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STEPHEN ONGPIN FINE ART


Front cover: Odilon Redon (1840-1916) A Face at a Window (Visage derrière une fenêtre) [detail] No.34


. .


David Cox (1783-1859) A Coastal Landscape in North Wales, with an Approaching Squall No.17


STEPHEN ONGPIN FINE ART

MASTER DRAWINGS 2015 An exhibition at Dickinson Roundell Inc. 19 East 66th Street New York, NY 10065

21st to 31st January, 2015 Weekdays 10:00 am - 6:00 pm Saturdays 11:00 am - 5:00 pm

A selection of the drawings in this catalogue will also be exhibited at The European Fine Art Fair (TEFAF) Maastricht

13th to 22nd March, 2015 and The Salon du Dessin Paris

24th to 30th March, 2015


ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I am, as ever, very grateful to my wife Laura for her advice, patience and constant support, and my son Sebastian for occasionally allowing me to use my laptop. I am also most grateful to my assistant Julie Frouge for her invaluable help in all aspects of preparing this catalogue, as well as Sarah Ricks for her patience and fortitude. I would also like to thank the following people for their help and advice in the preparation of this catalogue and the drawings included herein: Valentina Bandelloni, Deborah Bates, Pauline Bonard, Toby Campbell, Sophie Camu, Glynn Clarkson, Ana Cox, Felicia Cukier, Nathalie Dioh, Sinéad Farrelly, Gino Franchi, Laura Giles, Lavinia Harrington, Dean Hearn, Amanda Hilliam, Rachel Kaminsky, Pierre-Alexandre Mansard, Ellida Minelli, Jennie Moloney, Guy Peppiatt, Rick Scorza, Betsy Thomas, Todd-White Photography, Giema Tsakuginow, Joanna Watson and Jenny Willings. Stephen Ongpin

Dimensions are given in millimetres and inches, with height before width. Unless otherwise noted, paper is white or whitish. Please note that drawings are sold mounted but not framed. High-resolution digital images of the drawings are available on request. All enquiries should be addressed to Stephen Ongpin at Stephen Ongpin Fine Art 6 Mason’s Yard Duke Street St James’s London SW1Y 6BU Tel. [+44] (20) 7930-8813 or [+44] (7710) 328-627 Fax [+44] (20) 7839-1504 e-mail: info@stephenongpinfineart.com Between 19 January and 2 February 2015 only: Tel. [+1] (917) 587-1183 Tel. [+1] (212) 772-8083 Fax [+1] (212) 772-8186


MASTER DRAWINGS 2015 PRESENTED BY

STEPHEN ONGPIN


1 MILANESE SCHOOL 16th Century Saint John the Baptist Black chalk. Circular. A small made up section at the lower left centre. Diameter 113 mm. (4 3/4 in.) This fine drawing would seem to date from the first half of the 16th century, and to depend on Leonardesque prototypes; as such, the drawing is most likely to be the work of an anonymous Milanese follower of Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519). For many years after Leonardo’s death, a significant number of artists working in Milan were strongly influenced by the example of the paintings and drawings of the master, who was active in the city between 1482 and 1499, and again between 1508 and 1513. Among these so-called ‘Leonardeschi’ were the young Giovanni Francesco Melzi (1491-c.1570), who became Leonardo’s heir, as well as Giovanni Antonio Boltraffio (1467-1516) and Margo d’Oggiono (c.1470c.1549), all of whom were trained in Leonardo’s workshop in Milan. Other artists also much influenced by Leonardo’s work included Giovanni Agostino da Lodi (active between c.1495 and c.1520), Andrea Solario (c.1465-1524), Giovanni Ambrogio de Predis (c.1455-c.1508) and Bernardino Luini (c.14801532), among several others. As Giulio Bora has noted, ‘The youngest and most devout follower of Leonardo, Francesco Melzi is reputed to have contributed towards keeping the Master’s heritage alive in Milan well into the sixteenth century. He brought the new-generation artists into contact with the immense corpus of drawings left to him by Leonardo, encouraging the renewed interest encountered during the course of the 1560s.’1 In the notes for a manuscript treatise on painting, written in Milan between 1490 and 1492 and later transcribed by Francesco Melzi, Leonardo da Vinci laid great emphasis on portraying heads in relief: ‘One who portrays in relief ought to position himself so that the eye of the figure being portrayed is equal with the eye of the one portraying. And this is to be done for a head that you have to portray from life...’2 This may explain why, as Pietro Marani has noted, ‘Leonardo’s followers in Milan focused almost exclusively on heads, faces and facial expressions in the enormous number of drawings they left behind. Such studies might also be called a type of portrait though they are not exactly that.’3 It has been suggested that Leonardo may have based these precepts on the training he himself received in the Florentine studio of Andrea de Verrocchio in the late 1460’s and early 1470’s, where a number of highly refined drawings of idealized heads were produced by Verrocchio and several of his pupils, notably Leonardo, Domenico Ghirlandaio and Lorenzo di Credi. A close stylistic and thematic relationship may be noted between the present sheet and a number of finished late drawings of male heads by Leonardo, drawn in both black chalk and red chalk or a combination of the two. Examples of these are to be found among the vast number of drawings by Leonardo in the Royal Collection at Windsor Castle, including two late studies in black chalk of the head of a youth and the head of a bearded man4, as well as a slightly earlier drawing of a young man, executed in red and black chalk on red prepared paper5. Leonardo’s drawings of heads dating from the near the end of his life tended towards the use of black chalk, rather than the silverpoint he preferred earlier in his career, and a flat, relief-like profile, and it is this type of late drawing that seems to have inspired the anonymous author of the present sheet.


actual size


2 BIAGIO PUPINI, called BIAGIO DELLE LAME Active in Bologna between c.1511 and c.1575 The Coronation of the Virgin with Saint John the Baptist, God the Father Above Pen and brown ink, extensively heightened with white. Laid down on an 18th century English (Richardson) mount. Numbered k.213 in brown ink at the lower right. Inscribed (by Richardson) Biaggio Bolognes.e in brown ink in the lower margin of the mount. Further inscribed by Richardson with his shelfmarks J.43 / Z.51 / D.62 / Z.44 E and, also by Richardson, Mo Biaggio Puppini Bolognese, Discepolo del Francia, pratteco con l’Imola, / Gerolimino da Carpi Fu Goffetto. P. Resta in brown ink on the reverse of the mount. 202 x 130 mm. (8 x 5 1/ 8 in.) [sheet] 329 x 251 mm. (12 7/ 8 x 9 7/ 8 in.) [mount] PROVENANCE: Padre Sebastiano Resta, Rome; Presented by him, as part of an album of drawings, to Monsignor Giovanni Matteo Marchetti, Arezzo, in 1698; By descent to his nephew, Cavaliere Orazio Marchetti da Pistoia; Sold in 1710 with the Resta collection of drawings, probably through John Talman, to John, Lord Somers, London (Lugt 2981), with the Resta-Somers number k.213 at the lower right; Probably his sale, London, Peter Motteaux, 16 May 1717; Jonathan Richardson, Senior, London (Lugt 2184), with his shelfmarks (cf. Lugt 2983 and 2984) and on his mount with his transcription of Resta’s annotations (cf. Lugt 2992); Probably his sale, London, Christopher Cock, 22 January to 8 February 1747; Sir John Charles Robinson, London and Swanage (Lugt 1433); Possibly Dr. Carl Robert Rudolf, London1; Hugh and April Squire, London and Woodbridge; Their anonymous sale, London, Sotheby’s, 4 July 1975, lot 54 (bt. Holland); Ralph Holland, Newcastle. LITERATURE: Anon., Father Resta’s Remarks on the Drawings, British Library MS Lansdowne 802, undated, p.192v, no.2132; Anon., An Alphabetical Catalogue of the Painters in the Collection, with the Drawings of each respective Master, referring to the several Books in which they are placed, British Library MS Lansdowne 803, undated, p.52v3. EXHIBITED: Newcastle, Hatton Gallery, Italian Drawings 1525-1750 from the Collection of Ralph Holland, May-June 1982, no.4. Relatively little is known of the career of Biagio Pupini. Thought to have been a pupil of Francesco Francia, he is first documented – already described as magister – working with Bartolomeo Ramenghi, called Bagnacavallo, in a church in Faenza in 1511. He must have also spent some time in Rome in the late 1510’s or 1520’s, where he copied the works of Raphael and Polidoro da Caravaggio, although the exact date of this trip is unknown. Pupini again worked with Bagnacavallo at the church of San Salvatore in Bologna around 1524, and the following year collaborated with Girolamo da Carpi on the fresco decoration of San Michele in Bosco. In 1537 he again worked alongside Girolamo da Carpi on frescoes at the d’Este villa at Belriguardo, southeast of Ferrara. In his biography of the artist, published in the Pitture di Bologna of 1686, Malvasia lists several paintings by Pupini, almost all of which are now lost. As a result of the dearth of known paintings by Biagio Pupini, his artistic personality is best studied in the many distinctive drawings by him that survive. Often on prepared or coloured paper and employing extensive white heightening, these drawings reflect the influence of both the North Italian and Roman traditions, particularly the draughtsmanship of Polidoro da Caravaggio, Parmigianino and Girolamo da Carpi. Relatively few drawings can be related to surviving paintings or frescoes by the artist, however. The largest extant groups of drawings by Pupini are today in the Louvre and the Uffizi. The abbreviated technique of this sheet is characteristic of Pupini’s draughtsmanship. An altarpiece by the artist of a similar subject was painted for the Pulzoni chapel in the Bolognese church of San Giuliano around 1545, but is quite different in composition4.


3 GIOVANNI FRANCESCO BEZZI, called IL NOSADELLA Bologna c.1530-1571 Bologna The Dead Christ with Angels Oil on panel. 26.2 x 38.5 cm. (10 3/ 8 x 15 1/ 8 in.) PROVENANCE: The Arcade Gallery, London, in 1965 (as Giulio Cesare Procaccini); Daniel Katz, London. LITERATURE: The Burlington Magazine, November 1965, pl.LVI (as Giulio Cesare Procaccini); Jürgen Winkelmann, ‘Sul problema Nosadella-Tibaldi’, Paragone, July-September 1976, pp.111-112, pl.83 (as location unknown); Elisabetta Sambo, ‘Tibaldi e Nosadella’, Paragone, September 1981, p.18 (as location unknown); Jürgen Winkelmann, ‘Giovanni Francesco Bezzi detto il Nosadella’, in Vera Fortunati Pietrantonio, ed., Pittura bolognese del ‘500, Bologna, 1986, Vol.II, pp.461-462, illustrated p.474 (as location unknown). Very little is known of the life of Giovanni Francesco Bezzi, known as Nosadella (apparently after the name of the street on which he lived in Bologna), and the biography of the artist by Carlo Cesare Malvasia lists only two dated works. These are the frescoes executed in 1558 for the Palazzo Bolognetti in Bologna, now lost, and a painting of The Circumcision for the Bolognese church of Santa Maria Maggiore, left unfinished at the artist’s death in 1571 and subsequently completed by Prospero Fontana. Malvasia records that Nosadella was a pupil of Pellegrino Tibaldi, and paintings by the two artists have often been confused, with the former long regarded as a mere follower of Tibaldi. However, recent studies of Nosadella’s work have led to a new appreciation of the artist as one of the most unique and original painters of the 16th century in Bologna, where he was first registered as a painter in 1549. The bulk of his activity seems to have been as a fresco painter working in various Bolognese palaces, although almost nothing of his work of this type survives. As Malvasia notes, ‘Those few works by him that are known – and they are mostly frescoes – are distinguished by their good colour (un buon colore), as with his master, and are full of erudition. And if they are not as perfect and studied, they are perhaps more powerful (terribili), singular, and resolute.’ A rare surviving example of this type of mural decoration are the frescoed scenes from the story of Susanna in the Palazzo Poggi in Bologna, dating to between 1554 and 1556, on which Nosadella worked alongside Tibaldi. Paintings and drawings by Nosadella remain very rare today. A handful of significant paintings by the artist have in recent years been acquired by American museums, notably an Annunciation now in the Princeton University Art Museum, a Holy Family with Saints Anne, Mary Magdalene and Catherine in the J. Paul Getty Museum in Los Angeles and a Presentation in the Temple in the collection of the Allen Memorial Art Museum in Oberlin, Ohio. The correct attribution of this panel, previously attributed to the Lombard painter Giulio Cesare Procaccini (1574-1625), is due to Jürgen Winkelmann, who first published the painting in 1976. Winkelmann compared this small painting stylistically to the late works of the 1560’s by Nosadella, in particular an Annunciation (fig.1) now in the collection of the Princeton University Art Museum1, as well as the artist’s final work, the Circumcision in the church of Santa Maria Maggiore in Bologna2, completed by Fontana after his death. Winkelmann also found echoes of the present work in a painting of the same subject by Nosadella’s Bolognese contemporary, Lorenzo Sabatini (1530-1576), today in the Pinacoteca Nazionale in Bologna3.


As Winkelmann wrote of the present Dead Christ with Angels, ‘There are echoes of Bronzino in the precise sculptural modelling of the body of Christ and in the knots of the supple loincloth, but these elements had already been resolved following the cerebral and stylistic feats of the [Princeton] Annunciation, even while the tomb made up of protruding stones, still a very archaic quattrocento motif, forms an appropriate space to contain the relief-like and strongly modelled figure of the dead Christ, who is represented in the guise of an ancient athlete.’4 Winkelmann continues; ‘It is important to note how, in this small-scale work, the artist manages to express the musical and lyrical element of his art with an intensely sentimental mood. The painting’s innate resemblance to the Lamentation over the Dead Christ by Francesco Morandini, called Poppi, in the Museo dell’Ospedale degli Innocenti in Florence5, seems fortuitous, as the tendency towards the sentimental in both works manifests itself differently: somewhat more dramatic in the Florentine artist, and with a sophisticated pathos in the Bolognese painter, who lavishes expressive theatrical overtones upon his work that are worthy of the more exaggerated international style, locating him between a Rosso [Fiorentino] and a [Bartholomeus] Spranger. We are after all, perhaps, on the brink of the 1570’s. Rather than linking it to Nosadella’s late phase as in the altarpiece of Santa Maria Maggiore, one prefers to relate this noteworthy and exquisite display of elegant devotion in a small format, to the astonishingly shrewd style – alas misunderstood in Bologna, perhaps due to its being somewhat tied to the past and at the same time a harbinger of a new language – which emanates from the Colnaghi [now Princeton] Annunciation.’6 Several years later, Jürgen Winkelmann returned to the subject of this small painting, writing that ‘In the last years of his life, Nosadella left behind an almost spiritual testimonial in The Dead Christ Mourned by Angels...The work is steeped in a poignant lyricism, despite being designed according to a rigid perspectival system. It is not only 15th century perspective that is re-evoked sentimentally, but also all the pictorial traditions of the past admired by the artist, from those of Parma to those of Ferrara. The jutting stones of the tomb can therefore be understood as self-quotations, which recall the sharp design of the steps in the Princeton Annunciation, even if in the Dead Christ this detail is more material.’7

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4 GIOVANNI BAGLIONE Rome 1566-1643 Rome Saint Paul Pen and brown ink and brown wash, heightened with white, on blue-green paper washed brown. Faintly squared for transfer in red chalk. Laid down on an 18th century English mount. 271 x 108 mm. (10 5/ 8 x 4 1/4 in.) [sheet] 325 x 161 mm. (12 3/4 x 6 3/ 8 in.) [mount] PROVENANCE: Anonymous sale, London, Christie’s, 27 November 1973, lot 232 (as Milanese School, c.1560), bt. Stone for 320 gns.; Kate de Rothschild, London, in 1975; Purchased from her by Ralph Holland, Newcastle. LITERATURE: London, Kate de Rothschild, Exhibition of Old Master Drawings, n.d. [1975], unpaginated, no.22; Ralph Holland, Italian Drawings 1525-1750, exhibition catalogue, Newcastle, 1982, p.11, no.40; Maryvelma O’Neil, ‘Giovanni Baglione’, in Jane Turner, ed., The Dictionary of Art, 1996, p.53; Maryvelma Smith O’Neil, Giovanni Baglione: Artistic reputation in Baroque Rome, Cambridge, 2002, p.79, pp.241242, no.23, illustrated p.80, pl.40. EXHIBITED: London, Kate de Rothschild at William Darby Gallery, Exhibition of Old Master Drawings, 1975, no.22; Newcastle, Hatton Gallery, Italian Drawings 1525-1750 from the Collection of Ralph Holland, May-June 1982, no.40. Giovanni Baglione was, according to his autobiography, a pupil of the minor painter Francesco Morelli, before working as one of the artists entrusted with the fresco decoration of the Scala Santa and the Vatican Library between 1588 and 1590. His first major commission was for a series of frescoes of scenes from the life of the Virgin for the Roman church of Santa Maria dell’Orto, completed in 1598; a project that established his reputation. Around 1600 he painted a fresco for the transept of the church of San Giovanni in Laterano, and soon after fell under the influence of Caravaggio. As a result his style changed quite dramatically, as evidenced by a painting of Divine Love Overcoming the World, commissioned by Cardinal Benedetto Giustiniani and completed in 1603. In the same year, however, Baglione sued Caravaggio and several other artists of his circle, including Orazio Gentileschi, for libel, accusing them of publishing poetry that defamed him, and from this point onwards his work became less overtly Caravaggesque. Baglione continued to enjoy a highly successful career, underlined by the commission for an altarpiece for Saint Peter’s in 1604 and for frescoes in the Cappella Paolina at Santa Maria Maggiore, painted between 1610 and 1612. His lifelong Mannerist tendencies meant, however, that later in the 17th century his work was somewhat overshadowed by that of the younger generation of Bolognese artists arriving in Rome. The last years of Baglione’s long career were largely devoted to writing two major books; Le nove chiese di Roma, published in 1639, and the Le vite de pittori, scultori ed architetti, which appeared in 1642. The latter, a significant work of art history, contained over two hundred biographies of artists active in Rome between 1572 and 1642, and it is for this seminal work that Baglione is best known today. In his lifetime, Giovanni Baglione was much admired as a draughtsman. His extant drawings vary according to their function, with pen and ink mostly used for preliminary compositional sketches, black or red chalk for studies of individual figures, and pen and wash with white heightening for more finished modelli. As Maryvelma Smith O’Neil has written, ‘The most important trends in Baglione’s draughtsmanship in his full maturity (ie. c.1600-30) are the broader, freer handling and the versatility with which he used the


technical means at his disposal. Though he often crossed over the line into the Baroque, the idealism he inherited from his Tusco-Roman education and fondness for angular lines constrained him, in his drawings, as in his paintings, from fully yielding to a dynamic disposition of figures.’1 The attribution of this drawing is due to the late Philip Pouncey, who recognized it as a preparatory study for the standing figure of Saint Paul in Baglione’s altarpiece of Saint Peter and Saint Paul (fig.1) in the Roman church of Santa Cecilia in Trastevere, completed by December 16002. Commissioned by Cardinal Paolo Emilio Sfondrato for his titular church in Rome, the altarpiece was one of a number of paintings ordered from Baglione for Santa Cecilia in Trastevere, but the only one that is still in its original location in the church. Cardinal Sfondrato owned several paintings by Baglione, and was among his most significant patrons. This fine drawing is the only known preparatory study for Baglione’s altarpiece of Saint Peter and Saint Paul, and displays only minor differences with the final work. Maryvelma Smith O’Neil has noted of the present sheet that ‘The emphatic chiaroscural effects [of the fresco] have been graphically simulated in a carefully finished chalk sketch for St. Paul that lays particular stress on the large unbroken areas of light and dark that structure voluminous draperies.’3 The pose of Saint Paul in both this drawing and the fresco was probably inspired by the similar figure of the saint in Raphael’s celebrated Saint Cecilia altarpiece of c.1513-1516 in the church of San Giovanni a Monte in Bologna4, of which Sfondrato had commissioned a copy from the young Guido Reni, probably also for Santa Cecilia in Trastevere, in 16005. A counterproof of the present sheet, in the Royal Collection at Windsor Castle6, shows the whole composition in reverse, and includes the corresponding figure of Saint Peter. That this drawing may have originally showed both saints is suggested by a hint of drapery at the extreme right edge of the sheet.

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5 STEFANO DELLA BELLA Florence 1610-1664 Florence a. Recto: The Head of an Elephant Verso: Study of the Head of a Hound Pen and brown ink and touches of brown wash, over an underdrawing in black chalk. The verso in pen and brown ink. Numbered 65 in pencil on the verso. All four corners of the sheet cut. 84 x 97 mm. (3 1/4 x 3 7/ 8 in.) b. Two Studies of the Head of an Elephant Pen and brown ink and slight touches of brown wash, over an underdrawing in black chalk. Numbered 67 in pencil on the verso. The left corners of the sheet cut. 84 x 95 mm. (3 1/4 x 3 3/4 in.) PROVENANCE: Part of an album of drawings by Stefano della Bella assembled by Thomas Tomkins, London1; His posthumous sale, London, Mr. Hickman’s Gallery, 25-28 February 1818, lot 289 (bt. Holroyd for £32.10/-); Robert Stayner Holford, M.P., Dorchester House, London and Westonbirt, Gloucestershire; By descent to his son, Lt. Col. Sir George Lindsay Holford, K.C.V.O., Dorchester House, London and Westonbirt, Gloucestershire; His posthumous sale, London, Sotheby’s, 22 May 1928, lot 29B (bt. Castagnari for £145); Private collection; The album broken up and dispersed at auction, London, Christie’s, 18 March 1975, the present pair part of lot 15 (bt. Ferretti for 800 gns.); Duke Roberto Ferretti di Castelferretto, Montreal; His sale, London, Christie’s, 2 July 1996, part of lot 16 (bt. C. Blieck); Private collection. The first of these drawings may be related, in reverse, to plate 16 (fig.1) of Stefano della Bella’s etchings known as the Diversi capricci, in which the elephant is seen from in front and has a similarly curving trunk2. This series of twenty-four etchings were dated to 1648 by Alexandre de Vesme but, as Phyllis Dearborn Massar pointed out, they must date from at least the previous year, since the publisher, François Langlois, died in 1647. That the artist must have seen the animal in person is proved by the existence of a study of a dead elephant, drawn from life and inscribed and dated ‘Elefante morto in Firenze addi 9 di novembre 1655’, in the collection of the Biblioteca Reale in Turin3, while two other studies of the same lifeless creature are in the Stadel Museum in Frankfurt4. Another drawing of elephants is in the Albertina in Vienna5, while a handful of studies of elephants were, like the present sheet, included in the Tomkins album of drawings by Stefano della Bella6. One of these – a study of an elephant curling its trunk, until recently in a Swiss private collection7 – is particularly close in style and handling to the present pair of drawings.

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a. actual size

b. actual size


6 CARLO CIGNANI Bologna 1628-1719 Forli The Head of a Child Looking Down Red chalk on buff paper. A half-length study of a male nude faintly drawn in red chalk on the verso. 287 x 190 mm. (11 1/4 x 7 1/ 2 in.) A pupil of Francesco Albani, Carlo Cignani was among the leading painters in Bologna in the later 17th century, enjoying a stature akin to that of Carlo Maratta in Rome. He was the first director of the Bolognese academy, the Accademia Clementina, and enjoyed the patronage of the Medici and Farnese families, as well as such significant foreign collectors as Prince Johann Adam of Liechtenstein and Johann Wilhelm Wittelsbach, the Elector Palatine. Something of a perfectionist as a painter, Cignani worked in a very slow and painstaking manner, particularly in the field of fresco painting, in which he was highly regarded by his contemporaries. Among Cignani’s most important fresco commissions was a cycle of mythological subjects ordered by Duke Ranuccio II Farnese in 1678 for the Palazzo del Giardino in Parma, a project which had been left incomplete by Agostino Carracci some seventy-five years earlier. In completing the work, Cignani was assisted by his chief pupil and disciple, Marcantonio Franceschini. Another significant commission was the extensive fresco decoration of the dome of the Cappella della Madonna del Fuoco in the Duomo at Forlì, which was begun in 1683. Cignani worked on the project – inspired by Correggio’s famous cupola frescoes in the Duomo in Parma – for over twenty years, eventually completing the decoration in 1706. He had transferred his studio to Forlì by 1685, and lived and worked there for the remainder of his career. Apart from Franceschini, Cignani’s pupils included Giuseppe Maria Crespi, Federico Bencovich and Giovanni Camillo Sagrestani. Drawings by Cignani are rare. That his drawings were much admired by contemporary connoisseurs is seen in the fact that his large-scale drawn cartoons for the Palazzo del Giardino in Parma were acquired by Consul Joseph Smith for the Royal Collection, and are today at Hampton Court in London. This red chalk study of the head of a child reflects the enduring influence of Correggio on Cignani’s work. The latter was, indeed, regarded by his contemporaries and biographers as the artistic heir to Correggio and Parmigianino; the two great masters of Emilian painting of the previous century. The physiognomy of the child in this drawing, with its tousled hair and almond-shaped eyes, is close to those of children or putti in several of Cignani’s frescoes and paintings of the 1660’s and 1670’s. Similar features appear, for example, in the frescoed putti flanking medallions decorating the nave of the church of San Michele in Bosco in Bologna, completed in 1665, as well as in several variants of a composition of The Five Senses, notably in the Galleria Sabauda in Turin (fig.1) and in the Pallavicini collection in Rome2.

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7 LUCAS FRANCHOYS THE YOUNGER Malines 1616-1681 Malines A Half-Length Study of a Male Nude Holding a Staff Oiled black chalk, with touches of white heightening, on blue paper. 267 x 199 mm. (10 1/ 2 x 7 7/ 8 in.) PROVENANCE: An unidentified collector’s mark VS in monogram stamped in blue ink on the verso; Dr. and Mrs. Victor Bloch, London; Their sale, London, Sotheby’s, 12 November 1964, lot 99 (as G. B. Beinaschi), bt. Holland for £60; Ralph Holland, Newcastle. LITERATURE: Milford, Christopher Bishop Fine Art, Master Drawings: Catalog 2014, exhibition catalogue, 2014, p.38, under no.12. One of the few significant 17th century painters to hail from the town of Malines (Mechelen) in Flanders, Lucas Franchoys the Younger was born into a family of artists. He received his artistic training from his father, Lucas Franchoys the Elder, before entering the studio of Peter Paul Rubens in Antwerp in the late 1630’s. He became one of the most talented of Rubens’s followers, although his work also shows the distinct influence of Anthony Van Dyck. After Rubens’s death in 1640, Franchoys may have spent some time working in Paris for the Prince de Condé, although no firm evidence of such a trip survives. His first recorded commissions were received around the end of the 1640’s, for various churches and monasteries in Tournai; among these is an Annunciation in the cathedral at Tournai, which is dated 1649, and a Beheading of Saint John the Baptist, painted in 1650 for the church of Saint-Quentin and destroyed during the Second World War. Franchoys was back in Malines by 1654, and worked there until his death, establishing a successful career. Among his most significant commissions was a triptych of scenes from the life of Saint Roch, painted between 1669 and 1672 for the church of Saint-Jean-l’Evangeliste et Saint-Jean-Baptiste in Malines, as well as two canvases of The Preaching of Saint Peter and The Preaching of Saint Paul for the same church, completed in 1673. His most important patron was Alphonse de Bergues, the future archbishop of Malines, who commissioned several works from the artist for local churches and monasteries. Best known as a portrait and history painter, Franchoys was registered in the artist’s guild in Malines in 1655, and served as dean of the guild in 1663. He had several pupils in Malines, leading to the diffusion of Rubens’s style in the area. The attribution of the present sheet – previously given to the 17th century Neapolitan painter Giovanni Battista Beinaschi – to Lucas Franchoys the Younger is due to Martin Royalton-Kisch, who made the suggestion in 1988. Only a handful of drawings by Franchoys are known, some of which are drawn in black (sometimes oiled) chalk and white chalk on blue paper. The influence of the draughtsmanship of both Rubens and Van Dyck is evident in the few drawings and oil sketches by Franchoys that survive. Among stylistically comparable drawings by Lucas Franchoys the Younger is a study of the head of a bearded man, also in oiled black chalk, in the Frits Lugt Collection (Fondation Custodia) in Paris1. Also similar is a study of the head of a man with long hair, drawn in black chalk on blue paper, in the collection of the Rijksmuseum in Amsterdam2.


8 CORNELIS SAFTLEVEN Gorinchem 1607-1681 Rotterdam Study of a Standing Male Nude with His Hands over his Head Oiled black chalk on buff paper. A study of architecture in black chalk on the verso. Signed with the artist’s monogram and dated CS / 1672 in black chalk at the left centre. 272 x 144 mm. (10 3/4 x 5 5/ 8 in.) Watermark: A caduceus and, separately, the letters VA. PROVENANCE: Probably James Forbes, Stanmore Hill, Middlesex1; By descent to his grandson Charles Forbes René de Montalembert, Comte de Montalembert, Paris; Thence by descent until 2013. LITERATURE: David Mandrella et al, La pointe et l’ombre: Dessins nordiques du musée de Grenoble XVIe– XVIIIe siècle, exhibition catalogue, Grenoble, 2014, p.182, note 4, under no.86 (entry by David Mandrella). The elder brother of the landscape painter Herman Saftleven, who remains much better known today, Cornelis Saftleven spent most of his career in Rotterdam. He is thought to have received his training there, alongside his brother, in the studio of their father, a history painter. A versatile and imaginative artist, with a predilection for unusual and inventive subjects, Cornelis Saftleven painted landscapes, peasant genre scenes (often of a satirical nature), barn interiors and still life subjects, religious and allegorical scenes, as well as the occasional portrait and a number of phantasmagorical subjects and diableries. (That he was particularly regarded for his paintings of fantastic subjects is seen in the caption accompanying the reproduction of his portrait by Anthony Van Dyck, included in the series of famous prints of artist’s portraits known as the Iconography, in which he is described as ‘Hollandus Pictor Notium Phantasmatum’.) Saftleven became dean of the painter’s guild in Rotterdam in 1667. Around two hundred paintings by the artist are known or recorded, most dated between 1629 and 1678. A highly prolific draughtsman, Cornelis Saftleven produced a wide variety of drawings, including a large number of single-figure studies – many of which seem to have been produced as independent works for sale to collectors – together with biblical scenes, mythological, allegorical and genre subjects and landscapes, as well as numerous studies of animals. Most of his drawings are in black chalk, sometimes with added grey wash, and occasionally on prepared or tinted paper. About a third of the approximately five hundred known drawings by Saftleven are signed (usually with a monogram) and dated, and examples are known for almost every year between 1625 and 1677. (Indeed, the number of monogrammed and dated drawings in his oeuvre would add credence to the suggestion that many of these works were intended as finished works for sale.) A number of the artist’s drawings were also produced as designs for prints, to be etched by professional printmakers. Significant groups of drawings by Saftleven are today in the British Museum, the Kupferstichkabinett in Berlin, the Boijmans van Beuningen Museum in Rotterdam, the Rijksmuseum in Amsterdam, and elsewhere. Dated 1672, this drawing is an extremely rare example of a nude figure study in Saftleven’s extensive oeuvre as a draughtsman. Indeed, in his comprehensive catalogue of the artist’s drawings, which numbers several hundred sheets, Wolfgang Schultz lists just one drawing of a male nude; a study of a seated youth, dated 1669, in the British Museum2. Like most of Saftleven’s figure drawings, the present sheet is unrelated to any known painting by the artist.


