanding of their properties for application, particularly in the embryonic stage. Surfaces, adhesion and interface phenomena (including catalysis) are also emphasised, as well as early prognosis of materialsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; behaviour under operating conditions. The priorities in response to basic needs of European society, such as materials for Information and communication technologies, for health, energy, transport, construction and environment are discussed in detail. The priorities are given in each area, expressed in terms of expected time to application (ETTA). Horizontal issues pertaining to education and training, metrology and standards, and particularly sustainability need special attention in materials R&D. To adequately address rapid advances in the field of new materials, a Future and Emerging Materials program is deemed important. Finally, special recommendations are given on the implementation policies, including a continuous approach to subject matter in call topics, the publication of a detailed roadmap which includes call topics for the entire period. Links to complementary infrastructure programmes, such as ESFRI Centres of Excellence are deemed of high importance. Last, but not least, particular attention should be paid to the needs of SMEs and start-ups, and their patent issues. 97


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Chapter 5 Industrial Production Systems

5.1

Present State-of-the-art

The European Union is home to more than 26 million companies. The number of manufacturing businesses (classified as NACE D3) is about 10% of this total, i.e. around 2.5 million, of which 99% are SMEs. European manufacturing activity today represents approximately 22% of the EU gross national product (GNP). Global comparisons show that Europe has been, and continues to be, successful in maintaining its leadership in many sectors – but this position is challenged on two fronts. On the one hand, EU industry faces continuing competition from other developed economies, particularly in the high-technology sector. On the other, manufacturing in the more traditional sectors is increasingly taking place in the low-wage economies, some of which are already looking towards higher-value-added segments. It should be noted that there are marked differences between individual EU Member States. Following its enlargement in 2004, the Union has absorbed a group of countries with relatively low-wage economies, yet with considerable technological experience. The ten central and east European (CEEC) new member states and applicant countries – i.e. eight of the countries that acceded in May 2004, together with Bulgaria and Romania – account for 21% of all manufacturing jobs in the region comprising their own territories and that of the original 15 EU nations. Excluding Bulgaria and Romania, their employment share is 15%. The largest employers are the food and beverages industry, textiles, basic metals and fabricated metals industries, as well as mechanical engineering. Using purchasing power parities, the same ten countries account for about 11% of total European manufacturing production. However, their share is larger in industries such as wood products and furniture, non-metallic minerals, and food and beverages. In contrast, the former EU-15 has greater strength in paper and printing, chemicals, machinery and equipment, as well as in electrical and optical equipment. Manufacturing productivity growth in the ten CEEC countries has outpaced that of the EU-15 by more than six percentage points per annum over recent years, and the process of productivity convergence is bound to continue. But, in contrast to Western Europe where manufacturing employment has remained relatively stable, productivity catch-up in the acceding countries has been associated with persistent job losses. Even in Western Europe, continuing productivity increases are starting to cause a decline in direct employment – mirroring job losses in US manufacturing over the past 20 years. In fact, in the 1990s, manufacturing’s share of employment fell at least as fast, if not faster, in Western Europe than in the USA according to a US Government report on manufacturing in America – see BOX p12. However, growing numbers of jobs in the associated services is likely to compensate for this loss in direct employment. In the automotive industry, for example, the direct labour content of car manufacture represents a 99


relatively small proportion of total employment generated by the sector. Apart from the production of raw materials, tools, etc., the remainder stems from the provision of services from supply of fuel, spare parts, consumables and accessories, to maintenance and repair, insurance, in-car entertainment and communications, on-road catering and special interest publishing. It can be envisaged that, in the shorter term at least, the transfer of more labour-intensive production to the CEEC could help to redress their present situation, while preventing the migration of employment opportunities beyond Europe’s boundaries. European strengths and weaknesses

A number of European strengths and weaknesses can be identified: Strengths

• European industry is modern and competitive in many areas. A long-lasting industrial culture exists, with large networks linking suppliers, manufacturers, services and user companies; • Leading-edge research capabilities are available across Member States, leading to high levels of knowledge generation and a reputation for scientific excellence; • Some 99% of European businesses are SMEs, which typically exhibit greater flexibility, agility, innovative spirit and entrepreneurship than more monolithic organisations. In addition, SMEs tend to interact in a manner that lies between strong competition and fruitful co-operation, which helps to foster the process of what has been called ‘coopetition’; • Europe has taken on board sustainable development. Significant investments in environmental protection, clean technologies and environment-friendly production processes have led to new manufacturing and consumption paradigms; and • Historic and cultural differences between individual Member States and regions bring a diversity of viewpoints and skills that can be coordinated to produce novel solutions. • Europe has long history in a wide variety of chemical processes and in process optimization. This has been used to build a viable industry in Europe, in many sectors such as chemistry, production of materials, etc. Weaknesses

• Productivity growth in European manufacturing industry as a whole has been below US levels in recent years. Investment in ICT and new technologies is still too low, and has not so far led to the desired productivity gains; and • Innovation activity is too weak. The EU does not suffer from a lack of new ideas, but is not so good at transforming these into new products and processes. Compared to the US, the culture of innovation and risk taking is less developed in Europe. Industry’s analysis is that this is due to the framework conditions for manufacturers operating in Europe. • The links between SMEs and research centers/ universities is still weak on European level and a large potential is given for more engagement of the SMEs for research collaboration. Due to large economic growth rates and favourable cost structure production has moved to emerging countries outside of Europe. The strong social demand in Europe for green product and green technologies can be considered as a strength or as a weakness. Developing new green products and technologies is an advantage , as stated above . It represents a strong pressure, 100


which could lead to delocalization, for the upstream part of the industry producing basic material and chemical compounds with significant consumption of energy and environmental footprint. To build on these strengths, to fight the weaknesses and turn them into opportunities for growth, the EU needs to: • Continue to invest in research and innovation to remain ahead in providing the products and process technologies that the rest of the world desires, but cannot necessarily develop for itself • Further increase the already high level of factory automation and productivity, thereby overcoming the labour cost disadvantage; • Protect discoveries and intellectual property so that, even when the more mundane aspects of manufacture are exported, profit continues to flow to the innovators; and • Develop framework conditions that stimulate innovation, entrepreneurship and therefore growth and employment both directly and indirectly. • Companies, in particular SMEs need to significantly enhance their capability to pull through innovative technologies to assist in their move to high-value added innovative product market strategies. 5.2

Cross-Cutting Research Directions in Manufacturing

The manufacturing industry is very diverse and covers a wide range of specific processes ranging from extracting minerals to assembly of very complex products such as planes or computers, with all intermediate processing steps in a long chain of industrial suppliers and customers. Extracting from this wide variety of businesses and processes, some general trends that could be meaningful to the whole industry chain is far from easy and is bound to give rather general fields. However, this is the point of view taken in this chapter 5 since, from the European Commission point of view, a purely sectorial approach is not relevant and some common transversal view is a necessity. That is why , this chapter is organized along different cross-cutting point of views, trying to define what could be the whole industrial chain of the future , delivering products that will be required by our future citizens. Several GENERAL TRENDS have been defined and, for each of them, we defined a possible evolution with three time frames: short term, medium term and long term. Then, different research topics that Europe need to develop in order to remain ahead of the competition are given. Most of them remain transverse to many industrial sectors. However, concrete applications will have to be in a given sector. Moreover, due to the large diversity of applications, some of the applications may be specific to some industrial sectors only. The main GENERAL TRENDS that have been defined are the following: • Changes in the management of industry. Confronted to the important changes in the human society ( rise of emerging country, demand for well designed and minimum cost products, demand for gren products of processes, demand for social equity and time for leisure, etc..) , the management of the whole industrial sector has to be renewed. This is dealt with in § 5.2.1. • The business environment is changing faster and faster and this is bound to be even more the case in the future. Therefore , our production and design of products scheme have to be flexible enough to adapt itself to such rapid changes. That is why § 5.2.2 is dealing with adaptative manufacturing • Another clear trend of manufacturing is the constant integration of parameters from upstream to downstream ensuring that in each process step, in a same company or across the supplier/customer borders, enough information is transferred to ensure that a global 101


optimization is possible, making sure that the desired result is obtained even in complex products with a lot of sophisticated sub-parts. An important objective will be the overall quality of the production chain: tracking quality along each process step and across suppliers/customers boundaries. § 5.2.3 is focusing on this very important subject of networking in manufacturing. • Further to the two previous trends of capacity to adapt to change and ability to integrate information through networking, is the ability to store and use the accumulated knowledge for design and manufacturing of future components and products. This trend is referred as : “ digital knowledge-based Engineering” and is the object of § 5.2.4 • A specific topic is the integration in the design and manufacturing practices for answering the new demand of society for green products and technologies. This requires new designing methods balancing often conflicting objectives and drastic changes of existing processes. This will be the objective of § 5.2.5. • At last , most of the trends given above will heavily rely on the development of information and Communication technologies. Though such development is already well addressed in the special ICT theme of FP7, it is interesting to give a certain number of research directions that are relevant to the European Industry. How it should be dealt with between NMP and ICT theme is a matter of internal management of FP7 but the interest for European Industry had to be stressed. All the chapters below are heavily relying on the SRA of several technology platforms such as SUSCHEM, ESTEP, etc… However the general structure of the MANUFUTRE platform has been selected as the most appropriate for such a cross-cutting presentation. 5.2.1 New Business Models: Future “Management of the European Production System” Current manufacturing systems, the typical instantiations of modern socio-technical systems called factories, have to solve highly complex tasks under increasing demands for adaptability, economic performance, maintainability, reliability, scalability, environmental friendliness and safety. The “Next Generation European Factory”, approached as a complex long life product, has to be adapted continuously to the needs and requirements of the market and economic efficiency. Furthermore the “factory” will have to take into consideration more and more social responsibility and, in particular, environmental sustainability. Based on these challenges the need of development and validation of new industrial models and strategies, shortly named New Business Models is more and more relevant for the purposes of the European Industrial Transformation. A collection of business and management models and methodologies have been identified and then strongly harmonised in order to support the implementation of the desired “Management of European Production Systems“ based on the so called “Manufuture Transsectoral Roadmap: New Business Models Roadmap” (Graphically presented, the Management System of European Production represents the synergy of several main enabling business and management models,, structured in the following main clusters: European answers for Production Systems, Management of Eurpean factories, Innovative management models, Consumer-oriented business models. In this chapter, high-adding value and innovative research and technological development areas are shortly presented from a technical point of view, scientific objectives and potential results of each identified area. The Roadmap graphically presents on time dimension and priority scale: • On short term with high priority innovative methodologies supporting the manufacturing enterprises to survive or to stay competitive in the turbulent environment of global and high wage economies, coming from two areas which are relevant: Strategies for transformation

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of management of European factories and Survival production strategies, as a contribution to the “European answer for Production Systems” field. • On medium term with high priority as well, the shift in management methods aims at enabling the European factories towards: Service and consumer-oriented Life Cycle Management and Global networked Virtual and Real-time Factory management. From the European answer for Production System clusters, the research efforts have to be directed towards the investigation of Beyond Lean Manufacturing, the employment of New Taylorism as a base of increasing the efficiency of people and of the manufacturing processes. The synchronisation and harmonisation of all these, has to be conducted towards the implementation of the “Factories as Products” new industrial paradigms and business models. • In long terms the envisioned new business models, have to support the conception and implementation of European Production Systems and Standards, which are highly enabled by innovative, finance-based entrepreneurships, required as foundation for the nextgeneration “Factories as products”, having the required features: digital, adaptive and realtime, as described in the following §. Innovative, service and consumer-oriented enterprises Finance, Innovation Entrepreneurship

Management of European Factories

Virtual and Real-time Factory Management Management of Global Networking European Production ms st e Systems and Standards Sy Service n io and Consumer- oriented uc t rod P Life Cycle Management New Taylorism ean rop u E Transformation of nt Management for me Factories as Products e survival and success nag Ma Beyond Lean Manufacturing Survival Strategies in turbulent Environments

European Answer for Production Systems

Figure 5.1 Innovative, service and consumer-oriented enterprises Such a long term vision has to be further adapted to each specific sector , since management practices will be different in each case. However, the general feature will probably be general enough to cover most cases. Indeed, widespread, low–cost and high–quality process intensification has been identified as a key in all industrial sectors .. In a number of sectors, the tension between a concentrated production model allowing reduced costs and the necessary flexibility in front of any market change is particularly strong. For example, the vision is that the EU’s chemical industry’s, the competitive position would be strongly enhanced if it could operate as “modular continuous plant” ( so-called F³ plant) for low to medium scale production rates. The F³ premise is that operation of modular continuous F³ plant will be more economical and more sustainable than; either (i) operation of continuous processes at world scale; or (ii) operation of batch processes at low to medium scale. The situation is very similar in sectors managing very large production units for efficiency reasons , for example, productions of highly used materials such as steel, non-ferrous metals, glass, cement, etc…. The concept of F3 plant is 103


also applicable to other industries willing to balance reduction of production factors and ability to follow market changes. All R&D directions proposed in this section are conceptual and will require time and effort for a concrete implementation in each specific case. A general transverse effort to work on the concepts is required before it becomes commercial and it implemented concretely using the service of specialized management support companies in the different concrete situations. The Implementation and integration of intensified process technologies requires the development and widespread use of innovative equipment, advanced sensor and process analyser technology and the introduction of sophisticated process design tools. As new business models are enabled, flexible supply chain management and planning tools also gain importance. Life Cycle Analysis describes contributions to the further development of a harmonised European approach to LCA methodologies. A comparative life-cycle assessment tool is proposed that seeks to integrate the examination of costs, environmental impact and social effects of different product or process alternatives in the search for socio-eco-efficient solutions There is a need for Lean Innovation across Extended Production Enterprises and Production organisations acting in cooperation across extended supply chains. Continuous innovation, process reengineering and lean systems are key elements to build European competency in the next generation of manufacturing system. Lean innovation is concerned with applying innovation both within and across groups of production organisations who have come together to co-design and co-produce products and co-service the needs of customers. There is compelling evidence to suggest that European industry needs to redouble its efforts for research into solution architectures, ontology's and appropriate technologies. Core to these technologies will be new methods of work practice that incorporate such issues as social networks, virtual gaming, innovation management and supply chain development Possible Topics to be Covered:

European answers for Production Systems •

Survival strategies in turbulent industrial environments

New product and process life cycle-oriented industrial paradigms and associated business models.