9 LIEVEN CRUYL Ghent 1634-c.1720 Ghent The Construction of the Pont Royal, Paris, in 1686 Pen and brown ink and brown wash, over an underdrawing in black chalk, with framing lines in brown ink. Signed and dated LIVINUS CRUYL PBR fecit 1686 in brown ink at the lower left. 190 x 299 mm. (7 1/ 2 x 11 3/4 in.) PROVENANCE: Acquired by a private collector in the 1950’s; Thence by descent to a private collection, England. A Flemish priest1, architect, draughtsman and printmaker, Lieven Cruyl was born in Ghent and received his theological training in Louvain. Between 1660 and 1664 he served as a priest in Wetteren, near Ghent, and in 1662 submitted a design for the reconstruction of the western tower of the SintMichielskerk in Ghent in a Late Gothic style, a project never undertaken due to lack of funds. In 1664 Cruyl left for Italy, where he was to remain for the next fourteen years. He spent several years in Rome, where he produced a large number of drawn views of the city. Many of his views of Rome were reproduced as prints – some by him and others by professional printmakers – to cater to the demand for souvenirs from foreign visitors to the city, and several were published as albums, notably in 1665 and 1667. Etchings after Cruyl’s drawings were also used to illustrate a number of architectural guides to Rome, such as the Prospectus locorum urbis Romae insicnium, published in 1666. Cruyl was in Florence in 1672, Naples in 1673 and Venice in 1676; in each of these cities he made a number of drawings of urban topography, often using a ‘birds-eye’ viewpoint and characterized by a precise technique and an impressive level of detail. His penchant for such wide-scale, panoramic views was to have an influence on later generations of vedute painters working in Italy, notably Gaspar van Wittel, known as Vanvitelli. Cruyl was back in Ghent in 1678, but within a few years left to travel to France; he is known to have worked in Paris between 1680 and 1682, and again between 1686 and 1689. He produced a number of drawings of Paris and Versailles, as well as two imaginary views of Jerusalem, probably for King Louis XIV. He settled for good in Ghent in 1688, and died there sometime around 1720, or shortly before. Cruyl is best known for his highly accomplished drawings and etchings of urban views in Italy and France. His topographical drawings include both individual studies of particular monuments and series of urban views, often from unusual perspectives, and many sheets are dated by month and year. A group of eighteen drawings of Rome by Cruyl are today in the Cleveland Museum of Art, while other topographical drawings by the artist are in the collections of the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York, the Rijksmuseum in Amsterdam, the Louvre and Bibliothèque Nationale in Paris, the Victoria and Albert Museum, and elsewhere, as well as in several Italian museums. The latest known drawing by the artist is dated 1690. Drawn in 1686, the present sheet depicts the construction of the Pont Royal over the river Seine in Paris. Throughout much of the 17th century, the wooden bridge at this spot, linking the rue du Bac to the Pavillon de Flore of the Louvre, had been damaged by fires and floods, and it was a flood which destroyed the bridge completely in 1684. The construction of a new stone bridge, paid for by Louis XIV, was to be part of Jean-Baptiste Colbert’s urban development of Paris. The bridge, named in honour of the King and designed by the King’s architect, Jules Hardouin-Mansart, was begun in October 1685 and completed by June 1689. Construction was directed by the architect Jacques Gabriel, who is almost certainly the figure seen in the near foreground, to the right of centre, in this drawing. Gabriel was assisted by François Romain, a Dutch-born Dominican monk and engineer, who may perhaps be identified with the cleric at the lower right corner of the composition, giving instructions to the workmen.


Only recently rediscovered in an English private collection and previously unknown to scholars, this drawing may be added to a group of seven drawings, each depicting the construction of the Pont Royal, drawn by Lieven Cruyl between 1685 and 1689. (The drawings of the Pont Royal by Cruyl can be divided into two groups; those showing the actual construction and those depicting the finished bridge.) Three of these drawings, of very large dimensions, were recorded in the collection of Adolphe Wattinne in Paris in 19192; one of these, dated 1687 and showing a more advanced stage in the building work, was sold at auction in 20093, while another, dated the same year as the present sheet, appeared at auction in 20124. Four other drawings by Cruyl of the Pont Royal, all of smaller dimensions, are in Parisian museums. Two drawings in the Bibliothèque Nationale, dated 1686 and 1687 and of the same dimensions as the present sheet, depict the bridge under construction5, while two drawings in the Louvre show the bridge as completed, seen from both directions6. Unlike most of Cruyl’s other drawings of the Pont Royal, the present sheet is not an aerial view, but is drawn at much the level of the bridge itself, showing the construction machinery in more detail. In this respect, it is closest to the earlier of the two drawings in the Bibliothèque Nationale, likewise dated 1686 and of identical dimensions (fig.1), which also shows the workmen, horses and dredging equipment from a much closer vantage point7. Like all of these drawings, the present sheet presents an accurate and fascinating glimpse of Paris near the end of the 17th century. The view is taken from the bridge, looking west along the Seine, with the Quai and gardens of the Tuileries seen at the upper right and the buildings of the future Quai de la Grenouillère (later the Quai d’Orsay) at the left. It is not known why Lieven Cruyl made this series of detailed and accurate drawings of the Pont Royal, although it is most likely that they were intended as designs for engravings, with the artist specifically tasked with recording the construction of the bridge as it progressed over a period of four years. Only one such engraving was eventually executed, however; a panoramic view of the completed bridge8, for which the related drawing is in the Louvre.

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10 PIETER VAN BLOEMEN Antwerp 1657-1720 Antwerp A Saddled Horse, Seen from Behind Brush and grey ink and grey wash, over traces of an underdrawing in black chalk, within framing lines in black ink. Faint traces of an inscription in brown ink at the lower left. 204 x 176 mm. (8 x 6 7/ 8 in.) A student of the battle painter Simon Johannes van Douw in Antwerp, Pieter van Bloemen entered the city’s painter’s guild of Saint Luke in 1674, at the age of just seventeen. In 1684 he is recorded in Lyon, where he was joined by his younger brother and pupil, Jan Frans van Bloemen. (Another younger brother, Norbert, was also trained by Pieter.) The following year Pieter and Jan Frans van Bloemen travelled together to Rome, where Pieter spent several years. He is documented between 1685 and 1692 as a member of the Schildersbent, the association of Dutch and Flemish artists in Rome, and was given the nickname ‘Standaart’, probably because of the flags and banners that often appear in his paintings of military caravans and encampments. On his return to Antwerp in 1694 he rose to become director of the academy there five years later. Pieter van Bloemen’s landscape paintings, as well as his military and genre subjects, often show the particular influence of a painter of the previous generation, Philips Wouwermans. Like him, many of van Bloemen’s Italianate landscapes are dominated by groups of animals – most often beautifully observed horses – placed at the centre of the composition. Indeed, van Bloemen was particularly admired as an animal painter, and was often asked to paint animals in the compositions of other artists, including those of his brother Jan Frans. As with his paintings, Pieter van Bloemen’s corpus of drawings is more varied than that of his younger brother. As a draughtsman, the elder artist produced landscapes (which can sometimes be confused with those of Jan Frans), figure drawings and studies of individual animals drawn from life, in particular horses, which are central to many of the artist’s painted compositions. As has been noted of Pieter van Bloemen, ‘his favourite subject is evidently the horse saddled or unsaddled, with or without rider and harness, being shod etc....These sketches were undoubtedly used by van Bloemen for his paintings of the same subjects.’1 Such drawings were usually in black or red chalk, often with added grey wash, although the artist also drew with just the brush alone, as in the present sheet. A closely comparable drawing by Pieter van Bloemen of a saddled horse seen from behind, in an identical technique, is in the collection of the Art Institute of Chicago2. Among other stylistically comparable drawings of horses are two drawings in the Louvre3 and one in the Teylers Museum in Haarlem4. The same technique is also found in van Bloemen’s studies of other animals, such as a drawing of a sleeping dog in a private collection5.


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11 JACOB DE WIT Amsterdam 1695-1754 Amsterdam Self-Portrait, within a Decorative Allegorical Surround Pen and brown and grey ink and grey wash, with framing lines in grey ink, laid down on an old mount. The outlines indented with a stylus for transfer. 144 x 91 mm. (5 5/ 8 x 3 5/ 8 in.) PROVENANCE: Louis Meier, Cecil Court, London; Acquired in c.1956 by Ralph Holland, Newcastle. EXHIBITED: Newcastle upon Tyne, Hatton Gallery, Old Master Drawings, From the XVIth to the XIXth century, 1960, no.63. Among the leading artists in Amsterdam in the second quarter of the 18th century, Jacob de Wit was noted as a painter of decorative wall murals, ceiling paintings and overdoors for private homes, and also received several commissions for altarpieces and large religious works. He produced a large number of finished drawings for sale to collectors, which earned him a tidy income. This is a study, in reverse, for an engraved portrait of Jacob de Wit (fig.1) included in the second volume of Jacob van Gool’s De Nieuwe schouburg der Nederlantsche kunstschilders, published in The Hague in 17511. The print, like most of those reproduced in van Gool’s book, is by Jacobus Houbraken (16981780). While the elements surrounding the oval portrait are identical in the both the drawing and the print, the portrait itself is not, and it appears that Houbraken substituted another likeness of the artist for the portrait depicted in the present drawing. Indeed, the margin of the print lists Jan Maurits Quinkhard (1688-1772) as the author of the portrait (‘J.M. Quinkhard pinx. 1751’), with de Wit as responsible for the decorative surround (‘J. de Wit orn. del.’) and Houbraken as the printmaker (‘J. Houbraken sculp.’). A similar portrait drawing of Jacob de Wit by Quinkhard, which may have been Houbraken’s model for the print, is in the Musée des Beaux-Arts et d’Archéologie in Besançon2. Jacob de Wit produced a variety of painted and drawn self-portraits. Among these is one closely related to the present sheet; a pen and wash drawing in the Rijksmuseum in Amsterdam3. Although somewhat larger in scale, the Rijksmuseum drawing is similar in composition, incorporating the same oval portrait but flanked by a putto in a different pose, and with alternative attributes of the arts underneath. An impression of the Houbraken engraving is sold with this drawing.

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12 THOMAS GAINSBOROUGH, R.A. Sudbury 1727-1788 London Travellers Passing Through a Village Pencil, black chalk and watercolour, extensively heightened with white lead, on buff paper. 219 x 308 mm. (8 5/ 8 x 12 1/ 8 in.) PROVENANCE: With Spink, London, in the 1950’s; Capt. Richard Saher de Quincey Quincey, The Vern, Mardon, Herefordshire; Thence by descent to his nephew, until 1998; Anonymous sale (‘The Property of a Gentleman’), London, Sotheby’s, 9 June 1998, lot 4 (bt. Agnew); Agnew’s, London, in 2002; Private collection, until 2007; W/S Fine Art, London. LITERATURE: Hugh Belsey, ‘A Second Supplement to John Hayes’s The Drawings of Thomas Gainsborough’, Master Drawings, Winter 2008, p.436, p.494, no.1051, fig.75 (as location unknown). EXHIBITED: Sudbury, Gainsborough’s House, 1992-1995 [on loan]. Landscape drawings account for over three-quarters of Thomas Gainsborough’s output as a draughtsman, and include some of his finest works. Indeed, as John Hayes has noted, ‘Gainsborough was a prolific, indeed compulsive, landscape draughtsman.’1 These landscape drawings were done for his own pleasure, in varying degrees of finish, and using a range of different techniques; they are among his most experimental works as a draughtsman. Overburdened with portrait commissions, Gainsborough seems to have turned to the freedom of landscape painting and drawing as a means of relaxation2. The artist’s landscape drawings evince a view of nature that is deeply personal, private, and often quite poetic3. This splendid drawing, of remarkable richness of colour, may be dated to the early 1770’s. At this time Gainsborough was living in Bath, and his landscapes, previously quite rustic in spirit, began to take on a more classical air, with echoes of the paintings of Claude and Rubens that the artist would have seen in private collections in the area. It was also at this time that Gainsborough was experimenting with various combinations of ink, chalk, watercolour and varnish in his landscape drawings. The use of white lead in this drawing to achieve the effect of shafts of bright sunlight would seem to reflect the advice given by Gainsborough to his friend William Jackson, in a letter of January 1773, to use for highlights ‘Bristol made white lead which you buy in lumps at any house painters; saw it the size you want for your white chalk; the Bristol is harder and more the temper of chalk that the London’4. The dry white lead pigment would then be fixed with skimmed milk. As Hugh Belsey has noted of the present sheet, ‘This ambitious drawing uses the complex technique that Gainsborough described in a letter written in 1773 to his friend William Jackson. The extensive use of white lead represents strong sunlight, especially as reflected off the roof of the cottage.’5 Belsey further points out that the left half of the composition is repeated in a watercolour of a Wooded Landscape with Figures on Horseback Returning from Market, given by Gainsborough to John, 2nd Viscount Bateman, in September 17706. Gainsborough produced a number of other landscape drawings in this elaborate combination of media in the early 1770’s, all of about the same size, which may be seen as part of his stated desire to imbue his landscape drawings with the depth and intensity of his oil paintings. (Indeed, the only landscape drawings which the artist exhibited in London in his lifetime were ten drawings ‘in imitation of oil paintings’ shown at the Royal Academy in 1772.) The present sheet may be compared with such stylistically analogous drawings of the late Bath period as a Wooded Landscape with Herdsman, Cow and Church in the Fogg Art Museum in Cambridge, Massachusetts7 and a Wooded Landscape with Packhorses in the Birmingham Museums and Art Gallery, Birmingham8.


13 LOUIS BÉLANGER Paris 1756-1816 Stockholm The Cascades at Tivoli, with Tourists and Fishermen Watercolour and gouache. Signed and dated Belanger / 1783 in brown ink at the lower left. 522 x 393 mm. (20 1/ 2 x 15 1/ 2 in.) PROVENANCE: Wildenstein, New York, in 1943; Denys Sutton, London; Thence by descent until 2013. The younger brother of the architect and draughtsman François-Joseph Bélanger, Louis Bélanger was a landscape painter and draughtsman, with a particular speciality of gouache views of sites in France, Italy and Switzerland. A pupil of Francesco Casanova and Louis-Gabriel Moreau the Elder, he worked primarily in watercolour and gouache. His earliest dated works were executed in 1779, and in the 1780’s he travelled throughout France, Switzerland, Italy and England. With the advent of the French Revolution, Bélanger fled France and in 1790 settled in England, where he lived for eight years and provided drawings for the print market in Paris. (Six watercolour views of London, each dated 1790 and possibly intended as designs for prints, are in the Ashmolean Museum in Oxford.) Bélanger exhibited landscapes at the Royal Academy in 1790 (when the catalogue described him as ‘Painter to the Duke of Orléans’) and 1797, and enjoyed the patronage of a number of English connoisseurs, some of whose London homes he decorated. After a brief visit to Switzerland in 1798, Bélanger moved to Sweden, where in 1799 he was elected to the Academy of Fine Arts in Stockholm and appointed Painter to King Gustav IV. He lived and worked in Sweden for the last eighteen years of his career, publishing a series of prints entitled Voyage pittoresque de la Suède in 1803. A number of paintings, watercolours and gouaches by Bélanger are today in the collection of the Nationalmuseum in Stockholm. The famous falls at Tivoli, twenty miles from Rome, where the river Aniene drops some 330 feet, had long been a popular site for artists. As the English traveller Charlotte Waldie, writing in the early years of the 19th century, noted, ‘The beauty of Tivoli consists in its rocks and waterfalls...what a prospect of unspeakable beauty bursts upon your view! Tremendous precipices of rock, down which roars a headlong torrent, – trees and bushy plants shading its foaming course, – cliffs crowned with the most picturesque ruins, and painted in tints whose beauty art can never imitate, – hills, and woods, and hanging vineyards; and Tivoli itself, which, peeping out amidst the dark cypresses at the top of these sunny banks, looks like an earthly paradise...The pencil only can describe Tivoli; and though unlike other scenes, the beauty of which is generally exaggerated in picture, no representation has done justice to it, it is yet impossible that some part of its peculiar charms should not be transferred upon the canvas. It almost seems as if nature herself had turned painter when she formed this beautiful and perfect composition.’1 Waterfalls and rapids were a favourite subject of Louis Bélanger throughout his career. A later watercolour and gouache view of the falls at Tivoli by the artist, dated 1792 and seen from a slightly different viewpoint, was acquired by the Government Art Collection in 1968, and is today in the British Embassy in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia2. Another large view of the cascades at Tivoli, dated 1795, appeared at auction in Switzerland in 20073.


14 JOHANN GOTTFRIED KLINSKY Dresden-Neustadt 1765-1827 Ulm A Gnarled Oak Tree Black ink and grey wash. Signed, inscribed and dated Klinsky / del: nach der Natur / bey Lingij im Novbre / 1785 in blue ink at the lower right. Indistinctly inscribed Klinksy.... [?] (partially cut off) in black ink on the verso. 390 x 295 mm. (15 3/ 8 x 11 5/ 8 in.) PROVENANCE: Possibly Alexander Strähuber, Munich; Dr. Anton Strähuber, Munich (Inv. 1508)1, and thence by descent until 2014. Johann Gottfried Klinsky (sometimes Klinski) was mainly active as an architect, with a particular interest in Romantic garden architecture. He studied at the Akademie in Dresden under the history and portrait painter Christian Gottlieb Mietsch, before turning to the study of architecture, training under the architects Friedrich August Krubsacius and Gottlob August Hölzer. His architectural designs were exhibited at the annual art exhibitions of the Dresden Akademie in 1779, 1781, 1782, 1787 and 1789, when he left Dresden to work as a drawing teacher in Prague. Klinsky spent two years in Rome between 1793 and 1795 before returning to Dresden. In 1798 he was recommended as an architect for a church at Uhyst in Saxony as ‘an experienced and able man in these things’, although this project never seems to have been undertaken. He also provided drawings for Wilhelm Gottlieb Becker’s Taschenbuch für Garten Freunde, a guide for gardeners, published in 1795, and four years later himself published Versuch über die Harmonie der Gebäude zu den Landschaften (Essay on the Harmonious Placement of Buildings in Landscapes), illustrated with five aquatints. This was followed by his contribution of several garden designs to the Collection de Nouveaux Bâtiments pour la Décoration des Grands Jardins et des Campagnes, published in Paris in 1802. Klinsky taught lessons in architecture at the Dresden Akademie between 1806 and 1811. Although no buildings designed by him seem to have survived in the city, a monument to the poet Friedrich Schiller in Mechau, dated 1807, and another, dedicated to the poet Friedrich Gottlieb Klopstock, are both recorded in prints. In 1807 and 1808 he showed architectural drawings at the Dresden Akademie exhibitions. In 1811 Klinsky settled in Stuttgart, where he had been appointed court architect by King Friedrich I of Württemberg. There he was particularly in demand as a designer of country houses and garden architecture, and produced sketches and designs for pleasure buildings for the park of the castle of Hohenheim in Stuttgart, and elsewhere in the area. As he had in Dresden, Klinsky also continued to exhibit architectural studies at the yearly art exhibitions in Stuttgart, including drawings of the gothic Ulm minster, intended for a planned volume of illustrations of the church; at least one view of the Minster at Ulm by the artist was reproduced as a lithograph. A self-portrait by Klinsky is included in the so-called Carus album of 18th and 19th century artist’s portraits, today in the collection of the Städtische Galerie in Dresden. As a draughtsman, Klinsky produced mainly architectural drawings and views of buildings. In 1788, for example, he made views of the old and new Kreuzkirche churches in Dresden, while in 1792 he produced watercolours of the castle of Freudenstein in Freiberg and the nearby Schloss Augustusburg; both works are today in the collection of the Landesbibliothek in Dresden. Drawn in November 1785 while Klinsky was a student in Dresden, this is an early work by the artist, then aged twenty. Among the handful of extant non-architectural drawings by the artist is a landscape in Saxony which, like the present sheet, was also once in the Strähuber collection2.


15 PIERRE-PAUL PRUD’HON Cluny 1758-1823 Paris The Happy Mother (La Mère heureuse) Pen and brown ink and brown wash, with touches of white heightening, over traces of an underdrawing in pencil. Inscribed P. P. Prud’hon / Marie Louise / et le roi de Rome / 1812 in brown ink on the backing board. 73 x 51 mm. (2 7/ 8 x 2 in.) PROVENANCE: Galerie de Bayser, Paris; Private collection, London. In 1803 Pierre-Paul Prud’hon accepted into his studio a young and gifted painter, Marie Françoise Constance Mayer-Lemartinière (1775-1821), who soon became his favourite pupil and, in time, his mistress and artistic collaborator. At about the same time that Constance Mayer began her long professional and personal association with Prud’hon, he had finally been separated from his wife, following twenty-five years of an unhappy marriage. (Mentally and emotionally unstable, Mme. Prud’hon was committed to an asylum in 1803, and the artist was given charge of his five children.) As Prud’hon remained legally married, however, he and Mayer were never able to formalize their close personal relationship. Nevertheless, the two artists lived and worked together for eighteen years, sharing adjoining studios at the Sorbonne. Mayer took on the task of raising Prud’hon’s children and even paid for their education. Yet she was always conscious of the scandal that might ensue if her intimate relationship with Prud’hon was revealed outside of the artistic circles of the Sorbonne. In May of 1821, at the age of forty-six and in a fit of depression, Mayer was overcome with the sudden fear that Prud’hon would never be able to marry her, or even have any real desire to do so. She took her own life, slashing her throat with her lover’s razor. Prud’hon was left distraught and never recovered from the loss, sinking into a depression. He organized a memorial exhibition of Mayer’s work in 1822, but died the following year. As an independent painter, Constance Mayer had begun exhibiting at the Salon in 1796, showing mostly portraits. After 1804 she worked closely with her lover and mentor, painting finished pictures derived from Prud’hon’s drawings and sketches, often of subjects that she had suggested. These collaborative works, though designed by Prud’hon, were largely painted by Mayer and exhibited under her name alone. They included genre scenes – a field not explored by Prud’hon in his own work – as well as portraits and allegorical subjects. It has been suggested that Prud’hon, who worked slowly and completed relatively few paintings, may have preferred to work in collaboration with Mayer. In so doing, he was able to indulge in his lifelong penchant for drawing, producing detailed studies for these collaborative paintings without the necessity and time-consuming constraint of having to put brush to canvas. This exquisite little drawing by Prud’hon is related to a painting by Constance Mayer entitled La Mère heureuse (The Happy Mother), today in the collection of the Musée du Louvre in Paris1. The large painting (fig.1) was exhibited at the Salons of 1810 and 1814 alongside a pendant canvas entitled La Mère infortunée (The Unfortunate Mother), also now in the Louvre2, which depicted a mother mourning at the tomb of her dead child. Both paintings were greatly admired, and were purchased by Louis XVIII for the collection of the Louvre in 1815. As Jo Hedley and Stephen Duffy have noted of this composition, and of its pendant, ‘The Happy Mother reflects the early nineteenth-century concern with motherhood, influenced by the novels of Rousseau and by the philosophy of the Enlightenment...Both paintings are set in woodland landscapes and emphasize the private nature of maternity...Maternal subjects seemed to have attracted Mayer in particular, and despite Prud’hon’s preparatory work, she is generally credited with devising the theme of both pictures.’3


illustrated slightly smaller than actual size


In his 1924 catalogue raisonné of the work of Prud’hon, Jean Guiffrey listed a total of six drawings by the artist for the entire composition of Mayer’s painting of The Happy Mother, as well as four studies for the head of the mother4, but the present sheet seems to have been unknown to him. Among the extant preparatory studies by Prud’hon for The Happy Mother is a small oil sketch of the composition in the Wallace Collection in London5 and a compositional drawing in the Louvre6, as well as a study for the head of the mother in the J. Paul Getty in Los Angeles7. Another compositional drawing for the picture appeared at auction in Paris in 20078. Given its size and level of finish, the present sheet may have been intended as a study for a neverexecuted print, or else as a small souvenir of the composition, to be sold as a finished drawing to a collector. Stylistically comparable to the present sheet is a small and highly finished drawing of a Mother and Child, sold at auction in 2009 and now in a private collection in England9. A study for that drawing, also on a similar scale, appeared at auction in Paris in 201010. At the time of Prud’hon’s death in February 1823, all of the drawings that remained in his studio passed into the possesion of his pupil and fellow painter Charles-Pompée Le Boulanger de Boisfremont. (In a will drawn up five days before his death, Prud’hon bequeathed ‘to my friend Monsieur de Boisfremont, all of my portfolios of drawings, studies, etc. etc.’11) The present sheet does not bear de Boisfremont’s collector’s mark, however, and must have left Prud’hon’s studio before the artist’s death, presumably acquired by a collector.

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enlarged image


16 ANDREW NICHOLL, R.H.A. Belfast 1804-1886 London A Distant View of Derry Through a Bank of Wild Flowers Watercolour, with pen and brown ink and brown wash, over an underdrawing in pencil. Signed A. Nicholl. RHA. in brown ink at the lower right. 366 x 534 mm. (14 3/ 8 x 21 in.) PROVENANCE: John O’Sullivan; Sale, Dublin, Adams, 29 March 2000, lot 83; Private collection. Lacking any formal training as an artist, Andrew Nicholl began his career as an apprentice in a printing firm in Belfast. His earliest paintings are scenes along the Antrim coast, and by his early twenties he had established a local reputation as a landscape painter, becoming a founder member of the Belfast Association of Artists. Among his first important patrons was the newspaper publisher Francis Dalzell Finlay, who promoted Nicholl’s work in Belfast, Dublin and London. First and foremost a topographical painter, Nicholl published 101 Views of the Antrim Coast in 1828, and provided illustrations for Henry O’Neill’s Fourteen Views of the County of Wicklow, published in 1835, and Samuel Carter Hall’s Ireland: its Scenery, Character, etc., published between 1841 and 1843. Nicholl first exhibited at the Royal Academy in London in 1832, and in 1837 was elected an Associate Member of the Royal Hibernian Academy. Around 1840 Nicholl settled in London, where he supported himself by working as an art teacher, as he had in Belfast. In 1846 he was appointed as a teacher of landscape painting and drawing at the Colombo Academy in Ceylon, where he remained for three years. There, under the auspices of his most significant patron, the Belfast MP and Colonial Secretary James Emmerson Tennent, Nicholl produced a number of views of local scenery and also provided illustrations for Tennent’s book Ceylon: an account of the island, physical, historical and topographical, published in 1860. He must have returned from Ceylon by 1849, as he exhibited some views of the island at the Royal Academy that year. He divided his time between London and Belfast, and exhibited at both the Royal Academy and Royal Hibernian Academy. In 1870 he offered twelve watercolours of views of Ceylon to Queen Victoria, who bought two of them. Shortly after his death, a retrospective exhibition numbering over 280 works was held in Belfast. The largest collection of Nicholl’s work – numbering over four hundred watercolours and drawings, as well as a handful of paintings – is today in the Ulster Museum in Belfast. Andrew Nicholl developed a speciality of views of coastal towns in Ireland - Fairhead, Howth, Ramelton, Dunluce Castle, Bray, Carlingford, and elsewhere - seen through a bank of wild flowers; a combination of the genres of landscape and botanical still life. The present sheet is a particularly fine and large example of this distinctive genre. The view of Derry in the distance at the left is dominated by the Georgian bridge across the river Foyle, built by the 4th Earl of Bristol in 1790. Nicholl has also depicted a variety of shipping in the river, marking Derry’s importance as one of the main ports of embarkation for Irish emigrants to North America in the 19th century. Although Nicholl rarely dated his work, this large watercolour may probably be dated to the 1830’s1. A watercolour of this type ‘represents a fresh quality in the observance of nature...[the artist] often utilized wild flowers painted in the foreground to form a screen through which we dimly perceive a landscape. It is as if we are lying on our stomachs, like hares, watching as the world marches by. The paintings have a sharpness of vision and naïveté that is entirely captivating.’2 Among comparable watercolours is A Bank of Flowers, with a View of Bray and the Valley of the Dargle, Co. Wicklow, in the Ulster Museum3 and Wildflowers with Downhill, Co. Derry, formerly in the collection of Bruce Chatwin4, while other examples are in the National Gallery of Ireland in Dublin. As such works have been described, these ‘near-surrealist watercolours of wild flowers, poppies and daisies, with land and seascapes in the background...[have] an originality which makes them among the most haunting...Irish paintings of the early nineteenth century. These are his masterpieces.’5


17 DAVID COX, O.W.S. Birmingham 1783-1859 Harborne A Coastal Landscape in North Wales, with an Approaching Squall Pencil and watercolour. A sketch of fishing boats moored by Conway Castle in pencil on the verso. 272 x 381 mm. (10 3/4 x 15 in.) PROVENANCE: The studio of the artist, and by descent to his granddaughter, until 1904; Walker’s Galleries, London, in 1960; John Appleby, Jersey; Thence by descent until 2010. EXHIBITED: Possibly London, Walker’s Galleries, Drawings by David Cox, Purchased from the Artist’s Grand-Daughter in 1904, 1960. Among the finest watercolourists of the first half of the 19th century, David Cox exhibited for the first time at the Royal Academy in 1805. In 1813 he was admitted to the Society of Painters in WaterColours, where he exhibited every year but two for the remainder of his long and productive career. This wonderfully loose but controlled watercolour is typical of Cox’s late work of the early 1850’s, when he was at his most confident and impressionistic. (Indeed, Cox’s studies of beaches and seashores of this period have been likened to the work of Eugène Boudin.) Scott Wilcox’s comments on a stylistically similar watercolour of the same period in the Yale Center for British Art may be equally applied to the present sheet: ‘it would seem to belong to a group of watercolors from the late 1840s and early 1850s in which Cox, aiming to satisfy himself and a group of knowledgeable and sympathetic friends – if not a broader public – put aside notions of conventional finish. Taking up one of his favorite compositional types, he has treated all its standard elements...with great freedom and economy. Most impressive is the sweep of the cloud-filled sky, achieved with a vigorous but marvelously controlled touch.’1 This watercolour is likely to have been executed on one of the artist’s yearly visits to North Wales. Cox made his first visit there in 1818, and became a regular visitor to the area. From the mid 1840’s onwards he spent part of almost every year in North Wales, based in Betws-y-Coed in the Conway valley. The pencil sketch of fishing boats by Conway Castle and Thomas Telford’s Conwy Suspension Bridge, on the verso of this watercolour, would suggest that the recto may depict a view on the Welsh coast, or perhaps on the estuary of the river Conway. This drawing may have originally been part of the same sketchbook as a group of drawings of Rhyl Sands, of the same size and type of wove paper, dating from around 1854. These include a watercolour of The Beach at Rhyl in the University of Liverpool Art Gallery, which is signed and dated 18542, as well as a watercolour of Rhyl Sands in the Victoria and Albert Museum3. Also stylistically comparable is a watercolour of Rhyl Sands, on the art market in 19994.

verso (detail)


18 JEAN-AUGUSTE-DOMINIQUE INGRES Montauban 1780-1867 Paris The Gatteaux Family Pencil and reworked lithograph, on several joined sheets of paper, cut out and laid down by the artist onto a larger sheet. The seated figures at the left and centre, as well as the upper part of the seated figure at the right, each engraved separately and mounted by Ingres onto another sheet, on which the artist has drawn the background, as well as the standing figure at the right of centre and the figure in the background at the extreme left, all in pencil. Most of the lower half of the figure of Edouard Gatteaux, seated at the right, drawn and reworked by the artist in pencil. Signed, dated and dedicated Ingres à Son / Excellent ami / Gatteaux 1850 in pencil at the lower right. 442 x 609 mm. (17 3/ 8 x 24 in.) PROVENANCE: Jacques Edouard Gatteaux, Paris, until 1881; The husband of his niece, Edouard Brame, Paris, until 1888; His son, Paul Brame, Paris, until 1908; Mme. Paul Brame, Paris; Her son, Henri Brame, Paris and Neauphle-le-Château; Galerie Hector Brame, Paris, by 1931; Galerie Paul Cassirer, Berlin, in 1931; M. Knoedler & Co., New York, in 1931; Purchased from them in 1932 by Dr. Douglas Huntly Gordon, Annapolis and Baltimore, Maryland (Lugt 1130a), his stamp on the backing sheet; Anonymous sale, London, Christie’s, 6 July 1987, lot 55; Masataka Tomita, by February 1988; Acquired from him by Jan Krugier and Marie-Anne Poniatowski, Geneva. SELECTED LITERATURE: Albert Magimel, ed., Oeuvres de J.A. Ingres, Paris, 1851, unpaginated, pl.58 (incorrectly dated to between 1824 and 1834); Théophile Silvestre, Histoire des artistes vivants, Paris, 1856, p.36; Jules Lecomte, Le Perron de Tortoni; indiscrétions biographiques, Paris, 1863, p.247; Edouard Gatteaux, ed., Collection de 120 dessins, croquis et peintures de M. Ingres, Paris, n.d. (1875?), Vol.I, illustrated pl.10; Henry Lapauze, Les portraits dessinés de J.-A.-D. Ingres, Paris, 1903, p.50, no.26, pl.26; Jacques Mathey, ‘Sur quelques portraits dessinés: Par Ingres ou ses graveurs?’, Bulletin de la Société de l’histoire de l’art français, 1932, pp.196-199; Hans Naef, Die Bildniszeichnungen von J.-A.-D. Ingres, Vol.II, Bern, 1978, pp.485-503 and Vol.V, Bern, 1980, p.318-321, no.417 (with previous literature); Agnes Mongan, ‘J.-A.-D. Ingres, Portraitist’, in Patricia Condon, Marjorie B. Cohn and Agnes Mongan, Ingres. In Pursuit of Perfection: The Art of J.-A.-D. Ingres, exhibition catalogue, Louisville and Fort Worth, 19831984, p.148, illustrated p.226, no.75; Jacques Foucart, ‘Notes sur les vitraux de Neauphle et les portraits de la famille Gatteaux’, Bulletin des musées et monuments lyonnais, 1986, p.65, fig.2; Georges Vigne, Dessins d’Ingres: Catalogue raisonné des dessins du musée de Montauban, Paris, 1995, p.476, illustrated; Uwe Fleckner, Abbild und Abstraktion: Die Kunst des Porträts im Werk von Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres, Mainz, 1995, pp.162-170, fig.62; Anne Baldassari, Picasso et la photographie: “À plus grande vitesse que les images”, exhibition catalogue, Paris, 1995, pp.163-171, fig.136; Patricia A. Condon, ‘Jean-AugusteDominique Ingres: The Politics of Friendship’, in Deborah J. Johnson and David Ogawa, ed., Seeing and Beyond: Essays on Eighteenth- to Twenty-First-Century Art in Honor of Kermit Champa, New York, 2006, p.49; Adrien Goetz, Ingres collages: Dessins d’Ingres du musée de Montauban, exhibition catalogue, Montauban and Strasbourg, 2005-2006, pp.30-32; Jean-Pierre Cuzin and Dimitri Salmon, Ingres: Regards croisés, exhibition catalogue, Paris, 2006, p.225 (as lost); Christiane Lange and Roger Diederen, ed., Das ewige Auge – Von Rembrandt bis Picasso: Meisterwerke aus der Sammlung Jan Krugier und MarieAnne Krugier-Poniatowski, exhibition catalogue, Munich, 2007, pp.180-181, no.82 (entry by Sigrid Achenbach); Jean-Pierre Cuzin et al, Ingres et les modernes, exhibition catalogue, Quebec and Montauban, 2009, p.312. SELECTED EXHIBITIONS: Versailles, Palais de Versailles, Exposition de l’art rétrospectif, 1881, no.190; Paris, Grand Palais, Exposition centennale de l’art français (1880-1889), 1900, no.1088; Paris, Galerie Georges Petit, Exposition Ingres, 1911, no.165; Munich, Ludwigsgalerie, Romantische Malerei in Deutschland und Frankreich, 1931, no.43; Springfield, MA, Springfield Museum of Fine Arts, David and


Ingres: Paintings and Drawings, 1939, no.33; San Francisco, California Palace of the Legion of Honor, 19th Century French Drawings, 1947, no.18; New York, Paul Rosenberg & Co., Ingres in American Collections, 1961, no.64; Louisville, The J. B. Speed Art Museum and Fort Worth, The Kimbell Art Museum, Ingres. In Pursuit of Perfection: The Art of J.-A.-D. Ingres, 1983-1984, no.75; Berlin, Kupferstichkabinett, Linie, Licht und Schatten: Meisterzeichnungen und Skulpturen der Sammlung Jan und Marie-Anne Krugier-Poniatowski, 1999, no.71; Munich, Kunsthalle der Hypo-Kulturstiftung, Das ewige Auge – Von Rembrandt bis Picasso: Meisterwerke aus der Sammlung Jan Krugier und Marie-Anne Krugier-Poniatowski, 2007, no.82. ENGRAVED: By Achille Réveil, for Albert Magimel’s Oeuvres de J.A. Ingres, in 1851. The present sheet is one of the largest and most ambitious of Ingres’s portrait groups, and bears a dedication to the artist’s close friend, the sculptor, medal engraver and collector Jacques Edouard Gatteaux (1788-1881). The two artists met as pensionnaires at the Académie de France in Rome, and became lifelong friends. An indication of the affection felt by Ingres for Gatteaux is seen in a letter written to him while Ingres was serving as Director of the Académie de France in the 1830’s: ‘There are few true friends like you; one is so lucky to have one of your good and loyal character, I have every confidence in you, I regard you as the most sincere of all those that I know in the world.’1 Gatteaux became a major supporter of Ingres’s work, and assembled a superb collection of his drawings, numbering over one hundred works. Unfortunately, these were all lost in a fire in Gatteaux’s home in Paris, during the defeat of the Commune in 1871. In later years Edouard Gatteaux added to his collection, and at the end of his life bequeathed many works to several French museums. The present sheet, however, remained in the possession of his descendants until 1931. The Gatteaux family owned a large country house in Neauphle, near Versailles, where Ingres often stayed as a guest in the 1820’s. He returned there after the death of his first wife Madeleine in 1849, and it was at this time that he produced the present family group. The Gatteaux Family is highly unusual in Ingres’s oeuvre, however, in being a retrospective group portrait, as well as in its method of composition. Using single portraits made at different times, with The Gatteaux Family Ingres has created a composite family group and placed the whole in an elegant interior setting. Ingres has here assembled three engravings by Claude-Marie-François Dien, each after his own earlier portrait drawings, of Edouard Gatteaux, seated at the right of the composition, his father, the engraver and medallist Nicolas-Marie Gatteaux (1751-1832), seated at the left, and his mother Louise-Rosalie Gatteaux, née Anfrye (1761-1847), in the centre. Printed on thin paper, these three engravings were carefully silhouetted and laid down by Ingres onto a much larger sheet, which he then overdrew in pencil in such a way that the seams between the different sheets of paper are hardly visible to the naked eye. Only the upper part of the figure of Edouard Gatteaux in this large sheet, however, is in the form of an engraving. To this bust-length print, Ingres has added, drawn in fine pencil, the lower half of his friend’s body. Also added by the artist in pencil, standing to the left of Edouard Gatteaux, is the figure of Paméla de Gardanne (1824-1860), the orphaned granddaughter of Nicolas-Marie Gatteaux. Raised in the

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Gatteaux household, she married the engineer Edouard Brame in 1846, and the present sheet eventually descended in the Brame family. Ingres also drew the interior setting, and, in the background at the extreme left, the small figure of a woman in an adjoining room, who has been identified as Edouard Gatteaux’s cousin, a Mme. (Eugène?) Anfrye. Ingres’s original portrait drawings of M. and Mme. Gatteaux, drawn in 1828 and 1825, respectively, as well as a bust-length drawing of their son Edouard, dated 1834, all belonged to Edouard Gatteaux and were destroyed in the fire in his home in 1871. Their appearance is recorded, however, in engravings made after them by Claude-Marie-François Dien in the 1830’s, as well as drawn copies of all three portraits by an unknown hand (figs.1-3), which are now in the Louvre2. It is interesting to note that, in this large composite drawing of The Gatteaux Family, Ingres was creating an imaginary family group. In 1850, when the drawing was made, Nicolas-Marie Gatteaux had been dead for eighteen years and Louise-Rosalie Gatteaux for three, while Edouard Gatteaux, seen here as a young men, was aged sixty-two. The two drawn portraits of Paméla de Gardanne and Mme. Anfrye, however, would seem to correspond to their proper ages at the time the drawing was made. While the upper part of Edouard Gatteaux in this group portrait is composed of the Dien engraving after Ingres’s lost bust-length portrait drawing of 1834, the lower half of the figure is an entirely new invention by the artist. (Ingres may, however, have referred to a three quarter length portrait of Edouard Gatteaux, in a similar but not identical pose to that seen in the present sheet, which is recorded in an engraving by Achille Réveil3. Réveil’s engraving, dated 1851, shows Ingres’s friend seated at a table with his work tools before him, and may record a lost drawing of the same approximate date as the bust-length portrait of 1834.) It appears that, for The Gatteaux Family, Ingres combined Dien’s bust-length engraving with an entirely new conception of the lower half of Gatteaux’s body, developed from that of the lost threequarter length portrait drawing engraved by Réveil (fig.3). This is further suggested by the existence of a preparatory pencil study for the torso and costume of the seated figure of Edouard Gatteaux, similar in pose and detail to this drawing of The Gatteaux Family, in the collection of the Musée Ingres in Montauban4. Also in the Musée Ingres is a half-length pencil study by the artist for the standing Paméla de Gardanne5, as well as a preparatory study for the entire composition of this large drawing of The Gatteaux Family, drawn on several sheets of joined tracing paper6. This preparatory study shows the seated figures fulllength, however; a concept Ingres abandoned in the final drawing. Ingres produced only three other comparably large and complex, multifigured portrait group drawings, all dated much earlier in his career: The Forestier Family of 1806 in the Louvre7, The Family of Lucien Bonaparte, dated 1815, in the Fogg Art Museum in Cambridge8, and The Constantin Stamaty Family of 1818 in the Louvre9. The present sheet is the largest of the four, and arguably the most elaborate. The Gatteaux Family was reproduced as an engraving by Achille Réveil in 1851, the year after it was made10. The engraving was included in Albert Magimel’s magisterial compendium of illustrations of Ingres’s work, the Oeuvres de J.A. Ingres, published in 1851, and it is likely that Ingres made the present sheet with the intention of having it reproduced for this publication11. As Patricia Condon has recently noted of the present sheet, ‘This drawing, done specifically for 1850 Magimel/Réveil publication of Ingres’ collected works, documents both Ingres’s connections to the [Gatteaux] family and his experimentation with unconventional techniques in the context of a highly visible publication.’12 The present sheet has long been admired as one of Ingres’s most significant works on paper. Extensively published13 and widely exhibited since 1881, the drawing remained in the collection of the Gatteaux family and its descendants until 1931. As early as 1863 it was described by one writer as the finest drawing in the Gatteaux collection, ‘a marvelous work, the sight of which brings great pleasure.’14 In 1932, The Gatteaux Family was acquired by the bibliophile and collector Douglas H. Gordon, Jr. (1902-1986), in whose collection it remained for over fifty years15.


19 ALFRED WILLIAM HUNT Liverpool 1830-1896 London Mount Snowdon through Clearing Clouds Watercolour, with scratching out. Signed and dated Alfred W Hunt / 1857 in brown ink at the lower right. 320 x 490 mm. (12 5/ 8 x 19 1/4 in.) PROVENANCE: Charles Nobbs, York; Anonymous sale, Leyburn, Tennants, 23 November 2006, lot 777; The Maas Gallery, London, in April 2007; Christopher Cone, Whitby. LITERATURE: Probably John Ruskin, Notes on Some of the Principal Pictures Exhibited in the Rooms of the Royal Academy and the Society of Painters in Water-Colours, Etc., No.III – 1857, London, 1857; reprinted in E. T. Cook and Alexander Wedderburn, ed., The Works of John Ruskin, Vol.XIV: Academy Notes, Notes on Prout and Hunt and other Art Criticisms 1855-1888, London, 1904, p.117. EXHIBITED: Probably London, Royal Academy, 1857, no.761 (‘Snowdon after an April Hailstorm’). Born and raised in Liverpool, Alfred William Hunt studied Classics at Oxford and became a Fellow of Corpus Christi College. His early work as a watercolourist was influenced by the example of David Cox, who was a friend of his father, the Liverpool landscape painter Andrew Hunt. From 1856 he was a member of the Liverpool Academy, where he exhibited until 1864, when he joined the Old WaterColour Society in London. In 1861 he resigned his Fellowship at Corpus Christi to marry and embark on an artistic career. For the next few years he lived in Durham, moving to London in 1865. In later years, his favourite sites for painting were in Yorkshire, Northumberland and around Durham, and he also made sketching tours in Germany and Switzerland – often tracing Turner’s earlier visits to these areas – as well as Scotland and the Lake District. Hunt preferred, as much as possible, to work on the spot, producing numerous sketches and colour studies that would be worked up into finished watercolours and paintings in the studio. (More than two hundred of the artist’s sketchbooks are today in the collection of the Ashmolean Museum in Oxford.) Like many artists coming of age in the 1850’s, Hunt was profoundly influenced by reading John Ruskin’s Modern Painters, and one modern scholar has aptly described him as ‘perhaps the quintessential artist of the Ruskinian moment in Victorian painting.’1 Hunt and Ruskin were to enjoy a friendship from the mid 1850’s onwards, with Ruskin often praising the works which Hunt exhibited, although he was also at times quite critical of the artist’s precise technique. The other great influence on Hunt was J. M. W. Turner, whose watercolour style, at least in his more finished work, the younger artist attempted to emulate. As the critic F. G. Stephens wrote of him in 1884, ‘Mr. Hunt is a true artist of Turner’s school, in fact the legitimate successor of Turner, but, except in strenuously and subtly endeavouring to delineate the effects of light, not his imitator.’2 More recently, Andrew Wilton has noted that ‘there is considerable variety in Hunt’s work, and a lifelong dialogue with the protean Turner...his watercolour style is founded on the meticulous hatching and scrubbing that characterises Turner’s finished work in that medium, and rarely attempts the sort of breadth that he could not quite countenance in his admired Cox’s late work...His watercolour is usually enriched with bodycolour and gum, varied with scraping and scratching-out and, especially later on, subjected to a thorough surface-rubbing that half-veils the scenery in hazy light...These pictures are so rich that each one rewards detailed scrutiny, just as Ruskin demanded.’3 Hunt’s watercolours are characterized by an abiding interest in intense colour and luminosity, allied with a meticulous technique and an insistence of working on the spot as much as possible. Although the minute detail and precise technique of his work was sometimes criticized by Ruskin as being too


laboured, Hunt seems to have largely ignored the latter’s comments. Most critics admired the delicate technique, subtle tonality and brilliant effects of Hunt’s exhibited watercolours, which best evince his love of nature and feeling for the magnificence of the English landscape. Hunt published a personal account of ‘Modern English Landscape-Painting’ in the magazine The Nineteenth Century in 1880, followed in 1891 by a second article entitled ‘Turnerian Landscape – An Arrested Art’, in the same publication. A major retrospective exhibition of 137 paintings and watercolours by Hunt was mounted at the Fine Art Society in London in 1884, while in 1893 another exhibition of his work was held in Chicago, which the artist duly attended. In 1897, the year after his death, three large memorial exhibitions of Hunt’s work were presented; at the Old Water-Colour Society and the Burlington Fine Arts Club in London, and at the Walker Art Gallery in Liverpool. This superb, atmospheric watercolour is a view of Mount Snowdon, the highest mountain in Wales, which rises to 1,085 metres above sea level and dominates the surrounding Snowdonia National Park. This view is of the west flank of the mountain, looking towards the southeast. Hunt made several sketching trips to North Wales in the 1850’s, while studying at Oxford, perhaps at the suggestion of David Cox. At least one of these visits to Wales was financed by the Oxford printseller James Wyatt, who exhibited Hunt’s drawings in his shop on the High Street, and who seems to have developed a market for mountain views by the artist. It has been suggested that ‘Hunt’s particular interest in mountain subjects, treated with careful attention to their structure and geological character, and the physical processes which had formed the landscape, was perhaps fostered by the principal of the Liverpool Collegiate School, the Revd William Conybeare, who was a geologist and Bible scholar.’4 Hunt must surely also have been inspired by the fourth volume of Ruskin’s Modern Painters, published in April 1856 and subtitled Of Mountain Beauty, in which the author extols the virtues of mountain subjects as worthy of serious artistic study. Between 1856 and 1858 Alfred William Hunt produced a handful of paintings and watercolours of mountain views in Snowdonia, including the painting The Track of an Ancient Glacier, completed in 1858 and now in the Tate in London, and two watercolour views of Cwm Trifaen with the Peak of Glyder Fach, one now in the Cleveland Museum of Art5 and the other in the Robertson Collection in Orkney6; both watercolours are closely comparable to the present sheet in style and technique. Allen Staley has noted that ‘[The] watercolours from the 1850s are Hunt’s freshest and strongest works. Their compositions seem to be the result of a direct confrontation with nature...’7 The difficult working conditions borne by the artist at the time he produced this watercolour is perhaps best seen in a letter written to a friend in September 1857, while he was working in Snowdonia. In this letter, Hunt writes that ‘I am in the land of damp – of fog and mist – I know it to my cost. We have had nothing but...rain for the last fortnight – now the weather is holding up for a time, but the cold (in Cwm Trifaen) is unendurable. I’ve composed my epitaph – to be graven on the biggest stone of the biggest moraine there...As soon as I’ve extricated myself from Cwm Trifaen I shall run away hence...campaigning here is really no joke.’8 Another large watercolour view of Mount Snowdon by Hunt, seen from a similar vantage point but further away from the mountain’s peaks, is in a private collection9. While that watercolour, which is unsigned and undated, has previously been thought to be the work exhibited by Hunt at the Royal Academy in 1857 under the title ‘Snowdon after an April Hailstorm’, it more likely that the present, signed and dated watercolour is the work in question. Of the watercolour exhibited at the Royal Academy in 1857, Ruskin wrote, ‘[it] is a very remarkable drawing, and the best study of sky that I can find this year; notable especially for its expression of the consumption of the clouds – not their driving away, but melting away in the warmer air.’10 This description would also seem to relate much more closely to composition and tonality of the present sheet, than to the other watercolour of a similar view. As Christopher Newall has perceptively written of Alfred William Hunt, ‘His work is a celebration of the beauty of the British landscape, with its extraordinary variety of aspect and constant fluctuation of atmospheric and meteorological effect. His paintings and drawings have the power to make the spectator want to see and experience the places represented, not so much to test the artist’s responses, but to share the delight he felt.’11


20 HILAIRE-GERMAIN-EDGAR DEGAS Paris 1834-1917 Paris A Seated Young Woman Plaiting her Hair, Seen from Behind and Looking into a Mirror Black chalk, with stumping. Stamped with the Degas atelier stamp (Lugt 657) in red ink on the verso. 305 x 241 mm. (12 x 9 1/ 2 in.) PROVENANCE: The studio of the artist, Paris, with the atelier stamp (Lugt 657) on the verso; The artist’s brother, René de Gas, Paris; By descent to his daughter, Odette de Gas, Paris; Her daughter, Arlette Nepveu-Degas, Paris; Her sale (‘Collection Nepveu-Degas’), Paris, Hôtel George V [Ader Tajan], 19 December 1994, lot 2; Private collection, Paris. This beautiful drawing, which does not seem to be a study for any known painting, may be tentatively dated to Degas’s period of study at Academie de France in Rome between 1857 and 1860, or perhaps a few years thereafter. In the pose of the figure, Degas may here be seen to be reflecting on the example of his great hero Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres (1780-1867), and in particular the latter’s famous Valpinçon Bather of 1808 in the Louvre1, of which the younger artist produced a faithful copy in pencil in one of his sketchbooks, datable to around 1855, now in the Bibliothèque Nationale de France in Paris2. In the present sheet, as in Ingres’s painting, the model is turned away from the viewer. As Anne Roquebert has noted, ‘Degas was obsessed with the body observed in private, when the person is not conscious of being seen; moreover, when the face is turned away, attention is not diverted from the essential, which for Degas was the body, not the face. The principal issue here becomes how to express the emphatic contours of the pose with only the scope and simplicity of line.’3 The influence of Ingres is also seen in Degas’s handling of the pencil medium, with a fine hatching that creates a sense of volume in the drapery. Among comparable drawings by Degas is a study of a Young Woman Half Nude Resting on her Elbow in the Musée d’Orsay4. In such academic studies as these, ‘the artist offers a variety of forms for different types of nude models...line drawings focusing on the outline and shaded drawings that use fine hatching to give this graphic art a more pictorial, expressive effect. From supple, athletic silhouettes to meticulously finished drawings with fine, faint lines – veritable working drawings – Degas this built up a formal vocabulary to use as he liked.’5 Echoes of this figure may also be found in the pose of a seated woman in a chemise, with a bared shoulder and turned away from the viewer, in his enigmatic painting Interior (sometimes called The Rape) of c.1868-1869 in the Philadelphia Museum of Art6. This drawing does not figure in any of the four sales of the contents of Degas’ studio held after his death. A fifth and final sale was originally planned, but instead the remaining paintings, drawings, pastels and etchings in the Degas’s studio were divided among the artist’s heirs; some – including the present sheet – to his younger brother René, and the rest to the artist’s nephews and nieces. The present sheet remained in the possession of Degas’s descendants for nearly eighty years after his death. Inherited by the artist’s brother Jean-Baptiste René de Gas (1845-1921), the drawing passed to his daughter Odette de Gas (1887-1932), who married Roland Nepveu (1885-1962). The drawing thence passed to their daughter, Arlette Nepveu-Degas, from whose collection it was sold at auction in Paris in 1994.


21 GEORGE PRICE BOYCE, R.W.S. London 1826-1897 London Newcastle at Night from the Rabbit Banks, Gateshead Watercolour. Signed and dated G. P. Boyce 64 in black ink at the lower right. Inscribed Newcastle at night – from the Rabbit Banks, Gateshead / GPBoyce 1864 in pencil on the verso. 101 x 209 mm. (4 x 8 1/4 in.) PROVENANCE: Probably Ford Madox Brown, London; His daughter, Catherine Hueffer (née Madox Brown), The Lodge, Campden Hill Road, London, and thence by descent; The Maas Gallery, London, in 1998; Christopher Cone, Whitby. LITERATURE: Christopher Newall and Judy Egerton, George Price Boyce, exhibition catalogue, London, 1987, pp.56-57, under no.42. EXHIBITED: Probably London, Society of Painters in Water-Colours, Summer 1865, no.128. George Price Boyce was trained as an architect, but around 1849 decided to take up landscape painting. He received lessons from David Cox, whose influence can be seen in his early watercolours. Not long afterwards he met Dante Gabriel Rossetti, who was to become a lifelong friend, and, a few years later, William Holman Hunt and John Everett Millais. These three young artists, who formed the nucleus of the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood, founded in 1848, discovered a kindred spirit in Boyce. Of independent means, he began collecting their work, while writing about them in his diaries, which serve as an important record of the Brotherhood’s activities. Boyce worked mainly in watercolour, and his landscapes were exhibited at the Royal Academy and, frequently, at the Old Water-Colour Society. As Virginia Surtees has written of Boyce, ‘Faithful to a vision of simplicity and goodness he interpreted these with a serenity and unpretentious charm which were the reflection of his own character.’1 Christopher Newall has added that ‘[Boyce’s] works, although small in scale and most intimate in their means of expression, are sincere and delicately beautiful.’2 This watercolour dates to a trip made by Boyce to the north east of England in the late summer and autumn of 1864. Depicted here is a distant view of Newcastle, seen from across the river Tyne at Gateshead4. Boyce’s trip resulted in at least two large finished watercolours; a view of Newcastle from the Windmill Hills, Gateshead in the Laing Art Gallery in Newcastle3, and another, larger version of the present composition – depicted in daylight and with the addition of a sleeping figure in the left foreground – which appeared at auction in 19955. As Newall has noted of another watercolour from the same 1864 trip to Newcastle, ‘Boyce seems to have relished such quietly understated, but honest, urban scenes..., combining a response to a landscape that was changing as a consequence of industrialisation with a characteristic aesthetic fondness of incidental pattern and texture.’6 Boyce exhibited two Newcastle subjects – Newcastle from the Windmill Hills, Gateshead and Newcastle from the Rabbit Banks, Gateshead – at the Old Water-Colour Society in 1865. Although it has been suggested that it was the larger, daylight version of Newcastle from the Rabbit Banks that was shown at the OWCS, a description of the exhibited work in a review in the Athenaeum would however seem to favour this more dramatic nighttime scene as the work exhibited. As the anonymous reviewer noted, ‘Among the recently elected members of this Society, by far the most original artist in landscape is Mr. Boyce, who treats with such perfect solemnity, beauty, richness and truth of colouring, some of the most commonplace themes...a distant view of a manufacturing town interests us in its million lives and fortunes; its subtle colouring seems pathetic, and a glowing sky looks full of prophecy...Given these successes with unchallengeable fidelity, and we have a great artist. Such is Mr. Boyce.’7


22 EUGÈNE BOUDIN Honfleur 1824-1898 Deauville Crinolines Watercolour, over an underdrawing in pencil. Dated 1865 in pencil at the lower right. Variously inscribed with colour notes (rouge, bleu, gris, violet, etc.) in pencil. 136 x 244 mm. (5 3/ 8 x 9 5/ 8 in.) [sight] PROVENANCE: The studio of the artist, with the atelier stamp E.B. (Lugt 828) at the lower right; Probably the Boudin atelier sale, Paris, Hôtel Drouot, 20-21 March 1899; Private collection, Connecticut. Throughout much of his career, Eugène Boudin worked in the neighbouring seaside resort towns of Trouville and Deauville, on the Normandy coast. The artist rented a house in Trouville each summer and painted countless pictures of people on its beaches. Trouville had been transformed into a resort destination around 1848 and, with the opening of rail connections in 1860, saw a spurt in growth to accommodate the crowds of bourgeoisie who flocked to the seaside from Paris. Boudin’s depictions of elegant city dwellers as holidaymakers on the beaches of Trouville, with a particular emphasis on fashionable women in crinoline dresses, date mainly from the 1860’s, and proved popular with collectors. As the artist wrote to a friend in 1863, ‘They love my little ladies on the beach, and some people say that there’s a thread of gold to exploit there.’1 In a review of one of the Paris Salons, the contemporary critic Jules Castagnary noted that ‘M. Boudin has made the Norman coast his speciality. He has even invented a genre of marine that belongs only to him and which consists of painting, as well as the beach, all the beautiful, exotic society that foregathers in the summer in our seaside towns. It is seen from far away, but what delicacy and vivacity there is in these tiny figures. How well they look in their picturesque milieu, and how this, gathered together, forms a picture: the sky rolls its clouds, the swell rumbles as it rises, the breeze that blows teases the frills and skirts, this is the sea, and one can almost breathe the salty air.’2 As the artist’s biographer Gérard Jean-Aubry has written, ‘Boudin executed a number of pencil sketches of elegant women and fashionable people on the beach. The colours are indicated by watercolour washes, or simply by written notes. These charming sketches form part of the same group as Boudin’s studies of fishermen on the quaysides, or boats in the harbours, but apart from this they constitute as artistically valuable a documentation of the fashions of an epoch as those of Constantin Guys. It is regrettable that all these sketches have been scattered, since a choice of them would have composed a charming album of feminine fashion on the beaches during the heyday of the Second Empire.’3 A dated watercolour such as this was, in all likelihood, intended as an autonomous work of art. That many of Boudin’s watercolours of beach scenes were indeed sold to collectors – mainly during a period of seven years in the 1860’s – is reflected in the fact that relatively few such studies were left in his studio at his death. A handful of comparable sketches are among the large group of drawings by the artist in the Louvre4, while similar watercolours are in the Musée d’Art Moderne André Malraux in Le Havre5 and the Garman-Ryan Collection at the New Art Gallery Walsall6. As a recent scholar has noted of Eugène Boudin’s watercolours of the 1860’s, ‘A medium new to him, watercolour was perfectly suited to his subject, the transparency of the medium enhancing the impression of light. Boudin moved out from the shadows to concentrate his attentions on reflections: fine, brightly coloured fabrics on sand flooded with sun, and the sky on the sea. Everything became light. Impressionism was on its way.’7


23 SIR EDWARD JOHN POYNTER, P.R.A. Paris 1836-1919 London Lynmouth, Devon Watercolour and gouache. Signed with monogram, dated and titled 18 EJP 66 Lynmouth in brown ink at the lower right. 305 x 464 mm. (12 x 18 1/4 in.) PROVENANCE: Probably Alfred Baldwin, M.P., Lower Park, Bewdley, Wilden House, Worcestershire and London1; Chris Beetles, London, in March 2002; Christopher Cone, Whitby. EXHIBITED: Probably London, The Fine Art Society, Exhibition of Water Colours and Studies by Sir E. J. Poynter, Bart., P.R.A., November 1903, no.125 (‘The West Wind, Lynmouth. (1865.) Lent by Mr. A. Baldwin, M.P.’) or no.165 (‘Lynmouth. (1865.) Lent by Mr. A. Baldwin, M.P.’). A versatile and gifted draughtsman and a firm advocate of life drawing, Poynter is much less well known as a landscape watercolourist2. Most of the artist’s few watercolour landscapes date from early in his career. These tend to be records of places he visited, and are among his most personal works, done for his own pleasure and seldom exhibited3. In contrast to the more atmospheric effects and diffused forms of the work of many of his contemporaries, however, his technique remained precise and controlled, with a restrained colour scheme. The present sheet, drawn in 1886 when the artist was aged thirty, is a fine example of this. As a contemporary critic noted, ‘It is not too much to claim that, as Sir Edward Poynter’s more ambitious work is of [a] classic order, something of the same quality has overflowed into these small but choice watercolours which are his recreation (as he himself says), from the more severe duties of his positions as chief craftsman, instructor and governor of certain national institutions. His work is not aggressive at all; it does not even attempt sober tours de force; it is merely strong, and simple, and reposeful, and, as a rule, English. But somehow it has a way of making one want to see it again, and to pore over it...These water-colours are less known, but in their way they have that same reticent beauty which have those well-known figure drawings.’4 Another writer noted of Poynter’s watercolours that his ‘love of nature and profound knowledge of plant life enable him to see and feel a keener enjoyment in landscape art than the generality of artists, and his pictures are evidently the expression of his own sincere joy in the beauty of nature...a sound knowledge of draughtsmanship and a sense of refined and beautiful colour enable him to carry out his ideas very rapidly...Sir Edward is particularly happy in catching the true atmospheric tones, and a certain serenity of outlook and restrained colour ensure the sense of repose which is characteristic of his landscapes.’5 The coastal village of Lynmouth in Devon, at the northern edge of Exmoor, was once described by Thomas Gainsborough as ‘the most delightful place for a landscape painter that this country can boast.’ The surrounding coastline, noted for high sea cliffs, was popular with Victorian artists, including William Henry Millais, George Price Boyce and James Collinson. In this atmospheric watercolour, a small boat is seen in the midst of the sea, dwarfed by the coastal cliffs and a rainstorm that is sweeping across the composition. The suggestion of an approaching storm is tempered by the hint of better weather evident in the sunshine breaking through the clouds in the far distance. Another Devonshire watercolour by Poynter of the same date – a view of The Castle Rock at Lynton, a village adjacent to Lynmouth – was formerly in the Ingram collection and sold at auction in 20056.


24 SIR EDWARD COLEY BURNE-JONES Birmingham 1833-1898 London Studies for The Garden of Pan: The Head and Torso of a Male Nude and Two Studies of Arms Black and white chalk on brown paper. 360 x 237 mm. (14 1/ 8 x 9 3/ 8 in.) PROVENANCE: By descent to the artist’s daughter, Margaret Burne-Jones, (Mrs. J. W. Mackail); Louis Meier, London; Purchased from him in c.1954 by Ralph Holland, Newcastle. The leading member of the second generation of Pre-Raphaelite painters, Edward Burne-Jones enjoyed a measure of success from early in his career, particularly as a designer of stained glass panels. In 1859 he made the first of four trips to Italy, a country whose art provided considerable inspiration throughout his life. After showing one painting at the Dudley Gallery in 1873, Burne-Jones did not exhibit his work again for another seven years, although he sold paintings directly from his studio to a growing number of collectors. In 1877, at the inaugural exhibition at the Grosvenor Gallery, established as a more radical alternative to the Royal Academy, Burne-Jones showed a total of eight paintings. The success of these works, and his continued participation in the annual Grosvenor exhibitions, firmly established him as a leader of the Aesthetic Movement. His paintings, with subjects taken from medieval legends or classical myths, proved very popular with the public, and reached a climax with the Briar Rose series, painted between 1885 and 1890. His fame also spread to Europe, and in particular Paris, where his painting of King Cophetua and the Beggar Maid was greatly admired at the Exposition Universelle of 1889. Although accepted as an Associate Member of the Royal Academy in 1885, he exhibited there just once, and eventually resigned in 1893. He was created a Baronet the following year. A passionate and prolific draughtsman, Burne-Jones produced countless preparatory studies and cartoons for his paintings and decorations, as well as drawings - in chalk, pencil, pen and watercolour – intended as independent works of art in their own right. His drawings were, indeed, of arguably greater significance to him than his finished paintings. As John Christian has noted, Burne-Jones ‘was always a draughtsman first and a painter second…the design of a picture was everything, the essential hallmark of his authorship, while the execution, though obviously important, was of secondary interest.’1 Contemporary artists, writers and critics were equally taken with his drawings. His friend Graham Robertson wrote of Burne-Jones that ‘He was pre-eminently a draughtsman, and one of the greatest in the whole history of Art…as a master of line he was always unequalled; to draw was his natural mode of expression – line flowed from him almost without volition.’2 Another author, writing shortly after the artist’s death, noted that ‘It is quite possible that had Burne-Jones been able to do things with greater ease we should have missed the careful reverence that is so characteristic of his drawings.’3 Although he occasionally gave drawings away as presents, and also sometimes exhibited them in public, Burne-Jones seems to have kept most of his drawings in his studio until his death. Datable to the late 1870’s, this drawing is a preparatory study for the couple at the left of Burne-Jones’s large painting of The Garden of Pan (fig.1), now in the National Gallery of Victoria in Melbourne, Australia4. Begun in 1876, the canvas was only completed in 1887. Its composition reflects the profound influence of the artist’s recent travels in Italy, and in particular his experience of the paintings of such Renaissance artists as Piero di Cosimo and Dosso Dossi. As Burne-Jones’s wife describes the origins of the painting in her biography of the artist, the concept had taken root several years earlier, with the artist planning a seemingly more complex composition: ‘In 1872 he wrote down the names of four other subjects, saying: “These I desire to paint above all others.” Nor was this an aspiration only, for at the time he wrote they were all begun in one form or another...[including] “a picture of the beginning of the world, with Pan and Echo and sylvan gods, and a forest full of centaurs,


and wild background of woods, mountains, and rivers.”’5 At some point the artist seems to have realized that such a complicated composition would be difficult to achieve, and the picture was eventually modified to depict just three figures. Its title, too, was eventually changed, as Georgiana Burne-Jones writes, ‘“The Garden of Pan”, exhibited at the Grosvenor Gallery in 1887, is a fulfilment of part of Edward’s intention to paint the Beginning of the World. He first called it “The Youth of Pan”, but, feeling dissatisfied with that name, asked Mr. Mackail to find another, which he adopted.’6 Although work on the painting was begun in 1876, it was not completed for over a decade. The Garden of Pan was exhibited for the first time in 1887 at the Grosvenor Gallery in London, where it was much praised by critics. An early mention of the painting in The Athenaeum describes the subject: ‘...Still more entranced by the pipes are two lovers who sit on the sward at our side of the stream. He is a stalwart and handsome dark-haired youth, and as he listens a smile mantles on his face. The maiden is placed close behind her lover, and, leaning her chin upon his shoulder, clasps one of his hands in hers, and also listens eagerly...The general coloration of the picture is glowing, and it relies for its beauty on the rich verdure of the landscape, which is quite ideal.’7 The following week, the same magazine noted that ‘In poetic suggestiveness ‘The Garden of Pan’...is second to none of [Burne-Jones’s] works – perhaps it is even more suggestive than most of them.’8 Burne-Jones himself, however, presented a somewhat more lighthearted description of the painting, noting that ‘The god is mightily satisfied with himself, as an artist commonly is – the picture has no satire in it, but is meant to be a little foolish and to delight in foolishness – and is a reaction from the dazzle of London wit and wisdom.’9 A preliminary oil sketch for the painting appeared at auction in London in 197210. Preparatory studies for the composition are found in a sketchbook of the 1870’s in the Fitzwilliam Museum in Cambridge11, while a small pencil study for the head of Pan, signed and dated 1880, was formerly in the collection of Sir Brinsley Ford12. A pencil study for the seated youth, formerly in the collection of Viscount Leverhulme, recently appeared at auction in London13.