Integration of industrial paradigms for manufacturing fitness, balancing reactivity and efficiency

Beyond lean manufacturing

European Production System: concrete implementation of basic principles

New European manufacturing standards

Factories as Products. Designing factories as we do for products

New Taylor, increasing the effectiveness of people and processes

Training and Specific Actions for the implementation of European Production Systems

Some components of the European management systems •

Transformation management strategies for survival and success in turbulent environments

Extended product services through integration of product life-cycle knowledge into the products themselves

Management of complexity 104


New business models for networked Virtual Factories

Management of global networking (link to IMS)

Real-time enterprise management

Finance, science-based entrepreneurship leading to global manufacturing

Machine tools and centric business models

Technology monitoring and scanning

IP security in networked manufacturing

Innovative management models, methodologies and tools •

Innovation and transformation processes

Preventive Quality Management

Change and Modification Management

Competition in global manufacturing

ICT enabled business models for manufacturing

Lean Innovation concepts

Service and consumer-oriented business models •

New consumer-oriented business models for Product Life Cycle

Innovative and efficient Business models incorporating efficient networking of supplier and customer systems and processes

“Built-to-order” new models for production design, planning and control in individualized productions

5.2.2 Adaptive Manufacturing Manufacturing is a dynamic socio-technical system, which is operating in a turbulent environment, characterized by continuous changes at all levels, from network of manufacturing systems to the factories, production systems, machines, components and technical processes. Adaptive manufacturing envisioned as a new paradigm oriented to continuously and permanent adaptation manufacturing systems by fast implementation of novel solutions. Adaptive manufacturing is knowledge and intelligence-based and operates with the latest state-of-the-art manufacturing and information and communication technologies and socio-technical systems. The adaptive manufacturing innovative models, methodologies and enabling technologies presented in this chapter supports the manufacturing enterprises to face these challenges by promoting new and innovative paradigms clustered under several main groups. The implementation of the so-called “Adaptive Factories” conducts towards a new and enhanced type of factory which has to be more responsive to the turbulent and permanently changing environment through the development of self-learning, self-optimizing and cooperative control systems. The “Adaptive Production Systems, Machines and Processes” aims to the development of adaptive assembly modules, the implementation of the reconfigurability of the machines and the using of smart materials for the fabrication of plug and play components employed in the high precision manufacturing. The embedding of the “Intelligence for enhanced processes” aim at the development of cost-efficient monitoring systems, which improve the prognostic capabilities, the reliability and performance of the monitoring systems. The “Adaptive Tools and Components” as main entities of the adaptive manufacturing systems have a main contribution in the field by the in-situ process simulation used to identify the behaviour of systems under usage constraints, and 105


self-optimizing drives and innovative electric-fluid energy sources, as well as fast and flexible handling of solid parts and materials. All these innovative and enabling adaptive technologies are in the present chapter shortly presented and graphically represented under the corresponding Roadmap: Adaptive Manufacturing”, based on the Manufuture’s one. The employment of them into the manufacturing enterprises at all levels of abstractions for the implementation of the adaptive manufacturing is envisioned as follows: • On short term with high priority the modular systems engineering aims at the development of the so-called modularisation of manufacturing conducting towards a new generation of scalable and interoperable control systems able to cope with the changing market demands, • On medium term with high priority as well, the enabling technologies grouped here aim at implementing the responsive factories through cooperative, self-organised and selfoptimised behaviour of the process control systems, and through embedded electronics and sensor-actuators systems, as well. On long terms the envisioned “Adaptive Factories, Production Systems, machines and Processes” have to include as main components the plug and play elements required for high precision manufacturing and the embedding of the new knowledge resulted as output of integration of heterogeneous in-situ simulation models of manufacturing processes.

Intelligent Components for Manufacturing Machines and Systems …

In-situ Process Simulation Knowledge Integration Standard Interfaces Open Systems

tiv ap Ad

ori act F e

s sse e c Pro

Plug and Produce s, M Real-time MES m e yst S ion uct Self-organisation d o Pr , Self-optimisation s e

Embedded Electronics Sensor-Actor Systems Modularisation of Manufacturing

nd sa ne i h ac

towards Adaptive Manufacturing …

Cooperative Machines Process Control

Modular System Engineering

…and Reconfigurable and Adaptive Systems, Machines and Processes

Figure 5.2 Intelligent components for manufacturing machines and systems Implementation of this vision in each industrial sector will lead to specific questions. For example, high precision manufacturing would require flexible components able to keep the required precision whatever the configuration it operates. For such industries, quality will be the major driver and the adaptative model will try to associate efficiently quality and flexibility. Heavier industries will have to keep global efficiency while implementing modularity. This will be difficult since efficiency is usually linked to very stable operations and associating this with flexibility is a real challenge. It is even clearer for continuous processes as in chemical industry or material producing industries. Their inherently continuous operation mode has to evolve for greater flexibility while keeping the high quality level required by customers and the energy and environmental efficiency.

106


Possible Topics to be Covered:

Adaptive Factories •

Adaptive and responsive factories

Self-learning, self-optimising factory control systems

Cooperative machines and control systems

Adaptive production systems, machines and processes •

Adaptive assembly modules

Flexible machines for rapid reconfigurations

High precision manufacturing by plug and play, components based on adaptive smart materials

Intelligence for enhanced processes •

Cost-efficient condition monitoring systems

Condition prognostic capabilities for improved reliability and performance

Revenue optimization through condition monitoring and prognostics

Intelligence-based process capability enhancement

Scale-up, Scale-down Developments and Process Intensification

Tools for breaking the batch processing paradigm towards continuous and innovative process technologies

Ability to dynamically change a continuous process when difficulties appear in some places or in order to dynamically treat quality problems or to adapt very rapidly the process to new request of customers.

Adaptive tools and components •

Planning tools for open reconfigurable and adaptive manufacturing systems

In-Situ process simulation

Optimal energy consumption by flexible self-optimising drive concepts

Rapid heating and cooling system allowing an adequate and rapid change of the required heat treatments in the process.

Self-optimising electric-fluidic energy sources for optimal energy consumption

Materials handling in intensified process systems

In some industries, the limiting factors controlling process performance cease to be equipmentoriented and tend towards the process materials themselves. For example, in pharmaceutical and fine chemicals manufacture many processes involve solids Equipment with small scales of structure are not ideally suited to processes such solids. As well, processes involving viscous liquids, gels and foams are equally common, and have their own difficulties to successfully implement intensified processing.

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R&D Objectives

• Development of materials characterisation techniques. • Development of methodologies to understand materials behaviour, collation of generic results for common systems, application to real processes at multiple length scales. • Identification of opportunities for new intensive equipment types suited to solid/viscous liquid/gel/foam processes, prototype development and testing. 5.2.3 Networking in Manufacturing Due to the present aspiration to conquer new and respectively ensuring existing markets, the number of manufactured product variants is rising steadily, whereas the lifecycles of the products become shorter at the same time. While trying to achieve a cost optimisation, any company is furthermore aiming at creating lean processes along with low inventories. This is why the companies in a supply chain network find themselves in a difficult situation, on the one hand they have to react on very short-term changes of market demands and other events in the network and on the other hand a long-term planning and coordination of the network has to be assured. This situation is still more intensified as even structural marginal conditions as i.e. the network topology or the selection of the network partners, have to be adapted in more and shorter time intervals. Tomorrow's manufacturing processes will work in complex, integrated and dynamic networks, often operating across borders of companies and countries maximising their shares within the value chain. As the scope and the dynamics of these production networks will increase continuously over the coming years, research and development has to tackle several areas in order to come up with solutions regarding the network integration, the standardization of processes and IT systems, and enabling real-time decision capabilities throughout the network. Looking in more detail on the production network, four different segments of the network can be identified: • Customer & user network, including all organizations and processes bringing a final product in the hand of the customer or end user • Product & supplier network, including all manufacturing and service companies creating and delivering parts, components or raw materials and related services for the final product • Product engineering network, representing all activities across several companies to design and engineer a new or changed final product • Manufacturing system supplier’s network, involving all companies and processes for producing, installing and maintaining the production equipment used for the manufacturing of the products. With the target of keeping or regaining a competitive advantage of European manufacturing, with the consequences of shortening product life cycles, higher reaction abilities to change customer demands and specific products, the integrative view on all these four network segments is essential for achieving an overall networked production. Several enabling technologies considered as relevant and stringently required for the implementation of this integrative approach of networking manufacturing have been identified and represented according scale time and implementation priority in the following “ Roadmap: Networking in Manufacturing” based on the Manufuture’s one. The sequence of the technologies deployment is envisioned as: • On short term with high priority the “Innovative Strategies for Networking Manufacturing” new and innovative methodologies and technologies aiming at improving 108


the network engineering and the interoperability of production enterprise interlinked in a production network. • On medium term with high priority as well, the “Real-time Logistics Network” has to investigate and recommend new management models for the global and real-time manufacturing networks towards the implementation of the network visibility and supply chain integration for real-time decision making in non-hierarchical networks. On long terms the envisioned “Global Environment for networked Manufacturing” aims at implement the knowledge-based and adaptive manufacturing through intelligent order management and factories and logistics on demand concepts. Again, the implementation of this very transversal trend will be different in each type of industry. Though the general concept is bridging across all type of industries, there are some specificities in each of them. For example for products made of a very large number of sub-parts provided from a large variety of suppliers, the global network transmitting back and forth all the information necessary to properly handle the fabrication, schedule and quality will be the heart of the production system, especially if the product has to be changed frequently in order to fulfill variable requests. For more continuous process industries, the emphasis will be on the Process Monitoring and Control in the new process Process Systems. All information concerning the quality of the material itself , almost at atomic level will be a necessary information to be feeded into the network upstream and downstream. A good example concerns fine chemical and pharmaceutical production processes. There are not optimized, resulting in decreased capacity utilization (10-20%) and a portion of the end-product falling outside specification (10-20%). Costs of non-optimized production amount to 1-2% of total turnover. Reasons to maintain non-optimized production include: • Unknown fluctuations in raw material quality (e.g. seasonal effects, different suppliers, variations in composition of intermediate chemicals production processes) • The absence of an adequate physico-chemical model describing the relationship between process parameters and product quality • The suboptimal design and control of processes … Customisation of the Management System

Networking in - Engineering - Logistics - Facilities and…

Build-to-Order in Networked Manufacturing Global Real-time Network Management

Real-time Networked Visibility

ine ng E e vic

Knowledge-based Order Management Networking

rin ctu a f u an Supply chain M ed Integration & Real-time enhanced with… k r o

Interoperable Production Network

tw Ne

r Se ct/ u rod dP n ga

… towards Global Environment for Networked Manufacturing g n i r e

Decision making

Networked Engineering

Networking of: Product Manufacturing with Manufacturing Services

Figure 5.3 Customization of the management system 109


Robust monitoring and control of processes is critical to the successful deployment of intensified process technologies. The adoption of appropriately scaled intensive equipment enables precise control over localised process conditions. Precise control encourages the use of less stable regimes (e.g. higher temperatures and concentrations, operating inside the explosion limit), which also demands more from process monitoring and control instruments/ systems. Possible Topics to be Covered:

Innovative strategies for networked manufacturing •

Networked engineering.

Interoperable and standardised production network

Simultaneous engineering in open networks

Build-to-order in manufacturing networks

New techniques networking all the process steps in order to produce correct products without costly trial and errors procedures.

In pharmaceutical and fine chemicals manufacture, beyond Process Analytical technology, and in other processes for which fundamental process understanding is not always well understood, it is important also to identify the critical process parameters requiring monitoring and control before thinking about measurement solutions and networking of relevant information toward upstream or downstream. R&D Objectives

• Development of methodological approaches to the identification and selection of critical process parameters requiring control in reaction, isolation and formulation processes. • Development of sensor technologies capable of measuring defined critical process parameters in microscale equipment and process systems. • New and improved sensor techniques. Fast, accurate and robust online sensors are needed to determine whether products are within specification and whether processes are running optimally. This can enable the transition from batch to continuous processing • Many parameters that determine product composition can not currently be measured online: colour, turbidity, taste, odour, low concentrations of reactants and intermediates and microbiological components (contaminants like penicillin, viruses and pesticides). To this end, completely new sensor techniques need to be developed. • In addition, the amount of information obtained from standard techniques could be much improved by more sophisticated signal analysis techniques. Real-time logistic networks •

Global and real-time network management

Supply chain integration and real-time decision-making in non-hierarchical manufacturing -networks

Real-time network visibility by mobile components in production networks

Knowledge-based and adaptive networked manufacturing •

Knowledge-based order management in networked manufacturing

Factories and logistics networks on demand 110


Networked manufacturing services •

Global platform of networked services management - Networked product/service engineering

Innovative customer-driven product/service design in global environments

5.2.4 Digital Knowledge-Based Engineering Manufacturing Engineering is a holistic approach, which includes the engineering of the factory structure, the development of the organization, the product design engineering, the process engineering and the development of the required tools and application systems. At all levels, e.g. manufacturing network, segment or system, machine or equipment, subsystems and processes, the factory and its manufacturing processes can be defined in their “current” and/or “future” states, under the so-called “digital” and respectively “virtual” representations. This relates to the employed models, methods and digital tools or simulation applications and systems used to represent the static or the dynamic states. As the knowledge represents the main source innovation and implementation of the digital and virtual factories and products, the whole area concerning the research and applicative field mentioned above is structured under the cluster of enabling technologies and tools named “Digital and knowledge-based engineering”. Knowledge-based manufacturing concepts for targeted and tailored products are important for all kinds of manufacturing industry from factories interested in production of materials to the factories only doing assembly of subcomponents , through precision industries. In all cases, stedy incorporation of knowledge all along the chain is a key for the future of European industry The Implementation and integration of intensified process technologies , incorporating all the knowledge in each process step , requires the development and widespread use of innovative equipment, advanced sensor and process analyser technology and the introduction of sophisticated process design tools. As new business models are enabled, flexible supply chain management and planning tools also gain importance. All information coming from these tools are building a detailed knowledge of the “state” of the process and enables rapid and efficient changes of “state” if required by new events. According to the major objective of the European industrial sector, e.g. to play a leading role at global level, the manufacturing enterprises called factories, have to be approached as a new and complex type of product. They have to have the following main features: factories are long life products, which have to be adapted permanently to the needs and requirements of markets and economic efficiency. Nearly all influencing factors are continuously changing and sometimes have the character of turbulence. Factories operate in networks and are parts of logistic networks with chains in: design and engineering of the products, supply chains from customer orders to customers’ delivery, supply chains for consumable materials and waste, supply chains for factory machines, equipments and tools. The factories and products are digital and virtual by embedding in both these states the corresponding required knowledge. The innovative and enabling technologies and tools identified as crucial for this cluster are grouped according: “Sustainable digital factories and products: design, modelling and prototyping”, “Virtual factory simulation and operation”, Real-time (Smart) Factory”, and “Process modelling, simulation and management” and graphically represented under the Trans-sectoral Roadmap , as proposed by Manufuture: Digital, Knowledge-based Engineering” These technologies are planned to be deployed in time scale and priority as follows: • On short term with high priority the collaboration of “Digital Manufacturing Engineering” with the “Digital Product Engineering” through rapid prototyping of Virtual Factory synchronised with the 3D/CAD integration of engineering tools and digital prototyping of virtual products, integration of all information from different sensors in 111


“critical process parameters” that are relevant for monitoring the process and assessing the quality of the product. Towards the Digital Manufacturing… Integrated Project and Knowledge Management

ital Dig

gin En t c du Pro

Multi-scale Modelling and Simulation

g r in ee

Integrated/Networked Engineering Environment

Life Cycle Data Management Config. Management 3D/CAD Integration Engineering Tools Digital Prototyping

Models of Manufacturing

ri ee g in n E ng uri t c ufa

Standards

M ital Dig

an

ng

Ergonomics and Process standards

Real-time Factory Adaptation to Reality Digital Factory/MES Integration

Factory Data Management Digital Factory Rapid Prototyping Vitual Prototyping

…and Support of Knowledge-based Factory and Services

Figure 5.4 Models of manufacturing • On medium term with high priority as well, the factory data management under the socalled Life Cycle Data Management for Digital and Virtual Factory and Products conducts towards the development of the Virtual factory framework aiming at integrating heterogeneous and autonomous technologies and tools for planning, design, manufacture and implement the above two entities in digital and virtual states. The Real-time Factory represents one of the desired goal, by integrating and synchronising the Digital factory with real-time data towards the adaptation to reality. • On long terms the envisioned “Multi-scale process modelling, simulation and management” aims at implement the holistic approach of manufacturing engineering at all its scales, from network to manufacturing processes and states, from digital, virtual to realtime. Possible Topics to be Covered:

Sustainable digital factories and products: design, modelling and prototyping •

Digital manufacturing for rapid design and virtual prototyping of factories on demand

Sustainable Life Cycle Management of factories and products

High value added product design and virtual prototyping

Interdisciplinary design of high performance, reliable and adaptive manufacturing equipment

Innovative design of special equipment and tools

Engineering of ICT-based products

Tolerance systems for micro- and nano-scaled products 112


Innovative integration (or fusion) of information coming from different sensors in meaningful “critical process parameters”

Virtual Factory simulation and operation •

New classes of models for the simulation of complex manufacturing and assembly systems

Comprehensive and holistic approaches of multi-scale modelling and simulation of manufacturing systems

Modelling of parallel, serial and hybrid kinematics

Virtual Reality-based simulations for machine operations and Life Cycle impacts

Distributed telepresence environments

Pattern recognition in manufacturing

in

haptic-visual-auditory

collaborative

manufacturing

Real-time (Smart) Factory Management •

Capturing and synchronising heterogeneous production data with the Digital Factory

Manufacturing Execution Environment for the Smart Factory

Innovative control methods for continuous processes involving complex chemical reactions.