1.


25 JEAN-FRANÇOIS MILLET Gruchy 1814-1875 Barbizon The Return from the Fields (The Evening Star) Charcoal on canvas. 295 x 369 mm. (11 5/ 8 x 14 1/ 2 in.) [image] 353 x 437 mm. (13 7/ 8 x 17 1/4 in.) [canvas] PROVENANCE: The widow of the artist, Catherine Lemaire, Mme. J.-F. Millet (Lugt 1815)1; Her estate sale, Paris, Hôtel Drouot, 24-25 April 1894, lot 25; Jean Dollfus, Paris2; His posthumous sale, Paris, Hôtel Drouot, 4 March 1912, lot 83; Knoedler & Co., New York; Acquired from them in 1912 by Robert W. Paterson, Lenox, Massachusetts; By descent to his wife, Marie Louise Paterson, New York; Her estate sale, New York, Parke-Bernet Galleries, 17 March 1938, lot 8; James Kirkman, London in 1984; Galerie Prejger, Paris; Acquired in 1984 by Jan Krugier and Marie-Anne Poniatowski, Geneva. LITERATURE: Alexander Dückers, ed., Linie, Licht und Schatten: Meisterzeichnungen und Skulpturen der Sammlung Jan und Marie-Anne Krugier-Poniatowski, exhibition catalogue, Berlin, 1999, illustrated p.411; Philip Rylands, ed., The Timeless Eye: Master Drawings from the Jan and Marie-Anne Krugier-Poniatowski Collection, exhibition catalogue, Venice, 1999, illustrated p.411. Many of Jean-François Millet’s finest drawings are studies of peasant men and women at work. This was a world he knew well, and one that he was born into. As a young boy in the small village of Gruchy in Normandy, Millet had worked alongside his father on his family’s farm – looking after the animals, tilling the soil, sowing and reaping – and remained proud of these experiences throughout his later life as an artist. Millet remained deeply attached to the people who lived and worked in the French countryside, and strove to accurately and sympathetically represent their daily lives in his paintings. At the same time Millet’s peasant figures are often imbued with a sense of dignity, and at times even of grandeur; as Robert Herbert points out, ‘His work joined in a complex process that resulted in the elevation of common man to the rank of history painting.’3 With a composition reminiscent of the Biblical subject of the Flight into Egypt, this charcoal drawing exemplifies Millet’s approach towards expressing the dignity of peasant life by associating it with the vocabulary of religious art, thereby combining the spiritual and the secular. Crossing a barren plain and outlined against the sky, a family returns home with three sheep at the end of the day4. Datable to c.1873, this charcoal sketch on canvas is a preparatory study for one of Millet’s last great paintings, The Return from the Fields (fig.1), which was sold at auction in 19915. The final treatment of a subject to which he had returned repeatedly throughout his career, the large painting was purchased at the artist’s studio sale in 1875 by the collector Jean Dollfus, who also later owned both the present sheet and another compositional sketch for the same picture, now untraced6. Millet had earlier treated a similar subject and composition in a finished conté crayon and pastel drawing entitled Twilight, drawn between 1859 and 1863 and today in the Museum of Fine Arts in Boston7. A stylistically comparable work of a similar subject and date, also drawn in charcoal on canvas and a study for a lost painting of The Return of the Shepherdess of 1874, appeared at auction in London in 19888. 1.


26 AUGUSTE ALLONGÉ Paris 1833-1898 Bourron-Marlotte Woodland Landscape Charcoal and pencil, with stumping. Signed Allongé in charcoal at the lower left. 271 x 427 mm. (10 5/ 8 x 16 3/4 in.) Auguste Allongé was a pupil of Léon Coignet and Louis César Ducomet at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts in Paris, and initially began his career as a painter of history subjects, competing unsuccessfully for the Prix de Rome. He then turned his hand to landscape painting, with which he had more success. He made his Salon debut in 1855 with a forest scene, and continued to exhibit regularly at the Salon des Artistes Français thereafter. Allongé travelled widely throughout France, painting landscapes in Brittany, Burgundy and Provence, and along the valleys of the Marne, Oise and Isère rivers. Early in his career he produced a number of lithographs, which were never published, while in his later years he provided numerous illustrations for the pictorial journals Le Monde Illustré and L’Illustration, as well as for several books. Allongé’s contemporary fame rested mainly, however, on his finished charcoal landscape drawings, of which the present sheet is a fine and typical example. As one contemporary writer noted, ‘Allongé c’est le dessin au fusain, et le dessin au fusain c’est Allongé.’ By 1875 Allongé had settled in Marlotte (today Bourron-Marlotte) in the Île-de-France. As the 19th century painter and art critic Émile Michel described the artist, ‘One of the most ardent painters of the forest, Allongé, whose charcoals and watercolours executed in an easy and broad manner made his name popular, spent the major part of his life in Marlotte, and all year round, by all weathers, one was assured to find him sitting on the Bourron plain, or in the forest near the Mare-aux-Fées, where he never tired of discovering new motifs.’1 In 1879 the artist published a small book entitled Le fusain, a practical guide to drawing in charcoal that was translated into several languages. In mood and effect, Allongé’s landscape drawings have much in common with the work of the artists of the Barbizon school, and are characterized by a particular sensitivity to the effects of light, as expressed in precise, monochromatic tonal values. The use of the charcoal medium (in French, fusain) gained considerable popularity among artists in France in the third quarter of the 19th century, and charcoal drawings by Allongé and artists such as Maxime Lalanne were exhibited in their own right at the Salons. As Christopher Lloyd has noted, ‘Another medium that first gained acceptance at the Salon and was widely supported by dealers…before being taken up by the avant-garde was charcoal. Drawings made in charcoal emphasizing the striking contrast between black and white were known as “fusains”. These were as popular at the Salon during the 1860s and 1870s as pastels were numerous. Linked stylistically with the etching revival of the 1860s and the spread of lithography, fusains were favoured equally by the Realists…as by artists belonging to the Barbizon school. After mid-century, the startlingly vivid images that could be produced in black and white appealed to an even wider spectrum of artists…For these artists, apart from the visual impact of the images, there was the added challenge of pushing the medium to its limits by employing a veritable cuisine of techniques involving stumps, erasure, damp sponges, and even fingers to achieve maximum effect. These fusains, like the watercolors and pastels made by artists from across the whole spectrum of French art, were in reality a celebration of new freedoms.’2


27 JOHN WILLIAM WATERHOUSE, R.A. Rome 1849-1917 London Day Dreams Watercolour, heightened with bodycolour, over an underdrawing in pencil. Framing lines in pencil, and with watercolour tests in the margins. Signed J. W. WATERHOUSE in brown ink at the lower right. 457 x 269 mm. (18 x 10 5/ 8 in.) [image] 501 x 333 mm. (19 3/4 x 13 1/ 8 in.) [sheet] PROVENANCE: Arthur Tooth and Sons, Ltd., London. LITERATURE: Anon., ‘The Dudley Gallery’, The Illustrated London News, 8 March 1879, p.234; Anthony Hobson, The Art and Life of J. W. Waterhouse, R.A., London, 1980, p.197, no.325; Narim Bender, J. W. Waterhouse: 93 Drawings, 2014, illustrated pp.61-62. EXHIBITED: London, The Dudley Gallery, 1879, no.615 (priced at £40). The Victorian painter John William Waterhouse’s watercolours represent a very small but significant aspect of his oeuvre; of the nearly four hundred works listed in Anthony Hobson’s pioneering monograph of 1980, only twelve are watercolours. The artist seems to have used the medium for studies for his larger paintings, and also produced a number of independent, finished compositions, usually set in Italy. Waterhouse may have continued to produce watercolours for his own pleasure throughout his career, but none seem to have been exhibited in public after 18901. Between 1877 and his marriage in 1883 Waterhouse made several trips to Italy, and this charming watercolour would seem to have been inspired by his travels. Sent by the artist to the annual watercolour exhibition at the artist-run Dudley Gallery in London in 1879, the present sheet was singled out in a review in The Illustrated London News, which noted that ‘Delicate artistic qualities are noticeable in “Day Dreams” (615), by J. W. Waterhouse – an Italian girl seated against a white wall, holding a fan of peacock’s feathers.’ Long thought to be lost and only recently rediscovered, this watercolour has remained unseen since the Dudley Galley exhibition in 1879. In its composition, the present watercolour is closely related to Waterhouse’s later painting Flora of c.18902, exhibited at the Royal Academy in 1891 and now lost; this was one of a small group of canvases whose settings seem to have been based on one of several trips that the artist made to Capri in the late 1880’s and early 1890’s. Both Day Dreams and Flora depict women holding fans of peacock feathers, which, as one modern scholar has noted, ‘had become an Aesthetic emblem of beauty.’3 It is of works such as Day Dreams that the critic A. L. Baldry, writing in 1895, noted, ‘In all the work which he executed during this period of youthful enthusiasm he was concerned most of all with the presentation of colour under effects of brilliant light. To ensure the exactness of chromatic statement which seemed to him to be of chief importance, he painted this series of pictures out of doors, posing his models in the bright sunlight, and working unhampered by the conventions and limitations of the studio. It was not merely that he studied his subjects in the open air...[but that] the pictures were actually painted on the spot, and were kept free from any influences that might disturb the vividness of the impression which he wished to convey... People who remember the sunny, sparkling canvases, small in size and glowing with colour, which Mr. Waterhouse contributed to the exhibitions at the end of the seventies, and in the early eighties, will feel even now a debt of gratitude for such glimpses into a brighter world.’4


28 GUSTAV BAUERNFEIND Sulz am Neckar 1848-1904 Jerusalem A Well in Jaffa Watercolour. Signed and inscribed G. Bauernfeind / Jaffa in brown ink at the lower right. Faintly inscribed and dated Brunnen in Jaffa Juni 18(8?)0 in pencil at the lower right. Further inscribed Brunnen in Jaffa in pencil on the verso. 357 x 480 mm. (14 x 18 7/ 8 in.) PROVENANCE: Private collection, New York. Arguably the most talented of the German Orientalist painters, Gustav Bauernfeind was born in Sulz am Neckar in the province of Badem-Württemberg. He was initially trained as an architect and only became a painter relatively late in life. Inspired by a trip to Italy in 1873-1874, he abandoned his architectural career in favour of working as a landscape painter, at first producing scenes of Swiss and Italian views and cities. Looking further afield, he decided to travel to the Near East in search of more exotic subjects, and began making plans to do so in 1879. Bauernfeind made three trips to the Near East – in 1880-1881, between 1884 and 1887, and finally in 1888-1889 – before returning to Munich in 1890. Six years later, however, he left Germany for good to settle in Palestine, where he lived for the eight years until his death. Although Bauernfeind is today regarded as undoubtedly one of the most significant and gifted Orientalist artists, he was singularly inept at self-promotion, and, despite exhibiting his work in Munich, Vienna and Nuremberg, struggled to make a living for much of his career. Perhaps as a result of his training as an architect, Bauernfeind was particularly interested in the streets, buildings, temples and other urban architecture of the sites he visited in Cairo, Jerusalem, Jaffa and Damascus, and would often travel with a camera. Yet, as one modern scholar has noted, ‘Bauernfeind had no intention of glamorizing reality, nor did he seek only elaborate or monumental structures. He concentrated on genuine paintings of every-day life, on forgotten and little-known corners, markets and narrow lanes – in other words, the scene as he witnessed it.’1 The artist would faithfully reproduce these views in watercolour before enlarging them in paintings peopled with exotic figures of Arabs, Jews and others. One of the most ancient ports in the world, the coastal town of Jaffa (or Yafo) is set on a hill above a natural harbour. The port was Jerusalem’s gateway to the sea, and was the landing point for most visitors to Palestine. Its position established the town as a port of strategic importance, and it was repeatedly attacked and conquered over its long history. Destroyed by the Egyptians in the 14th century, by the 19th century Jaffa had begun to recover its importance as a trading port, becoming one of the commercial and agricultural centres of Palestine. In the early years of the 20th century the Jewish suburbs north of the town became Tel Aviv, and eventually Jaffa came to be fully integrated into the larger city of Tel Aviv. Gustav Bauernfeind visited Jaffa in 1880, during his first trip to Palestine. In a letter written from Beirut in January 1881, he noted that ‘Two days before Christmas I took leave from Jerusalem and went to Jaffa, where I arrived in one piece by evening. After the stony wastes of Jerusalem, the luxuriant vegetation of Jaffa impressed me wonderfully, and you cannot conceive the magnificence of the orange gardens with their trees fairly bursting with hanging golden fruit. Although I had to wait for the steamer for several days (over Christmas) I could not get a stitch of work done, as I would be immediately waylaid by acquaintances.’2


Although this letter gives the impression that Bauernfeind’s first trip to Jaffa was in December 1880, he must have visited the town somewhat earlier in the year, since it was the main port of entry for visitors to Jerusalem. An earlier stay in Jaffa is further suggested by the date faintly penciled on the present sheet, which seems to read as June 1880. Bauernfeind returned to Jaffa on his second trip to Palestine, between 1884 and 1887, and was there again briefly in 1889, during his third trip. When the artist settled in Palestine for good in 1896, he lived in the German colony in Jerusalem, although he also seems to have spent some time in Jaffa. Bauernfeind produced a number of watercolour drawings of specific sites in Jaffa and Damascus; places where only a handful of Orientalist painters had worked before him. As one recent scholar has noted, ‘these studies represent architectural documentation that was drawn up at the exact location of the subject and thus are highly interesting from the point of view of architectural history…Bauernfeind’s chief concern all his life in his work was to produce topographically exact representations; he was not interested in merely producing a likeness of the view but rather worked with photographic precision.’3 Gustav Bauernfeind’s large, vibrant paintings of street scenes in Jerusalem, Jaffa and Damascus have remained highly popular with collectors to this day. While the artist produced several paintings set in Jaffa – such as A Market in Jaffa, dated 1887, formerly in the Coral Petroleum collection in Houston4, and Jaffa, The Recruiting of Turkish Soldiers in Palestine, dated 1888, in the Dahesh Museum in New York5 – the present sheet is unrelated to any surviving painting by the artist. It is, however, typical of the type of detailed street scenes in watercolour that the artist would produce as aides-mémoires, to assist him when completing his larger works in his studio. Stylistically comparable watercolours by Bauernfeind include several examples in the collection of the Staatliche Graphische Sammlung in Munich, including a Street in Damascus and a Fountain in Damascus, both dated 18996, a Coffee House in Jerusalem, dated 1880, and an undated view of David Street in Jerusalem7.

Gustav Bauernfeind at work, c.1897.


29 ALOYS ZÖTL Freistadt 1803-1887 Eferding Two Amazonian Horned Frogs (Ceratophrys cornuta) Watercolour. Signed and dated Alois Zötl fecit am 14 Juni 1884 in black ink in the lower right margin. Inscribed Amphibien Taf.37 in black ink at the lower left margin. Further inscribed Weibchen, Die Hornkröte. Rano cornuta. and Mänchen. in black ink in the bottom margin. Numbered 86 in pencil in the lower right margin. 327 x 425 mm. (12 7/ 8 x 16 3/4 in.) [image] 410 x 508 mm. (16 1/ 8 x 20 in.) [sheet] From 1831 until his death in 1887, the obscure Austrian dyer and amateur artist Aloys Zötl produced an extensive series of very large and beautifully drawn watercolours of exotic animals, known as the Bestiarium. This massive project was to be his life’s work, although its purpose remains unknown. The watercolours of the Bestiarium, characterized by a brilliant technique and rich colouring, allied to the unbridled imagination of the artist, do not seem to have ever been reproduced in Zötl’s lifetime, either as prints or in the form of a book. While the animals are generally depicted with a high degree of accuracy, they are given a sort of added symbolism in the way in which the artist has depicted them on the page. Most of the watercolours show the animals in some form of natural habitat, although this at times seems to verge on the imaginary. It is not known if these spectacular watercolours were the result of a commission or – as is perhaps most likely, given the fact that they were part of a project that seems to have lasted over fifty years – simply an astonishing, and lifelong, labour of love. Certainly all of the watercolours remained together after the artist’s death. Hardly anything is known of the life of Aloys Zötl. The son of a master dyer, he was born in Freistadt in Upper Austria and took up his father’s profession, as did one of his brothers, while another became a bookseller. Following his marriage Zötl moved to the village of Eferding, about forty kilometres from Freistadt, where he remained for the rest of his life. He died on October 21st, 1887, after a long illness. His final watercolour, a study of exotic seashells, was dated only eighteen days earlier, on October 3rd, 1887. As an artist, Zötl remained almost completely unknown until after the Second World War, when a large group of his animal and natural history watercolours – numbering 320 sheets – was sold in two auctions in Paris in 1955 and 1956. Nothing is known of the earlier provenance of these works, which were consigned for sale by a descendant of an Austrian family. Writing shortly after the first sale of 150 watercolours from the Bestiarium in December 19551, at which he purchased eleven works, the writer André Breton likened Zötl’s work to that of Henri Rousseau, and identified a distinct Surrealist sensibility in much of his oeuvre. As he noted, ‘Lacking any biographical details about the artist, one can only indulge one’s fantasies in imagining the reasons which might have induced this workman from Upper Austria, a dyer by profession, to undertake so zealously between 1832 and 1887 the elaboration of the most sumptuous bestiary ever seen. It would almost seem as though Zötl’s vision, trained professionally to detect the most subtle colours and tones, had endowed him with a mental prism functioning as an instrument of second-sight and revealing to him in succession, back to its most distant origins, the animal kingdom which remains such an enigmatic aspect in each of our lives and which plays such an essential role in the symbolism of the unconscious mind. ’2


This large watercolour depicts two Amazonian horned frogs (Ceratophrys cornuta); a female frog in the left foreground and a male frog in the right background. Native to countries in the northern part of South America, the horned frog is distinguished by horn-like protrusions above its eyes and a very wide mouth. Measuring up to twenty centimetres in length, it is a voracious eater3. The present sheet may be related in particular to a similar depiction of two horned frogs by Zötl (fig.1), dated August 1863, which is today in a private collection4. Described by André Breton as ‘one of the most beautiful Max Ernsts I know’, that watercolour is numbered as plate 36, and thus – despite the difference in date – may have immediately preceded the present sheet in the arrangement of the Amphibien series of watercolours in the Bestiarium. Aloys Zötl does not seem to have travelled much beyond his home in the village of Eferding in Upper Austria, and it is thought that most of his watercolours must have been derived from his close study of the extensive library of published works of zoology, natural history, ethnography and travel which he owned5. The artist may have based this particular watercolour on an coloured lithograph, by an unknown artist, of two Ceratophrys varia, illustrated in Friedrich Treitschke’s Naturhistorischer Bildersaal des Thierreichs, published in 18426. Zötl produced watercolours of several different species of frogs between 1857 and 1886, some of which were included in the sale of 150 works from his studio held in Paris in 19557. A number of watercolours of frogs by Zötl were later in the collection of Alix de Rothschild8. As André Breton wrote of the artist, ‘It would be...futile to speculate on the origin of the documents, very few of them probably scenes taken from life, which Zötl used to depict this perfect organic harmony between the animal and its environment, of which he is the living hieroglyph. What is so marvellous in Zötl’s paintings is that these two qualities are constantly expressed in terms of each other, and that the artist’s extraordinary ardour conjures up before our eyes the vision of universal harmony which exists, repressed, in the very depths of our beings.’9 Perhaps best described as a combination of science and fantasy, the watercolours by Aloys Zötl for his Bestiarium may be regarded one of the most remarkable and original works of natural history of the 19th century.

1.


30 CARL EMIL BAAGØE Copenhagen 1829-1902 Snekkersten View of the Øresund with Kronborg Castle Pencil and scratching out, with touches of white heightening. Framing lines in pencil. Signed and dated Carl Baagoe 1896 in pencil at the lower left. 185 x 252 mm. (7 1/4 x 9 7/ 8 in.) A marine painter, Carl Baagøe was the son of a ship’s captain. Displaying an early aptitude for drawing, he studied at the Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts in Copenhagen, and exhibited marine pictures there annually from 1855 onwards. Many of his marine paintings also found a ready market in England. His knowledge of ships was based on extensive studies in the shipyards of Copenhagen, and he was particularly fond of shipping scenes in the inland waters around Denmark. He is also known to have travelled in Iceland in 1855, and in Norway between 1866 and 1868. As a draughtsman, Baagøe also contributed drawings to the Danish weekly illustrated magazine Illustreret Tidende. This view of the Øresund, the sound between Sweden and Denmark, shows, at the left, Kronborg Castle in the Danish town of Helsingør. Immortalized as Elsinore in Shakespeare’s Hamlet, Kronborg Castle stands at the extreme tip of the island of Zealand, at the narrowest point of the Øresund. Baagøe painted several views of shipping in the Øresund, many with Kronborg Castle in the distance. Writing in 1874, the archaeologist and antiquary Revd. Charles Boutell singled out for praise a group of marine paintings by Baagøe that were exhibited at the Royal Danish Galleries in London that year. As he wrote, ‘Once more I have before me a group of sea-pictures which, in their turn, justly claim from me a decided expression of admiring commendation. Carl Baagøe is the painter, and he paints sea and shipping. The sea he paints well, the shipping he paints to perfection...[A] picture by the same artist, painted upon a large canvas, is specially remarkable for displaying an accurate and exact knowledge of even the minutest details of a ship and of her spars, rigging, and sails; so perfect, indeed, is this knowledge, and of so evidently practical a character, that Baagøe may be styled, in the best sense of the title, a portrait-painter of shipping; his vessels, however, establish beyond all controversy the fact, that he has painted from the veritable ships themselves, and not from even the most elaborate models of them. In the very clever and telling picture under consideration, the sea, of which a broad expanse is shown, has its smooth surface slightly rippled by a faint breeze, the sky being bright and serene. In this scene, two men-of-war appear, a frigate and a line-of-battle ship...It is not often that such perfect ship-portraits take parts in so truly excellent a marine picture. The same remark is equally applicable to another large and important work, in which Baagøe has shown the sea responding to the action of a strong wind, while drifting rain-clouds sweep heavily over the horizon...This is a picture to charm a seaman, and a landsman also, if he has any of the real “salt” in his composition...Carl Baagøe also has the following excellent pictures: — The Open Sea, the waves sparkling under a stiff breeze,...the Entrance to the Sound, off Elsinore, with shipping and a light-vessel — an animated and most effective composition, thoroughly well painted...and a small view of a perfectly calm sea, with a brig, a fishingboat, and other vessels, off Kronborg Castle.’1 Among comparable, highly finished drawings by Carl Baagøe is a view of Shipping on the Øresund off the Coast of Denmark, signed and dated 1865, and A Steamer and other Sailing Vessels Passing through the Øresund near the Island of Hven, dated 1886; both drawings appeared at auction in London in 19802.


31 LOUIS-ALBERT BESNARD Paris 1873-1962 Paris Portrait of Sarah Bernhardt Watercolour, over an underdrawing in pencil and chalk, reworked with white gouache, oil and gold, with ornamental embossing, on a thin card. The outlines and framing lines incised and the whole varnished. Signed, dated and dedicated A Madame / Maurice Bernhardt / Louis ABesnard. / 96. in light blue gouache at the lower right. 237 x 121 mm. (9 3/ 8 x 4 3/4 in.) PROVENANCE: Presented by the artist in 1896 to Princess Maria-Teresa Jablonowska, Mme. Maurice Bernhardt, Paris and Belle-Isle; Dr. Gustav Rau, Stuttgart1; Bequeathed to UNICEF Germany in 2001. Very little is known of Louis-Albert Besnard, who was the eldest son of the artist Paul-Albert Besnard (1849-1936), from his first, brief marriage to Ernestine Aubourg. Although recognized by his father, Louis does not seem to have been much involved in the family life of the elder Besnard after his second marriage, to Charlotte Dubray in 1879. He does not appear in any of Paul-Albert Besnard’s family portraits of his four younger children, all of whom, like Louis-Albert, were active as artists. Louis-Albert Besnard is known to have exhibited his work in 1938 and 1939. Sarah Bernhardt (1844-1922) was the most famous actress and celebrity of her age. As one recent author has commented, ‘no actress - not even Garbo - has ever attained such heights of fame. As early as 1883, a reliable witness, Emile Bergerat, ranked her, together with Victor Hugo and Gambetta, as one of France’s three most illustrious citizens.’2 ‘The Divine Sarah’, as she was known, loved to be surrounded by images of herself, and was in turn much admired by artists. She posed for artists as diverse as Alfred Stevens (with whom she studied painting and who was one of her lovers), Georges Clairin, Jules BastienLepage, Louise Abbema, Alphonse Mucha, Edward Burne-Jones and William Graham Robertson; the last of these once noted of Bernhardt that ‘This strange dream-beauty was impossible to transfer to canvas; no portrait of her holds even the shadow of it.’3 This portrait of Sarah Bernhardt is signed, dated and dedicated by the artist to the actress’s daughterin-law, Mme. Maurice Bernhardt, née Princess Maria-Teresa Jablonowska (1863-1910). Known as ‘Terka’, the Polish princess was married to Bernhardt’s only child Maurice in 1887. Among the handful of known drawings by Louis-Albert Besnard is another, similar portrait of Sarah Bernhardt, dated two years earlier, which was given by the artist to the sitter, and is now in a private collection4. A watercolour by Besnard of a Spanish Dancer, signed and dated 1893 and stylistically similar to the present sheet, was on the London art market in 19885.


32 FRANÇOIS CLÉMENT SOMMIER, called HENRY SOMM Rouen 1844-1907 Paris Elegant Figures in a Parisian Square Brush and brown wash. Signed Hy. Somm in brown ink at the lower right. 213 x 321 mm. (8 3/ 8 x 12 5/ 8 in.) PROVENANCE: Peter H. Dietsch, New York; By descent to a private collection, London. After studying at the École Municipale de Dessin in Rouen, François Clément Sommier settled in Paris in the late 1860’s, training briefly with Isidore Pils and adopting the name Henry Somm. It was under this name that he illustrated his first book, Alexandre Le Noble’s La Rapinéide ou L’Atelier, poème burlescocomico-tragique en 7 chants, published in 1870. Somm was to enjoy a successful career as an illustrator and draughtsman, contributing regularly to such popular journals as Le Monde Parisien, Le Rire and L’Illustration Nouvelle, as well as providing illustrations for satirical books like Jacques Olivier’s Alphabet de l’imperfection et malice des femmes, published in 1876. Somm was also active as a graphic designer, providing menus, theatre programs, invitations and announcements for the many fashionable events of Belle Époque Paris. He produced visiting cards and bookplates, as well as designs for plates for the Haviland porcelain factory, commissioned by the firm’s artistic director, Félix Bracquemond. Somm was one of the graphic artists who fell under the spell of Japonisme, which first emerged in France in the early 1860’s. Some of his earliest work in this genre was developed in illustrations accompanying a series of articles by Philippe Burty, published in L’Art in the early 1870’s. Somm studied Japanese language and history (an illustrated notebook with his notes on Japanese grammar is in the Louvre), but his plans to travel to Japan in 1870 were halted by the outbreak of the Franco-Prussian war. At the invitation of Edgar Degas, Somm took part in the fourth Impressionist exhibition of 1879, showing his drawings alongside those of Bracquemond, Degas, Mary Cassatt and Camille Pissarro. The 1880’s found Somm associated with a group of artists and writers at the Parisian cabaret Le Chat Noir, where he produced shadow-plays, and for whose eponymous journal he published reviews and articles. Among his friends at Le Chat Noir was Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec, who made an etched portrait of Somm in 1898, and the two were members of an anti-establishment art group known as Les Incohérents. In the latter part of his career, Somm was employed by the periodical Le Rire; required to provide several drawings for each issue, his draughtsmanship became both more economical in line and more self-assured. Somm’s finished drawings are often related to his more commercial work as an illustrator for magazines or books. Although he died in relative obscurity, a retrospective exhibition of his work was mounted at the Galerie Berthe Weill in Paris in 1911. Somm is perhaps best known today for his depictions of Parisian society. As Elizabeth Menon has noted, ‘The artist has been termed a “petit impressioniste” by art critics and historians. While some of his works – mainly scenes of leisure in the city of Paris – exhibit stylistic qualities that support this designation in a broad sense, careful examination of his drawings reveal that Somm is a transitional figure between Impressionism and Symbolism, whose subject matter is principally concerned with contemporary life in Paris.’1 The fascinating technique of this drawing, with the use of a combination of ink blots and pale brown washes applied with a brush to create a composition devoid of pen outlines, is highly unusual in Somm’s oeuvre.


33 FRANÇOIS CLÉMENT SOMMIER, called HENRY SOMM Rouen 1844-1907 Paris An Elegant Woman Chased by Demons Watercolour on paper, laid down on board. Signed Henry Somm in brown ink at the lower right. Inscribed or signed Henry Somm in red chalk on the reverse of the backing board. 210 x 322 mm. (8 1/4 x 12 3/4 in.) PROVENANCE: Peter H. Dietsch, New York; By descent to a private collection, London. The subject matter of Henry Somm’s drawings and watercolours tend towards elegant, often wistful young women, depicted with a particular delicacy of touch. The critic Louis Morin, writing in 1893, noted of the artist that ‘Somm is above all a painter. His pastels and water colors are much sought after; he has the painter’s eye to the highest degree imaginable...More than any other artist Somm is the painter of the Parisienne; not the society woman, but the prettily dressed girl who runs about the streets, her nose in the air, laughing unceremoniously at the compliments of the passers-by, and who sometimes enters the Moulin Rouge or the Elysée-Montmarte. It is by Somm’s works that she will live, this masterpiece of roguish grace, the grisette of Paris.’1 The fantastic subject of this watercolour, datable to the late 1880’s, reveals another, darker aspect of Somm’s art. As Elizabeth Menon has written, ‘Throughout his career, Somm treated aspects of modern life that interested the Impressionists, as well as those that preoccupied Symbolist artists such as Théophile Steinlen, Félicien Rops, and Toulouse-Lautrec...During the tumultuous decade of the 1880s in France, the simultaneous presence in the graphic work of Henry Somm of Far Eastern motifs, scenes from Parisian life, social commentary, and elements of the macabre show how the artist responded – in surprisingly innovative ways – to the complex, coexisting currents of Japonisme, Impressionism, and Symbolism in French culture.’2 What appears to be a partial study in pen and ink for the woman in this composition appears on a sheet of studies of women (fig.1) in the collection of the Art Gallery of Ontario3. A watercolour of a similar subject by Somm, titled Les farfadets and depicting an elegant woman chased by goblins, was on the art market in Paris in 20074.

1.


34 ODILON REDON Bordeaux 1840-1916 Paris A Face at a Window (Visage derrière une fenêtre) Charcoal. Signed ODILON REDON in red ink twice, at the lower left and lower right. 357 x 368 mm. (14 x 14 1/ 2 in.) PROVENANCE: Private collection, Paris, by 1991; Anonymous sale, Paris, Hôtel Drouot, 20 June 2007, lot 51; Private collection, until 2013. LITERATURE: Alec Wildenstein, Odilon Redon: Catalogue raisonné de l’oeuvre peint et dessiné. Vol.II, Mythes et légendes, Paris, 1994, pp.160-161, no.1067, illustrated p.160. EXHIBITED: Possibly Paris, Salle du Journal Le Gaulois, Deuxième exposition des dessins de M. Odilon Redon, February-March 1882 (as Derrière la grille). For much of the first thirty years of his career Odilon Redon worked almost exclusively in black, producing his so-called ‘noirs’ in charcoal and chalk; the drawings which he described as ‘mes ombres’, or ‘my shadows’. Redon’s drawings and prints allowed him to express his lifelong penchant for imaginary subject matter, and were dominated by strange and unsettling images of fantastic creatures, disembodied heads and masks, solitary eyes, menacing spiders and other dreamlike forms. It was not until 1881, when he was more than forty years old, that Redon first mounted a small exhibition of his work, to almost complete public indifference. The following year, however, a second exhibition of drawings and lithographs brought him to the attention of a number of critics, including the novelist J. K. Huysmans1. In 1884 Redon exhibited at the first Salon des Indépendants, and two years later he was invited to show at the eighth and final Impressionist exhibition. In the same year exhibited with Les XX, a group of avantgarde artists, writers and musicians in Brussels. Towards the end of the 19th century Redon began to move away from working mainly in charcoal and black chalk in favour of a new emphasis on colour, chiefly using the medium of pastel but also watercolour and oil paint. Indeed, after about 1900 he seems to have almost completely abandoned working in black and white. Like his noirs, his pastels of floral still lives and portraits were popular with a few collectors, although his work remained unpopular with the public at large. It was left to a handful of enlightened collectors to support the artist in his later years. Nevertheless, an entire room was devoted to Redon at the seminal Armory Show held in New York in 1913, an honour shared by Cézanne, Gauguin, Matisse and Van Gogh. During the 1870’s and 1880’s Redon developed a reputation for his noirs; large charcoal drawings that are ‘dark in both mood and tone’2. Their subjects were often fantastical or visionary, with dreamlike imagery to the fore. The drawings are heavily worked, with charcoal covering every inch of the paper. As Redon famously wrote, in a letter to André Mellerio in 1898, ‘I am terrified of a sheet of white paper. It disagrees with me and makes me sterile, and takes away my enthusiasm to work...A sheet of paper shocks me so much that I am obliged, as soon as it is on the easel, to scribble on it with charcoal, chalk, or some other material, and this action gives it life.’3 It has also been noted, however, that ‘though the noirs may first appear monochromatic, Redon often allowed the tinted papers he used to show through in places, and he sometimes toned the surface with a resinous substance that gave the image a Rembrandtesque patina.’4 In another well-known letter, written in 1894 and published in L’Art Moderne the same year, Redon recalled his discovery of charcoal, or fusain, as a drawing medium: ‘Around 1875 my inspiration came only in crayon, in charcoal, that volatile, impalpable powder that flees under the hand. And the medium, because it offered me a better means of expression, remained with me. This lacklustre material, which has no inherent


beauty, was a great help in my explorations of chiaroscuro and the invisible...It should be said, however, that charcoal leaves no room for lightness; it is full of gravity and one can only use it successfully in the same spirit. Nothing that does not stimulate the mind can produce worthwhile results in charcoal.’5 The present sheet belongs with a small group of charcoal drawings of figures seen imprisoned behind bars, datable to the early 1880’s. These include a drawing entitled The Convict of 1881 (fig.1) in the Museum of Modern Art in New York6 and a Face Behind Bars, formerly in the collection of Henri Petiet and today in a private collection7. An earlier noir drawing of a similar subject, in which the figure is seen through a window rather than behind bars, is the Drawing à la Goya (At the Window) of 1878, in the Van Gogh Museum in Amsterdam8. Like many of Redon’s noir charcoal drawings, the subject of the present sheet has remained profoundly enigmatic. A closely related charcoal drawing of an identical composition, of slightly larger dimensions, was in several Dutch collections in the first half of the 20th century and was most recently recorded with the art dealer Wolfgang Wittrock in Düsseldorf in 19949. Douglas Druick and Peter Zeger’s comments on that drawing are also relevant to the present sheet: ‘Haloed, the host-shaped head is depicted behind bars, fingers at its chin. In this respect, it recalls the figure in The Convict. But in place of the latter’s anguish, the face of the former appears serene, its closed eyes suggesting the ability to spiritually transcend its prison of the flesh by turning inward. This is possibly the unknown element to which the drawing’s alternate title, The Secret, alludes. It may also address the spatial ambiguities implied in this image of incarceration. For, on the one hand, the drawing implies that the host – the Church – is hostage, imprisoned and anguished like the convict...On the other, it is we, the viewers, who inhabit the dark prison of matter, who are cut off from a source of light and spirituality we can see but cannot reach.’10 Either the present sheet or its variant (or possibly one of the two other drawings of this theme noted above) was included – under the title Derrière la grille – in Redon’s second one-man exhibition, held at the offices of the daily newspaper Le Gaulois in Paris in March 1882, which included twenty-one drawings and eight prints11.

1.


35 PAUL GAUGUIN Paris 1848-1903 Atuona (Hiva Oa, The Marquesas) Recto: Taoa: The Head of a Young Tahitian Boy Verso: Two Heads in Profile and a Study of a Torso Reed pen and brown ink, over a pencil underdrawing, on a page from a small sketchbook. The verso in pencil. Inscribed Taoa in pencil at the upper right. Numbered 43 in blue chalk at the upper right corner and 85 in pencil at the lower right corner. The verso numbered 3 in pencil at the upper right and 6 in pencil at the lower left. 166 x 108 mm. (6 1/ 2 x 4 1/4 in.) PROVENANCE: Ambroise Vollard, Paris; Quatre-Chemins-Edidart (W. Walter), Paris; Acquired from them in 1954 by Alexander and Elisabeth Lewyt, New York. SELECTED LITERATURE: Bernard Dorival, Paul Gauguin: Carnet de Tahiti, Paris, 1954, pp.11-12, 24, 34, 43-44 and 48; John Rewald, Post-Impressionism from Van Gogh to Gauguin, New York, 1956, illustrated p.493; John Rewald, Gauguin Drawings, New York and London, 1958, p.27, no.34, pl.34; Ronald Pickvance, The Drawings of Gauguin, 1970, p.32, under pl.57; Nicholas Wadley, ed., Noa Noa: Gauguin’s Tahiti, Oxford, 1985, p.17, fig.7; Colta Ives et al., The Lure of the Exotic: Gauguin in New York Collections, exhibition catalogue, New York, 2002, p.80, no.49; Claire Frèches-Thory, ‘The Paintings of the First Polynesian Sojourn’, in George T. M. Shackelford and Claire Frèches-Thory, Gauguin – Tahiti: The Studio of the South Seas, exhibition catalogue, Boston, 2004, illustrated p.26, fig.4; To be included in a forthcoming volume of the Gauguin catalogue raisonné, published by the Wildenstein Institute. EXHIBITED: New York, Wildenstein, Gauguin, 1956, no.64; Chicago, The Art Institute of Chicago and New York, The Metropolitan Museum of Art, Gauguin: Paintings, Drawings, Prints, Sculpture, 1959, no.85; Martigny, Fondation Pierre Gianadda, Paul Gauguin, 1998, no.73; New York, The Metropolitan Museum of Art, The Lure of the Exotic: Gauguin in New York Collections, 2002, no.49. In June 1891 Paul Gauguin arrived in Tahiti, where he had planned to live and work for the rest of his life, although in the end he stayed only two years, after which he returned briefly to France. During this first Tahitian period, from June 1891 to June 1893, Gauguin spent the first several months of his stay making drawings and sketches of the people and landscapes of the island, with the intention of using them as studies for paintings. As he wrote in a letter to the painter Paul Sérusier in November 1891, ‘I am working hard and earnestly. I can’t tell if it’s good, for I’m doing a lot and at the same time it amounts to nothing. Not one painting as yet, but a great deal of research that can lead to something, many notes that will be of use to me for a long time, I hope...’1 This drawing is part of a small sketchbook of some 130 pages – later known as the Carnet de Tahiti – which was used by Gauguin during his first stay to Tahiti. This sheet was the recto of page 43 of the sketchbook, which was dismembered in the mid-1950’s2. When he first published the sketchbook, Bernard Dorival aptly described the present sheet as ‘a beautiful and charming portrait, that of a young boy of whom Gauguin has, in the upper right portion of his sheet, noted the name: Taoa.’3 As has been noted of this early Tahitian period, ‘Gauguin observed the landscapes and the people around him. Via numerous drawings and sketches, superb examples of which can be found in the famous Carnet de Tahiti...he assembled an entire repertoire of details – people, gestures, faces, animals, and floral elements – on which he would draw when composing his future canvases.’4 Both sides of this drawing can be related to Gauguin’s 1891 painting The Meal (fig.1), today in the collection of the Musée d’Orsay in Paris5. One of the first works painted by Gauguin in Tahiti, the painting is dominated by a large bunch of bananas that takes up almost a quarter of the composition, while


recto actual size


behind the table sit three children who ignore the food before them, and seem somewhat apprehensive. First exhibited in public at the posthumous retrospective of Gauguin’s work held at the Salon d’Automne in 1906, The Meal has been described by Charles Stuckey as a ‘stunning picture, a work that is half still life and half genre and without any apparent precedent among [Gauguin’s] own works or those by colleagues...Almost everything about the painting contributes to an air of mystery...Whereas all of [the still life elements] are brightly illuminated and cast long shadows, by contrast the children in their drab costumes seem immune from the same play of light, suggesting that Gauguin may have added them to his still-life composition at a late phase of its development.’6 The recto of this drawing would appear to be a study for the boy at the right of The Meal, while the study of the head of a youth on the verso seems to be of the same model as the boy at the left of the painting. Two further drawings of Tahitian children from the same sketchbook, also formerly in the Lewyt collection7, may also be related to the Musée d’Orsay painting. As Dorival noted of the Carnet de Tahiti, ‘these faces he drew in our sketchbook, how they become different when they reappear in finished paintings! Compare the three young Tahitians...and what they become in the painting of the Meal, and it will seem obvious. The painter captured the uniqueness of the three figures in the sketches, but he tends, in the painting, to strip them of their particularities and transform them, from the individuals they were, to specimens of a human race, maybe more: as simple representatives of the human condition.’8 Bernard Dorival further noted that the present sheet reveals the stylistic influence on Gauguin of Van Gogh’s drawings in reed pen: ‘in the delightful head of Taoa, drawn with a wide and firm pen stroke which gives the outline, suggests the form and expresses character without harming either its purity or its musicality, are the associated small stick-like strokes used to define the boy’s hair, that not only reveal a certain mechanical aspect to the facture, but also reveal an imitation of Van Gogh: how many drawings, indeed, Vincent left behind, using the tip of a reed pen to tracing vibrating lines, more or less tight, more or less parallel, a style he thought came from Japanese art!’9 In his correspondence, Gauguin frequently referred to his drawings as ‘documents’, and he kept many of the studies he made during his first trip to Tahiti in a special portfolio. He appears not to have intended his drawings to be sold, or even shown to others. As he wrote in 1903, shortly before his death, ‘A critic at my house sees some paintings. Breathing heavily, he asks for my drawings. My drawings? Never! They are my letters, my secrets.’10

1.


verso actual size


36 AUGUSTE RODIN Paris 1840-1917 Meudon Triton Pencil and watercolour. Signed Auguste Rodin in pencil at the upper right. Inscribed bas and triton in pencil near the lower left corner. 325 x 249 mm. (12 3/4 x 9 3/4 in.) PROVENANCE: Anonymous sale, Marseille, Leclere, 8 March 2008, lot 132; Private collection. LITERATURE: To be included in the forthcoming catalogue raisonné of the drawings and paintings of Rodin, currently in preparation by Christina Buley-Uribe. Auguste Rodin’s immense success and reputation as a sculptor has tended to somewhat overshadow appreciation of his skills as a draughtsman. Yet throughout his career he laid great emphasis on his drawings, and wanted them to be better known. He hung countless drawings in his studio at the Hôtel Biron, and sold or gave away many sheets as gifts. From the 1880’s onwards, he mounted several exhibitions of his drawings, culminating in the inclusion of hundreds of studies as part of the great retrospective exhibition of his work held on the Place de l’Alma in Paris during the Exposition Universelle of 1900. At his death, Rodin left a massive group of some eight thousand drawings, the vast majority of which are today in the collection of the Musée Rodin in Paris. Yet while he drew extensively throughout his career, he left almost no dated drawings, and only rarely can a drawing be related to a specific sculpture. As such it is difficult to accurately date his drawings; all the more so because he often reworked his drawings several times, over a period of several years after he had first made them. Around 1890 Rodin became very busy with sculptural commissions, notably the Monument to Balzac, which occupied him between 1891 and 1898. It had been thought by some early scholars that, burdened with work, the artist drew very little in the final decade of the 19th century. This has, however, been proved to be incorrect and, if anything, his intense engagement with the process of developing his ideas for the Balzac sculpture stimulated his approach to drawing. Rodin’s manner of drawing began to change in the late 1890’s, becoming somewhat looser and more expressive, with a greater use of watercolour applied in diaphanous washes. He often made drawings from the model without looking at the sheet of paper in front of him; this may have also been the result of his habit of allowing his models to walk freely around his studio, capturing their movements with his pencil in a kind of graphic shorthand. In 1903, the writer Clément Janin provided a fascinating description of Rodin’s method of drawing at this stage in his career: ‘In his recent drawings, Rodin uses nothing more than a contour heightened with a wash. Here is how he goes about it. Equipped with a sheet of ordinary paper posed on a board, and with a lead pencil – sometimes a pen – he has his model take an essentially unstable pose, then he draws spiritedly, without taking his eyes off the model. The hand goes where it will: often the pencil falls off the page...The master has not looked at it once. In less than a minute, this snapshot of movement is caught. It contains, naturally, some excessive deformations, unforseen swellings, but, if the relation of proportions is destroyed, on the other hand, each section has its contours and the cursive, schematic indication at its modelling...The first effort completed, Rodin takes up the work again, sometimes corrects it directly with a stroke of red pencil; but most often, it is in tracing that he rectifies it. His great preoccupation at this time is to conserve and even to amplify the impression of life that he has obtained from the direct sketch...The tone that he adds, this wash of Sienna that goes over the limits of the line, seems capricious or negligent, and has, in reality, the effect of thickening this enlargement, as well as binding together the contours.’1


Many of these late drawings were shown in public for the first time, albeit uncatalogued, at the exhibition of his sculptures mounted by Rodin in a private pavilion on the Place de l’Alma in Paris during the Exposition Universelle of 19002. Other drawings of this type were shown elsewhere in Europe in the early years of the century. When some of Rodin’s late watercolours of nudes were exhibited in Rome in 1902, the young Swiss artist Paul Klee was profoundly struck by them. As Klee wrote in his diary, ‘Rodin – with caricatures of nudes – caricatures! – a species previously unknown in his case. And he’s the best I’ve ever seen at it, astonishingly brilliant. Contours drawn with a few scant strokes of the pencil, flesh tones added with a full brush in watercolor, and sometimes drapery suggested with another color, greenish, say. That’s all, and the effect is simply momumental.’3 Drawn around 1900, the present sheet may be added to a group of around a hundred drawings of male nudes, inspired by mythology or antiquity, produced by Rodin from the late 1890’s onwards. These drawings are often titled by the artist with reference to such mythological figures as Homer, Ulysses, Icarus, Prometheus or Neptune; several examples are in the collection of the Musée Rodin in Paris4. As the Rodin scholar Christina Buley-Uribe has noted of the present sheet, ‘Drawings of male nudes are not rare in Rodin’s work even though they are less numerous than the hundreds of drawings made after female models. The Ulysses series (Musée Rodin)5 and the drawing of Marsyas (private collection)6...have shown, amongst other things, the reinterpretation made by Rodin from numerous drawings of male models, in light of ancient texts or inspired by Greco-Roman mythology. Triton is not an exception. Redrawn from a Half length study of a man (D. 463, Paris, musée Rodin) sketched ‘blindly’ as Rodin was used to doing, without looking at his sheet of paper, the drawing has been turned vertically in order to create a more dynamic figure. The movement of Triton, toppling to the left, is reinforced by the presence of a dolphin, summarily outlined, diving in the background in an opposite motion.’7 As noted by Clément Janin in his 1903 article, Rodin would often take his initial pencil drawing and make a tracing from it, probably by holding it up to a window. More carefully drawn, this second version ‘stablizes the composition on the page, reduces the distortions and pentimenti, and arrives at a more unified visual image.’8 Such is the case with the present sheet which, as Buley-Uribe points out, is traced from a drawing of the same figure, rapidly drawn in pencil alone, in the collection of the Musée Rodin9. With this second, more refined treatment of the composition, Rodin added pale washes of watercolour to the figure, and added a title to the work. A somewhat similar pose and treatment of the nude male figure is seen in a drawing of a Kneeling Male Nude with One Hand on the Ground, also in the Musée Rodin10. It remains uncertain which orientation Rodin intended this drawing to be viewed. Although the sheet is signed as if the composition was meant to be seen horizontally, as is the case with the cognate drawing in the Musée Rodin, the artist also titled the work and added the word ‘bas’ (’bottom’) in such a way as to imply that this more elaborate version of the composition should be viewed vertically. As has been noted of Rodin’s late drawings, the artist ‘sometimes altered the center of gravity of his figures by turning the sheet on edge and writing the word “bas” below the new and perhaps even more interesting position, changing, say, a reclining figure into a flying or hovering one.’11 Rodin’s late watercolours are among his most personal and expressive works, and distill a lifetime of study of the human body into the simplest and most immediate terms. As Kirk Varnedoe has preceptively written, ‘Guided by the academic belief that the nude figure was the truest medium for the expression of human thought and emotion, Rodin’s development as a draftsman was a search for expressive gesture...believing finally that the spirit of the human form was most clearly revealed in its most instinctive and ephermeral gestures, he saw that...only a style reduced to its most essential elements could transmit such perceptions. Thus Rodin achieved his most personal draftsmanship through willful self-effacement, and the late drawings reflect at the same time the summation of his knowledge, a conscious forgetting, and an unceasing desire to learn.’12


37 LUCIEN LÉVY-DHURMER Algiers 1865-1953 Le Vésinet Portrait of ‘Naile Hanim’, Mme. Hamdi Bey Pastel and charcoal on paper. Signed, dated and dedicated à Madame / Hamdy Bey / Pour reconnaissance / L. Lévy Dhurmer / 1901 in pencil at the lower right. 425 x 325 mm. (16 3/4 x 13 3/4 in.) PROVENANCE: Presented by the artist in 1901 to Osman Hamdi Bey and Mme. Hamdi Bey (‘Naile Hanim’), Constantinople; Anonymous sale, London, Sotheby’s, 16 March 1983, lot 309; Dr. Gustav Rau, Stuttgart1; Bequeathed to UNICEF Germany in 2001. Trained at the Ecole Supérieure de Dessin et de Sculpture in Paris, Lucien Lévy began his artistic career as a lithographer, ceramicist and decorator. He exhibited infrequently at the Paris Salons, and it was not until 1895 that he began to take up painting seriously. His first exhibition, at the Galerie Georges Petit in Paris in 1896, was comprised mainly of pastels and a handful of paintings, and revealed the artist as a painter of mythical scenes and portraits, a Symbolist vein he was to continue in throughout his career. (It was also at the time of the 1896 exhibition that he adopted the name LévyDhurmer, adding part of his mother’s surname Goldhurmer to his own.) An exhibition of his work in 1899 added to his reputation. Established as a fashionable portrait painter, Lévy-Dhurmer also painted landscapes and decorative mural schemes2. In later years, he produced works inspired by the music of composers such as Debussy, Beethoven and Fauré. He travelled extensively throughout Europe, making numerous trips to Italy and also visiting Spain, Holland, North Africa and Turkey, while in France he worked in Brittany, the Savoie, Alsace, the Vosges and the Côte d’Azur. He exhibited at the Salon des Artistes Français, the Société Nationale des Beaux-Arts and the Salon d’Automne, and a retrospective exhibition of his work was held at the Musée des Arts Décoratifs in Paris in 1952, the year before his death. Lévy-Dhurmer had a penchant for the medium of pastel, with which he was able to achieve striking chromatic effects. Indeed, he had a distinct preference for the medium, using it for portraits, allegorical scenes and landscapes, all of which he exhibited regularly at the Salon des Pastellistes Français between 1897 and 1913. It was in reference to such pastels that one contemporary critic, in one of the first accounts of the artist’s work to appear in an English publication, described Lévy-Dhurmer’s paintings as ‘the manifestation of one of the most remarkable figures in the art world of to-day. For here we have something more than promise. This is the work of an artist in full possession of style and method, master of himself and of his art.’3 A modern scholar has reserved particular praise for Lévy-Dhurmer’s pastels; ‘Here indeed, is unquestionably the Symbolist painter who shows the most brilliant mastery of pastel…his pastels strike us with the perfection of their execution and the originality of his inspiration.’4 Dated 1901 and dedicated to the sitter, this pastel is a tender portrait of Marie Palyart (1863-1943), the French-born second wife of the Ottoman painter, archaeologist and administrator Osman Hamdi Bey (1842-1910), who called her ‘Naile’. The couple had four children, and ‘Naile Hanim’ posed for several of Hamdi Bey’s paintings, including a 1910 portrait recently acquired by the Sakip Sabanci Museum in Istanbul5.


38 HILAIRE-GERMAIN-EDGAR DEGAS Paris 1834-1917 Paris Deux danseuses en maillot (Deux danseuses nues en arabesque) Charcoal, with stumping, on papier calque mounted on board. Stamped with the Degas vente stamp (Lugt 658) in red at the lower left. Inscribed Degas no.11468 / Deux danseuses en maillot (dessin) in brown ink on a label pasted onto the backing board. Inscribed V.A.D. 3 / 195 on a label pasted onto the backing board. Numbered x109 in blue chalk and 479 in red chalk on the backing board. 450 x 540 mm. (17 3/4 x 21 1/4 in.) PROVENANCE: The Atelier Degas, Paris; The third vente Degas, Paris, Galerie Georges Petit, 7-9 April 1919, lot 195 (‘Deux danseuses en maillot’); Anonymous sale, Paris, Galerie Charpentier, 1 June 1956, lot 168; Anonymous sale, New York, Sotheby Parke-Bernet, 18 May 1978, lot 109; Anonymous sale, New York, Sotheby’s, 10 May 1995, lot 230. LITERATURE: Lillian Browse, Degas Dancers, London, 1949, p.389, no.157a, illustrated pl.157a (where dated c.1885-1880). This large and impressive charcoal drawing may be dated the first years of the 20th century. As the Degas scholars Jill DeVonyar and Richard Kendall have noted, ‘Degas’ preoccupation with dancers increased inexorably in the course of his long working life, until it almost overwhelmed the art of his old age. Some three-quarters of his total output of pictures in the 1890s and early 1900s were concerned with ballet themes, only his images of the female bather approaching them in sustained originality and commitment. Often this distinction became blurred, in a strange transitional world of nude women who executed arabesques and adjusted their imaginary tights...And we know that dancers from the Opéra still visited his apartment and studio until at least 1910, to pose both unclothed and in the dusty tutus kept there for the purpose.’1 Degas’ charcoal drawings of dancers engaged in ballet exercises often show signs of pentimenti, as the artist tried to quickly capture the position of a leg or arm in motion, and may be counted among his most immediate and spontaneous drawings. The ballet pose depicted in this drawing is part of an ‘arabesque penchée’, in which the dancer begins by standing erect and then slowly tilts her body forwards while raising and extending one leg behind her. This is the same movement captured in a series of three sculptures by Degas, modeled by the artist in wax between 1882 and 1895 and cast in bronze after his death, depicting a nude in three phases of the arabesque2. The pose of the two dancers in this drawing is very close to one of these sculptures (fig.1), the Grand Arabesque, Second Time (Grande arabesque, deuxième temps)3, and Degas is likely to have used the wax model as the inspiration for the drawing. This cross-fertilization between sculptures, drawings and paintings seems to have been a frequent occurrence in Degas’s studio between around 1890 and 1910; indeed, he may have regarded his sculptures primarily as studies for works in two dimensions. As he noted to the writer François Thiébault-Sisson in 1897, ‘the only reason that I made wax figures of animals and humans was for my own satisfaction, not to take time off from painting or drawing but in order to give my paintings and drawings greater expression, greater ardor and more life. They are exercises to get me going; documentary, preparatory motions, nothing more.’4 Degas’s particular interest in the arabesque form is reflected in the fact that he produced a total of eight sculptures of dancers in various stages of this movement. As Alison Luchs has written, ‘Of all the movements of classical ballet, the arabesque seems to have held the greatest fascination for Degas as a sculptor...The arabesque is a moment of balance in which the dancer reaches a peak of tension between submitting to gravity and escape from it. Her body has one point of contact with the earth and endless directional possibilities for the other limbs that seem to strain for freedom...The difficulty for a model to maintain the relevant poses must also have stimulated [Degas] to explore the arabesque in sculpture. The


resulting waxes provided a three-dimensional aid for studying this human movement for the treatments that appear repeatedly in Degas’ paintings and pastels from the 1870s through the 1890s.’5 A closely related drawing of three nude dancers in the same arabesque pose was sold alongside the present sheet at the third Degas studio sale in 19196. In both drawings a curved line at the left of the composition recalls the prominent spiral staircase in the dance classroom of the old Paris Opéra on the Rue Le Peletier7. This spiral staircase is seen in a number of Degas’s dance rehearsal compositions of the 1870’s and 1880’s, in which a line of dancers are depicted in arabesque poses; these include a painting of a Dance Rehearsal (La Répétition de danse) of c.1874 in the Burrell Collection in Glasgow8, and a large pastel drawing of a similar subject, in the Pushkin State Museum of Fine Arts in Moscow9. Also stylistically comparable is a large charcoal drawing of a single dancer in an identical pose, though seen from a more frontal position (fig.2), in a private collection10. DeVonyar and Kendall’s comments on the latter drawing may equally be applied to the present sheet: ‘The charcoal drawing Grand Arabesque, Second Time is exceptionally plausible in its suggestion of transience. Heavy contours around the lower leg and parts of the upper torso remind us of the sheer mass of the human body, while almost entirely erased marks elsewhere evoke our fleeting perceptions of figures and other objects seen in passing. Less anatomically precise than the drawings that Degas made in the 1870s and 1880s, this superb sheet nevertheless seems to describe his subject with immense authority, confronting us with the experience of being present when the living dancer was expertly posing.’11 Of the same drawing, Kendall has added ‘Perhaps because it was derived from a small statuette, Degas has merely indicated the details – such as hands, feet and facial features – and concentrated his energies on the dramatic impact of the pose.’12 Like many of the charcoal and pastel drawings of the artist’s late career, the present large sheet is drawn on papier calque, or tracing paper. This type of paper had a smooth surface and, though thin, was strong enough to be rolled and unrolled repeatedly in the studio. As George Shackelford has noted, ‘In the 1890s…Degas turned to a new shortcut for transferring a successful idea from one surface to another. For this purpose, he used tracing paper – papier calque – through which he could see a drawing below. The smooth, uniform surface of the hard-milled paper provided an unusual but ideal foil for the charcoal sticks that he favored as drawing tools, allowing him both to obtain very smooth, continuous lines unbroken by the tooth of rougher papers and also to smudge and wipe the charcoal, or even to erase it, to create shadow or to correct a misplaced contour. Such tracings could stand on their own as independent sheets and were sometimes signed and sold by Degas, but the vast majority of them remained in the studio, to be discovered at the time of his death.’13

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39 VINCENZO GEMITO Naples 1852-1929 Naples A Seated Dog Black chalk and watercolour, extensively heightened with white and yellow gouache, over an underdrawing in black chalk, on board. Signed and dated GEMITO. 1913 in brown ink at the lower left. 580 x 405 mm. (22 7/ 8 x 16 in.) PROVENANCE: The Marchesa Giulia Albani, Naples1; Thence by descent to a private collection, Italy. After Antonio Canova, Vincenzo Gemito was perhaps the foremost Italian sculptor of the 19th century. A precocious talent, he exhibited in Naples and at the Salons in Paris, where he won a Grand Prix for sculpture in 1889 and a gold medal at the Exposition Universelle the following year. Around 1887, after he began to experience bouts of mental illness, Gemito gave up sculpture almost entirely, and spent much of the next eighteen years as a recluse in his own home. He nevertheless continued to draw, producing portraits of family, friends and colleagues, as well as studies of street urchins and Neapolitan girls. It was not until around 1909 that Gemito again took up sculpture full time, and it was during this later period of his career that he produced some of his finest work in bronze, executed with a delicacy and fineness of detail ultimately derived from his drawings. Indeed, Gemito may be claimed as one of the outstanding Italian draughtsmen of the 19th century, and his drawings – in pen, chalk, pastel and watercolour – were greatly admired and avidly collected by his contemporaries. This splendid large drawing is closely related to a monumental portrait drawing by Gemito; the Portrait of Laura Bertolini (fig.1) in the Philadelphia Museum of Art2, in which the same dog appears in an identical pose3. Drawn in 1913, the Portrait of Laura Bertolini, together with its pendant drawing of the sitter’s brother, dated 1914 and also in Philadelphia, was made for the family who owned Bertolini’s Palace Hotel, one of the finest hotels in Naples in Gemito’s day. Given the sheer scale of this pair of drawings of the Bertolini children, each of which is nearly a metre and a half high, it has been suggested that they may have been intended to be hung in one of the public rooms of the hotel.

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40 GEORGES VALMIER Angoulême 1885-1937 Paris Portrait of Major Mayer-Simon Lambert Watercolour and gouache, over an underdrawing in pencil. Signed and dedicated à Monsieur le Major Lambert / Souvenir de la campagne / 1914-1915 / G. Valmier in brown ink at the lower left. 630 x 506 mm. (24 3/4 x 19 7/ 8 in.) PROVENANCE: Given by the artist to the sitter, Dr. Mayer-Simon Lambert; Private collection, France; The Triton Foundation, The Netherlands. LITERATURE: Albert Gleizes, Souvenirs, unpublished MS, Musée National d’Art Moderne, Paris, c.19421943, p.7; Denise Bazetoux, Georges Valmier: Catalogue raisonné, Paris, 1993, p.45, no.23; Peter Brooke, Albert Gleizes: For and Against the Twentieth Century, New Haven and London, 2001, pp.286287, note 19; Philip Denis Cate, ‘Une alternative cohérente’, in Anisabelle Berès and Michel Arveiller, Au temps des Cubistes, 1910-1920, exhibition catalogue, Paris, Galerie Berès, 2006, p.40; Berès and Arveiller, op.cit., p.192, under no.60; Christian Briend, ‘Le Chant de Guerre, un portrait de Florent Schmitt par Albert Gleizes au musée national d’Art moderne’, La Revue des Musées de France: Revue du Louvre, October 2008, p.96 and p.103, note 19. EXHIBITED: New York, Dickinson Roundell Inc., 19th and 20th Century Works on Paper, 2000, no.33; The Hague, Gemeentemuseum, Triton collectie 4: Kubisme uit de collectie van de Triton Foundation, 2006, unnumbered. Inspired by the work of Paul Cézanne, Georges Braque, Pablo Picasso and Fernand Léger, Georges Valmier’s early paintings were firmly in the Cubist tradition. After serving in the First World War alongside Albert Gleizes, who became a close friend, Valmier was signed to a contract by the influential art dealer Léonce Rosenberg. He took part in the Section d’Or exhibition in 1920 and had his first exhibition at Rosenberg’s gallery L’Effort Moderne the following year. By this time his work was dominated by abstract, geometric forms and vibrant colour. A founding member of the group Abstraction-Création, Valmier exhibited extensively throughout the late 1920’s and 1930’s, and died suddenly in 1937, just short of his 57th birthday. This large Cubist portrait is an early work by the artist, and one of his very few surviving works from the period of the First World War1. Both Valmier and Gleizes were conscripted to serve with an infantry regiment at Toul in Lorraine in 1914, under the command of Major Mayer Lambert (1870-1943), a doctor from Nancy. As Gleizes noted in a later, unpublished manuscript, ‘I first met Georges Valmier at the beginning of the First World War at Toul, in the 367th infantry regiment...With other reservists, writers, artists we formed a small group of friends who preserved faith in and enthusiasm for the values of the intellect, to which we had devoted our lives. Thanks to the efficacious understanding of the head doctor of the depot, Doctor Lambert, professor of physiology at the faculty of Nancy, we were able to continue working.’2 Both Valmier and Gleizes used Lambert as a model during the war years, most notably in Gleizes’ only major canvas of this period, the Portrait of an Army Doctor of 1914, in the Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum in New York3. Lambert seems to have much preferred Valmier’s portrait of him to that of Gleizes, however, as the latter later noted in his unpublished Souvenirs: ‘The portrait that he [Valmier] made of the Doctor was excellent, a very good likeness that remained in the classical idiom. But for myself, I wanted to remain faithful to Cubism and not to play games with my own convictions. So the portrait I envisaged was a little surprising for the good doctor’s habits of mind. He did not conceal his way of thinking, but let me do what I wanted…When [the painting] was finished…he refused, definitely but amicably, to take possession of it.’4


41 GIACOMO BALLA Turin 1871-1958 Rome Forme rumore (Shapes of Noise) Gouache on thick paper. Signed FUTUR BALLA in red gouache at the lower right. 196 x 321 mm. (7 3/4 x 12 5/ 8 in.) PROVENANCE: Casa Balla, Rome; Acquired in 1974 by Roberto Gnisci, Rome; Galleria Arco d’Alibert, Rome; Galleria Editalia, Rome, in 1985; Anonymous sale, London, Christie’s, 29 March 1988, lot 319 (bt. Weiss); Branco Weiss, Zurich. EXHIBITED: Rome, Galleria Editalia ‘Qui Arte Contemporanea’, Il Futurismo a Roma: anni dieciquaranta, 1985. A leading member of the Futurist movement in Italy, Giacomo Balla received almost no formal artistic training. He showed some early promise as a portraitist, and also produced paintings that display an interest in social issues. By the end of the first decade of the 20th century he was painting in a quasiDivisionist style, resulting in such dramatic paintings as Street Light of 1909, today in the Museum of Modern Art in New York, which evince the artist’s lifelong interest in the symbolism of light. In 1910 Balla was one of the signatories of the first Futurist artistic manifesto, the Manifesto dei pittori futuristi, and began to take an active role in the group, founded by the theorist Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. He first exhibited with the Futurists in 1912, and the following year sold all of his early paintings at auction, devoting himself wholeheartedly to the new Futurist aesthetic. Balla had a particular interest in the representation of speed and movement, and exhibited paintings of speeding cars in Florence at the end of 1913 and in the Futurist exhibition in London the following year. He began to experiment with paintings depicting speed using lines of force, abstract rhythmic curves and contrasting colours, resulting in dynamic, almost aggressively centrifugal compositions. In 1914 several of his paintings were reproduced in Umberto Boccioni’s book Pittura, scultura futuriste (Dinamismo plastico). Balla’s paintings, with their emphasis on lines of ‘speed’ or ‘force’, continued to exemplify the Futurist ideal in the years of the First World War and afterwards. During the second wave of Futurism in the 1920’s, he remained one of the only artists of the first generation of Futurist painters to continue to express some of the same concerns as his younger contemporaries, with a growing interest in geometric forms. By the early 1930’s, however, Balla had reverted to his early realism in landscape paintings and portraiture, including a series of introspective self-portraits. Datable to the 1920’s, the present sheet is part of a large group of works by Giacomo Balla that remained in his home and studio, the Casa Balla in Rome, after his death. Inherited by the artist’s daughters Luce and Elica Balla, Forme rumore was eventually acquired from them in 1974 by the art historian Roberto Gnisci. A comparable gouache drawing by Balla, entitled Linee andamentali and datable to c.1925, was sold at auction in Italy in 20011. The present sheet may also be thematically related to a number of other works by Balla, also entitled Forme rumore, which have generally been dated several years earlier. These include a painting of c.1918 in a Milanese private collection2 and a gouache of about the same date in another private collection3, as well as a gouache entitled Linea di velocità e forme rumore that appeared at auction in 19804. Also somewhat similar is a collage of c.1915, also in a private collection5. The authenticity of this work has been confirmed by Elena Gigli. This work is included in her archives under the number 2013/553.