Process modelling, simulation and management •

Manufacturing process modelling and simulation

Knowledge-based process planning for hybrid systems

Process planning in a customized production

Process planning for multi-materials and functional material manufacturing

5.2.5 Eco - conception and Sustainable Manufacturing European citizens are requiring a green environment and are very sensitive to the impact of new process and products on their daily life : health and environment. This is one very important political objective of Europe , leading to an increasing amount of regulations and standards that the European industry has to adapt to (e.g. climate change mitigation, Reach directive, etc..) . On the long run, this social demand will probably be a chance for European industry provided that changes are made at reasonable rate and that innovative methodologies and technologies are developed and implemented. Sustainable Product and Process Design for the Process Industry is a very important trend for the future. The overall goal of the research activities suggested is to build on existing European strengths in product and process design, engineering, catalysis and chemical synthesis to achieve intensified, more eco-efficient, environmentally benign and competitive products processes and production technologies. For products, new methodologies are under development under the general name of “ecoconception” . Following the Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) , they aim at integrating the different impacts of the new products all along its life: from the production of the different material it is using, integrating all impacts during the production and assembly of all subparts , through their efficiency during their use phase and what happens after end of life. Along this line, a lot of deep questions of methodology are raised and should be handled in a sufficiently simple to be tractable at the design stage.

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A similar approach is beginning for the design of new or modified processes., taking advantage of all the technologies described in the previous sections. In particular, “Knowledge-based manufacturing concepts for targeted and tailored products”, would allow an intelligent management of the factory in order to minimize environmental impact. The innovative and enabling technologies and tools identified as crucial for this general trend are grouped according to two clusters : “methodologies” and “production technologies”. The “methodology” cluster encompasses all necessary development to better assess from the beginning the potential benefits and impacts of a new product or process. The “production technologies” cluster gives desired development of technologies for the processes with highest environmental impact (mainly upstream). This is graphically represented under the Transsectoral Roadmap: “ Eco-conception and sustainable processes”. These technologies are planned to be deployed in time scale and priority as follows: On short term and high priority: Full LCA analysis , with necessary development of really shared methods for a sery of difficult questions: how to handle recycling, co-products, impacts at different times, etc….This should not be left only to lobbying and should be handled with rigourous scientific approach. Similarly availability and reliability of data-base used for ecoconception can only based on such an approach. Prom the process point of view, first steps will be development of end of pipe technologies and adaptation of the processes to different feedstock materials, from the manufacturing side, energy efficient production techologies and - concepts need to be developed On medium term and also high priority: Integrated design and products processes will integrate all progresses made in LCA and data-base to develop new design processes integrating all different types of impacts, notably balancing all these type of impacts for a meaningful decision. For the process technologies part, development of eco-efficient processes designed from the beginning for minimal environmental impact. On longer term and medium priority: Integrated design of new products should integrate all aspect of social impact of new product and processes , not only the economic and environmental impact but also, other social aspects either positive or negative from the point of view of the public community. For the process technologies, integration of all progresses made at each process step in a global approach will certainly generate further substantial gains. Beyond that, clusters of different industries exchanging all their products and by-products will drastically enhance valorisation of co-products ( Solid , liquid or gases), taking advantage of the process of other industries. This general trend is common to all industries in the manufacturing sector. However, it concentrates mainly on the upstream part of the different process steps aiming at a final product. Eco-conception is becoming more and more important when designing a final product but main impacts are during the upstream part of production. For example, for the chemical industry, the concept of sustainability is becoming increasingly important in the chemistry-using industries but often carries differing definitions between different business areas and/or different organisations. All will agree that the overall objective is to develop and operate economically viable processes with minimal impact on the environment and the population in terms of raw material use, energy use and waste. This requires metrics for sustainability assessment, which integrate the examination of costs, environmental impact and social effects of different product or process alternatives in the search for socio-eco-efficient solutions.

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R&D Objectives

• Use of existing sustainability metrics to quantify sustainable performance, and development of appropriate metrics for areas not currently covered • Methodologies to develop and implement sustainable process plant – e.g. plant layout for minimal energy use in multi-purpose batch and/or intensified/multi-scale facilities, selection of cleaning versus disposable/biodegradable process equipment

Figure 5.5 Emergent products and manufacturing systems • Methodologies to enable appropriate selection of sustainable process technologies for a given manufacturing process when assessed against economic, environmental and societal drivers. Possible Topics to be Covered:

Methodologies •

Integration of time in the LCA analysis

Taking into account properly recycling and co-products

Comparative life-cycle assessment tool that seeks to integrate the examination of costs, environmental impact and social effects of different product or process alternatives in the search for socio-eco-efficient solutions.

Desgning meanigful data-base for eco-conception

Tools to simplify eco-conception anlysis, while keeping it accurate enough.

Integrated design of products of processes: balancing all impacts in a meaningful manner

Integrating all social values either negative or positive from the design stage.

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Production technologies •

End of pipe technologies: development of adequate treatment of gaseous emissions: acidic, dangerous gases, etc....

Energy efficient production processes.

Treatment of liquid wastes and water usage.

Integrated management of wastes.

Industrial symbiosis

Diversification of the feedstock base targets the larger scale exploitation of biomassderived feedstocks and their respective robust process technologies, as well as exploiting coal and gas as intermediate steps to decrease the dependency on oil as the feedstock base.

Alternative Forms of Energy for New Chemistries, New Synthetic Routes, New Products and Process Intensification

Alternative sources and forms of energy, such as electromagnetic, electric, acoustic or highgravity fields have been shown to be able to modify chemical reaction paths and to deliver new functional products with properties not achievable with conventional technologies. Many of those energy forms can intensify chemical and biochemical processes with effects exceeding two or even three orders of magnitude. Alternative Forms and Transfer Mechanisms of Energy may also Significantly Enlarge the Applicability Potential of Micro-structured Reactors via:

• Accelerating chemical processes to “fit” in microsystems • Reaching higher product yields by combining alternative energy transfer mechanisms with microprocessing features (e.g. fast heating-up of the reactants and a fast quenching of the products) • Reducing or preventing some basic problems in the microprocessing system operation, such as fouling. R&D Objectives

• Research on basic engineering concepts of alternative energy-based processes • Particular products which are difficult to obtain using conventional processing methods. • Methods for targeted supply of innovative forms of energy including reactor concepts for precise control of chemical transformations and reaction pathways • Use for novel reactions to yield new products with unique functionalities Integrated Water Management and Industrial Water Use

Society demands an increased focus on the sustainable use of water. There is an ongoing competition for water between agriculture, urban areas and industry, which will grow stronger over the coming years, taking societal mega-trends into account. To become more independent from the issue of scarcity of water, there is an industrial need for more integrated use of water to ensure reliability of supply.

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The European Frame Work Directive demands a higher quality of surface water for the coming years, less influenced by industrial use of water or by industrial products and thus further driving this competition forwards. In a joint effort between the European Technology Platforms SusChem and Water Sanitation and Supply (WssTP), including inputs from the Chemical Industry, a list of topics for collaborations have been identified. R&D Objectives

High priority topics include: • Define and implement demonstrations of best practices in integrated water management systems for the 2020 water footprint of chemical industry operations in typical geographic diverse locations 9 Case studies on cooperation between process industries and other actors involved in water/wastewater management on a river basin scale. Analysis of the case study, boundary conditions, problems, solutions. Specifying demand for development of interfaces between different sectors, e.g. industrial, municipal, agricultural. 9 Case studies should cover cooperation projects, e.g. in a costal region, an inland region and an example of cooperation with SME/medium size process industry plants. Preference should be given to case studies in river basins that already face a severe water stress according to the water exploitation index (WEI). • Process efficiency of water use, addressing also the related energy aspects and possible relationship to bio-based platform chemicals and biorefineries • Process efficiency 9 In cooling/heating processes, by using innovative processes and technologies (e.g. micro heat exchanger) and linkage with improved production processes, 9 In water demand within production processes using water as carrier 9 In processes having water as part of the product 9 In efficient use of water treatment chemicals (e.g. to minimize membrane fouling, to treat recalcitrant compounds) • Increasing energy efficiency of water treatment in process industry, including both process water and wastewater treatment. 9 Balancing water - energy demands and production. 9 More cost effective processes by extracting energy from industrial (heat) rejects and wastes. 9 Recovery of valuable resources, e.g. low heat energy from wastewater, recovery of substances (e.g. carbon in form of biopolymers (PHA), process catalysts, valuable trace elements etc). 9 More cost and energy efficient treatment of highly loaded liquid streams (e.g. process and wastewater). • Provision of water treatment technologies in bio-energy production, future production of bio-based platform chemicals and operation of biorefineries. Development of clean biofuel plants and bio-refineries down to the zero-waste objective. • Provide efficient treatment technologies for Priority Substances and emerging pollutants.

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• Closing of the water cycle, and defining optimal limits of closure. Reuse of water on a local scale (plant) and regional scale such as integrated management of water resources, interactions between municipal, industrial and agricultural use (reuse and cascade use of water). • Development of cooperation with working groups tasked with the revision of the BREF (Best Available Techniques Reference) documents. • Bring together experts from process industries and water industries to integrate routes 9 To allow for minimizing water and energy consumption, 9 For increasing water and energy recovery, 9 To allow conversion of valuable compounds within wastewater into energy and products, and 9 For considering water recycling as part of their design and operation. • Drive the developments of enhanced materials, process technologies and systems 9 Bring together experts from process industries and water industries to create innovative solutions for water and energy efficient technologies and for more flexible water treatment processes. 9 New materials o

To increase performance of e.g. separation technologies (e.g. membranes)

o

To reduce corrosion, fouling, generation of biofilms

o

Functionalized for water treatment 9 New treatment concepts (e.g. new technologies or innovative combination of technologies/systems) for new production methods in process industry. 9 Cross developments e.g. application transfer from process industry to water treatment, application transfer across different process industries, etc. Fostering the Industrial Uptake of Electrochemical Synthesis

As a specifically targeted energy source, electricity as an activator for physical and chemical transformations should offer substantial advantages in terms of precision control, selectivity process performance and energy savings. R&D Objectives

• Substitution, via electrochemical reactions, of traditional oxidising and reducing agents • Selective, atom-efficient electrochemical synthesis routes • Electrochemical methods for local control of chemical composition and field strength in processes for product formulation: powder production, agglomeration, phase formation, particle and droplet size distributions • Electrochemical surface functionalization • Segmented and structured reactors for electro–organic synthesis, including specific local control of electrocatalytic activity • Electrochemically assisted bioenzymatic transformations • Integration of new materials, new catalysts and new promising synthesis routes in electrochemical processes • More efficient energy integration and recovery in electrochemical processes • Electrolysis for hydrogen production (including high–temperature electrolysis) 118


Innovation Challenges in Formulation Engineering

Formulation of products is a widespread and diverse activity in the chemical-using industries that suffers many manufacturing problems associated with difficulties on process design, scale-up and lack of robustness. There are several global markets reliant on the science of formulation, their combined value is of the order of thousands of billions of US dollars (USD) per annum. A few examples are: European Pharmaceutical market stood at USD 337 billion in 1999 with EU having 26.6% share (IMS World Review 2000); Crop protection market, global value USD 23 billion (Syngenta Crop Protection Regional and Country Detail November 2006); Personal care, USD 21 billion for Procter & Gamble alone (P&G annual report 2007). Accessing even moderate savings, through “quality by design”, reduced development time, lower energy consumption, improved efficiency, and lower rejects rates, in just a small percentage of these markets has the potential to provide savings of hundreds of millions USD per annum. R&D Objectives

• Development of whole process methodologies / tools based on fundamental understanding of mapping the formulated product characteristics to process and product performance and then linking these characteristics to the underlying chemistry and physics at various length scales (bulk, particulate, molecular) that take place during manufacturing and storage. • Development of experimental and theoretical techniques to verify the underlying chemistry and physics. • Application of the above tools to define the necessary work/decision flows for efficient and effective formulation process development and implementation. • Demonstration of application of the above tools for the characterisation of intrinsic manufacturability to guide formulation development in the determination of appropriate programmes of experimental work and in the rapid identification of robust process options. • Development of methods and techniques, based on fundamental understanding, which stabilise freshly produced nanoparticles (primary particles) without influencing their surface functionality or properties.

Membrane-based Hybrid Separation or Chemical Conversion

Until now, membrane technology has not been part of the standard toolbox of process designers and engineers in the process industry. R&D Objectives

Application areas that could benefit from membrane technology and require substantial R&D effort include: • Upfront separation of olefins and paraffins to simplify distillation separations to carbon number separations alone • Fischer-Tropsch: removal of water, downstream of reactor • Equilibrium-limited reactions: methane steam reforming, including water gas shift. Removal of H2, CO and/or CO2, preferably in the reactor • Ammonia or methanol synthesis: product removal, either in the synthesis reactor or downstream

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• Alkane (ethane, propane) dehydrogenation: removal of hydrogen in the reactor with/without hydrogen oxidation • Alcohol (ethanol, tert. butanol) dehydration: removal of water in the reactor • Oxidation reactions: Provide oxygen-enriched air, provide a controlled amount of O2 through a membrane for safety or higher selectivity • Industrial biotechnology applications: product removal to prevent inhibition or water removal in work-up

5.2.6 ICT for Manufacturing Most general trends described above are using massively enabling technologies entitled “ICT for Manufacturing”. It represents the collaboration and in the same times the synchronisation and harmonisation of the state-of-the-art technologies coming from both areas, respectively Information and Communication and Manufacturing Engineering Technologies. These can be approached as emerging technologies in their areas by not being fully exploited based on lack of relevant application fields. The combination and brilliant integration of them can conduce at the identification of new applications and not fulfilled potential by increasing the capabilities required for the “Next-Generation European Manufacturing Systems” as adaptability, digital and knowledge-based, flexible and networked. Several identified ICT for manufacturing enabling technologies and the expected tools are graphically grouped under the so-called “Trans-sectoral e Roadmap: ICT for Manufacturing” taken from the Manufuture SRA. These technologies are planned to be implemented in the manufacturing enterprises as follows: • On short term with high priority the “Configuration Systems” aiming at production/services customisation will enable to the manufacturing enterprises to meet the customers’ individual requirements more effectively, by providing more customization approaches related to the design and development of the new generation of modern manufacturing systems. • On medium term with high priority as well, the development of the so-called “Computing and Embedded Platforms for Digital factory” seen as a generic platform which embeds all state-of-the-art modelling, simulation, optimisation, and visualisation technologies and tools for turning the digital and virtual factory into reality. On the same time scale and priority can be mentioned the “Digital Libraries and Content for Engineering and manufacturing” and “Cognitive Control Systems: modelling technologies and architectures”. The development of an integrated framework for networked “Multimodal collaboration in manufacturing environments” aims at enhance the interfaces humanmachine-machine through new and innovative easy and friendly mode of interaction. • On long terms the envisioned “Grid Manufacturing” aims at migrate the Grid Computing technologies and tools for coping with the challenges of networked manufacturing, respectively the lack of high-flexibility. The “Pervasive and Ubiquitous Computing” as emerging and in the same time enabling ICT will support the implementation of the adaptive, evolvable ubiquitous manufacturing systems.

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Grid Manufacturing

from Data-driven Factories…

Advancement of Grid Computing for Manufacturing purposes

Collaborative Multimodal Interfaces Human-machine interaction

Control Systems Cognitive control modelling technologies and architectures

Configuration Systems Product/Services customisation

an pe o r Eu

g rin ctu a f nu Ma Pervasive and n tio Ubiquitous Computing era

en Adaptive, evolvable, ubixt-g quitous manufacturing systems e N the for t en Digital Libraries and Content nm o r for Engineering and manufacturing i v n E ICT Computing Systems and Embedded Platforms Digital and Virtual Factory embedded platform

… to Networked Real-time and Knowledge-based Manufacturing

Figure 5.6 From data-driven factories to networked real-time and knowledge-based manufacturing

Multiscale Modelling and Modelling of Complex Systems

The development of mathematical models for representation of the domain process/product knowledge is still principally a manual task. A significant reduction in time and resources spent on in-silico research in general, and modelling in particular, can be made through the development and use of cyber modelling frameworks. These can aid in the systematic generation/creation of the needed models, which is usually the first-step of any model-based approach. A versatile and flexible modelling framework with features such as model reuse, model decomposition and model aggregation coupled with advanced software architectures, plug & play with models and software integration will be able to promote significant advances, not only in the area of in-silico research, but in all other research/applications dependent on models. R&D Objectives

• Development of a library of predictive constitutive models with the capability to generate the necessary models of different scales of size, form and application for a wide range of problems at a fraction of the time and resources spent currently • Systematic fitting of models to experimental data including model structure discrimination and model-base experimental design; flexible and generic framework (architecture) for a computer aided modelling system useable by all disciplines • Development of ‘Plug & Play’ models from various sources and of various sizes. Emphasis could also be given to the efficient use of models – that is, how to obtain innovative solutions from model based solution approaches. If the model is simply used to replace the experiment, while some savings in time can be achieved, it is doubtful if innovative solutions can be found.

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Possible Topics to be Covered:

Configuration systems: customisation of products and services to the market requirements

Digital libraries and contents for engineering and manufacturing

Networked multimodal collaboration in manufacturing environments

Manufacturing control systems for adaptive, scalable and responsive factories

Computing systems and embedded platforms for advanced manufacturing engineering

Pervasive and ubiquitous computing for disruptive manufacturing

Grid Manufacturing: advancement of Grid Computing for manufacturing purposes

5.2.7 Specific Challenges for the European Process Industry Most topics given above in chapter 5.2.1 to 5.2.6 are general throughout all manufacturing industries. However, most of them are more focused on problems that are facing industries assembling a large variety of different components with the associated difficulties of management of complexity, fast adaptation to change, integration of different components coming from different production units and meaningful integration of all information all along the processes in different locations (chapter 5.2.1 to 5.2.4). Chapter 5.2.6 is focusing on the necessary ICT development to achieve the above goals. Process industries such as the chemical industry or other industries such as production of widely used materials (metals, glass, cement,…) are also concerned by these topics, though in a different and probably less acute way. However, they also face additional challenges which are rather specific since they start from raw materials that they have to transform into intermediate products that are afterwards used in a wide variety of industries. They are important bricks that are necessary to build the “wall”. It is doubtful that the European industry could develop a strong position in making “walls” without mastering the “bricks”, particularly in its more innovative part. This part of European industry is faced to increasing competition of emerging countries that do not have similar social and environmental costs, while operating on a booming economy: markets are stagnant in Europe whilst strong growth occurs in China. Further investments in such industries is not particularly favourable in Europe because of low returns on investments due to a combination of relatively high production costs because of regulation, changing regional balance in manufacturing in customers sectors, and the absence of advantaged feedstock. This leads to a net outflow of investments to other regions. The EU requires innovative leadership to reduce or even reverse the trend: only innovation is able to keep in Europe some of these industries. This chapter is focusing on some of these specific challenges. 5.2.7.1 Sustainable Development Paragraph 5.2.5 already presented one of the biggest challenge: how to turn these production processes in order to continue to bring significant services to the society while fulfilling the strong requirements of sustainable manufacturing. We already showed the long road to reach a truly sustainable production of basic chemicals and materials in a sustainable way, with a minimum consumption of energy, raw materials and water together with a minimum impact on environment (air, water or soils). In order to fulfil this objective the Life Cycle approach is a good tool to balance the different parameters in a holistic way but it has been made clear that its development for a real implementation still requires a lot of effort. 122


5.2.7.2 Production of New Materials and Chemical Molecules Chapter 4 concentrated on development of materials for a number of important applications comprising Energy, Information and communication Technology, quality of life, healthcare, citizen protection, etc.. It is worth recalling here that all these new materials have to be produced in a clean and sustainable way and that this production is using raw materials and feedstock, which, at the beginning are extracted from nature either in the form of biomass or geological deposits. In order to efficiently produce all these potentially very attractive new materials, a dedicated effort on the production side will be necessary. It is worth recalling here that innovation in this field will not concern only nanomaterials and that many innovations will stem out from more “conventional” developments in the chemical industry or from new alloys and compositions in material processing industry. This is important, not only because of the potential impact on employment but also lots of innovations in other downstream manufacturing industries are relying on innovations done on chemical compounds or base materials. For example a German study showed that such innovations in chemicals accounted for over 50% of all innovations in pharmaceuticals, textile, clothing, metals and petroleum process industries. Reaction and process Design. This is of vital importance in these industries. The life cycle of products is becoming shorter and speciality chemicals and alloys are transformed rapidly into commodity products. The only way of remaining profitable is to keep a high level of excellence in the area of reaction and process design. Two complementary approaches are integrated in this section: Chemical synthesis including: •

Novel synthetic routes and new reactions.

Novel solvents and solvent-free routes.

Catalysis.

Process science and engineering including: •

Reactor design.

Adequate preparation of feedstock and raw materials, Drying and purification methods

Elaboration of materials: distillation, crystallisation, separation

Transformation through heat/Pressure treatment, forming, etc…

Product design and formulation (see also chapter 4)

Process analysis and control (see also chapter 5.2.1 to 5.2.5)

Chemical engineering and process engineering are the scientific basis for this part. Considerable progresses are being made and prospects for the future are very important. This includes: • The smart design of the synthesis route: This includes all the tools already described in chapter 5.2.5 concerning all new developments for designing new processes with lower consumption of feedstock, water, air, etc.. It also includes new developing tools around high throughput experimentation that allows rapid screening for new products development ( e.g. solvents, temperatures, catalysts, alloys, etc..) ; new reaction paths (so-called e.g. based on smooth oxidation agents such as hydrogen peroxide, new breakthrough technologies in selective oxidation using molecular oxygen, etc..)

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• Micro technologies have achieved major breakthrough not only in areas such as fine chemicals but also for bulk chemicals or polymers (e.g. integration combining various steps in one apparatus; reactive distillation, separation of ionic liquids, etc…) • Catalytic reaction: Due to its significant impact on process performance, catalysis is still a key enabling technology, even in mature processes such as polyolefin ( a new catalyst achieved recently an order of magnitude improvement in the process) • Integration and intensification of process combined with new catalysts concepts are essential for the design of competitive commodity processes. Catalysis is definitely a decisive technology in tapping new feedstock, producing high performance materials and creating environmentally-friendly processes. • Use of renewable resource is becoming more and more important. Large-scale bioproduction of basic chemicals and polymers will be the state of the art in the future. This requires sophisticated, small-scale technologies offering a wide area for research and development. • In Silico technologies. As in other manufacturing industries, both modern hardware and software give rise to fast modelling and data mining. The simulation tools for complex physic and chemical reactions will be made at the speed of the process in the future, allowing a tremendous improvement of flexibility, control and quality

Research Priorities

The smart design of the Smart Synthesis Routes - Development of novel reaction pathways to give: •

Processes with atom efficiency (= no or less waste)

Reuse of wastes, closing of material loop (= efficient recycling)

Selective oxidation using molecular oxygen

Processes avoiding hazardous adducts and by-products

Use of biotechnology as an alternative

Use of renewable feedstock

Use of alternative reaction media: •

Ionic liquids have the wide potentiality as almost universal green solvents.

Use of water as a solvent , replacing usual organic solvents for a variety of organic reactions

Use of alternative reaction conditions: •

High pressure and supercritical gases (i.e. CO2) as solvents, microemulsion medias

Higher pressure and temperature processes for high temperature materials

Photochemical and electrochemical reactions

Micro-wave and ultrasonic induced reactions

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Micro-technologies Developments in this area could include: •

New apparatus for technical application (cheap, easy to clean and / or easy to change, long term stability towards reaction conditions, e.g., corrosion resistant, high tolerance of fouling and blockage).

New plant concepts for highly intensified processes including logistic and supply chain aspects.

Online analytical tools for microreactors.

Combined/integrated approaches (e.g., catalytic microreactors, high throughput experimentation including combinatorial approaches).

Catalytic reaction More than 80% of the processes involving chemical reactions (including pharmacy) depend on catalytic technologies (source: VCI). There is a constant need for improved conversion technologies and new catalysts including enzymes, coupled with novel reactors and process technologies including: • • • • • • • • •

C-H bound activation for the exploitation of lower alkanes Catalytic systems for the conversion of alternative feedstock such as biomass or waste Enabling the use of hydrogen in energy system ( CO tolerant catalyst, etc..) Catalysis with respect to mobility ( treatment of exhaust gas, sulphur free fuels, etc..) Improved catalytic methods for the production of life science intermediates and active ingredients ( e.g. enantioselective reactions, ..) New and improved catalytic systems for high performance materials ( taylor-made polymeric materials catalytic Environment protection ( Catalytic exhaust gas and waste water purification) Integrated reactor approaches (catalytic micro-reactors, catalytic membrane reactors) Improved methods for the understanding of catalysts (characterisation, mechanisms) for a rational catalyst design.

Reactor Design, Plant Design and Unit Operations The emphasis here should be on: • • •

Process intensification by integrated approaches: combination of operations and (e.g. reaction and separation) , catalytic membrane reactors, catalytic microreactors. Reduced capital investments using cheaper units (integration of different operations in one apparatus). New plant concepts for reduction of investments (value engineering) and process costs including knowledge-based manufacturing concepts (e.g., batch/semi-batch, network/ distributed manufacturing, …). Adaptation of unit operations to new challenges: new raw materials, pre- and post processing of biomass feedstocks, …

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Materials Properties Design The area will link with the materials technology section to investigate topics including: •

Methods for tailoring active ingredient properties with regard to specific application demands (e.g., encapsulation of reactives, adequate coatings with new functions, intercalation, encapsulation,etc.).

Elaboration, drying Methods and Purification Techniques Topics include: • •

Adaptation of established techniques to new challenges: drying and processing of nanomaterials, purification of nanomaterials. Purification of biotechnological products.

In-silico technologies This area will cover: • •

Adaptation of established techniques to new challenges Digital manufacturing employing advanced modelling and planning tools.

5.2.7.3 Industrial Biotechnolgy, eco-industries The industrial implkementation of biotechnology is very important for Europe. However, researches required to really finish on the market do not belong clearly to one topic in NMP. It is not really nano nor material nor production (except to the end of the development) . It does not fit nicely in “integration” or in “health”. The biotechnology theme of 7FP would seem the most adequate place but its “chemical engineering” part is not seen as a priority. That is why we think it is worth talking about it here. In the past, eco-industries have mainly be associated with end-of –pipe technologies focusing on wastes treatment, rather than waste prevention. Today, modern industrial technologies are preventative, focusing on cleaner manufacturing process to minimise waste at source. Although a small number of industries are involved in industrial biotechnology today, its contribution will be most keenly felt in the EU's heavy industries, which will increasingly depend on it to remain competitive. Biotechnology will have an impact on a great many industries including: the chemical industry; the pharmaceutical industry; the food, drink and feed industry; the pulp and paper industry; the textile industry; the detergents industry; the energy sector; and the agricultural sector. Examples of the results biotechnology can produce include: • •

• • •

The move to bio-processing for production of vitamin B2 resulted in a 40% cost reduction and only 5% of the previous level of waste. A similar change to a biological production process for antibiotics combined the original ten-stage process into a single step, giving a 65% reduction in waste, using 50% less energy and halving the cost. Use of enzymes for textile processing reduced energy needs by 25% and gave 60% less effluent. Production of bio-plastics derived from cornstarch reduced the inputs of fossil fuels by 17-55% compared to the conventional alternatives. The use of bio-fuels and conversion of chemical processes to use agricultural feedstocks gives significant reductions in net carbon emissions. 126


According to a McKinsey study biotechnology is expected to make significant inroads in all areas of the chemical industry by 2010, but particularly in the fine chemicals sector. McKinsey estimates that biological process will, at the end of the decade, account for between 10 and 20% of production across the whole industry, from a current level of 5%. For the polymers and bulk chemicals sector, the penetration of biotechnology is estimated at 6-12%, but for fine chemicals the figure is predicted to be between 30 and 60%. Continued growth of industrial biotechnology is expected beyond 2010. McKinsey estimate the current value of chemical products produced using biotechnology to be at least $50 billion and believe this could rise to $160 billion by the end of this decade. Research Priorities

White biotechnology is a relatively new discipline and therefore immature: there are major areas of knowledge still to be explored. This presents a bottleneck to greater exploitation, but also offers a tremendous opportunity for further research. As a first step on the road to increased industrial use of the biological sciences, a Strategic Research Agenda covering both basic and applied science is needed. Both are essential: basic science to develop our fundamental knowledge base, and applied science to use this knowledge to introduce innovative products and processes. Industrial biotechnology is by its nature a multi-disciplinary area, comprising biology, microbiology, biochemistry, molecular biotechnology, chemistry, engineering etc. This can be a strength, since combining knowledge from different scientific specialisms can create unexpected synergies. However, it can also be a weakness if the various disciplines remain fragmented and unconnected. Good contacts and coordination, including the formation of multi-disciplinary project teams, is therefore essential if industrial biotechnology is to be a real driver of innovation and sustainability in Europe. The strategic research agenda should be organised within the following research areas in industrial biotechnology: Novel enzymes and micro-organisms â&#x20AC;&#x201C; metagenomics. The search for novel enzymes and microorganisms from specific or extreme environments, whether by direct isolation or mining of metagenomes will create an expanding range of biological processes for industrial use. Fermentation science. Processes will continue to be improved as knowledge of microbial physiology and nutrition is combined with better understanding of bioreactor performance and improved equipment design. Metabolic engineering and modelling. As our understanding of micro organism metabolism improves, there will be increasing opportunities to modify bacteria and yeasts to produce new products and increase yields. Performance proteins and nanocomposite materials. The combination of proteins and inorganic materials, often with specific nanoscale geometry, offers new and innovative product areas such as self-cleaning, self-repairing and sensing products. This is a good example of a new and fertile scientific interface that must be explored by multi-disciplinary teams. Microbial genomics and bio-informatics. The key to understanding the activities of microorganisms lies in a fuller knowledge of their genetics. With good genome mapping, we would be in a better position to identify desirable metabolic pathways and adapt them to manufacturing processes. Biocatalyst function and optimisation. Techniques such as protein engineering, gene shuffling and directed evolution will enable the development of enzymes better suited to industrial environments. These tools also allow the synthesis of new bio-catalysts for completely novel applications. 127


Bio-catalytic process design. Biological processes that work well in the laboratory need careful scale-up if they are to be equally effective on an industrial level. Good process engineering knowledge and skills are essential to this. Innovative down-stream processing. Once made in a bio-reactor, products have to be efficiently recovered and purified if the product quality and economics are to be acceptable. Down-stream process design is therefore an integral part of successful innovation. Integrated bio-refineries. At a manufacturing scale, there has to be efficient integration of the various steps from handling and processing of biomass, fermentation in bioreactors, any necessary chemical processing and final recovery and purification of the product. The level of sophistication and control built up over many years in the chemical industry also needs to be achieved in bio-refineries. These various aspects of industrial biotechnology have different potentials in a wide range of application areas such as fine chemicals, bulk chemicals and intermediates, performance chemicals, biofuels, food and feed ingredients, paper and pulp, pharmaceutical sectors. 5.3

Production Technologies for New Enabling Technology Concepts

Though there is an “integration” part of NMP , the P part is also playing some integrating role since the implementation of the nanotechnologies and the productions of the new materials designed in the Material part of NMP will have to be processed using efficient technologies developed in the production part. This role goes beyond NMP alone and new concepts in ICT, Bio or other enabling technologies will require new production schemes The exploitation of the convergence of technologies cluster aims at developing the next generation of high value-added products and new engineering concepts exploiting the opportunities, integration and convergence of, for example, nano-, bio-, new materials and ICT technologies for the stimulation of new industries and to respond to the emerging product needs of more well established industrial sectors. The research focus is on the application of basic research results for the development of new science based products and methods for their design and manufacturing in order to create potentially disruptive products and production systems (Disruptive Factories). The production system and its components are anticipated to be products in their own right. Several technologies coming from the above mentioned areas, nano-, bio-, info- and cognitive, have been in this stage identified as relevant for the implementation of the envisioned “Next-Generation of European manufacturing Systems”. 5.3.1 Next-generation HVA Products Science based high added value (HVA) products are a key result to be achieved for moving the European manufacturing sector towards a new competitive advantage on the global scale. Such an RTD activity needs a strong exploitation of world-leading developments in enabling technologies such as new materials, nano-, bio-, info- and cognitive technologies. Next generation HVA products for the final consumer have to be 100% personalised, comfortable, safe, healthy, and eco-sustainable. Therefore the following major RTD sub-topics have to be addressed: •

Introducing innovative sensors, actuators and embedded cognitive technologies for active products, supplying functionalities and services for comfort, health and safeness of the consumer;

Introducing bio, micro- and nano-components, as well as intelligent and multifunctional materials, for self-adaptive and eco-sustainable products.