42 SIR WILLIAM ORPEN, R.H.A., R.A. Stillorgan, Co. Dublin 1878-1931 London A Kneeling Man Pencil and black chalk on buff paper. Signed ORPEN in pencil at the lower left centre. 330 x 390 mm. (13 x 15 3/ 8 in.) PROVENANCE: Mrs. Evelyn St. George, Cam House, Campden Hill, London; Her posthumous sale, London, Sotheby’s, 26 July 1939, part of lot 1051; Alex. Reid and Lefèvre Ltd., London. EXHIBITED: London, Royal Academy, Commemorative Exhibition of Works by Late Members: Winter Exhibition, 1933, one of nos.735-750 or 766. This drawing is a preparatory study for the drinking figure at the left centre of William Orpen’s large painting The Holy Well, painted in 1916 and today in the National Gallery of Ireland in Dublin2. The Holy Well was the last and arguably the most important of three major allegorical pictures of Irish subjects painted by Orpen between 1913 and 1916, the others being Sowing New Seed (Mildura Art Centre, Victoria, Australia), and The Western Wedding, last recorded in a Japanese collection and presumed lost during the Second World War. Each of these three paintings – a group described by one recent biographer as Orpen’s ‘strange and disturbing Irish valediction’3 – were preceded by large, meticulous figure studies that attest to the importance the artist placed on the canvases. Orpen seems to have intended The Holy Well as a satirical allegory of the Celtic customs, morals and religious practices of his native Ireland. The painting depicts the naked figures of the pagan Celtic people of ancient Ireland who, made to drink from a well, are thereby transformed into Christian Aran islanders. The background depicts Celtic crosses and native dwellings of the 6th and 7th centuries, and the scene is dominated by the thoroughly modern figure of Orpen’s assistant Sean Keating, standing on a wall and surveying this ritual with an expression of benign cynicism4. The artist made several preparatory figure drawings for The Holy Well, of which the present sheet is a particularly fine example. Sean Keating recalled of The Holy Well that ‘The drawings from which he painted the figures were done in lead pencil on smooth white paper, the tones rubbed in with a paper stump. Orpen greatly admired Ingres’ drawings whom he rather resembled in looks but in my opinion they are finer than Ingres’, tho’ it is considered heresy to say so.’5 Orpen’s painting of The Holy Well, along with a number of preparatory studies for it, was acquired for £2,000 by the artist’s wealthy American patron and mistress, Florence Evelyn St. George, and the painting and the drawings were hung on the staircase of her London residence, Cam House in Kensington6.

1.


43 FREDERICK CAYLEY ROBINSON, A.R.A. Brentford-on-Thames 1862-1927 London Evening in London Tempera, watercolour and pencil on paper, laid down on board. A separate sheet of paper pasted onto the main sheet at the left. Signed and dated CAYLEY ROBINSON 1920 in pencil at the lower right. Inscribed ‘“Evening in London.” / F. Cayley Robinson. / In the possession of Cecil French, Esq.’ in black ink on the backing board. 375 x 340 mm. (14 3/4 x 13 3/ 8 in.) PROVENANCE: Acquired from the artist by Cecil French1; The Fine Art Society, London; Stuart Pivar, New York; Acquired from him by a private collector in 1983. LITERATURE: Geoffrey Holme, ed., British Water-Colour Painting of To-day, [The Studio, Special Winter Number], London, 1921, illustrated pl.18. EXHIBITED: London, Royal Society of Painters in Water-Colour, Summer Exhibition, 1920, no.98; London, The Fine Art Society, The Earthly Paradise: F. Cayley Robinson, F. L. Griggs and the paintercraftsmen of The Birmingham Group, 1969, no.193; Wilmington, Delaware Art Museum, The PreRaphaelite Era 1848-1914, 1976, no.6-13. Among the most interesting and original artists in England in the first quarter of the 20th century, Frederick Cayley Robinson remains a relatively obscure figure today. His work has not been the subject of a monograph, nor has there been any major retrospective exhibition of his paintings since 1977. He studied at the St. John’s Wood School of Art and the Royal Academy Schools before completing his training in Paris between 1891 and 18942. Much of the early part of his career was spent abroad, mainly in Florence and Paris. He had his first one-man exhibition in 1904, and began to show his watercolours at the Royal Society of Painters in Water Colours in 1911, where he continued to send two or three works annually until 1926. He was also highly regarded as a mural painter, and his finest works in this field are a series of four enormous paintings known as The Acts of Mercy, painted for the entrance hall of Middlesex Hospital in London between 1915 and 1920. Much of Cayley Robinson’s work is characterized by a sense of stillness and meditative calm, and this is perhaps especially true of his exhibition watercolours. In an appreciation of his work in watercolour, published shortly after the artist’s death, the critic James Grieg noted that, ‘neither medium nor method counts in any great measure for the attractiveness of Cayley Robinson’s oeuvre. Its influence is exercised mainly through spiritual emotion conveyed in rhythmic movement and tender tones of alluring beauty. The rhythm is always controlled within a well thought out design, but it is the elusiveness of the inward motive of his pictures that gives them their indefinable charm.’3 In keeping with much of Cayley Robinson’s work, the subject of the present sheet remains enigmatic. A common theme in the artist’s oeuvre is that of women in enclosed interior spaces, often lit from both a light source within the room and from a window beyond. As Charlotte Gere has noted of such works, ‘It is tempting to compare the interiors which are perhaps his most successful works, with those of his French contemporaries Bonnard and Vuillard; but close examination reveals that their atmosphere has less in common with the intimism that inspired the nabis than with the quietism of the Cotswold artists and authors. In Cayley Robinson’s pictures it takes on an almost sinister quality, and one feels that the figures in their airless rooms are brooding on ancient mysteries.’4 This large drawing may be closely related to a number of similar depictions of women in interiors, often incorporating standing or seated figures at the left edge of the composition, looking into the scene. Among these is a large painting entitled A Winter’s Evening, dated 19185, and an earlier painting of the same title, exhibited at the Royal Society of British Artists in 18996.


44 HERBERT DALZIEL London 1853-1941 Kent(?) Study of Sea and Sky Oil on paper. Signed and dated HERBERT DALZIEL . July 3-4 . 1924 in grey ink at the lower left. 197 x 273 mm. (7 3/4 x 10 3/4 in.) PROVENANCE: The studio of the artist, and by descent to his daughter Ailsa; The Dalziel studio sale (‘The Dalziel Family, Engravers and Illustrators, from the Studio of Herbert Dalziel’), Sotheby’s Belgravia, 16 May 1978, part of lot 119 (‘Sea and sky studies, five, all signed, one dated September 1923, four dated from June to September 1924, all on paper, unframed, each 8 by 11 in; 20 by 28 cm’); Christopher Wood Gallery, London; The Maas Gallery, London. The son of Thomas Dalziel, a painter and illustrator who was the youngest member of the Victorian family firm of reproductive engravers known as Dalziel Brothers, Herbert Dalziel left school in 1874. He studied for a time at the West London School of Art, and his early work shows the influence of the Pre-Raphaelites. By 1882, however, he was studying under Alexandre Cabanel at the Ecole des BeauxArts in Paris, where he remained for about a year. He was elected a member of the New English Art Club in 1887, where he showed between 1881 and 1902. He also exhibited pastoral subjects and landscapes at the Royal Academy, the Royal Society of British Artists, the New Gallery, the Dudley Gallery, the Grosvenor Gallery and the Royal Institute of Painters in Water-Colour. Outside London, he exhibited in Birmingham, Edinburgh, Liverpool and Manchester. Dalziel suffered from ill health and poor eyesight throughout much of his career, and as a result his output remains very small. Nevertheless, he produced a number of beautiful, atmospheric landscape paintings, of which the present work is an especially fine example. Dalziel settled in Herne Bay in Kent, where many of his seascapes were painted. This delicate seascape, painted in oil on paper and dated the 3rd and 4th of July, 1924, is part of a small group of plein-air studies of sea and sky that remained in Herbert Dalziel’s studio at the time of his death. These refined, subtle landscapes show the particular influence of James Abbott McNeill Whistler, whose work was reproduced by Dalziel Brothers and who Herbert Dalziel knew in person. Dalziel’s interest in capturing the atmospheric effects in his landscapes had been first been made manifest several years earlier, in a small group of paintings, pastels and oil sketches that adopted a Neo-Impressionist technique. As Kenneth McConkey has noted, ‘In an extraordinary departure, around 1910, Herbert Dalziel abandoned his conservative style and produced a number of jewel-like landscapes which adopt a sophisticated divisionism...At face value these might be regarded as belated emulations of Seurat, although the sense of atmosphere and weird luminosity draws comparisons with contemporary photography and the mystic landscapes of [Fernand] Khnopff.’1


45 ALBERT MOULTON FOWERAKER Exeter 1873-1942 Swanage a. The Lonely Wood, near Penzance, in Daylight Watercolour. Signed A.M. Foweraker in brown ink at the lower right. 364 x 539 mm. (14 3/ 8 x 21 1/4 in.) b. Moonlight: The Lonely Wood, near Penzance Watercolour. Laid down on board. Signed A.M. Foweraker in brown ink at the lower right. Titled Moonlight: the lonely wood / (Near Penzance) in pencil on the backing board. 375 x 538 mm. (14 3/4 x 21 1/ 8 in.) PROVENANCE: Worth’s Art Gallery, Exeter. A painter and watercolourist, Albert Moulton Foweraker earned a degree in applied science in 1893, and worked as an engineer and journalist in his native Exeter before taking up art as a full-time profession in 1898. In 1902 he was admitted to the Royal Society of British Artists, and the same year settled in the village of Lelant, near Carbis Bay in western Cornwall. He taught watercolour painting at Algernon Talmadge’s Cornish School of Landscape and Sea Painting in St. Ives, and produced a number of views of the Cornish landscape and coastline. Foweraker exhibited regularly in London – showing over fifty works at the Royal Society of British Artists between 1902 and 1912 – and in a number of provincial galleries. His exhibited works were mainly landscapes and views in Devon and Cornwall, as well as Dorset, to where he moved in the 1920’s. Foweraker also travelled often to Spain, France and North Africa, and exhibited numerous paintings of views in these countries. From around 1905 onwards he spent several winters in Andalucia in southern Spain, where he organized painting classes, holding regular sessions in Malaga in January and February, Cordoba in March and Granada in April. His knowledge of Spain led to commissions to illustrate Leonard Williams’s Granada: Memories, Adventures, Studies and Impressions, published in 1906, and Charles Marriott’s A Spanish Holiday, published in 1908. Foweraker’s landscape paintings and watercolours are characterized by an interest in light effects, particularly moonlight, and many of his works are dominated by an intense blue tonality. As one modern scholar has noted, ‘Collectors would, without hesitation, describe Albert Moulton Foweraker...as primarily a watercolourist, and his twilight depictions of Spanish and English towns and villages are highly regarded...For watercolour subjects, Foweraker unsurprisingly painted a number of semi-rural scenes in the locality of his home in Carbis Bay, and in nearby Lelant, but he was also fond of exploring the coastline, capturing reflections in pools in the sand underneath craggy cliffs. However, he developed a special talent for twilight scenes...These mood pieces must have tapped into the same market as the moonrises of his oil painting colleagues and clearly proved popular, as Foweraker concentrated on such twilight scenes to a significant degree.’1


a.

b.


46 PIERRE BONNARD Fontenay-aux-Roses 1867-1947 Le Cannet An Umbrella on a Balcony Oil on panel. Signed Bonnard at the lower right. 21.7 x 12.4 cm. (8 1/ 2 x 4 7/ 8 in.) PROVENANCE: Heinrich Thannhauser (Moderne Galerie), Munich; Acquired from him in the 1920’s by the [Ernst?] Horndasch collection, Germany; Private collection, in the 1960’s; By descent to a private collection; Anonymous sale, London, Christie’s, 22 June 2011, lot 355; Private collection. This oil sketch, which would appear to depict a Mediterranean landscape, has been dated to c.1904. That year Pierre Bonnard made his first visit to the South of France. Together with Edouard Vuillard, he visited their fellow Nabis Ker-Xavier Roussel in Saint-Tropez, and also met Louis Valtat and Paul Signac. Captivated by the light and vegetation of the Midi, which was different from anything he had painted before, Bonnard returned to Saint-Tropez for a longer stay in the summer of 1909 as the guest of Henri Manguin. From then on he was to spend a large part of his career in the South, painting yearly on the Côte d’Azur; in Saint-Tropez, Antibes, Grasse and at Le Cannet, in the hills above Cannes, where he purchased a villa in 1925. This small, charming composition is typical of Bonnard’s approach to painting after the turn of the century, when the artists of the Nabis group had begun to go their separate ways. Rejecting the radical approach to colour and method advocated by the Fauve and Cubist artists who made up the Parisian avant-garde in the early 20th century, Bonnard began to paint landscapes and interiors in what was ostensibly a more Impressionist manner. As has been noted of the artist, ‘Bonnard has often been classed as some kind of belated Impressionist. Certainly between 1900 and 1914 he came to adopt many of the hallmarks – the white ground, the broken and visible brush mark, and even the open-air subject matter – which had characterized Impressionism in its heyday...For Bonnard, Impressionism was a new starting point: ‘When my friends and I decided to pick up the research of the Impressionists, and attempt to take it further, we wanted to outshine them in their naturalistic impressions of colour. Art is not Nature. We were stricter in composition. There was a lot more to be got out of colour as a means of expression.’’1 This painting is first recorded with the art dealer Heinrich Thannhauser (1859-1935), whose Moderne Galerie in Munich was established in 1909, and soon developed a reputation as one of the leading modern art galleries in Germany. In its early years the gallery showed the work of the French Impressionists and Post-Impressionists, as well as contemporary German artists such as Wassily Kandinsky, Paul Klee and the members of the Blue Rider group, the paintings of the Futurist artists in Italy, and, in 1913, one of the first major retrospective exhibitions of the work of Pablo Picasso. This painting is accompanied by a certificate from Guy-Patrice and Michel Dauberville, which notes that it is included in the Bonnard archives at the Galerie Bernheim-Jeune in Paris.


actual size


47 PAUL SIGNAC Paris 1863-1935 Paris Still Life with a Bowl of Fruit Charcoal and watercolour. 207 x 291 mm. (8 1/ 8 x 11 1/ 2 in.) PROVENANCE: The studio of the artist, with the atelier stamp (Lugt 2285b) at the lower right; Marlborough Gallery, London, in 1959; Marlborough-Gerson Gallery, New York; Shirley Arnoff Baerwald, New York. EXHIBITED: London, Marlborough Fine Art Ltd., XIX & XX Century European Masters: Paintings Drawings Sculpture, Summer 1959, no.73; London, Marlborough Fine Art Ltd., 19th and 20th Century Drawings, Watercolours, Sculpture, February-March 1961, no.20. One of the leading artists of the Neo-Impressionist movement, Paul Signac came from a wealthy bourgeois family, and as such was able to support the careers of several of his fellow artists as a patron and collector. He became a close friend of Georges Seurat, whose work he first encountered at the inaugural exhibition of the Société des Artistes Indépendants in 1884, and between them the two painters formed the nucleus of the group of artists known as the Neo-Impressionists. Signac would spend the winter working in his Parisian studio, while the summer months were spent painting at a coastal resort, eventually settling in Saint-Tropez in 1892. Signac painted around six hundred canvases as well as a significant body of works on paper, mainly watercolours. As Marina Ferretti Bocquillon has noted, ‘Signac was the neo-impressionist who practiced watercolor most consistently…For him, watercolor was a seductive alternative to the demanding labor of studio painting, a zone of freedom that suited his restless temperament and love of the outdoors. It gradually took over from his work in oil...’1 As she has also written elsewhere, ‘Signac’s earliest watercolors indicate that he quickly showed an amazing aptitude for the medium and was immediately capable of exploiting its possibilities…Signac had found a new means of expression, which he was able to take to a high level of perfection and which was to occupy a major place in his work. He began systematically to exhibit his watercolors alongside his oil paintings and his drawings; indeed he often insisted that his works on paper be shown alongside his paintings on canvas.’2 Paintings and watercolours of still life subjects account for only a very small part of Signac’s extensive oeuvre. The artist first mentioned his watercolours of fruit and flowers in a letter to his friend, the writer Félix Fénéon, in September 1918, and the earliest of these drawings may be dated to the latter months of that year and the early part of 1919. In these works Signac was inspired by the still life watercolours of Paul Cézanne, which he would have seen at exhibitions at a handful of galleries in Paris. While the broad patches of watercolour in drawings such as the present sheet may reflect the particular influence of Cézanne’s watercolour technique, Signac’s still life compositions are distinguished from those of Cézanne in the younger artist’s preference for more vibrant colours. The present sheet may be compared stylistically with a handful of still life watercolours by Signac dating from the 1920’s. These include A Still Life of Flowers in the Albertina in Vienna3, A Basket of Fruit and A Pitcher of Tulips in the collection of James T. Dyke4, and a Still Life with Fruit and Vegetables, dated 1926, in the Arkansas Art Center in Little Rock, Arkansas5.


48 PAUL KLEE Münchenbuchsee 1879-1940 Muralto Nacht-Eindruck einer südlichen Stadt (Night Impression of a Southern Town) Pen, brush and black (India) ink and black and grey wash, on paper laid down onto the artist’s mount. Signed Klee in black ink at the lower left. Dated and numbered 1925 n.3 and titled Nacht-Eindruck einer südlichen Stadt by the artist in black ink in the lower margin. 301 x 226 mm. (11 7/ 8 x 8 7/ 8 in.) [image] 411 x 326 mm. (16 1/ 8 x 12 7/ 8 in.) [mount] PROVENANCE: Private collection, Bern, in 1948; Anonymous sale, Bern, Kornfeld und Klipstein, 910 June 1976, lot 506 (sold for 58,000 Swiss francs to Berggruen); Berggruen & Cie, Paris; Fuji Television Gallery Co. Ltd., Tokyo in 1981; Acquavella Galleries, New York, in 1982; Walter Feilchenfeldt, Zurich; Acquired from him in 1983 by a private collector, Austria; Anonymous sale (‘The Property of a Private European Collector’), London, Christie’s, 24 June 2004, lot 337; Jan Krugier and Marie-Anne Poniatowski, Geneva. LITERATURE: Paul Klee, Oeuvre-Katalog, MS., 1925, no.43 (N3); Du, October 1948, illustrated p.24; Bern, Paul Klee Foundation, Paul Klee. Catalogue Raisonné, Vol.IV 1923-1926, 2000, p.300, no.3724 (1925.43); Christiane Lange and Roger Diederen, ed., Das ewige Auge – Von Rembrandt bis Picasso: Meisterwerke aus der Sammlung Jan Krugier und Marie-Anne Krugier-Poniatowski, exhibition catalogue, Munich, 2007, pp.342-343, no.163 (entry by Ulrike Nürnberger). EXHIBITED: Munich, Galerie Neue Kunst – Hans Goltz, Paul Klee, Zweite Gesamtausstellung 19201925, May-June 1925, no. 202; Tokyo, Fuji Television Gallery and Osaka, Gallery Kasahara, Paul Klee, 1981; New York, Acquavella Galleries, XIX & XX Century Drawings, Watercolors, Pastels, Gouaches, Collages, October-November, 1982, no.16; Munich, Kunsthalle der Hypo-Kulturstiftung, Das ewige Auge – Von Rembrandt bis Picasso: Meisterwerke aus der Sammlung Jan Krugier und Marie-Anne KrugierPoniatowski, 2007, no.163. A painter, draughtsman and writer, Paul Klee’s first independent works date from around 1903. Three years later he settled in Munich, where he met Wassily Kandinsky and became a member of the Neue Künstlervereinigung (New Artist’s Association) and the Blauer Reiter (Blue Rider) group. He had his first one-man exhibitions at Herwarth Walden’s Berlin gallery Der Sturm in March 1916 and February 1917, the success of which established his reputation. In 1919 Klee signed a three-year exclusive sales contract with the Munich dealer Hans Goltz, an arrangement renewed in 1922. In May and June of 1920 Goltz mounted the first substantial exhibition of Klee’s work in his Galerie Neue Kunst in Munich, including 38 oil paintings, 112 watercolours, 179 drawings, 27 prints and 6 plaster sculptures. This was followed in 1923 by another major exhibition of Klee’s work, numbering 270 works, at the Nationalgalerie in Berlin. (The artist also achieved some success in France and America, with solo exhibitions in 1924 and 1925.) Appointed to a teaching post at the Bauhaus in Weimar in 1920, Klee continued to work there with the move of the school to Dessau in 1925. An exhibition of Klee’s work at the newly opened Museum of Modern Art in New York in 1930 cemented the artist’s reputation outside Germany. In 1931 Klee resigned from the Bauhaus to take up a position as professor of painting at the Düsseldorf Akademie, a post he only held for two years before being banned from teaching – as a ‘degenerate artist’ – by the Nazis in 1933. The same year he entered into a contract with the dealer Daniel-Henry Kahnweiler, and by the end of 1933 had moved to Bern in Switzerland. Although Klee produced relatively little work between 1934 and 1936, another large exhibition was mounted at the Kunsthalle in Bern in 1935. The same year he began showing signs of


scleroderma, the disease that would eventually kill him five years later. Klee died in June 1940 at the age of sixty-one, three months after the closing of a final major solo exhibition, devoted to his late work of the previous five years, at the Kunsthaus in Zürich. Of the roughly 9,000 works produced by Paul Klee – paintings, watercolours, drawings, prints and sculptures – nearly 5,000 are drawings. The artist parted with only a very few of his drawings in his lifetime, and kept them in his studio, housed in portfolios arranged by year. As his son Felix Klee recalled: ‘Klee did not like to sell drawings because they were always cheaper than his watercolors. Besides, drawing was the backbone of his art. Very few of his works are purely painterly, without any trace of something graphic...he hated to part with his drawings.’1 The Klee scholar Will Grohmann has further noted that, ‘By its very nature, drawing affords less occasion for experiments than other mediums; nevertheless, Klee’s drawing technique is extraordinarily varied. Each time he felt the urge to draw, Klee knew very well whether to choose the pencil, the pen, charcoal, the brush, or more complicated processes.’2 Nacht-Eindruck einer südlichen Stadt (Night Impression of a Southern Town) reflects Klee’s experiences of the landscape of the island of Sicily. The artist had made his first visit to Italy in April 1914, on his way back from a trip to Tunisia. His steamship sailed along the coast of Sicily, and he spent a day in Palermo, noting in his diary the facades of the buildings and the striking appearance of the hillside towns of the area. Memories of this brief visit inspired him to return to Sicily ten years later, in the summer of 1924. Klee and his wife took lodgings at Mazzarò, a town on the sea below Taormina, for two weeks. The trip resulted in more than two dozen watercolours of Sicilian subjects, mostly of landscapes, which are characterized by intense and vibrant colours. Klee remained under the spell of Sicily – which he described as ‘pure landscape in the abstract’ – for much of the next year. In a letter to his wife Lily in November 1924, written from Weimar a few days before the enforced closing of the Bauhaus there, Klee noted that ‘Here everyone is in feverish activity in anticipation of the great crisis about to happen in eight days. I am still so filled with Sicily that it hardly touches me.’3 A few days later he wrote again, ‘I experience nothing, don’t even want to. I carry the mountains and the sun of Sicily within me. Everything else is boring.’4 This drawing is dated early in 1925, and must reflect Klee’s memories of his trip to Sicily the previous summer. Colour is extraneous in this nocturnal view of a southern town, which depicts the anonymous village in rich detail, with an arrangement of delicately washed grisaille tones applied in small, tesseraelike blocks that verge on pointillism. Although drawn in the artist’s Weimar studio rather than on the spot, the use of a mosaic-like technique in this drawing could reflect Klee’s close study of the rich mosaics of the churches of Palermo and nearby Monreale. The monochrome grisaille technique of Nacht-Eindruck einer südlichen Stadt (Night Impression of a Southern Town) is only seen in one other major work on paper of 1925; a pen and ink wash drawing entitled Kind im Asterngarten (Child in the Aster Garden), formerly in a Swiss private collection, which appeared at auction in 1990 and 19955. In the same year of 1925, Klee used a similar mosaic technique in a handful of colour works executed in watercolours and oils6, as well as in some mosaic-like paintings in which the colour squares are larger and more prominent7. Shortly after it was drawn, Nacht-Eindruck einer südlichen Stadt (Night Impression of a Southern Town) was shown at Hans Goltz’s Galerie Neue Kunst in Munich in May and June of 1925, as part of an exhibition of some 214 works by Klee. As one modern scholar has written, ‘Klee was a gardener in a little piece of paradise. Under his direction his charges blossomed beautifully, full of harmony and grace. His motifs seem to develop with consummate ease, almost – it would seem – of their own accord, and whatever basic note he strikes, his colours contrast in such a way that their sound blends in inevitable harmony. Even when he compresses his pictorial resources to the utmost, he never slips into anything uncontrolled or random. Klee formulates subtly sensitive offerings for the viewer’s eye, offerings so cautious and gentle that they readily elide consumption in this day and age. Paul Klee’s art demands undivided attention – and it is also capable of opening ones eyes to something that lies beyond the image itself.’8


49 PERCY DRAKE BROOKSHAW London 1907-1993 London(?) A Boat Race Gouache on paper. Signed DRAKE BROOKSHAW in light blue and dark blue gouache at the lower left. 257 x 385 mm. (10 1/ 8 x 15 1/ 8 in.) [image] 315 x 435 mm. (12 3/ 8 x 17 1/ 8 in.) [sheet] PROVENANCE: The family of the artist, and thence by descent. Born in Southwark in London, Percy Drake Brookshaw studied at the Central School of Arts and Crafts. A painter in oils and watercolours as well as a lithographer, he was encouraged by the poster and textile designer F. Gregory Brown to turn his hand to working as an illustrator, poster designer and graphic artist. Brookshaw designed advertising posters for London Transport and the Underground Group between 1928 and 1958, often depicting such annual sporting events as the Lawn Tennis Finals at Wimbledon, the cricket at Lords, football Cup Finals at Wembley1 and the Oxford and Cambridge University Boat Race on the river Thames. Brookshaw taught lithography at Goldsmith’s College School of Art in London in the late 1940’s and early 1950’s, and was a member of the Art Workers Guild and the Senefelder Club. He also worked occasionally as an illustrator, notably providing illustrations for an edition of Robert Louis Stevenson’s Kidnapped, published in 1925. The present sheet is likely to have been a design for a poster, possibly for the Henley Royal Regatta or the University Boat Race. The artist here depicts the boat race from overhead, emphasizing in particular the decorative effect of the action of the oars and the ripples caused by them in the water. Brookshaw produced a number of posters of the annual University Boat Race for the London Underground in the 1920’s and 1930’s, two examples of which – for the Boat Race in 1928 and 1937 – are today in the collection of the London Transport Museum2. The first London Underground poster advertising the annual Oxford and Cambridge University Boat Race was produced in 1911. Although the earliest examples were fairly traditional in appearance, this changed in later years. As one scholar has written, ‘Throughout the 1920’s, the London Underground continued to distribute posters advertising the Boat Race, many of which were now produced by more innovative and modernist-inspired artists brought in under the leadership of Frank Pick. Among these were Charles Paine and Percy Drake Brookshaw, both of whom produced posters featuring boats seen from an aerial perspective and with a strong emphasis on the geometrical forms made by the boats as they sped through the water.’3


50 PABLO PICASSO Malaga 1881-1973 Mougins The Head of a Bearded Man in Profile (The Sculptor) Pen and black ink. Inscribed and dated Juan les Pins / 9 Aout XXXI in black ink at the lower left. 326 x 254 mm. (12 7/ 8 x 10 in.) PROVENANCE: The estate of the artist (Inv. 3437); By descent to the artist’s granddaughter Marina Picasso, Cannes, Geneva and New York (Lugt 3698), her collection stamp on the verso; Galerie Jan Krugier, New York; James Kirkman, London; Anonymous sale, London, Sotheby’s, 1 July 1998, lot 169; Jan Krugier and Marie-Anne Poniatowski, Geneva. LITERATURE: Alexander Dückers, ed., Linie, Licht und Schatten: Meisterzeichnungen und Skulpturen der Sammlung Jan und Marie-Anne Krugier-Poniatowski, exhibition catalogue, Berlin, 1999, pp.284-285, no.134 (entry by León Krempel); Philip Rylands, ed., The Timeless Eye: Master Drawings from the Jan and Marie-Anne Krugier-Poniatowski Collection, exhibition catalogue, Venice, 1999, illustrated p.414. EXHIBITED: Berlin, Kupferstichkabinett, Linie, Licht und Schatten: Meisterzeichnungen und Skulpturen der Sammlung Jan und Marie-Anne Krugier-Poniatowski, 1999, no.134. Drawn in the summer of 1931 at Juan-les-Pins, while Picasso was renting the Villa Chêne-Roc for the month of August, the present sheet was unknown to Christian Zervos when he published his monumental catalogue raisonné of Picasso’s work, and has remained little known to most Picasso scholars. It may be related to a series of pen drawings and paintings of a sculptor (or sculptors) with a model in a studio, which Picasso produced throughout that month1. The sculptors depicted in these drawings are invariably bearded men, and very similar in type to that seen here. This drawing may also be associated with two stylistically similar pen and ink studies of bearded men, drawn a few days later on the 9th and 10th of August 1931, in the collection of the Musée Picasso in Paris2. The theme of the sculptor and his model was central to the etchings produced by Picasso between 1927 and 1929 for Honoré de Balzac’s short story Le Chef-d’oeuvre inconnu (The Unknown Masterpiece), commissioned by Ambroise Vollard and published in 1931, while the sculptor is found as a subject in nearly half of the etchings of the Vollard Suite, on which the artist worked between 1930 and 1937. It was perhaps natural for Picasso to treat the theme of the sculptor so extensively in his drawings and prints at this time, since he himself had returned with such enthusiasm to the practice of sculpture at the Château de Boisgeloup in 1930 and 1931. The drawing may also be related thematically to a series of engravings commissioned from Picasso by the publisher Albert Skira to illustrate an edition of Ovid’s Metamorphoses, on which the artist worked in the autumn of 1930. Published in 1931, the Ovid engravings included a number of similar depictions of bearded men in the guise of gods or Greek heroes. Echoes of this bearded figure continue to be found in Picasso’s drawings over the next few years3. This spare, economical manner of Neoclassical line drawing was to dominate Picasso’s graphic work in the early 1930’s. Drawings of this type had their roots in the classical forms such as Greek vases and portraits on ancient coins, as well as the line drawings of the great 19th century draughtsman JeanAuguste-Dominique Ingres (1780-1867), whose work was to be a lifelong touchstone for the Spaniard. A closely related pen drawing of a bearded man in profile to the left, dated the same day as the present sheet and of similar dimensions, appeared at auction in Paris in 19924.