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Main development issues and targets, and deliverables are: •

Methods and tools for forecasting consumer attitudes and needs based on social and cultural aspects to conceive disruptive new products-services, anticipating the market dynamics;

Knowledge based collaborative environments for the design of next generation products, integrating new materials, nano-, bio-, info- and cognitive technologies;

New manufacturing processes for next generation consumer oriented science-based products.

RTD activities have to be developed with reference to relevant manufacturing sectors as benchmarks with reference to: •

Traditional industry (e.g. textile, wood and leather products);

Mass production (e.g. automotive and white sector);

Specialised suppliers (e.g. aerospace, machine tools);

in order to shift such manufacturing sectors towards more science based HVA solutions. 5.3.2 Education and training in “Learning Factories” Technical and organisational innovations change the structure of manufacturing industries. Main drivers are new technologies for micro- and nano-scaled products, engineered materials and new processes characterised by fast adaptation, networking and digital factories. The content of this action is the fast transfer of basic knowledge from research to application by education in learning factories. The learning factories have to be equipped with an integrated system for manufacturing engineering with 3D CAD, Analysis and planning tools for manufacturing processes, with high end Product Data Management, VR- Systems (Digital Factory) and a physical laboratory with changeable manufacturing and assembly systems. The labs should even be equipped with new solutions for information supply like ubiquitous computing, wireless technology and navigation systems, implemented in an ERP-, Order-Management and Manufacturing Execution System. Simulation of logistics, kinematics and processes are elements of the learning factory. For Education and Training it is necessary to link the shop level systems with the digital environment. The Learning Factories offer basics for engineers and technicians in praxis with the following topics: •

Basic knowledge in changeable production systems,

Optimisation of Manufacturing in real and digital environments,

Learning fast adaptation of factories,

Usage of high end ICT in manufacturing,

Management of change, from conventional to high performance technologies,

Process Planning and Process Management.

eLearning / Technology Enhanced Learning

The learning factories are regional oriented with relations to the structure and technology portfolio of the dominant sectors of manufacturing. The courses qualify the participants for advanced engineering and management. They should get a certification for the results.

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5.3.3 Disruptive Factory: “Bio-nano” convergence Many consider that the convergence of the bio- and nano-worlds will be a rich source of new products particularly for human health. Products emerging from the science base are likely to form the basis of new industries. Such multidisciplinary industries require effective new product introduction processes and tools, and new manufacturing processes and production systems that are both effective and match global regulatory requirements. Many will require new businesses and models and delivery methods. The main development issues and targets are: •

Tools for the commercialisation of products emerging from the science base at the convergence of bio-nano.

Business models, new product introduction processes and technologies for the delivery of bio-nano products.

Processing of current and emerging naturally derived and synthetic medical device, therapeutic and industrial biomaterials.

Step change methods/disruptive processing of chemical pharmaceuticals of increasing complexity.

Scalable processing of bio-pharmaceutical and genetic, cell, tissue and regenerative and nano-medicine based therapies including third generation tissue scaffolds.

Sensor, instrumentation, measurement, characterisation and control techniques and systems for the above mentioned, including bio-chips and laboratory on a chip technology.

The expected outputs are: new generations of products and manufacturing processes, new business models and methods for delivering these products, and instrumentation and characterisation systems for these emerging products. 5.3.4 Disruptive Factory: “Bio-cogno-ICT” convergence The modern scalable, adapatable, responsive manufacturing enterprise, the so called factory, has to be supported along its life cycle phases by the newest convergent technologies, mainly by bio-, cogno- and ICT. So, it is “cognitive” at all its scales (network, manufacturing system…), by embedding elements of technical, social and distributed cognition. It has to be “consciously clean” by an employment in critical phases of the environmental technologies. The enabling ICT technologies, like autonomous computing, ambient intelligence, or web-services, are still far from meeting this challenge as the only ones of the manufacturing industries. A new engineering approach is required, having as a main foundation the conventional and new manufacturing technologies, and as pillars, the nano-, bio-, cogno- and information and communication technologies, which converge enabling each other in the pursuit of this common goal: to make the envisioned “next generation, conscientious clean disruptive factory” real. This new engineering approach bases on concepts and methods from the interdisciplinary field of cognitive science, mainly represented by artificial intelligence, mechanical and electrical engineering, biology, cybernetics, psychology, linguistic, neuroscience, social sciences and philosophy. The employment of convergent technologies disrupts the traditional way of approaching the factory, in its economic sense, by enhancing it with the “disruptive” feature. The main objective is to harmonise cogno-, bio- and ICT, under the orchestration of manufacturing technologies for developing innovative concepts, models and various implementations of the main issues of technical, social and distributed cognition in different socio-technical environments, mainly focusing on the manufacturing systems or factories. New concepts and paradigms for “cognitive technical spaces”, adaptability, safety engineering, usability, scalability, robustness and technology acceptance etc. are proposed to support 130


sustainable development of the European manufacturing sector. The planned research activities lead to overall design processes and generic models that are used in all application areas. The research activities are conducted to develop concepts, models and methodologies/tools for design and manufacturing networks of cognitive manufacturing machines, such as prototypical implementations of robust and adaptive cognitive manufacturing systems for the following application areas: design of cognitive assistant systems, products such as cognitive cars and cognitive traffic control, cognitive robots, machine tools and production control, cognitive systems for domestic and organisational environments. The main research areas which serve as a fundamental basis for achieving these concrete goals, the design and construction of several instantiations of cognitive technical systems are: •

Technical, Social and Distribution Cognition,

Modelling, Simulation and Prototyping of Cognitive Systems,

Human and Machine Learning in Cognitive Systems,

Communicating, Perceiving and Acting in Networks of Technical Systems,

Cognitive Systems, Safety, Reliability, Security and Comfort Engineering.

Deliverables will take the form of prototypical implementations of the “Disruptive Factory” in industrial settings, in order to prove the migration of the new paradigm in the real manufacturing industry. The pilot prototypes would represent a valuable incentive for the private sector of investment. 5.3.5 Manufacturing of nanos and new materials and microcomponents Manufacturing of new nano technologies will require specific developments of production technologies , notably efficient handling of very small devices without anyharm to the personal nor to the environment. Adequate equipment has to be developed and a comprehensive understanding of each process step and of the whole chain will be necessary. • Manufacturing of Nanomaterials 9 Process and Equipment for Economical Production and Functionalisation of Nanophased Particles 9 Process and Equipment for Economical Production of Bulk Nanomaterials • Manufacturing of Nanosurfaces 9 Processes and Equipment for High Quality Nanostructured Coatings 9 Processes and Equipment for High Quality Surface Functionalisation and Nanolayering • Integrated Micro- and Nanomanufacturing Systems and Platforms - Design, Modelling and Simulation Tools - Precision engineering for micro and nanotechnology - high speed precision measurement - Automation of microproduction - Integration of information from different critical parameters for each process step and subpart in comprehensive knowledge-based models able to make meaningful recommendations for action. 9 Processes, Equipment and Tools Integration 131


9 New Flexible, Modular and Networked System Architectures for Knowledge Based Manufacturing Similarly, the development of new materials and new molecules will required dedicated production facilities with new properties. Advanced materials engineering

• Manufacturing of engineered materials • Engineering of integrated materials • Manufacturing of advanced materials and functional surfaces • Manufacturing of graded materials • Management of hazardous substances in manufacturing • Innovative white-bio technologies and bio-refineries 5.4

Conclusions

This Chapter made a very comprehensive presentation of all technical trends for the manufacturing industry. Besides specific problems raised by the concrete implementation of new transverse technologies ( Bio, ICT, naos, etc..) , some general clear trends for the future of the manufacturing industry has been presented. All these trends are in reality interacting and the future European manufacturing industry will be a mixture of progresses along each of these trends. For each of them a short, medium and long term vision has been developed. As well, some priorities are given, though this exercise has not be fully developed due to lack of time. In any case, the European manufacturing industry will be using specific new business models and new technologies, in order to be adaptative, heavily connected through a variety of networks, accumulating knowledge on each process step and product and making all effort to minimize impact on health and environment. To achieve this goal, ICT technologies will be used even more heavily than they are used today. Hence the vision of the future of the European industry is rather diffirent of the picture of today, allowing to keep its place in the very challenging international competition. If this vision is shared by the industry and the public authorities, then first steps should be taken now.

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Chapter 6 Integration of Nano-, Micro- and MacroManufacturing Systems and Processes 6.1

Integration of Micro- and Nano- Macromanufacturing Systems

It is widely acknowledged that the developments in micro- and nanomanufacturing technologies are strategically important for maintaining the industrial base of the European Community and allowing the European industry to play a leading role in the dramatically increasing global market of micro- and nanotechnology based products and services (Figure 6.1) The European micro- and nanomanufacturing technology platform MINAM has been created to support the European manufacturers and equipment-suppliers in the field of manufacturing micro- and nanotechnology products in establishing and maintaining a worldwide leadership in key technology areas. The NEXUS market analysis for the years 2004-2009 provides a clear indication of the scope of the economic sectors that are directly affected by micro- and nanomanufacturing technologies (MNMT) with their current investment trends. Investments are expected to keep on growing rapidly with the potential of the market reaching 20 billion € in 2010, with a growth rate of around 20% in the micro- and nanotechnology based products. Europe has an excellent research competence and the required system knowledge to capture a good part of this market. However, to reach this objective, there is need within the multidisciplinary field of MNMT for more applied research and development, more focus, more critical mass and a faster transfer of R&D results and innovation into the market and in products. To achieve these goals the targets of the European micro- and nanomanufacturing industry are: •

To establish a new industry for the manufacturing of products based on emerging microand nanotechnologies

To develop Europe as the leading location for the production of nanoparticles, micro- and nanostructures and components with “micro/nano inside”

To establish the complete value chain leading to the manufacturing of European micro- and nanotechnology products

To ensure that the new micro- and nanoproducts are produced at European facilities using equipment and systems of European origin, thus overcoming the current situation in which only R&D, pilot cases and first production lines are set in Europe.

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Environmental Impact Advanced micro- and nanofabrication are likely to have a significant positive impact on the environment or and energy costs for these new technologies will require less energy and fewer

Figure 6.1.

Applications of Micro- and Nanomanufacturing in different market sectors

resources than the more conventional ones. For example, they will lead to scrap reduction and less waste due to the build up process versus removal of material to obtain the end product. Innovative nanomanufacturing technologies are already being developed to reduce dependence on fossil fuels and consequently reduce the carbon dioxide emissions, as well as reduce the concentration of nitrogen oxide and sulphur oxide in the atmosphere. The list below represents some R&D areas where nanomanufacturing technologies can provide environmentally sound solutions: • Electricity storage. Improve the efficiency of conventional rechargeable batteries so that they can be used in transport applications to reduce emissions, or as a ‘backup’ for alternative energy to allow very high levels of renewable energy. Nanotechnologies are likely to be employed in developing super-capacitors to provide alternative methods of electricity storage. • Thermovoltaics. New nanomaterials that convert waste heat into electricity. This could result in significant energy savings in any application where combustion is the primary method of energy generation (e.g., hybrid cars). • Fuel cells. Either as part of a sustainable hydrogen economy or as efficient hydrocarbon based fuel cell, there is potential to reduce vehicle emissions or, as CHP (Combined Heat and Power) plant, reduce heating and electricity generation emissions. • Lighting. LEDs offer an energy efficient alternative to conventional incandescent light sources. Nanotechnology is being employed to develop these new light sources. • Engine/fuel efficiency. The use of nanoparticulate fuel additives could reduce fuel consumption in diesel engines and improve local air quality. Micro- and nanomaterials are also being used to improve the heat resistance of aeroplane turbine blades allowing the engine to run at higher temperatures, which improves the overall engine efficiency. 134


• Weight reduction. Novel high strength composite nanomaterials could reduce the weight of the structural components. Future goals include the reduction of vehicles weight through the use of nanotubes in metal alloys and plastics; improved tyres incorporating nanoparticles in the rubber formulas and optimised combustion processes in motors thanks to nanotech catalytic converters.

Figure 6.2.

Multifunctional nanocomposite materials applications (Courtesy of CRF)

Manufacturing of Nanomaterials Future developments in the field of manufacturing of nanomaterials are summarised. Particular emphasis is placed on the following two topics that are analysed in the following sections: •

Process and equipment developments for economical, industrial production and functionalisation of nanophased particles

Process and equipment developments for economical, industrial production of bulk nano materials

Industrial Production and Functionalisation of Nanophased Particles The manufacturing of functionalized nanophased particles is of significant importance to a number of materials industries. The goal is to industrially manufacture and functionalise nanophased particles of the highest industrial relevance. Particular emphasis will be placed on the development of industrial-scale processes for cost efficient, high yield production of nanophased particles. More specifically, the following issues need to addressed: •

Development of continuous processes for production of nanophased particles.

Equipment design for environmentally safe transport and handling of nanoparticles.

Automation and optimal control of industrial production processes. 135


A key issue related to the production of nanomaterials is the handling (e.g., transport, collection/accumulation, etc.) of nanopowders. The safe production of nanomaterials should be as efficient as possible (high yield and high recovery). A huge effort has to be made to develop continuous production processes that are more appropriate for industry. At an industrial production scale with rates of kg/h the corresponding high volumetric fabrication (m3/h) has to be carefully managed. This issue remains the same if the nanopowders collection is implemented in a solvent. At the end of the production line, the produced nanopowders have to be stored in a safe way in order to limit a potential contamination and to avoid an agglomeration which would be harmful to the unique properties of the nanomaterials. A general target is the zero emission of nanopowders during the whole production process. Research on this topic should clearly demonstrate how nanophased particles can be produced on an industrial scale making these new materials available in the required quantities at affordable prices. Up-scaling the processes and simultaneously increasing the reproducibility and reliability can be achieved by a higher degree of automation. The production should be assisted by simulations which support the integration of known technologies and equipment into existing and novel processes. Moreover quality can be optimised by simulation from first development steps with consequent significant reduction in investments. Therefore, the main development issues and targets are: Nanophased particles production and functionalisation â&#x20AC;˘

Processes for production of nanophased particles e.g.: 9 Colloid chemistry, Sol gel, Hydrothermal chemical methods, Green chemistry 9 Plasma synthesis, PVD, Flame pyrolysis 9 Milling and mechanical alloying

â&#x20AC;˘

Processes for functionalisation of nanophased particles e.g.: 9 In-situ synthesis, Grafting, Sol-gel and MW-RF plasma

Economical production 9 High yield, easy implementation and low-cost material 9 Automation: up-scaling, reproducibility and reliability

Process and Equipment for Economical Production of Bulk Nanomaterials The industrial production of nanocomposites and other bulk nanomaterials, incorporating (functionalised) nanophased particles requires the development of novel processes and equipment. The focus is on the industrial manufacturing of bulk nanomaterials of the highest industrial relevance for the end-user groups in the micro- nano- and macromanufacturing value chain. Upscaled processes and equipment with high yield, easy implementation, and high reproducibility are required.Processes may include sol-gel, melt compounding, sintering, laser sintering, HlPing, spark plasma sintering, finished products net shaping, finished products rapid manufacturing. Results from research in this field should clearly demonstrate how bulk nanomaterials can be economically produced at an industrial scale, with high yield, easy implementation, low cost materials, reproducibility and upscaling.

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Manufacturing of Nanosurfaces Nanosurfaces are structures containing at least one dimensional feature smaller than 100 nm. Manufacturing of nanosurfaces is relevant for both surface functionalisation (nanolayered thin films) and surface structuring (topographical nanofeatures, nanoclustered coatings). The roadmap “NanoManufacturing” highlights the development of the manufacturing of nanosurfaces in the next years. The questionnaire explores the opportunities in nanosurfaces creation. The questions are aimed at gaining information about one of nanosurface’s features which can be topographical, thin-film, modified surface areas or can be a coating (up to the mm size) having phase modulations or crystal sizes in the mentioned range. Nanosurfaces can be realised by material ablation, material deposition, material modification or material forming. This results in the elaboration of nanosurfaces with new chemical, physical and biological properties specific to the nanometre scale (e.g. catalytic, magnetic, electronic, optical and antibacterial). Among the sub-fields of nanoscience, surface engineering has already made the transition from fundamental science to real world applications in many existing and emerging fields such as material science, optics, microelectronics, power engineering, sensor systems and bioengineering. Efforts have to be made to improve and simplify the production processes so that high quality nanosurfaces can be manufactured at low costs. Reproducibility, control of the size, shape, homogeneity and robustness of the manufactured structures have to be considered as key parameters for industrial use of the processes. The vision for the manufacturing of nanosurfaces focuses on: •

Processes and equipment for high quality nanostructuring and coating

Processes and equipment for high quality surface functionalisation and nanolayering

These topics address the expect trends for the manufacturing of nanosurfaces and are reviewed in more detail in the following chapters. Processes and Equipment for High Quality Nanostructured Coatings The target is to control and up-scale surface nanostructuring processes with respect to throughput, yield and cost efficiency, developing those processes and equipment most urgently needed in the industrial production of nanosurfaces thus responding to the priority needs identified in the nanoand micromanufacturing value chain. The main focus is on increasing the quality/reliability of the structuring processes supported by the joint development of appropriate measurement equipment. To reach high quality and reliability a holistic cleanliness system is required including the needed air cleanliness, systematic material design, conception and design of production equipment, contamination control and quality assurance. The main development issues and targets are: Higher quality of processes and equipment: •

Optimised surface functions and increasing robustness of nanostructured surfaces for a better performance

Controlling the shape/size and increasing homogeneity of manufactured surface nanostructures

Increasing the throughput

Holistic cleanliness system for the manufacturing of nanosensitive products

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Processes are e.g. laser based coating, thermal spraying, PVD, PE-CVD, polymer selfassembly, sol-gel texturation, lithography and etching, moulding and hot embossing imprint

Higher quality through measurement equipment: •

Surface characterisation equipments and procedures

On-line measurement and on-line control systems to achieve reproducible and reliable processes and a high yield

Higher resolution

Control of the homogeneity of structures

Processes and Equipment for High Quality Surface Functionalisation and Nanolayering There is need for surface functionalisation/nanolayering processes in order to develop new coatingtechnologies for the production of functionalised surfaces. These processes require a deep understanding of the film formation mechanism and the resulting properties of the film. The focus is also on functional thin films with tailor-made properties and controlled chemical functionalisation (phase segregated polymer blends, block-copolymer films). Nanolayers with sub-micron thickness can be used to tailor surface properties such as e.g. wettability, nonfouling, optical properties, wear resistance and surface protection. Processes may include: self-assembly, atmospheric pressure plasma, cleaning methods, spin and spray coating, sputter deposition, electroplating deposition, PVD, PE-CVD, characterisation and in-line quality control with low cost tools and methods. Research results should clearly demonstrate how nanosurfaces can be processed in a high quality by functionalisation and nanolayering. Manufacturing of Microcomponents The range of microfabrication capabilities should expand to encompass a wider range of materials and geometric forms at ever decreasing dimensions, by defining processes, equipment and tools and technologies for process chains that can satisfy the specific functional and technical requirements of new emerging single and multi-material products, and ensure compatibility of materials and processing technologies throughout the manufacturing chains. The creation of such manufacturing capabilities should respond to demands for: •

Designing products and processes/process chains concurrently to satisfy specific functional and technical requirements of new emerging single and multi-material products

Compatibility of materials and processing technologies throughout the manufacturing chains

Bridging the gap between “MEMS/ICbased” technologies

Length-scale integration in new products, in particular the integration of meso-, micro and nanoscale features in new products

New methods and technologies that facilitate function integration in emerging multimaterial products

The establishment of new hardware approaches for better manufacturing platforms that benefit from vertical and horizontal integration of processes

“mechanical”

ultra-precision

engineering

and

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Providing a basis for a “Design for manufacture knowledge” base to support integrated knowledge approaches

The focus for micromanufacturing for upcoming years should be on: •

Micromanufacturing process technologies

Micromanufacturing process chains for volume production

Microassembly processes for multi-functional multi-material meso- and microdevices

Micromanufacturing Process Technologies Microfabrication process capabilities should expand to encompass a wider range of materials and geometric forms, by defining processes and related process chains that can satisfy the specific functional and technical requirements of new emerging multi-material products, and ensure compatibility of materials and processing technologies throughout the manufacturing chains. Emphasis should be on developing and characterising high throughput processes for length scale integration (micro / nano) and manufacture of components and devices with complex 3D features in a single material. Example technologies to be investigated either individually or in combination are technologies for direct- or rapid manufacturing, energy assisted technologies, microreplication technologies, qualification and inspection methods, functional characterisation methods and integration of "easy and fast" on-line control systems. Resulting processes should demonstrate significantly higher production rates, accuracy and enhanced performance/quality, creating capabilities for serial manufacture of microcomponents and/or miniaturised parts incorporating micro- or nanofeatures in different materials. Processes should also provide higher flexibility and seamless integration into new micro- and nanomanufacture platforms. Micromanufacturing Process Chain for Volume Production The objective is to develop process chains that integrate innovative component manufacturing technologies and underpin the establishment of manufacturing capabilities for emerging products with high potential market impact. Main development issues include: •

Process integration to achieve compatibility of materials and processing technologies throughout the manufacturing chains

High throughput micro-manufacturing process chains with build-in capabilities for "easy and fast" on-line inspection, process monitoring and control

Establish “design for manufacture knowledge base” that facilitates a concurrent product and process design and will reduce the product development cycle

Examples include master making technologies for high throughput microreplication processes such as nanoimprint lithography, reel-to-reel embossing, powder and multi-material injection moulding, 3D printing and 3D metallisation that combine the capabilities of MEMS/IC-based and ultra-precision engineering processes. The goal is to provide additional tools to increase flexibility, quality and performance, optimising and minimising costs in the micromanufacturing production lines which can be integrated into the new systems and platforms.

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Microassembly Processes for Multi-functional Materials and Microdevices The emphasis should be on assembly technologies which enable the integration of multi-material components with complex 3D structures, with in-line packaging and assembly for different physical, chemical, and biological environments. The main development issues and target areas are: •

Automated micro- and nanoassembly, joining and packaging techniques including novel 3D solutions

High precision positioning devices, precision tracking and control of applied forces; process monitoring and feedback

Qualification and inspection methods, functional characterisation methods and integration of "easy and fast" on-line control of assembly systems

Process integration to reduce set-ups and production time, and increase flexibility and micropart functionality

Intergated Micro- and Nanomanufacturing Systems and Platforms The manufacturing of customised products in a cost efficient way, both for high volume and also for small and medium lot sizes, will require the development of a new generation of modular, knowledge intensive, scalable and rapidly deployable systems. They will use the emerging technologies from micro- and nanoresearch combining them with a very flexible industrial production philosophy. Research should aim at developing new reconfigurable and scalable micro- and nanomanufacturing platforms and systems that can facilitate cost efficient volume manufacture of customised products as well as small and medium lot sizes. This requires the development of a new generation of modular, knowledge intensive, scalable and rapidly deployable systems. Such systems should utilise the emerging technologies from micro- and nanoresearch, and combine them with a flexible industrial production philosophy, production chains easily configurable to downscaling in size or resolution, and upscaling in volume production. The next generation micro- and nanomanufacturing systems must respond to demands for •

A wider variety of highly complex micro- and nanoproducts

Small series production of components with micro- and nanofeatures

Mapping and storing the whole interdisciplinary knowledge of the product development process in new design and simulation systems for realizing a knowledge based fabrication in the complete process chain

Ensuring an effective collaboration in distributed manufacturing, for guaranteeing flexibility and adaptability, to support especially the integration of SME in complex manufacturing networks through new tools for business processes, management and logistics

Manufacturing systems with a higher level of intelligence and reliability, able to autonomously react and readjust themselves in adverse conditions and to changing process parameters, and pluggable into the complete manufacturing business.

New rapidly deployable and affordable micro- and nanoscale manufacturing systems with reconfigurable and task-specific concepts that would allow for continuous system evolution and seamless reconfiguration.

The vision for the upcoming years covers the following aspects: 140


• • •

Micro- and nanomanufacturing systems: design, modelling and simulation tools Intelligent, scalable and adaptable micro- and nanomanufacturing systems (processes, equipment and tools integration) New flexible, modular and networked system architectures for knowledge based manufacturing

These topics are analysed in more detail in the following chapters. Design, Modelling and Simulation Tools The objective is to develop new solutions for design, modelling and simulation and to establish a common understanding of the basics of the different domains in order to facilitate cost efficient volume manufacture of customised products. The focus is on new micro- and nanomanufacturing system design, modelling and simulation “design for manufacture knowledge base” rules and tools that will shorten the product development life-cycle through rapid process and manufacturing chain definition and implementation into existing industrial processes. This includes the mapping and storing of the whole interdisciplinary knowledge of the product development process in new system design and simulation systems to realise the fabrication in a complete process chain. Specific tools need to take into account atomic, nano- and microinteractions and their influence on the production processes of higher resolution micro- and nanofeatures. The wide spectrum of existing equipment for manufacturing and related information must be converted into common solutions through an integrated knowledge-based approach. Accelerated Radical Innovation (ARI) is a concept being developed to help cement integration, reduce market failure and accelerate innovation. High-Throughput Technologies for product and process development, used in ARI strategies, can shorten the lead-times to market by an order of magnitude or more and integrate product and process R&D much more closely with manufacturing and business development.

Figure 6.3. Accelerated Radidal Innovation (J.P. Dismukes et al, Technological Forecasting & Social Change 76 (2009) 165–177)

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Processes, Equipment and Tools Integration Research should focus on the integration of processes, scalable systems and controls with high level of configurability for low to high production volume to allow systems to react rapidly to disruptions. Equipment solutions are required that integrate meso-, micro- and nanoscale fabrication and assembly processes. This will also include new control solutions and embedded sensor technologies for reconfigurable, modular, digital and distributed micro- and nanomanufacturing platforms applicable to a wide range of micro- and nanomanufacturing processes. Innovation should include adaptive (self-learning) strategies, level of intelligence and reliability, making the system able to react autonomously to changes in material, environmental properties, tool wear, failures, etc. Moreover, there is need for the development of desktop factories and clean room production solutions including miniaturised "super-clean" portable production environments. New Flexible, Modular and Networked System Architectures for Knowledge Based Manufacturing Research should lead to new rapidly deployable and affordable micro- and nanoscale manufacturing systems with reconfigurable, flexible, modular, and network interfaced, plug and produce systems, including new solutions for automatic handling of large volumes of miniaturised, micro-, and nanoobjects in transport operations, magazines, feeding, etc. The new equipment and system solutions should allow the integration of different classes of microand nanoprocesses such as fabrication, assembly, packaging, inspection into common equipment platforms. Results should include new cost-effective high-volume reconfigurable manufacturing platform for hybrid devices. Integrated, cross-domain approaches are needed in order to support the identification of new solutions integrating micro- and nanomanufacturing related knowledge about products and production systems pluggable into the whole manufacturing business. For manufacturing platforms with integrated technologies (micro- and nano-, biotechnologies, IT, textile, etc.) horizontal aspects like safety (e.g. health risks when handling with nanoparticles, micro- and nanomarking processes for security and traceability, etc.) will acquire special relevance for sectorial and cross sectorial applications. 6.2

Sustainable and Competitive Construction

The Construction Industry is one of the major stakeholders who are active in challenging and changing Europe’s built environment. This industry has identified a long-term perspective on research needs and set ambitious objectives for the sector. Europe’s built environment should be designed, built and maintained by a successful knowledge- and demand-driven sector, able to satisfy all the needs of its clients and society, providing a high quality of life, demonstrating its long-term responsibility to mankind’s environment, embracing diversity in age, ability and culture. The industry identified a number of important and desirable objectives that should enable the development of better technologies, in order to raise the level of “sustainability” in the sector. This would occur both in terms of the characteristics of the buildings and infrastructures themselves, as well as in the processes of actually carrying out construction works. Sustainability and competitiveness: main driving challenges Construction in Europe is a huge industrial sector that represents more than 10% of GDP, involves more than 2.5 million enterprises and employs more than 13 million operatives. Furthermore, the dimensions of the social demand are multiple, which makes the selection of a 142


coherent set of priorities quite a difficult task. However three main driving challenges have been identified for the sector Meeting client/user requirements Society is at the same time the end-user and the client of the construction industry. It is in permanent evolution, now confronted with an ageing and growing population, with new and more diversified demands for more equity, more comfort, more safety and security, better health, better mobility. The demand of Society is for a new approach to our built environment: houses, cities, transport infrastructures and networks. The challenge of the Construction Sector is to meet this demand not only by new constructions but even more by renovation and by upgrading of existing structures. Becoming sustainable Our built environment is intimately linked with nature and its natural resources, and should make the most of our interface with the natural environment. The impact of our built environment on nature is considerable through the resources it consumes, through the land it occupies and transforms, and through the nuisances it imposes. It is therefore vital to strive for a sustainable built environment. Emphasis has to be put on issues such as reducing the resource consumption (energy, water, materials), reducing environmental and man-made impacts, providing a living cultural heritage for an attractive Europe, and improving safety and security. Transforming the construction sector The construction industry must be at the service of society, a key player in improving the competitiveness of European industry. Innovation is needed to support the growing trend towards integrated construction teams and long-term supply chain collaboration. Although off-site techniques are not applicable in all cases, advanced manufacturing techniques must be introduced either on- or off-site to enable suppliers and manufacturers to reduce costs, to enable mass customisation, to reduce installation problems and health and safety risks, to facilitate design, and, finally, to improve quality and consistency. The challenge here is to reengineer the construction process, to transform a technology-driven sector, one that is slow to integrate innovation, into a sustainable demand-driven sector, one that is creative, flexible, innovative, knowledge-based, and which offers new business opportunities and attractive work places to all. Another important challenge is to incorporate the myriad of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) into this global innovation process, a necessary move to increase the impact and application of new ideas in construction. A knowledge-based construction process will sustain the importance of the sector for our economies, both in urban and rural areas. The construction industry will maintain its importance as an employer of people with a range of skills from both urban and rural areas. Construction will diversify to embrace entirely new performances and methods, but will also remain a craftsman-oriented business for SMEs. With a total turnover of nearly 1000 billions Euros, which represents 10% of the EU GDP, the construction sector is vital to the European economy. The impact on the citizen will be enormous. Actually less than 1% of the construction turnover is invested in R&D and this should clearly be improved if we want it to become more knowledge based and competitive as means to fulfil userâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s needs and requirements. Technologies and Systems for Energy Efficient Buildings The overall objective of this research priority is to deliver, implement and optimize building and district concepts that have the technical, economic and societal potential to drastically decrease the energy consumption and reduce CO2 emissions due to existing and new buildings at the overall scale of the European Union. The issue is to speed up research on key technologies and develop a competitive industry in the fields of energy efficient processes products and services, 143


with the main purpose of reaching the goals set forth for 2020 and 2050 to address climate change issues and contribute to improve EU energy independence thereby transforming these challenges into a business opportunity. Impact is expected at numerous technical, economic, social and policy levels such as: •

A contribution to the objectives of the SET Plan

A contribution to the 20/20/20 mandate of the Council

A contribution to job creation.