51 GRAHAM SUTHERLAND, OM London 1903-1980 London Teeming Pit Charcoal, black ink, watercolour, gouache and pastel on paper laid down on board. 510 x 385 mm. (20 1/ 8 x 15 1/ 8 in.) PROVENANCE: Anonymous sale, Sotheby’s, 25 October 1972, lot 121 [catalogue untraced]; Anonymous sale (‘A Collection of Works by Graham Sutherland, O.M.’), London, Sotheby’s, 5 April 2000, lot 95; Peter Nahum, London; His sale, London, Christie’s South Kensington, 15 November 2006, lot 196; Private collection, London. LITERATURE: Roberto Tassi, Sutherland: The wartime drawings, Milan, 1979, p.127, fig.122 (with incorrect dimensions). EXHIBITED: London, Olympia, Graham Sutherland: Olympia Loan Exhibition, February - March 2003, no. GS 188. In 1938 Graham Sutherland’s friend and mentor Sir Kenneth Clark was appointed head of the War Artists Advisory Committee, and he engaged Sutherland as an official War Artist from 1940 to 1945. Sutherland first depicted scenes of bomb damage in London, then turned his attention to studies of industrial production on the home front; tin mining, steel works, open cast coal mining and limestone quarrying1. At the end of September 1941 he was sent to make drawings of the large blast furnaces at the Guest, Keen and Baldwin Steel Works in Cardiff. The artist was fascinated by the almost alchemical processes in steel manufacturing, and by the huge furnaces and crucibles, the molten steel and the red and yellow glow of the huge flames. As Malcolm Yorke has noted, ‘Now all his sunset colours could be deployed again in the flow of molten iron, flames belching from furnace doors, glowing crusts of slag and the plop and seeth of boiling metal...In this dramatic black and red inferno the steel-men risked their lives teeming super-heated metals, feeding the voracious furnaces and tapping the outflow.’2 Many years later, in a 1971 interview, Sutherland recalled the sight: ‘As the hand feeds the mouth so did the long scoops which plunged into the furnace openings feed them, and the metal containers pouring molten iron into ladles had great encrusted mouths.’3 Executed in a rich combination of different media and techniques, this vibrant drawing depicts the process of ‘teeming’ in steel manufacture; the pouring of molten steel into ingot moulds. A similar composition, drawn in watercolour, wax crayon and black ink and entitled Twin Ladles, was presented by the War Artist’s Advisory Committee to the Ashmolean Museum on Oxford in 19474. Another related composition, Twin Ladles: A Furnace Scene, appeared at auction in 19725, while a similar drawing of Teeming Steel into Moulds, sharing the same provenance as the present sheet, was sold at auction in 20006. An associated subject also occurs in a gouache drawing of a Teeming Pit: Tapping a Steel Furnace in the Imperial War Museum in London7. In later years, Sutherland recalled, ‘I think my war paintings did have a very big effect on me...I painted a lot of factory subjects – machinery and the rest...these vast machines, with violence in the air, later made me see correspondence with the forms in nature. I began to see a curious similarity between machine forms and nature forms. I have always liked and been fascinated by the primitiveness of heavy engineering shops with their vast floors. In a way they are cathedrals. Certainly they are as impressive as most cathedrals I’ve seen and a good deal more impressive than some. And yet the rite – a word I use carefully – being performed when men are making steel, is extraordinary; and how primitive it all really is in spite of our scientific age.’8


52 JOHN MINTON Great Shelford 1917-1957 London Derelict Farm Machinery Pen and black ink and watercolour, with touches of white heightening. Signed and dated John Minton 1948 in brown ink at the lower right. 280 x 381 mm. (11 x 15 in.) PROVENANCE: Possibly The Lefevre Gallery, London, in 1949; Anonymous sale, London, Christie’s, 5 June 2007, lot 211; W/S Fine Art, London. EXHIBITED: Possibly London, The Lefevre Gallery, New Paintings and Water Colours by John Minton, February 1949, no.42 (‘Farm Equipment’); London, W/S Fine Art Ltd., British Watercolours and Drawings 1750-1950, November-December 2007, no.70. Although he had a relatively brief career before his death at the age of thirty-nine, John Minton was enormously prolific and achieved much success in his lifetime. Between 1945 and 1956 he had eight one-man shows, mainly at the Lefevre Gallery in London, as well as taking part in a number of group shows and the Royal Academy Summer exhibitions. Alongside his extensive output as a painter and draughtsman, he produced numerous book illustrations and designs for book jackets, magazines and advertisements, as well as for posters, wallpaper and stage sets. Of independent means, he was able to support the work of several of his fellow artists, such as Lucian Freud, from whom he commissioned a portrait in 1952. Minton devoted much of his later career to teaching, in particular at the Royal College of Art, where he was a popular and inspirational figure among his students. As his biographer has noted, ‘Minton’s virtuoso performances with pencil or pen and ink commended him as a teacher.’1 Although he enjoyed considerable early success, by the 1950’s Minton’s work was becoming overshadowed by that of other artists in his circle, notably Lucian Freud and Francis Bacon. As a friend of his later recalled, ‘He saw himself as overtaken by fashions in art – abstract expressionism among others – for which he had no liking. While others of his contemporaries – Lucien Freud, Francis Bacon, Keith Vaughan – held their ground and came through, Minton saw himself as obsolete, as eccentric and oldfashioned as Edward Lear. He could not come to terms with new developments and he lost faith in his own talent…He was, I suppose, one of those kingfisher-like specimens whose bright plumage briefly glinted then was gone. It might, perhaps, have been different in other circumstances; a little more patience and he could have survived the disorienting shifts in taste.’2 Prone to bouts of intense melancholy and alcoholism, Minton died, by his own hand, in January 1957. A number of Minton’s drawings and watercolours of the late 1940’s depict farms and record farming practices that were soon to be mechanized, or pieces of farm machinery that were no longer in use. The actual type and purpose of the machine depicted in this large watercolour cannot easily be determined; it appears to be a sort of drill or perhaps a fertiliser distributor. The artist may have chosen to draw only parts of the machine, or else may here depict a piece of equipment which may have been adapted by a farmer for a specific purpose. Among several comparable studies of farm machinery by Minton, all dating from 1948, is a watercolour of a Farm Machine, of similar dimensions, which was on the London art market in 20063. A related drawing of Farm Machinery from 1948, also of similar dimensions, was in the Oliver Brown collection4, and another of a Derelict Farm Machine was, like all of these drawings, at one time with the Lefevre Gallery in London5. Also related to these watercolours, although earlier in date and without colour, is a pen and wash drawing of Agricultural Implements of 1945, in the Victoria and Albert Museum in London6.


53 LUCIAN FREUD, OM CH Berlin 1922-2011 London Portrait of Lady Anderson Pencil on paper. Signed with initials L.F. in pencil at the upper right centre. 374 x 233 mm. (14 3/4 x 9 1/ 8 in.) PROVENANCE: With Crane Kalman Gallery, London, in 1969; The sitter, Lady Anderson, London; Her posthumous sale (‘The Property of the Estate of the late Lady Anderson, sold by order of the Trustees’), London, Christie’s, 6 March 1987, lot 197; James Kirkman, London; Michael Hue-Williams, London and Little Milton; Jay Jopling Fine Art, London; Bernard Jacobson Gallery, London, in 1990; Brooke Alexander, New York; Acquired from them by a private collector; With Mitchell-Innes & Nash, New York; Private collection, until 2014. EXHIBITED: London, Bernard Jacobson Gallery, Modern English Masters, 1990, no.35 (as Head of a Woman). The early years of Lucian Freud’s career were largely devoted to drawing, and the practice of drawing would remain a vital part of the artist’s development throughout the 1940’s and early 1950’s. As Freud himself recalled, many years later, ‘I would have thought I did 200 drawings to every painting in those early days. I very much prided myself on my drawing. My work was in a sense very linear.’1 This was a period of sustained activity in drawing, with Freud creating an important series of self-contained works in charcoal, ink, watercolour, coloured crayons, pencil and chalk. The artist had his first solo exhibition at the Lefevre Gallery in London in the winter of 1944, followed by a second show in early 1946, and in both exhibitions a number of drawings were exhibited. However, by the middle of the 1950’s he had largely abandoned drawing altogether, as he felt that the predominantly linear, graphic quality of his paintings was impeding his brushwork. Since then he produced drawings only infrequently, and it was the medium of etching that, in many respects, took the place of drawing as his preferred means of graphic expression. As one scholar has written of Freud’s early drawings, ‘One is struck not just by evidence of close observation but by a certain stylised, self-preening stance towards the subject – one not immune to the appeal of pattern and repetition, yet adhering strictly to the literal over the abstract. The two modes – patterning and description – are not in opposition; rather, they are made to enhance one another...these new, more precise modes of rendering were all part of an attempt by Freud to endow his subjects with a heightened presence. It became possible in this new register to make inanimate, utterly still things vibrate with immediacy.’2 Nicholas Penny has further noted that ‘What makes the [early] drawings...most remarkable is the tension in them between Freud’s extreme sophistication, the cunning and wit of his line, and his determination to present, often with bluntness and force, images with all their essential idiosyncrasy intact. The grotesque is often considered preferable to an easy elegance. Freud speaks with keen admiration for the early drawings of peasants by Van Gogh, as well as for the work of Ingres.’3 Freud’s approach to portraiture was always based on intense observation of his sitters. As he noted in a 2009 interview, ‘I only did heads of people in the early days so I probably felt I should get the most out of them. I sometimes looked so hard at a subject that they would undergo an involuntary magnification.’4 Continued in the same conversation, he added, ‘I never put anything into a picture that I don’t actually see when I’m painting a subject. However, I’m not trying to make a copy of the person. I’m trying to relay something of who they are as a physical and emotional presence...I don’t try to represent what I think about them. I would rather learn something new. Doing a portrait is about seeing what you didn’t see before. It can be extraordinary how much you can learn about someone, and perhaps about yourself, by looking very carefully at them, without judgement.’5


Drawn in c.1952, this is a portrait of the Australian-born Morna Campbell MacKormick (1906-1982), the wife of Sir Colin Anderson (1904-1980), Director of the P & O Shipping Line and a prominent art collector. The couple were married in 1932 (fig.1), and settled in London; first in Kensington and later in Hampstead. A friend of Kenneth Clark from their days at Oxford, Colin Anderson was member of the Contemporary Art Society from 1945 and its chairman from 1962. He was also Chairman of the trustees of the Tate Gallery between 1960 and 1967, and Chairman and Provost of the Royal College of Art. Colin Anderson was an early patron and supporter of Francis Bacon and Lucian Freud, both of whom would occasionally borrow significant amounts of money from him in the late 1940’s and early 1950’s. (Writing in 1952 – the approximate date of this drawing – Anderson replied to one letter from Freud asking for money: ‘My dear Lucian, How rash of you – how unwise – to ask me ‘to think of you as a firm or company’. As such you would be turned down flat, as being unable to provide any security for such a loan. Luckily for you I know so much more of those extraordinary creatures, firms and companies, than you ever will, that I cannot even begin to think of you in terms of them.’6) In gratitude for his financial support, Freud gave Colin Anderson a collaborative album or notebook of texts by Stephen Spender accompanied by Freud’s drawings, produced in Wales several years earlier in 1939, which Anderson eventually returned to the artist in 1968. As collectors, Sir Colin and Lady Anderson (fig.2) assembled a fine collection of Art Nouveau works of art, which was bequeathed to the Sainsbury Centre for Visual Arts at the University of East Anglia in Norwich. Among contemporary artists, the Andersons owned, as well as works by Freud, drawings and watercolours by Edward Ardizzone, Robert Colquhoun, John Craxton, David Jones, Henry Moore, Ceri Richards and Graham Sutherland. In pencil drawings such as this can be seen the lifelong influence on Lucian Freud of the portrait drawings of the great 19th century French painter Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres (1780-1867). This is especially true of Freud’s portraits of the late 1940’s and 1950’s, leading to Herbert Read’s celebrated and perceptive description of Freud as ‘the Ingres of existentialism.’ Freud’s appreciation of Ingres’s skill as a draughtsman remained undimmed throughout his career. Indeed, as he once said of Ingres, ‘His drawing is evocative in a way that forces us to believe in it. A line, any single line, of his drawings is worth looking at.’7

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54 HENRI MATISSE Le Cateau-Cambrésis 1869-1954 Nice Standing Female Nude Charcoal and pencil, heightened with white and grey gouache, on buff paper. Signed and dated H Matisse 50 in pencil at the lower right. 510 x 324 mm. (20 1/ 8 x 12 3/4 in.) PROVENANCE: Galerie Maeght, Paris; Private collection, Paris; Marc Blondeau, Geneva; Stephen Mazoh, New York; Vivian Horan Fine Art, New York; Acquired from them by a private collection, New York; Anonymous sale (‘Property from a New York Private Collection’), New York, Sotheby’s, 3 May 2005, lot 33 (bt. Krugier); Jan Krugier and Marie-Anne Poniatowski, Geneva. LITERATURE: Christiane Lange and Roger Diederen, ed., Das ewige Auge – Von Rembrandt bis Picasso: Meisterwerke aus der Sammlung Jan Krugier und Marie-Anne Krugier-Poniatowski, exhibition catalogue, Munich, 2007, pp.324-325, no.154 (entry by Michael Semff). EXHIBITED: New York, C & M Arts, Henri Matisse: A Survey of Drawings, 1996; Munich, Kunsthalle der Hypo-Kulturstiftung, Das ewige Auge – Von Rembrandt bis Picasso: Meisterwerke aus der Sammlung Jan Krugier und Marie-Anne Krugier-Poniatowski, 2007, no.154. Henri Matisse placed drawing almost on a level with painting as a form of artistic expression, noting that ‘For me, drawing is a painting made with reduced means.’1 As Isabelle Monod-Fontaine has noted, however, ‘Matisse became a great draughtsman through hard work, without the prodigious facility that Picasso had demonstrated from the age of thirteen or fourteen.2 Working primarily in ink and charcoal, ‘Matisse had impressive command as a draughtsman, able to optimise the properties of several drawing mediums and, hence, their visual impact. He moved from one medium to another, modifying his working methods according to his aims.’3 Matisse’s drawings are almost always complete, finished works of art, and generally served a purpose beyond that of merely preparing his paintings. As John Golding has pointed out, ‘Matisse’s drawings were seldom actual studies for paintings, and even when they are preparatory to a painting of the same subject they were almost invariably conceived and executed as drawings in their own right.’4 Throughout his career, Matisse was captivated by the female nude, which became his favourite subject and, broadly speaking, the basis of most of his work. As he wrote in 1939, ‘My models, human figures, are never just ‘extras’ in an interior. They are the principal theme of my work. I depend absolutely on my model, whom I observe at liberty, and then I decide on the pose which best suits her nature...Their forms are not always perfect, but they are always expressive. The emotional interest they inspire in me is not particularly apparent in the representation of their bodies, but often rather by the lines or the special values distributed over the whole canvas or paper and which form its orchestration, its architecture...It is perhaps sublimated voluptuousness, something that may not yet be perceptible to everyone.’5 Furthermore, as he noted to the poet Louis Aragon in 1943, ‘For others, the model is a source of information. For me it is something arresting. It is the source of my energy. I draw standing very close to the model – within her orbit – my eyes less than a metre away from her, almost knee to knee.’6 Perhaps nothing characterizes Matisse’s drawings better than his numerous line drawings executed with a brush or pen. Despite their apparent simplicity and spontaneity, however, as the artist himself noted, these fluid pen drawings ‘are always preceded by studies made in a less rigorous medium than pure line, such as charcoal or stump drawing, which enables me to consider simultaneously the character of the model, her human expression, the quality of surrounding light, the atmosphere and all that can only be expressed by drawing. And only when I feel that I am drained by the work, which may go on for several sessions, that my mind is cleared and I have the confidence to give free rein to my pen.’7


Matisse’s large charcoal drawings, of which the present sheet is a superb example, are among his finest works as a draughtsman. The artist used charcoal throughout his life, relying on its adaptability and taking full advantage of its potential to be worked and reworked, erased and stumped, to create a wide range of tones. As John Elderfield has noted, there is a particular appeal in the artist’s working drawings in charcoal: ‘We know that Matisse most prized those works in pure, uncorrected line. It is certainly arguable, however, that witnessing the struggle to achieve purification is more rewarding an experience than sight of the chaste result. The sublimity of Matisse’s charcoal drawings, in which he searches and erases, and rubs down the forms, only to draw them again and again, tends certainly to support that proposition. In each of these works, a true picture of creation, and, superimposed, of its realization, is revealed.’8 Drawn a few years before Matisse’s death, at the same time that he was producing his abstract paper cut-outs, this large drawing was one of only a handful of simple yet powerful studies of the female nude that the artist produced towards the end of his career. In 1950, the same year that this drawing was made, Matisse made his last sculpture, while his final painting dates from the following year. Weakened by poor health, he was confined to his bed for much of the day, and channelled his artistic energies into drawings and paper cut-outs. Indeed, for much of the final years of his career, drawing took precedence over most other artistic activity. As one scholar has aptly noted, ‘in the last years of his life, Matisse demanded more of his drawings than of his paintings.’9 That Matisse was still immersed in studying the female form as he entered his eighth decade provides an indication of his incessant need to try out new ideas and concepts through his drawings. It is interesting to note, however, that in a late drawing such as this, Matisse’s basic conception of the female nude had changed little from the work of his earlier years. There is, for example, a striking similarity – in both pose and style, as well the angular, geometric forms – between the nude in the present sheet and those found in the seminal large painting Bathers by a River in the Art Institute of Chicago, painted in stages between 1909 and 191710. The use of white and grey gouache to add form and volume to the figure in this drawing shows that the artist was still, at this stage of his already long and successful career, continuing to experiment with the materials and techniques of his drawings. Stylistically and technically, the present sheet can be compared with a charcoal drawing of a Standing Nude, signed and dated 195111. The drawing may also be likened to such late charcoal studies of nudes as a Nude with a Shawl (Carmen) of 195012, and a group of four large drawings, each dated 1949, in the Musée Matisse in Nice13, which are studies for the body of Christ in The Entombment, the last of the fourteen Stations of the Cross depicted in a ceramic mural in the Chapel of the Rosary at Vence. Matisse’s charcoal drawings of the late 1940’s and early 1950’s are among his most striking and expressive works, and sum up a lifetime of study of the nude form. As John Elderfield has noted, ‘In these late works, Matisse’s draughtsmanship is stripped to its minimum and expanded in its scale.’14 This magnificent, large drawing is a fine testament to the artist’s undiminished skills as a draughtsman at the age of eighty-one.


55 ADOLPH GOTTLIEB New York 1903-1974 New York Untitled Ink and gouache on paperboard. Signed and dated Adolph Gottlieb 1961 in black ink at the lower right. 378 x 254 mm. (14 7/ 8 x 10 in.) PROVENANCE: Acquired from the artist by a private collector; Anonymous sale, New York, Sotheby Parke Bernet, 28 May 1976, lot 367; André Emmerich Gallery, New York; Acquired from them in 1977 by a private collector; Private collection. EXHIBITED: New York, André Emmerich Gallery, Adolph Gottlieb: Paintings 1945-1974, 1977 [excatalogue]. One of the founders and leaders of the seminal American movement known as Abstract Expressionism, Adolph Gottlieb (fig.1) was born in New York and studied with John Sloan at the Art Students League, and later at the Parsons School of Design and Cooper Union. He became a close friend of fellow artists Mark Rothko and Milton Avery, with whom he worked closely throughout the 1930’s, as well as Barnett Newman and David Smith. In 1941 he began to paint his first major series of works, known as Pictographs, several of which were exhibited the following year at the Wildenstein Gallery in New York. In 1943 Gottlieb became a founder member of a group known as the New York Artist-Painters, which included Rothko and John Graham. Gottlieb’s mature oeuvre can be divided into three major series of works produced, sometimes concurrently, in the 1940’s, 1950’s and 1960’s: the Pictographs of 19411953, the Imaginary Landscapes, dating from 1951 onwards, and, finally, the large Burst paintings begun in the late 1950’s, which are the artist’s best known works. The first painting of this type, entitled Burst, was exhibited at the Martha Jackson Gallery in New York in 1957, and was quickly followed in the same year by the closely related paintings Blast I (today in the Museum of Modern Art, New York) and Blast II. These vertical paintings of contrasting but balanced

1.


forms – an oval shape, sometimes with a halo or nimbus of thinned paint around it, in the upper half, and jagged black marks in the lower zone – were to provide a template for much of Gottlieb’s output between 1957 and his death in 1974. In the words of one scholar, ‘Oscillating as it does between figural and landscape implications, Gottlieb’s Burst image is a blood brother to Rothko’s stacked-rectangle and Newman’s vertical-band signature images. All have iconic force because of their upright posture, their holistic compression, and their drastic simplification. All are condensed, resonant, luminous, and powerful...In [Gottlieb’s] mature images he achieved what he saw as the quintessence of abstract art – the reduction to a simple resonating object that embodies maximum complexity.’1 In succeeding years the artist expanded the dimensions of these paintings and began using colours other than red and black. In 1966 the contents of Gottlieb’s studio were destroyed in a fire, with the result that much of his output of the 1960’s is lost. A retrospective exhibition of the artist’s work, held at both the Guggenheim and Whitney Museums in New York in 1968, marked the apogee of his career. In 1970, however, Gottlieb suffered a stroke that paralyzed the left side of his body. Though confined to a wheelchair, he continued to paint until his death four years later. The present sheet is a superb example of Gottlieb’s draughtsmanship at the height of his career. Though the artist’s drawings remain somewhat less studied than his paintings, it has been noted that such works were intended as autonomous works of art, rather than as preparatory studies for paintings. Indeed, in many cases, Gottlieb’s works on paper can be seen to develop and refine the compositional ideas that he was simultaneously exploring in his much larger paintings. As the Gottlieb scholar Mary Davis MacNaughton has written of the artist, ‘His works on paper are not as well known as his paintings, having been exhibited less often, but they embody his artistic vision just as powerfully. As small works, they functioned like sketches, allowing him to express his visual ideas in the freshest way. But these works were not traditional sketches; in other words, they were not studies for paintings, but rather independent works that paralleled his paintings. Their energy is equally dynamic, but their scale is more intimate.’2 The composition of this vibrant drawing, executed in 1961, is derived from the series of early Burst and Blast paintings of 1957 and 1958, in which Gottlieb developed a new and simplified imagery that would soon develop into the signature style of the final part of his career. As these seminal works have been described, ‘two forms, roughly equal in area, one above the other; they do not touch, but it feels as if they were bound together, as by planetary forces. The lower form is black and painted in a choppy gestural way; the upper form, red, is smoother in surface and edge, but not closed or measured. It is the product of another type of gesture: the ellipse is freely brushed and surrounded by a tonally graduated halo.’3 The juxtaposition of the two zones of the Burst compositions, contrasting the stillness of the oval shape and the dynamism of the expressive marks below it, is a feature of the present sheet. Among comparable Burst drawings by Gottlieb is an example of the same size and date that was sold at auction in New York in 20074. Although the titles of some of the Burst paintings seem to suggest bombs or explosions, and indeed several critics saw in these works – painted at the height of the Cold War – a reference to the atomic bomb, the artist was less forthcoming about what they were meant to represent. As Gottlieb was quoted in a newspaper interview at the time of the 1963 São Paulo Bienal, where his work won the Grand Prize, ‘I try, through colors, forms and lines, to express intimate emotions...My paintings can represent an atomic bomb, a sun, or something else altogether: depending on the thinking of whoever is looking at it.’5


56 WAYNE THIEBAUD Born 1920 Ice Cream Cone Black (India) ink and black wash, over traces of a pencil underdrawing. Signed and dated Thiebaud 1964 in pencil at the lower right. 320 x 355 mm. (12 5/ 8 x 14 in.) PROVENANCE: Allan Stone Gallery, New York; Acquired from them by a private collector; Private collection, New York. The American painter Wayne Thiebaud is perhaps best known for his colourful still life paintings and landscapes, painted with thick, creamy layers of pigment. He is, as he freely admits, a traditional artist. When he began to paint still life subjects in 1953, however, he chose not to depict the more traditional artistic motifs of flowers or fruit, but rather the humble, often mass-produced foods of everyday American life; pies, hot dogs, cakes, candy and ice cream. His lifelong interest in such ostensibly banal subjects can be understood in a comment he made in an interview in 1968: ‘If you pick any food and isolate it, and if you look hard and long enough at it then it can become very revealing.’ Thiebaud’s still life paintings of food were his first mature works, and made his name following his breakthrough exhibition at the Allan Stone Gallery in New York in 1962. As has been noted of the artist, ‘In his still lifes of food, Thiebaud approaches a venerable artistic tradition with a fresh eye. Instead of recording an artfully constructed grouping of dissimilar objects, Thiebaud presents his pies and cakes and ice cream cones in a familiar orderly arrangement, as they might be displayed in a sweet shop counter. Moreover, in some of the paintings, he has reduced the still-life objects to just one or two or three items, isolated from any discernible setting.’1 Since Thiebaud first came to public attention in the early 1960’s with his bright and bold paintings of food, he has sometimes been labelled a Pop artist. Yet his earliest still life paintings predated those of some of the Pop artists, and Thiebaud’s work remains somewhat apart from the usual Pop idioms2. Divorced from the colour that one associates with most of his work in oil and pastel, this bold pen and ink drawing is a testament to the artist’s genius for composition and line, and a superb example of Thiebaud’s undoubted skill as a draughtsman. The artist has said that ‘Drawing is very central...Drawing, to me, is a kind of research tool, that painting rests upon...I’ve drawn all my life. For a lot of painters I admire, that’s been central to their work as well – people like Degas, who talked about making the same drawing once, twice, ten, a hundred times, if necessary.’3 The subject of ice cream is one that Thiebaud has treated throughout his career. (Indeed in a recent essay, the American art historian John Wilmerding dubbed the artist ‘The Emperor of Ice Cream’.) Among his earliest and most significant treatments of this subject is the painting Four Ice Cream Cones, also dated 1964 (fig.1), in the Phoenix Art Museum in Arizona4.

1.


57 ELIOT HODGKIN London 1905-1987 London Five Oyster Shells Tempera on board. Signed and dated Eliot Hodgkin 12.i.61 in pencil at the lower left. 248 x 382 mm. (9 3/4 x 15 in.) PROVENANCE: Private collection, Connecticut. Eliot Hodgkin studied at the Byam Shaw School of Art and, for a very brief period, at the Royal Academy Schools, where he learned to paint not only in oils but also in tempera, influenced by the work of Joseph Southall and Maxwell Armfield in this medium. He began his career as a mural painter and fashion illustrator, but by the middle of the 1930’s was established as a painter of still lifes and landscapes, exhibiting regularly at the Royal Academy. Within a year or two of his first one-man exhibition, held in a London gallery in 1936, Hodgkin had begun working in egg tempera, and many of his finest works were painted in this demanding medium. As he wrote in an essay published in 1967, ‘tempera has no attraction for me simply because it was used by the Italian primitives, most of whose work does not greatly appeal to me. I use it because it is the only way in which I can express the character of the objects that fascinate me. With oil paint I could not get the detail without getting also a disagreeable surface: moreover I should have to wait while the paint dried before continuing.’1 During and after the Second World War, Hodgkin painted a number of views of plants growing amid the bombed wreckage of London, exhibiting some of these works at the Royal Academy. He also regularly exhibited his work at the Leicester Galleries, the Reid Gallery and Agnew’s in London and Durlacher Brothers in New York. Although he turned down the opportunity of becoming an Academician in 1959, Hodgkin continued to show at the Royal Academy throughout his career, exhibiting a total of 113 paintings at the Summer exhibitions between 1934 and 1981. His subject matter remained largely confined to still life compositions and landscapes, generally on a small and rather intimate scale. Owing to worsening eyesight, Hodgkin gave up painting in 1979, and a sale of the contents of his studio was held in London in 1983, four years before his death. In 1957, in response to an enquiry from the editors of The Studio magazine, Hodgkin provided a succinct description of his lifelong interest in still life painting: ‘In so far as I have any conscious purpose, it is to show the beauty of natural objects which are normally thought uninteresting or even unattractive: such things as brussels sprouts, turnips, onions, pebbles and flints, bulbs, dead leaves, bleached vertebrae, an old boot cast up by the tide. People sometimes tell me that they had never really ‘seen’ something before I painted it, and I should like to believe this…For myself, if I must put it into words, I try to look at quite simple things as though I were seeing them for the first time and as though no one had ever painted them before.’1 As the artist further noted nearly twenty years later, in a letter written to Brinsley Ford, ‘I like to show the beauty of things that no one looks at twice.’2 Dated the 12th of January 1961, this delightful painting of five oyster shells is an outstanding example of Hodgkin’s tempera technique, and of his preference for unusual still life subjects. It is also among the largest works by the artist. Two other paintings of oyster shells by Hodgkin were exhibited at the Reid Gallery in London in 19633, while a painting of four oyster shells was shown at the Royal Academy in 1975. In all of these works, the artist depicted the oyster shells at their actual size, against a monochromatic grey background.


58 RENÉ GRUAU Covignano 1909-2004 Rome A Woman in a Union Jack Dress, Holding a Rose: Design for the Cover of International Textiles Magazine (February 1973) Gouache, watercolour and black ink on paper. Signed with the initial *G in black ink at the lower left. 363 x 300 mm. (14 1/4 x 11 7/ 8 in.) [image] 402 x 327 mm. (15 7/ 8 x 12 7/ 8 in.) [sheet] Arguably the finest fashion illustrator of the 20th century, René Gruau embarked on his career while still in his late teens. Settling in Paris in the early 1930’s, he found employment providing drawings of the latest fashions for the newspaper Le Figaro and the fashion magazine Femina. He also recorded the collections of such Parisian designers as Pierre Balmain, Jacques Fath, Jeanne Lanvin, Jean Patou, Elsa Schiaparelli, Cristobal Balenciaga and, in particular, Christian Dior. Gruau worked closely with the couturier, designing numerous advertisements and posters for the atelier. Indeed, Gruau may be said to have helped to shape the public image of the house of Dior. By the end of the Second World War Gruau’s reputation had spread beyond France. He lived for several years in America in the late 1940’s, working for Harper’s Bazaar and Vogue in New York. Retrospectives of Gruau’s work were held in Paris at the Musée du Costume in 1989 and at the Musée de la Publicité in 1999, while the following year a permanent exhibition of his work was inaugurated at the Museo della Città in his birthplace of Rimini. Even within the seemingly free-spirited world of fashion illustration, Gruau was known as an exacting draughtsman: ‘The idea for a drawing comes very gradually. You have to do a lot of sketches. It’s like a sneeze – it either happens or it doesn’t. Sometimes you just have to leave it alone and come back to it a few days later. The hardest thing is to do a very plain drawing. The perfect line, drawn in a single movement – but you have to work very hard before you’re ready. It may seem simple but it’s not. It takes an enormous amount of work that no one sees…Sometimes it doesn’t happen. I try. I put the drawing aside, I rip it up, I wait. It’s no good unless I’m completely satisfied. I make a preliminary drawing in charcoal or pencil. Then when I’m ready, I use gouache or acrylics or Indian ink.’1 Throughout his career, René Gruau produced numerous designs for the covers of fashion magazines, notably Vogue, International Textiles and L’Officiel de la Couture et de la Mode de Paris, as well as the men’s magazines Club and Sir. The present sheet is a design for the cover of the February 1973 issue of the magazine International Textiles (fig.1); an issue subtitled ‘Britain into Europe’, examining the impact of Britain’s entry into the European Economic Community earlier that year. Gruau produced bold, vibrant cover designs for almost every issue of International Textiles published between 1946 and 1986.

1.