For examples, on the technical level, the impact should be high on fields such as: •

Integration of large scale renewable energy on district level (excluding building integrated renewable energy) to approximately 20 % of current total primary energy usage in the built environment

Uptake of net energy positive new buildings from 2015 with full market penetration in 2025 at latest

Uptake of factor 4 primary energy-reduction refurbishment packages

Integration of HVAC systems which can reduce the primary energy-usage for heating and cooling by a factor 2 from 2020 and onwards

Reduction of energy usage from household appliances by approximately 2% per year from 2015 and onwards….

Refurbishment to transform existing buildings into energy-efficient buildings Breakthroughs are searched for in more efficient solutions for insulation or low carbon integrated systems with low renovation cost (50% of a new building). Opportunities exist to improve the energy performance of most of the existing buildings (including cultural heritage buildings), reducing the thermal energy demand and increasing the renewable energy production. A wide improvement in energy demand is possible, moving from more than 300 kWh/m²/y to 50 kWh/m²/y. The impact in terms of decreases of energy use and reduction of CO2 will be strong, considering that in Europe 80% of the 2030 building stock already exists and today 30% of existing buildings are historical buildings. If we consider indeed the retrofitting of historical buildings, the technologies are today mainly devoted to monitor the moveable and immoveable works of art instead of control of the energy use or environmental pollution reduction. In this case the retrofit must respect the integrity, authenticity and compatibility between the old and the new materials and techniques. Neutral/Energy Positive New Buildings Breakthroughs are required in new efficient, robust, cost effective and user friendly concepts to be integrated in new buildings, in order to increase their energy performance, reducing energy use and integrating RES. Today the efforts focus mainly on local energy generation (integrating for example massive PV, micro generation…) without taking into account the global energy efficiency of integration in buildings. Technologies and methods exist to build neutral or energy positive buildings, able to produce more energy that they use, although the efficient exploitation of resources within a life cycle perspective or the conception of adequate business models is often not addressed. Renewable energy production potential is going to be sufficient for new low rise buildings to keep neutral energy balance; implementation onto high rise buildings will however requires new breakthroughs. Combined with PV-efficiency improvements, building-integrated 144


PV could double the current contribution of energy positive houses. Novel contracts which takes into account the positive balance in energy management are needed, including performance, duration of high level of performance, maintenance etc. (see continuous commissioning). Energy Efficient District/Communities Innovation is required to enable new methods of addressing the difference in dynamics of energy supply and demand, in the diversity in energy demands (magnitude and type: heat, cold, electricity), in the energy losses in distribution of thermal energy, in the difficulty to split the incentives, in the difficulty to operate in existing buildings and districts and in the current absence of exchange/sharing of energy by different decentralised suppliers. The creation of a system that can adjust to the needs of the user by analyzing behaviour patterns will raise the overall performance of buildings and districts. For this to happen, the designing of systems should reorient from centralized control logic of the whole building to localized control of individual rooms with communication between controllers. Opportunities exist for low-energy or energy positive districts. Coupling of centralised and decentralised solutions for the peak shaving, the renewable energy share and the thermal and electrical energy storage can be developed in order to increase the energy matching potential across different energy demand inside the district (e.g. heat, cold, electric energy and energy needed for public and private transport), including peak shaving, renewable energy share and energy storage. New markets related to energy exchange/conversion within districts will be developed. New technical and commercial activities will be necessary. Horizontal Technological Aspects Current bottlenecks, irrespectively of the application area (new, existing buildings or districts), consist in the lack of cost-effective technical solutions for demand reduction, optimal use of renewable energy, accurate simulation tools to evaluate the expected impact of new systems and solutions in the energy use in buildings. We are aware of the lack of reliable measurements of Energy Management Systems that cannot adapt to user behaviour, or are not intuitive for the enduser. We anticipate underpinning R&D to support efficient labelling systems and standards with sound scientific and technical basis, addressing current bottlenecks (i.e. different standards or the different use of them leads to non comparable results). Opportunities also exist to develop new materials with low embedded energy, components and systems to maximise the usage of local renewable energy sources (e.g. through seasonal storage). We will require simulation tools based on interoperability principles and on new algorithms taking into account ancillary phenomena for a high accuracy in building physical predictions. Opportunities exist also to develop robust wireless sensors and actuators that can make energy management systems cost-effective and widespread. The development of new standard protocols will make possible to analyze energy behaviour consistently all over EU countries. All these horizontal actions will ensure a drastic reduction of CO2 during the building's life. Horizontal Organisational Aspects Current bottlenecks exist in the individual behaviour and social and economic development that have a strong effect on energy demand in buildings. Moreover, the introduction of new products and technologies in the construction sector is very slow (technological inertia) due to lack of information on real-conditions performance of these products in buildings. The standardisation is strongly focusing on performance, but products and systems focus on physical characterisation. Opportunities exist to adapt products, systems and technologies to the final user in order to achieve better energy performance in buildings and to ensure the expected reduction in energy use. New standardisation methodologies as well as new models of buildings need to cope with the real performance of buildings.

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Technologies for Healthy, Safe, Accessible and Stimulating Urban and Indoor Environments for All Nowadays 80% of EU people live in cities (United Nations Population Division 2001), and they spend approximately 90% of their time indoors (Institute for Health and Consumer Protection, Joint Research Centre of the Commission of the European Communities). The health and wellbeing of people is significantly affected by their feeling of safety from injury, by the indoor air quality in buildings and transportation vehicles, by the pollution (noise, light...) resulting from the design of infrastructures, and by their perception of comfort experienced when they live, work and rest in environments. In a free society based on equal rights of people, it is important for all users to access and move safely and comfortably in the city, in building premises and all other facilities offered by a modern urban environment. Apart from an improved knowledge of users needs, R&D priorities should deal with the development of harmonised assessment methods from the human point of view (holistic approach), based particularly on sensors, actuators and systems that can anticipate human perceptions, and the development of new methods, new products (automation, ICT, air quality), tools and strategies to support the â&#x20AC;&#x153;design-for-allâ&#x20AC;? approach for new constructions and for refurbishment of existing buildings and networks. Technologies and Systems for a Sustainable Management of Infrastructures and an Innovative Use of Underground Space European transport and utility networks grew over centuries to become the arteries and lifelines of our society. These assets have to be well maintained, modernized and adjusted at best quality and practice as well as extended for the increasing demands of a growing and demographically changing society with an urge towards increasing mobility and demand. Better technologies and processes have to reduce maintenance and works and increase durability and safety to reduce network failures and out-of-service conditions. This in turn means reducing their impact on transport, energy and trade, both in the urban and extra-urban context. The increasing demand for mobility/supply also requires new network systems that are carefully implemented within the existing ones. Furthermore, Underground Construction is a key sector to offer solutions for pivotal societal challenges through developing innovative new underground facilities, refurbishing existing underground structures and exploiting their potential for renewable and readily available energy. UC technologies can drastically impact the needed effort to improve the quality of surface space by e.g. transferring air and noise polluting traffic infrastructures and hazardous facilities, such as waste plants, storehouses etc. below ground level. Comprehensive management of infrastructures in urban and extra-urban context reducing impact on service The aim is to develop new asset management systems that integrate all important infrastructure components and their related activities and constraints (data management, inspection, planning and realization procedures, cost-benefit analysis procedures) for all types and scales of networks. Asses sing, following and predicting the long-term performance of infrastructure subject to ageing and deterioration, and early detection of damages Infrastructure systems comprise structural components and assemblies as well as mechanical and electrical equipment. In contrast to the latter, the former are often more difficult to inspect, repair or replace, in particular for the utilities. Their assessment involves processes which are subject to considerable variations resulting from limited knowledge, variable levels of experience and judgement, and subjective evaluations of the factors that may lead to unacceptable performance. 146


Methods for structural reliability assessment are now well developed and can be used for practical applications, but progress in dealing with deteriorating, time-variant complex systems is still urgently required. Effort must also be directed at developing and improving diagnostic tools, including system identification, inspection techniques, testing methods, sensing and monitoring methods, and their interpretation for decision making. Dealing with vastly more data and information, and turning this into knowledge and wisdom, pose formidable challenges for researchers, owners and regulatory bodies. Integrated life-cycle assessment systems and new concepts to extend the life time of structures or increase their capacity An integrated holistic approach is needed in order to understand and quantify the effect of complex technological, environmental, economical, social and political interactions on the lifecycle performance of civil infrastructure systems. Concerted effort is required on many different fronts, including materials, construction and maintenance techniques, structural analysis and simulation, risk and reliability, information technology, life-cycle and systems engineering. The majority of the decisions required during the process of assessment, maintenance and management of ageing civil infrastructure are made under conditions of uncertainty. Uncertainties are associated with mechanical loadings, environmental stressors, material properties, simplifications and idealisations required for modelling to list some of the major areas of influence. Moreover, these sources of uncertainty are compounded by human and organisational factors that are an indispensable part of the processes employed by the profession. Most importantly, these uncertainties are not fixed but change considerably over time and space, even when considering one structural element in a single structural system. The aim is to identify and select models and tools able to provide an overall holistic approach to the description of life cycle of existing assets that will still be in use for the next decades. Retrofit and Upgrade of Existing Underground Structures and New Concepts for Integrating Underground Functions The main targets are: new concepts, technologies, tools for retrofitting and upgrading existing underground structures. The aim is to address the increasing need of retrofitting and upgrading with regards to new regulations, requirements regarding larger dimensions, traffic volume increase, commuter needs, and changed boundaries needs (cities above ground have changed in the meantime). Developments will target also retrofitting and rehabilitation technologies, as well as related equipment. These have to take account of higher security and safety levels, during operation and monitoring. Deliverables include the development, integration and demonstration of the above concepts, technologies and tools. New concepts regarding underground logistics can upgrade the urban environment also making better use of already existing underground logistics. Living space will benefit from this as well as inner-city transport processes. Regained new urban space can be returned to the city and its inhabitants. New Tunnelling Technologies Construction projects are more and more ambitious: deeper, longer, larger, less overburden, higher water pressureâ&#x20AC;Ś Squeezing is an unsolved problem. In such difficult conditions, maintenance and replacement of cutting tools become a critical issue. Breakthrough in rock cutting technology is expected: on one hand regarding a radical advance in cutting tools; on the other hand regarding robots to help maintenance of existing tools and therefore avoid human intervention in hazardous areas. The targets are: new concepts, technologies, tools enabling automated excavation in any type of ground for long, large and deep tunnels. Hence, developments are also required in automation and remote control of equipment and processes necessary to operate in highly difficult conditions, intelligent and modular machines. Deliverables include the development, integration and demonstration of the above concepts, technologies and tools. 147


Processes and ICT The use of â&#x20AC;&#x153;virtual constructionâ&#x20AC;? in underground construction (including design, monitoring and decision support systems) is progressing. However, a big issue is the transfer of this technology to the tunnel site. The processes have to be revisited taking into account two axes: business and technology. The main objective is to apply ICT for fully integrated process optimization and automated equipment. The main development issues and targets are: technologies (including n-D modelling) to monitor, to reduce and manage risks and environmental impact of underground constructions as well as costs during their entire life-cycle. Transparent Underground for 3-D Urban Planning The main objective is here to make the underground conditions (with all its natural and manmade structures) visible in a way that can be used in every sector of urban planning and building. Opportunities will increase and risks will be reduced. The foreseen developments include methods to collect interdisciplinary data on pipes, cables, foundations, geological conditions, etc and merge it into a dedicated GIS system. Technologies and Systems to Reduce Environmental and Man-made Impacts of Built Environment and Cities The objective is to reduce the impacts of buildings, constructions and infrastructure networks during their whole life cycle have on the natural and urban environment. The success of the European society depends on the quality of the urban environment, and this has been acknowledged by the European Commission setting out the European thematic strategy on Urban Environment. For the Construction Sector, this requires a global vision of the future based on environment-friendly concepts. These concepts will provide a high quality service level, reduce life cycle costs, improve health, safety and environmental consciousness of the construction sector by a more sustainable use of resources (materials, energy, water, landâ&#x20AC;Ś), a better valorisation of waste materials and a decrease of the emissions of pollutions to air, water and soil. Eco-efficient construction processes and components Development of existing and new materials and building components that have lower environmental impact without loss of functional performances. Development of the use of secondary materials. Design of construction components with reduced logistics requirements (lightweight components, easy to carry, easy to assemble, easy to put in place, etc). Development of new manufacturing processes for advance bulk materials based on nanotechnology. Development of alternative components in construction materials by which the environmental impact (for example, CO2 emission during production process) is reduced. Development of new materials to isolate construction works from the surrounding environment (zero nuisance activity). Design, develop and implement construction components and processes with an emphasis on deconstruction and recycling processes. Development of life cycle indicators for sustainable construction. Sustainable design, construction, dismantling and recycling process New conceptual design of buildings, neighbourhoods and cities implementing the two concepts of quality of life and life cycle performance. Implementation of methodologies and tools for the environmental design and further management of buildings quarters and cities that consider their whole life cycle. Planning and simulation tools to predict short, medium and long term environmental, social and economical impacts on urban area, both aboveground and underground. New integrated management systems involving facilities design, planning, environmental impact, external costs and disturbance assessments. Sustainable urban environment Creation of performance indicators for materials, buildings and urban areas; development of performance rating systems for materials, buildings and urban areas. Assessment and prediction 148


of environmental impacts and sustainability of urban areas with the objective of reducing their impacts and improving living conditions. Concepts, methods and technologies to improve the environmental framework and to improve the sustainability and the living conditions in urban areas will be developed. Improving the material and energy flows at urban level (water, energy, materials, including wastes, wastewaters and atmospheric emissions). Specific technologies for soil or land, water, air... treatments will be considered but also concepts and methods for urban changes that will improve the functions of the urban districts and cities through the improvement of the urban metabolism. Reduction of impact of transport and utility networks New technologies for the construction and maintenance of infrastructure, reducing impact, costs and delays. The development of infrastructure, its maintenance and upgrade is a vital necessity but may come with disruptions of service, resulting in significant socioeconomic consequences for the European citizens. The vision for the infrastructure of the future is aimed at selecting in particular environment-friendly and suitable concepts striking a compromise between reduced global construction/maintenance costs on one side, safety and environmental criteria on the other side. The impact on the environment of existing and new infrastructures of transport and service must be drastically reduced by (a) improving eco-efficiency (energy and raw material consumption) of transport networks; (b) using advanced new materials and technical solutions for construction and maintenance, aiming at high reuse of resources; (c) applying energy-positive concepts and technologies for construction, operation and maintenance of transport networks and transport; (d) reducing impact of daily operation activities (pollution, groundwater pollution, vibration, noise, radiation, frequent work disruptions, traffic congestions, etc) on users and resident population both in rural, urban and suburban areas; (e) improving sustainability of land use, also by new assessment and prediction tools for environmental impact. Reducing impact of accidents involving dangerous and hazardous goods Reduction of risks in transport of hazardous materials in densely populated or environmentally sensitive areas or transport of exceptional loads by locating and monitoring transport and providing efficient and fast appropriate measures in case of accident. It will finally provide input for maintenance and rehabilitation of infrastructure, impacting the life cycle assessment of the infrastructure itself. Organisational architecture has to be deeply studied due to different competencies of intervention in case of emergencies. Good technical monitoring applications for Goods and Vehicles are needed, but this is not enough for a correct management of emergencies, because priorities of interventions are decided by responsible bodies which are different from country to country. Uniform goods classification criteria are needed in order to distinguish different categories of hazardous materials. Remediation and mitigation of contaminated soils and groundwater Development of methodologies and tools for the risk assessment of contaminated soils for the assessment of the impact on human health and ecosystems. Development of new services and new cost-effective in-situ and on-site technologies for the remediation and/or containment of contaminated soils and groundwater, in order to decrease the cost of brownfield reuse, and prevent the use of external landfills. Integration of construction techniques in redevelopment and remediation of brown fields to come to an integrated risk reduction versus land use approach. Re-using and re-cycling demolition debris and waste Development of innovative technologies for reuse and recycling of debris and waste materials issued from demolition and brownfield redevelopment activities. Development and improvement of manufacturing technologies that use recycled materials instead of raw materials and/or generate less waste during manufacturing process. Tools (based on Life Cycle methods) to aid decision making on recycling. 149


Construction technologies for the protection and exploitation of water resources Development of new approach and concepts for the improvement of underground water quality in urban or greenfield context and for optimised exploitation of water resources. Implementation of new distributed waste and wastewater treatment and management systems. New permeable (porous) materials for urban construction (foundations, etc.) and motorways. Technologies and Systems to Improve Safety and Security within the Construction Sector Safety and security of all European major buildings and infrastructures must be ensured, as any disruption of service may result in large socio-economic consequences. Safety of users and citizens is a must. The safety of workers during the construction, maintenance and dismantling processes must also be assured. Therefore, coordinated and collaborative research at the European level is required to: •

improve the robustness, safety and security of structures and

reduce the uncertainty, the unpredictability and the socio-economic consequences of natural and man-made hazards (including the behaviour of materials and structures).

The ultimate goal is to achieve timely and appropriate holistic solutions so that losses and disruptions by natural and man-made hazards become marginal, acceptable and insurable. Harmonised design rules Development and harmonisation of European guidelines and codes for performance-based and innovative design, relating to: •

Earthquake resistant structures (new and existing) and common methodologies for hazard evaluation;

Flood, Tsunami and erosion defence systems (rivers and coasts);

Landslides prevention (on-shore and off-shore);

Terrorist threats to industrial facilities, and especially exposed buildings and infrastructure;

Fire-safety design of buildings and underground premises.

Technological hazards:

Risk and Safety Management Systems Safety of use and supply as well as security from natural and man-made threats is among users’ and communities’ prime concern. These challenges must be addressed by the development of innovative systems, models and tools for risk and safety management, even partial, of infrastructure, strategic buildings and defence systems against natural and man-made hazards, including developments of tools for risk modelling, risk perception, design to reduce risks… Any interruption – even if momentary - of service and supply can compromise the overall networks functionality, i.e. impeding the connections between the fundamental nodes of the network for the rescue operations and for the transportation of the first aid supplies, and results in an overburden for the others, because of the interdependencies. Systems for communication between users and operators as well as between different operators and authorities are needed in order to react promptly and effectively in order to mitigate the effects of an attack on people and infrastructures, to evaluate consequences, to prove accessibility and availability of infrastructure 150


of transport and supply and to restore service. Suitable European legal framework (where possible) is needed to support the creation of a common playground especially for hazardous materials issues. Reliable and long-life systems to monitor and control all security/safety parameters of infrastructures The aim is to develop for example Non-Destructive Testing (NDT) methods, sensors, techniques and transmission systems (via ICT) for performance control and condition monitoring of new and existing infrastructures, integration of monitoring systems in asset management. Mitigation of natural and technical risks In densely populated areas of Europe people work and live near industrial facilities, and industrial accidents are recognised as potential serious hazards, not only for employees but also for neighbouring offices and housing areas. Furthermore, urban renewal activities might influence the surroundings (e.g. buildings, cultural heritage) which subsequently might lead to structural failure with not or nearly enough time to save lives, documents, networks and building damage (e.g. Cologne). The acceptance of threats of natural and man-made hazards is decreasing whilst the impact of these hazards is increasing. Vulnerable buildings and networks must be assessed and protected to meet new defined safety standards, and new construction and retrofit methods must be developed to mitigate natural and technical risks, such as: •

Simple and easy to handle seismic strategies to retrofit existing buildings, particularly residential houses and cultural heritage

Approaches and materials to retrofit existing hazard mitigation systems to accommodate for climate change

Unobtrusive and aesthetic protection structures (including anti-seismic materials) against natural hazards and man-made hazards (e.g. impact, unexpected structural failure, blast or fire)

New methods to improve the resistance of existing structures against extreme weather conditions and human activity (e.g. construction activities)

Toolbox for assessing the severity of potential risks of natural and man-made hazards to structures (e.g. foundations, buildings, cultural heritage), including new techniques for improving the resistance of these structures and the surrounding subsoil.

The development of these new concepts must be complemented by the development of specific warning systems; specific post-disaster strategies corresponding to risk category and source, and ultimately by raising awareness and alertness of the public. Adaptation of infrastructures to climate change Prevention and reduction of the influence of climate change induced extreme events on the serviceability of multimodal transport infrastructure, by development of innovative methods, tools, technologies and concepts for protection, recovery and management. Special attention should go to identification of damages/losses, risk assessment and management, prediction of the impact of an event, monitoring, preventive and protective methods, recovery and operation and maintenance methods.

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Technologies and Systems for New Integrated Processes in the Construction Sector Information and Communication Technology is the main innovation driver in most industries and core enabler of economic growth in the 21st century (NESSI 2006). Process renewal, supported by ICT, is one of the main vehicles towards the transformation of the construction sector. The target is that Construction will become a highly information intensive industry which uses stateof-the-art technologies in all processes and products in order to satisfy client’s expectations in a sustainable way. As a knowledge-based industry it will offer attractive workplaces for skilled and well educated personnel. European construction industry will work competitively on the open global market supported by flexible SME-based supply networks. Value-driven business processes ICT should allow dealing with customer-centric definition of products and services, management of requirements being instrumental in providing what the end users want (especially how functional requirements are translated into design and production requirements), support for capturing and fulfilling predefined performance criteria. ICT should also support scheduling & planning with information transfer between applications used in different stages of the construction process. Industrialised production The RTD targeting Industrialised Production is driven by two main trends: •

evolving EU-wide open market in constructions,

increasing productivity throughout the supply network including the construction site,

as well as the challenge to be able to produce individually and tailor-made industrialised construction elements. Digital models ICT should support scheduling & planning with information transfer between applications used in different stages of the construction process. Intelligent constructions The R&D targeting the intelligent constructions and smart buildings is to be developed around three fundamental pillars: •

• •

The “intelligent” objects: these objects (including multi-functional materials) must have embedded electronic chips, as well as the appropriate resources to achieve local computing and interact with the outside, therefore being able to manage appropriate protocol(s) so as to acquire and supply information. The communications: these must allow sensors, actuators, indeed all intelligent objects to communicate among them and with services over the network. They have to be based on protocols that are standardised and open. The multimodal interactive interfaces: the ultimate objective of those interfaces is to make the in-house network as simple to use as possible, thanks to a right combination of intelligent and interoperable services, new techniques of man-machine interactions (wearable computing, robots, …), and learning technologies for all communicating objects. These interfaces should also be means to share ambient information spaces or ambient working environments thanks to personal advanced communication devices.

Interoperability R&D is required to transform the current eBusiness processes environment(s) into fully integrated / interoperable innovative semantical eServices supporting structured and harmonised 152


processes in Construction, with a focus on all ICT technologies and tools that may support such an evolution. Knowledge sharing and collaboration support A wide range of different ICT based tools and services necessary for moving an organization towards a dynamic knowledge management will be developed in the next years. ICT should be essential not only for the storage of tacit and explicit knowledge in web based repositories but also as a communication device allowing ubiquitous access to organizational knowledge anywhere, anytime. ICT infrastructures and tools should also be developed to support project collaboration of temporary multi-organisational teams, information sharing change management, project steering, negotiations, decision support, risk mitigation, on-site monitoring… ICT enabled business models The ICT-based solutions should be, among others: •

Innovative e-Business solutions, especially for SMEs, supported by open, interoperable, modular and adaptive ICT-based platforms that would also allow integration of enterprise applications.

Pan-European multi-lingual “information resource points” accessible and “valuable” all across Europe. This will be done through the promotion of the semantic web and its related technologies applied to the Construction needs.

Solutions for Sustainability management, through optimised management of multiconstraints systems, and improved cooperative development towards “sustainable construction model(s)”.

High Added Value Construction Materials Development of new materials and improvement of traditional materials is one of the key aspects to achieve new developments in the construction sector. At the state of the art, in many cases materials are produced trying to minimise costs but keeping reasonable performances. The current market situation and the competition from the Far East make this situation no more sustainable. The prospect for innovation must be considered according to new drivers, which will allow the European industry to maintain a leading position. Materials for construction projects are usually considered and classified as having traditional functionalities (structural or covering, for example), and as a consequence, they are only used by constructors in a traditional way. This poses limitations on the development of new ideas and concepts in construction projects. The point of view must therefore be changed and a strong research activity initiated to generate new high added value construction materials able to contribute to real innovation in the sector, including for cultural heritage applications. For example, nanotechnologies open up new important possibilities to improve performances of building materials, as demonstrated in other industrial fields, so that the built environment and the quality of life can benefit of the latest developments in nano-materials and nano-structure research. From the invention of new materials to their final application: a precise sequential research priority approach is proposed to improve the future situation of building materials: •

1st step: new functionalities are needed to improve applicability and attractiveness of building materials;

2nd step: production processes have to be improved to include the new functionalities at the industrial scale and to optimize the production of traditional materials;

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3rd step: traditional properties (as durability and reliability) of the new or traditional materials have to be improved;

4th step: once developed, the new materials (together with the traditional ones) have to be optimized in terms of applicability using new solutions;

5th step: the life cycle of the materials and their behaviour in service must be predicted and managed by innovative tools.

Multifunctional construction materials Development of materials with new functionalities and improved properties and comfort (resistance against an aggressive environment, that are hygienic and easy to clean, self-cleaning, biocides, with moisture control, thermal, electro-magnetic and acoustic isolation, heat storage and climatic functionality, creating a “warm feeling” and aesthetic appearance, low intrusive new materials for rehabilitation of buildings, surface functionalities, etc.) essentially by means of nano, sensor and information technology. Also functionalities related to energy consumption (e.g. thermal and acoustic insulation) and heat storage capacities of buildings should be considered. Predictable, flexible and efficient building material production Improve the predictability and efficiency of production processes for new building materials by innovation in manufacturing, control and measurement processes and introduction of ICT tools: this is to ensure quality throughout the production batch, with manufacturing flexibility. Development of tools for new processes simulation and prediction. Improve durability and reliability of construction materials Improvement of durability and reliability of construction: generate fundamental understanding of mechanisms that influence the durability of the different properties of building materials, products and components. Methods to generate improved durability, including reliable test methods. Development of new and improved nano-materials and nano-structures to improve structural resistance, reparability and durability. Know how can help designers and construction companies to define more exactly the materials really needed to fulfill the needs of the construction through serve life modeling and design. Improve usability and applicability of materials Development of “easy to use and install” building materials for friendly and safe construction processes. This includes for example lighter materials, prefabricated elements. Development of new materials and solutions for improved industrial applications (e.g. through improved rheological properties, optimized jointing materials and technology, improved reinforcement, etc.). Development of new tools to facilitate materials application in the building processes (e.g. virtual tools for material design linked to the specific building under development, measurement systems for testing materials in arrival and in use at the building site, etc.). Simplify building process and building costs by using multipurpose materials that can fulfill several requirements (i.e. surface finish without adding new layers and materials, sound insulation, heat storage etc). Prediction and management of building material behaviour in service Prediction and management of building material behaviour in service: develop tools and models to predict structural behaviour and service life of materials and elements to optimize life cycle costs of buildings. Development of reliable sensors and suitable models to predict processes and material behaviour through all phases of its service life. Development of non-destructive testing techniques for structural health and installation monitoring with minimal intrusively for the building life. This forms the first step towards the long-term objective of performance based design. 154


ANNEX: CONTRIBUTING AUTHORS Editor KIPARISSIDES Costas, Aristotle Univ. & Centre for Research and Technology Hellas, GR

Economic Impact of NMP WILKINS Terence, (Chair), Nanomanufacturing Inst., Univ. of Leeds, UK ANASTASIOU Ioannis, European Commission, Industrial Technologies, DG RTD / G-1 BALDI Livio, NUMONYX, IT HULICIUS Eduard, Institute of Physics, Academy of Sciences, CZ MOITIER Carine, Douelou N.V. – BIVOLINO, BE MUDRY François, ARCELOR Research, FR SOMMER Klaus, Bayer Technology Services GmbH, DE

Nanoscience and Nanotechnology KIPARISSIDES Costas, (Chair), Aristotle Univ. & Centre for Research and Technology Hellas, GR AITKEN Rob, IOM - Institute of Occupational Medicine, UK BARATON Marie-Isabelle, University of Limoges & CNRS, FR BOEHM Leah, IAI - Israel Aerospace Industry, IL CLAUSEN Bjerne, HALDOR TOPSOE, DK HOSSAIN Kamal, NPL / VAMAS / EURAMET, UK KELLERMAYER Miklόs, SEMMELWEIS University, HU WILKINS Terence, Nanomanufacturing Inst., Univ. of Leeds, UK

Materials Science and Engineering MIHAILOVIC Dragan, (Chair), Jozef Stefan Institute, SL AITKEN Rob, IOM - Institute of Occupational Medicine, UK BALDI Livio, NUMONYX, IT BARATON Marie-Isabelle, University of Limoges & CNRS, FR BOEHM Leah, IAI - Israel Aerospace Industry, IL HOFSTRAAT Hans, PHILIPS R&D, NL HOSSAIN Kamal, NPL / VAMAS / EURAMET, UK KIPARISSIDES Costas, Aristotle Univ. & Centre for Research and Technology Hellas, GR MOITIER Carine, Douelou N.V. – BIVOLINO, BE MUDRY François, ARCELOR Research, FR SUNDGREN Jan-Eric, VOLVO Group, SE TALIANI Carlo, Institute Molecular Spectroscopy, Bologna, IT TARASCON Jean-Marie, Réactivité & Sciences des Solides – CNRS, Univ. Picardie, FR TRETYAKOV Sergei, Dept. Radio Science & Eng. Helsinki Univ. of Technology, FI VAN SWYGENHOVEN Helena, Paul Scherrer Inst – CH, Inst Materials Sci., BE

Industrial Production Systems NEUGEBAUER Jens-Günter, (Chair), FRAUNHOFER, DE BALDI Livio, NUMONYX, IT GOERICKE Dietmar, VDMA, DE KIPARISSIDES Costas, Aristotle Univ. & Centre for Research and Technology Hellas, GR RODRIGUEZ Jesus, DRAGADOS, ES WILKINS Terence, Nanomanufacturing Inst., Univ. of Leeds, UK

Integration of Nano-, Micro- and Macro- Manufacturing Systems and Processes KIPARISSIDES Costas, Aristotle Univ. & Centre for Research and Technology Hellas, GR RODRIGUEZ Jesus, DRAGADOS, ACS Group, ES

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European Commission EUR 24179 — NMP Expert Advisory Group (EAG) Position Paper on Future RTD activities of NMP for the period 2010-2015 Luxembourg: Office for Official Publications of the European Communities ISBN 978-92-79-14065-5 doi 10.2777/77895

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NMP Expert Advisory Group Report Nov 2009