59 R. B. KITAJ, R.A. Cleveland 1932-2007 Los Angeles Portrait of Philip Roth Charcoal on handmade paper. 775 x 570 mm. (30 1/ 2 x 22 1/ 2 in.) PROVENANCE: The estate of the artist, until 2008. LITERATURE: London, Marlborough Fine Art, R. B. Kitaj, exhibition catalogue, 1985, no.73, illustrated p.43; Andrew Brighton, ‘Conversations with R. B. Kitaj’, Art in America, June 1986, illustrated p.102; R. B. Kitaj, First Diasporist Manifesto, London, 1989, detail illustrated p.8; Julián Rios, Kitaj: Pictures and Conversations, London, 1994, illustrated p.62; Richard Morphet, ed., R. B. Kitaj: A Retrospective, exhibition catalogue, London, Tate Gallery and elsewhere, 1994, no.74, illustrated p.152; Richard Dorment, ‘It’s time to learn that less is more’ [exhibition review], The Daily Telegraph, June 22, 1994, p.20 (‘Works like…a magnificent portrait of Philip Roth seemed to me the strongest works in the show.’); Mark Shechner, Up Society’s Ass, Copper: Rereading Philip Roth, Madison, 2003, illustrated on the cover; Andrew Lambirth, Kitaj, London, 2004, illustrated p.62; ‘In praise of…RB Kitaj’, The Guardian, 24 October 2007, p.32 (illustrated); Aaron Rosen, Imagining Jewish Art: Encounters with the Masters in Chagall, Guston and Kitaj, London, 2009, pp.88-89; Marco Livingstone, Kitaj, 4th ed., 2010, p.272, no.407. EXHIBITED: London, Marlborough Fine Art, R. B. Kitaj, 1985, no.73; New York, Marlborough Gallery, R. B. Kitaj, 1986, no.73; London, Tate Gallery, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County Museum of Art and New York, The Metropolitan Museum of Art, R. B. Kitaj: A Retrospective, 1994-1995, no.74; To be included in the forthcoming exhibition R. B. Kitaj: Unpacking My Library, to be held at the Stichting Joods Historisch Museum in Amsterdam, from 19 March to 12 July 2015. American by birth, Ronald Brooks Kitaj began his studies at the Cooper Union in New York and the Akademie der Bildenden Künste in Vienna. After serving in the U.S. Army, he enrolled in the Ruskin School of Art in Oxford in 1958 before transferring to the Royal College of Art in London, where he studied alongside such artists as David Hockney – who was to become his lifelong friend – Allen Jones, Peter Phillips and Patrick Caulfield. Older and more worldly than most of his contemporaries at the RCA, Kitaj was a particular influence on these younger students, who joined him in becoming the leading members of the nascent British Pop Art movement. Having made London his home, he was represented by Marlborough Gallery and enjoyed a series of successful exhibitions in London and New York from 1963 onwards. In the course of curating an exhibition entitled The Human Clay at the Hayward Gallery in 1976, Kitaj coined the term ‘The School of London’ to refer a group of artists including Francis Bacon, Lucian Freud, Frank Auerbach, Leon Kossoff, Michael Andrews and Euan Uglow, as well as himself. Further exhibitions in England and America in the 1980’s coincided with a renewed interest in his Jewish heritage and in Jewish culture and ideas, leading to the publication of his book, the First Diasporist Manifesto, in 1989. Elected to the Royal Academy in 1991 – the first American artist since John Singer Sargent to have been so honoured – Kitaj was the subject of a major retrospective at the Tate Gallery in London four years later. Stung by the savage critical reaction to the exhibition, which was followed shortly thereafter by his wife’s sudden death, Kitaj resolved to leave London for good. He settled in Los Angeles in 1997, and lived and worked there for ten years before his death, by his own hand, in October 2007. Throughout his career, Kitaj was always particularly highly regarded as a draughtsman. He was equally adept in chalk and pastel; the latter medium he took up in the 1970’s, encouraged by Hockney and


inspired by the work of Edgar Degas, who was a particular hero. In 1981, the art critic Robert Hughes, writing of a retrospective of Kitaj’s work at the Hirshhorn Museum in Washington, DC, noted of the artist that ‘Of late, he has also emerged (alongside David Hockney and Avigdor Arikha) as one of the few real masters of the art of straight figure drawing in Europe or, for that matter, in the world…Kitaj draws better than almost anyone else alive, taking on all the expressive and factual responsibilities of depiction and carrying most of them through.’1 Hockney himself recalled of Kitaj, shortly after his death, that ‘He was a great draughtsman. (The best Jewish draughtsman of all, he told me.).’ R. B. Kitaj met Philip Roth (b.1933) in London in 1985, when the writer and his wife Claire Bloom were neighbours of the artist in Chelsea. Roth became a good friend, and his writings influenced and inspired much of Kitaj’s thinking, particularly on the question of Jewish identity. As Kitaj wrote in his First Diasporist Manifesto, published in 1989, ‘One outcome of my study of this strange people of mine is that painting, Diasporist painting in my own life, begins to assume some of the Jewish attributes or characteristics assigned to that troubled people. The listing of traits would be endless and funny. For the moment I will leave all that to my buddy Philip Roth...and his great book The Counterlife, which is quite encyclopedic on these questions. I think that what the Jews promise, paintings may be made to promise.’2 Indeed, the First Diasporist Manifesto opens with a quote – ‘The poor bastard had Jew on the brain’ – taken from Roth’s The Counterlife, alongside a reproduction of the present drawing. (Roth may in turn have been inspired by Kitaj in creating a character named Pipik, who advocates a doctrine called Diasporism, in his 1993 novel Operation Shylock. The character of the former puppeteer Mickey Sabbath in Roth’s novel Sabbath’s Theater, published in 1995, was also based in large part on Kitaj.) Drawn in London in 1985, soon after Roth and Kitaj first met, this large drawing was, according to the artist, done in ‘about six sessions’3. Loaned from the artist’s collection, the present sheet was included in Kitaj’s retrospective exhibition at the Tate Gallery in 1994, which later travelled to the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York and the Los Angeles County Museum of Art. Despite the generally poor reviews for the exhibition as a whole, this drawing was singled out for praise by several critics. (One noted that ‘Works like…a magnificent portrait of Philip Roth seemed to me the strongest works in the show.’4) Among comparable large-scale portrait drawings by Kitaj is a charcoal and pastel study of Lucian Freud of 1991 which was hung alongside the present sheet at the 1994 retrospective exhibition, and is today in the collection of The Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York5. Another portrait drawing of Philip Roth by R. B. Kitaj, drawn several years later and showing the head of the writer in profile, was, like the present sheet, retained by the artist until his death6. Drawn in charcoal on canvas and entitled A Jew in Love (Philip Roth), this large drawing remains today in the collection of the Kitaj estate.

R. B. Kitaj and Philip Roth in London, 1985.


60 AVIGDOR ARIKHA Radauti (Bukovina) 1929-2010 Paris Interior with Drawings Pastel on emery paper. Signed and dated Arikha Nov.88 in pencil at the lower centre edge. 505 x 300 mm. (19 7/ 8 x 11 3/4 in.) PROVENANCE: The estate of the artist; Marlborough Fine Art, London. EXHIBITED: New York, Marlborough Gallery Inc., Avigdor Arikha: twenty-five pastels, November 2007, no.3. Arguably one of the finest draughtsmen of the second half of the 20th century, Avigdor Arikha was born to German-speaking Jewish parents in Romania. The drawings he produced as a thirteen-year old boy while imprisoned in a Ukrainian labour camp brought him to the attention of the International Red Cross, who sent him to a kibbutz in Palestine in 1944. After studying art at the Bezalel School of Arts and Crafts in Jerusalem, Arikha went to Paris in 1949, where he completed his training at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts. He eventually settled in Paris in 1954, studying philosophy at the Sorbonne and establishing lifelong and intimate friendships with Samuel Beckett and Alberto Giacometti. Arikha began his career as an abstract painter, but in 1965 abandoned painting completely, and spent the next eight years working on black and white drawings from life, as well as a series of monochromatic etchings. By the time he returned to painting in 1973, he had become a committed figurative painter, producing portraits of family and friends, interior scenes and still life subjects. Arikha’s drawings, invariably made from life, have always been much admired. As the critic Robert Hughes wrote of the artist in 1974, ‘He gives us back a sense of the possibility of drawing. Arikha is, to my mind, the best draftsman of his generation, perhaps the best to have emerged in Europe since the death of Giacometti.’1 The artist employed a range of media and techniques, including pencil, pen, brush, ink, charcoal, metalpoint, watercolour, chalk and pastel. A large collection of over 110 drawings and prints by Arikha, the vast majority presented by the artist in 2004, is today in the British Museum. The present sheet belongs with a group of pastels drawings that Arikha produced in the 1980’s. As the artist later recalled, writing in the introduction to the catalogue of an exhibition of his pastels held in 2007, in which this work was included, ‘One winter afternoon, during the first months of 1983, I was present at the arrival and unpacking of a crate at the Cabinet des Dessins of the Louvre. It contained the pastel-portrait of Madame Tronchin by Jean-Etienne Liotard. Its impact was such that I rushed to get pastels on the very next morning. I had not practiced this medium since the early ‘50s...The twenty-five pastels paintings in this exhibition were never exhibited nor published, remaining hidden in their drawer until now.’2 The use of pastel became an important part of Arikha’s artistic process, and the medium was applied not only to drawing paper or tinted board, but also soft velvet paper, or, as in the present case, emery paper. The rough surface of the emery paper ‘allow forms that are more fragmented, that do not strive for the same degree of ‘completeness’, so that the white or the tint of the base plays a role in the finished work...the fine crystals of alumina [in emery paper] take up the pressure of pastel in their own particular way.’3 Drawn in November 1988, this pastel is closely related to a much larger oil painting entitled Reflections on the Drawings, completed in December of the following year and today in a private collection, in which the side of a bookcase appears at the left edge of the canvas4. The framed drawing at the upper left of this composition, a study of heads by Alberto Giacometti, is more readily evident in the large painting.


PHOTOGRAPH CREDITS

No.3 Nosadella

No.35 Gauguin

Fig.1 Giovanni Francesco Bezzi, called Nosadella The Annunciation, 1560’s Oil on panel; 107.3 x 78.8 cm. Princeton, Princeton University Art Museum Museum purchase, Fowler McCormick, Class of 1921, Fund

Fig.1 Paul Gauguin The Meal (Le repas ou Les bananes), 1891 Oil on paper, laid on canvas; 73 x 92 cm. Paris, Musée d’Orsay Photo © RMN-Grand Palais (musée Lewandowski

No.15 Prud’hon Fig.1 Marie Françoise Constance Mayer-Lamartinière The Happy Mother (L’Heureuse mère), 1810 Oil on canvas; 105 x 200 cm. Paris, Musée d’Orsay Photo © RMN-Grand Palais (musée du Louvre) /René-Gabriel Ojéda

No.24 Burne-Jones Fig.1 Edward Burne-Jones The Garden of Pan, 1886-1887 Oil on canvas; 152.5 x 186.9 cm. Melbourne, National Gallery of Victoria Felton Bequest, 1919.

No.33 Somm Fig.1 Henry Somm Studies of Women (recto) Ink and watercolour on paper; 292 x 227 mm. Toronto, Art Gallery of Ontario Gift of the Trier-Fodor Foundation, 1985 Photo © AGO 2014.

No.34 Redon Fig.1 Odilon Redon The Convict, 1881 Charcoal on paper, 533 x 371 mm. New York, Museum of Modern Art (MoMA) Acquired through the Lillie P. Bliss Bequest. © 2013. Digital image, The Museum of Modern Art, New York / Scala, Florence

d’Orsay)/Hervé

No.39 Gemito Fig.1 Vincenzo Gemito Portrait of Laura Bertolini, 1913 Graphite and black crayon, on beige wove paper; 1362 x 780 mm. Philadelphia, Philadelphia Museum of Art 125th Anniversary Acquisition. Purchased with the Lola Downin Peck Fund, the Alice Newton Osborn Fund, and with funds contributed by Marilyn L. Steinbright and the J. J. Medveckis Foundation, 1999.

No.42 Orpen Fig.1 William Orpen The Holy Well, 1916 Tempera on canvas; 234 x 186 cm. Dublin, National Gallery of Ireland Photo © National Gallery of Ireland

No.56 Thiebaud Fig.1 Wayne Thiebaud Four Ice Cream Cones, 1964 Oil on canvas, 35.6 x 40.6 cm. Phoenix, Phoenix Art Museum Museum purchase - COMPAS funds.


NOTES TO THE CATALOGUE No.1 Milanese School 1.

Giulio Bora, ‘The Leonardesque Circle and Drawing’, in Giulio Bora et al, The Legacy of Leonardo: Painters in Lombardy 1490-1530, Milan, 1998, p.116.

2.

Quoted in translation in John Venerella, ed., The Manuscripts of Leonardo da Vinci in the Institut de France, Milan, 1999 onwards, Manuscript A, p.246.

3.

Pietro C. Marani, ‘Leonardo’s Drawings in Milan and their Influence on the Graphic Work of Milanese Artists’, in Carmen C. Bambach, ed., Leonardo da Vinci: Master Draftsman, exhibition catalogue, New York, 2003, pp.155-156.

4.

Inv. 12557 and 12553; Martin Clayton, Leonardo da Vinci: The Divine and the Grotesque, exhibition catalogue, Edinburgh and London, 2002-2003, pp.58-60, nos.18 and 19, respectively (where dated c.1517-1518).

5.

Inv. 12554; Ibid., pp.56-57, no.17 (where dated c.1510).

No.2 Biagio Pupini 1.

According to the mount of a photograph of this drawing in the Witt Library at the Courtauld Institute of Art.

2.

A manuscript inventory of the Resta-Somers albums, transcribing Padre Resta’s own notes on each of the drawings, is today in the British Library. The entry for the present sheet, listed under no. K.213, reads: ‘Mo. Biagio Puppini Bolognese, Discepolo / del Francia, prattirò con l’Imola e Gerolimino / da Carpi. fugossotto(?).’

3.

‘Puppini Bolognese (Biagio) 1471 / Coronation of the Blessed Virgin. J 49.’.

4.

Anna Maria Fioravanti Baraldi, ‘Biagio Pupini detto dalle Lame’ in Vera Fortunati Pietrantonio, ed., Pittura bolognese del ‘500, Bologna, 1986, Vol.I, illustrated in colour p.203.

No.3 Giovanni Francesco Bezzi, called Nosadella 1.

Inv. Y1976.25; Winkelmann, op.cit., 1976, pl.80; Winkelmann in Fortunati Pietrantonio, ed., op.cit., illustrated p.467; Norman Muller, The Making of a Masterpiece: Nosadella’s Annunciation, exhibition fact sheet, Princeton, 2010, fig.1.

2.

Winkelmann, op.cit., 1976, pl.79; Winkelmann in Fortunati Pietrantonio, ed., op.cit., illustrated p.465.

3.

Winkelmann in Fortunati Pietrantonio, ed., op.cit., Vol.II, illustrated p.618.

4.

‘Vi riaffiorano ancora risordi bronzineschi nel preciso modellato scultureo del corpo di Cristo e nelle snodatura del morbido perizoma, ma essi sono risolti già con le esperienze mentali e stilistiche ragguinte con l’ ‘Annunciazone’, mentre é ancora molto arcaizzante il motivo quattrocentesco della tomba composta da pietre aggettanti che formano uno spazio adatto per raccogliere la ‘risaltata’ e fortemente modellata figura del Cristo morto, raffigurato nelle sembianze di un antico atleta.’; Winkelmann, op.cit., 1976, p.112.

5.

Winkelmann, op.cit., 1976, pl.84.

6.

‘È da sottolineare come l’artista in quest’operetta giunga ad esaltare l’elemento lirico e musicale della sua arte con un’intensa vena sentimentale. Né sembra casuale la somiglianza interna con il ‘Compianto di Cristo’ del Museo dell’Ospedale degli Innocenti a Firenze di Francesco Morandini da Poppi dove è tuttavia diversa la propensione dell’accento sentimentale: assi più drammatico nel fiorentino, in chiave di sofisticato patetismo nel bolognese, che vi profonda tesori di teatrali repertori espressivi degni della più esasperata cultura internazionale, esattamente fra un Rosso e uno Spranger. Siamo del resto, forse, alla vigilia degli anni ’70. Ci piace anzi collegare l’ultimo aspetto del Bezzi piuttosto che con le alterata pala di Santa Maria Maggiore, con questa squisita ostentazione di devozione elegante, degno commento, in breve formato, dello stupefacente acuto stilistico – ahimé incompreso poi da Bologna, forse perché piuttosto collegato al passato che foriero di nuovo linguaggio – che si alza dalla ‘Annunciazione’ Colnaghi.’; Winkelmann, op.cit., 1976, p.112.

7.

‘Nosadella negli ultimi anni della sua vita lascia quasi un suo testamento spirituale nel Cristo morto compianto dagli angeli...L’opera è pregna di un lirismo struggente, sebbene ordinato secondo una rigida partizione prospettica. E non è solo la prospettiva quattrocentesca ad essere rievocata sentimentalmente, ma anche tutta la pittura del passato da lui amata: da quella parmense a quella ferrarese. Motivo di autocitazioni possono poi essere le pietre aggettanti della tomba che ricordano il tagliente disegno dei gradini della Annunciazione di Princeton, anche se nel Cristo morto questo particolare è più materico.’; Winkelmann in Fortunati Pietrantonio, ed., op.cit., p.461.


No.4 Giovanni Baglione 1.

O’Neil, op,cit., 1996, p.54.

2.

Carla Guglielmi, ‘Intorno all’opera pittorica di Giovanni Baglione’, Bolletino d’Arte, 1954, p.317, fig.9; Renate Möller, Der römische Maler Giovanni Baglione: Leben und Werk unter besonderer Berücksichtigung seiner stilgeschichtlichen Stellung zwischen Manierismus und Barock, Munich, 1991, p.98, no.11, fig.13; Stefania Macioce, ‘Per una introduzione a Giovanni Baglione’, in Stefania Macioce, ed., Giovanni Baglione (1566-1644): Pittore e biografo di artisti, Rome, 2002, p.XIX, fig.3; O’Neil, op.cit., 2002, p.200, no.12, illustrated in colour pl.II; Sonja Brink, In una maniera propria: Die Zeichnungen des Giovanni Baglione aus der Sammlung der Kunstakademie im museum kunst palast Düsseldorf, Düsseldorf, 2008, p.38, fig.27.

3.

O’Neil, op,cit., 2002, p.79.

4.

Michele Prisco and Pierluigi de Vecchi, L’opera completa do Raffaello, Milan, 1979, pp.110-111, no.108; Roger Jones and Nicholas Penny, Raphael, New Haven and London, 1983, p.144, pl.154. The painting is now in the Pinacoteca Nazionale in Bologna.

5.

D. Stephen Pepper, Guido Reni. A Complete Catalogue of his Works with an Introductory Text, Oxford, 1984, pp.212-213, no.11, pl.11.

6.

Inv. 5107; Edmund Schilling and Anthony Blunt, The German Drawings in the Collection of Her Majesty the Queen at Windsor Castle and Supplements to the Catalogues of Italian and French Drawings, London and New York, 1971, p.49, no.20 (not illustrated).

No.5 Stefano della Bella 1.

This pair of studies of elephants was once part of an important album of drawings by Stefano della Bella assembled by the English calligrapher Thomas Tomkins (1743-1816). The title page of the album, written by Tomkins, was inscribed ‘270 DESIGNS By Steffano dela Bella. A Native of Florence born 1610, a person of great judgment and fruitful invention; his drawings with the pen are much admired for freedom, taste and truth; his etchings are in the manner of Callot, under whom he studied. Collected by Thomas Tomkins.’ Containing a large and representative selection of the artist’s drawings from the entire course of his career, the album is first recorded in 1818 at the posthumous sale of the Tomkins collection. The Tomkins album was acquired by the collector Robert Staynor Holford (1808-1892), and remained intact in the Holford collection until its sale at auction in London in 1928, when some of the drawings were removed from the album. Nevertheless, 241 of the drawings by della Bella assembled by Tomkins, including the present pair, remained together as a group until they were finally dispersed at auction in London in 1975. As was noted in the catalogue of that sale, ‘the Tomkins album is comparable in range and importance with the great holdings of Stefano drawings in the Louvre, the Uffizi, the Hermitage and the Royal Collection.’ (London, Christie’s, A Collection of Drawings by Stefano Della Bella, the Property of a Gentleman, 18 March 1975, p.5).

2.

De Vesme 143; Alexandre de Vesme and Phyllis Dearborn Massar, Stefano Della Bella: Catalogue Raisonné, New York, 1971, Vol.I, p.72, no.143; Vol.II, p.43, fig.143.

3.

Inv. 15704 D.C.; Gianni Carlo Sciolla, ed., From Leonardo to Rembrandt: Drawings from the Royal Library of Turin, exhibition catalogue, Turin, 1990, pp.236-237, no.96.

4.

Inv. 16827 and 16828; David Klemm, Von der Schönheit der Linie: Stefano della Bella als Zeichner, exhibition catalogue, Hamburg, 2013-2014, pp.164-165, nos.65-66.

5.

Inv. 29768; Veronika Birke and Janine Kertész, Die Italienischen Zeichnungen der Albertina: Generalverzeichnis, Voll.IV, Vienna, 1997, pp.25062507, no.29768.

6.

In the Tomkins album, the present pair of drawings were mounted together with three other drawings of elephants on one page, as can be seen in a photograph of the album page, taken at the time of the Holford sale in 1928, in the Witt Collection at the Courtauld Institute in London.

7.

The drawing, which measures 104 x 113 mm., was formerly in the collection of Monica Streiff and was recently sold at auction in Switzerland (Sale, Bern, Stuker, Sammlung Monica Streiff: Bedeutende Werke von Stefano della Bella und Jacques Callot, 21 November 2014, lot 55).

No.6 Carlo Cignani 1.

Jadranka Bentini and Angelo Mazza, ed., Disegni emiliani del Sei-Settecento: I grandi cicli di affreschi, Cinisello Balsamo, 1990, no.22, illustrated in colour pp.148, 150 and 153; Beatrice Buscaroli Fabbri, Carlo Cignani: affreschi dipinti disegni, Cittadella, 1991, pp.116-118, nos.9a-9d, illustrated in colour pp.14-15 and 17.

2.

Buscaroli Fabbri, ibid., pp.145-147, no.30.

No.7 Lucas Franchoys the Younger 1.

Inv. 5214; London, Victoria and Albert Museum, and elsewhere, Flemish Drawings of the Seventeenth Century from the Collection of Frits Lugt, Institut Néerlandais, Paris, exhibition catalogue, 1972, p.50, no.36, pl.78 (where dated c.1640).

2.

Inv. RP-T-1884-A-300 (as Anthony Van Dyck or Lucas Franchoys the Younger). An image of the drawing, which measures 284 x 224 mm., is at https://www.rijksmuseum.nl/nl/collectie/RP-T-1884-A-300.


No.8 Cornelis Saftleven 1.

James Forbes (1749-1819) worked for the British East India Company, and lived for seventeen years in India. During this period he compiled thousands of pages of notes and drawings of aspects of Indian life, architecture, flora and fauna; he was, for example, one of the first Europeans to make drawings of the Taj Mahal. (He assembled much of his drawings and notes into the four volumes of his Oriental Memoirs, published from 1813 onwards.) On his return to England in 1784, he settled at Stanmore Hill, just to the north of London. Forbes’s only daughter Rose married Marc-René de Montalembert (1777-1831), and their son, the journalist and historian Charles de Montalembert (1810-1870) was born in London and, after his father’s return to Paris, was raised by Forbes at Stanmore Hill.

2.

Inv. 1886,0513.2; Wolfgang Schulz, Cornelis Saftleven 1607-1681. Leben und Werke, Mit einem kritischen katalog der Gemälde und Zeichnungen, Berlin and New York, 1978, p.92, no.98 (not illustrated). The drawing is in black chalk, heightened with white, on pink-yellow prepared paper, and is visible at http://www.britishmuseum.org/research/collection_online/collection_object_details.aspx?objectId=710162&partId=1&searchText =cornelis+saftleven&page=1.

No.9 Lieven Cruyl 1.

In the artist’s signature at the lower left of this drawing, the initials PBR stand for ‘Presbyter’, or priest. Many of Cruyl’s drawings dating to his French period are signed in this way.

2.

Edgar Mareuse, ‘Trois vues de Paris de Lieven Cruyl’, Bulletin de la Société de l’Histoire de Paris et de l’Ile de France, 1919, pp.68-69; Barbara Jatta, Lievin Cruyl e la sua opera grafica: Un artista fiammingo nell’Italia del Seicento, Brussels and Rome, 1992, pp.145-146, nos.108D-110D, pp.310-312, figs.136-138.

3.

Jatta, ibid., pp.145-146, no.109D, p.311, fig.137; Anonymous sale, London, Christie’s, 7 July 2009, lot 32 (sold for £97,250). The drawing measures 613 x 857 mm.

4.

Jatta, ibid., p.145, no.108D, p.310, fig.136; Anonymous sale, London, Sotheby’s, 4 July 2012, lot 34 (unsold). The drawing measures 605 x 850 mm.

5.

Inv. VE 53 h fol. 31 and VE 53 h fol. 30; Frits Lugt, Bibliothèque Nationale, Cabinet des Estampes: Inventaire général des dessins des Écoles du Nord, Paris, 1936, pp.76-77, nos.278-279, both illustrated pl.LXXIX; Jatta, op.cit., pp.99-100, nos.11-12, pp.308-309, figs.134-135. The drawings, measuring 190 x 300 mm. and 190 x 299 mm., are signed and dated 1686 and 1687, respectively.

6.

Inv. 19890 and 19891; Frits Lugt, Musée du Louvre: Inventaire général des dessins des Écoles du Nord. École Flamande, Vol.I, Paris, 1949, pp.4647, nos.549-550, both illustrated pl.XLVII; Jatta, op.cit., p.102, nos.14-15, pp.313-314, figs.139-140.

7.

An image of the drawing is visible at http://gallica.bnf.fr/ark:/12148/btv1b10303539p.

8.

Jatta, op.cit., pp.167-168, no.34S, p.315, fig.141.

No.10 Pieter van Bloemen 1.

Carlos van Hasselt, Flemish Drawings of the Seventeenth Century, from the Collection of Frits Lugt, Institut Néerlandais, Paris, exhibition catalogue, London and elsewhere, 1972, pp.6-7, under no.4.

2.

Inv. 1922.1827. The drawing, which measures 268 x 197 mm., is visible at http://www.artic.edu/aic/collections/artwork/83899? search_no=2&index=1.

3.

Inv. 19371 and 19376; Frits Lugt, Musée du Louvre: Inventaire général des dessins des Écoles du Nord. École Flamande, Vol.I, Paris, 1949, p.3, nos.12 and 15, both illustrated pl.III. The drawings measure 258 x 322 mm. and 300 x 216 mm., respectively.

4.

Inv. R84; Michiel C. Plomp, The Dutch Drawings in the Teyler Museum. Vol.II: Artists Born Between 1575 and 1630, Haarlem/Ghent/Doornspijk, 1997, p.14, fig.12. The drawing, which measures 197 x 237 mm., is visible at https://rkd.nl/en/explore/images/119410.

5.

Kate de Rothschild, Kate de Rothschild: Master Drawings. A Celebration, 35 Years in the Art World 1972-2007, n.d. (2008), unpaginated, no.18.

No.11 Jacob de Wit 1.

J. W. Niemeyer, ‘Twee Beeltenissen van J. de Wit’, Oud Holland, 1958, p.247, fig.3. An impression of the Houbraken print is sold with the drawing.

2.

Ibid., p.247, fig.12. The portrait in the Houbraken print is also very similar, albeit in reverse, to an etched portrait of Jacob de Wit by J. L. Benoist the Younger.

3.

Inv. RP-T-00-1144; A. Staring, Jacob de Wit 1695-1754, Amsterdam, 1958, p.136. The drawing, which measures 241 x 153 mm., is visible at https://www.rijksmuseum.nl/nl/collectie/RP-T-00-1144.


No.12 Thomas Gainsborough 1.

John Hayes, ‘Gainsborough Drawings: A Supplement to the Catalogue Raisonné’, Master Drawings, Winter 1983, p.367.

2.

As he famously wrote in a letter to his friend William Jackson, ‘I’m sick of Portraits and wish very much to take my Viol[a] da Gam[ba] and walk off to some sweet Village where I can paint Landskips and enjoy the fag End of Life in quietness & ease.’; John Hayes, ed., The Letters of Thomas Gainsborough, London, 2001, p.68.

3.

Although a prolific draughtsman, Gainsborough apparently never sold any of his drawings, although he is thought to have given away many of them as presents. As Susan Sloman has noted, ‘During his lifetime Gainsborough’s drawings were known to an inner circle of friends, artist and connoisseurs, but not to the wider public.’; Susan Sloman, Gainsborough’s Landscapes: Themes and Variations, exhibition catalogue, Bath, 2012, p.11.

4.

Letter of 29 January 1773; Quoted in Jonathan P. Derow, ‘Gainsborough’s Varnished Watercolor Technique’, Master Drawings, Autumn 1988, p.259.

5.

Belsey, op.cit., p.494, under no.1051.

6.

Woodall, op.cit., pp.93-94; John Hayes, The Drawings of Thomas Gainsborough, New Haven and London, 1970, Vol.I, p.182, no.316 (not illustrated).

7.

Inv. 1979.46; Hayes, 1970, ibid., Vol.I, p.187, no.337 (not illustrated); Derow, op.cit., pl.15. The drawing measures 220 x 310 mm.

8.

Inv. 1953 P211; Hayes, 1970, op.cit., Vol.I, p.186, no.333 (not illustrated); Sloman, op.cit., no.17, illustrated in colour p.52.

No.13 Louis Bélanger 1.

Charlotte Ann Waldie (later Charlotte Ann Eaton), Rome in the Nineteenth Century; Containing a Complete Account of the Ruins of the Ancient City, The Remains of the Middle Ages, and the Monuments of Modern Times, Edinburgh, 1820, [5th ed., London, 1860], Vol.II, pp.328-329.

2.

Inv. GAC 7966. The drawing is illustrated at http://www.gac.culture.gov.uk/work.aspx?obj=20612.

3.

Anonymous sale, Zurich, Koller, 18 September 2007, part of lot 18.

No.14 Johann Gottfried Klinsky 1.

The present sheet was once part of the collection of drawings, prints and books assembled by the physician Dr. Anton Strähuber (1877-1939), who was the grandson of the Munich history painter Alexander Strähuber (1814-1882), from whom he may have inherited the drawing.

2.

Strähuber sale, Berlin, Galerie Bessange, 30 May 2014, lot 6705.

No.15 Pierre-Paul Prud’hon 1.

Inv. 6584; Edmond Pilon, Constance Mayer (1775-1821), Paris, 1927, illustrated facing p.40; Sylvain Laveissière, Pierre-Paul Prud’hon, exhibition catalogue, New York, 1998, p.302, fig.212a, under no.212.

2.

Inv. 6585; Laveissière, ibid., p.302, fig.212b, under no.212.

3.

Stephen Duffy and Jo Hedley, The Wallace Collection’s Pictures: A Complete Catalogue, London, 2004, p.338, under no.P313.

4.

Jean Guiffrey, L’oeuvre de P.-P. Prud’hon, Paris, 1924, pp.270-273, nos.730-739.

5.

Inv. P313; John Ingamells, The Wallace Collection, Catalogue of Pictures III: French before 1815, London, 1989, pp.319-320, no.P313; Duffy and Hedley, op.cit., p.338, no.P313. The painting measures 23.7 x 17 cm.

6.

Inv. RF 22, Guiffrey, op.cit., no.733. Drawn in black and white chalk on blue paper, the sheet measures 328 x 243 mm. The drawing is illustrated at http://arts-graphiques.louvre.fr/detail/oeuvres/17/111547-LHeureuse-Mere-etude-pour-le-tableau-de-Constance-Mayer-Salon-de-1810max.

7.

Inv. 97.GB.50; New York and London, Hazlitt, Gooden & Fox, Nineteenth Century French Drawings, exhibition catalogue, 1991, no.2; Nicholas Turner, The J. Paul Getty Museum; European Drawings 4: Catalogue of the Collections, Los Angeles, 2001, pp.248-250, no.80.

8.

Guiffrey, op.cit., no.734; Anonymous sale, Paris, Hôtel Drouot [Brissonneau], 8 June 2007, lot 83 (unsold). The drawing, squared for transfer and measuring 230 x 170 mm., was drawn in black chalk, heightened with white, on blue paper.

9.

Sale (‘The Scholar’s Eye: Property from the Julius Held Collection, Part 1’), New York, Christie’s, 27 January 2009, lot 13 (sold for $27,500). The drawing, in black chalk, measured 57 x 86 mm.

10. Anonymous sale, Paris, Artcurial, 24 March 2010, lot 53 (sold for €14,026). The drawing, in black chalk heightened with white chalk on blue paper, measured 55 x 90 mm. 11. Quoted in translation in Laveissière, ibid., p.28.


No.16 Andrew Nicholl 1.

It has been suggested that the ‘RHA’ appended to the artist’s signature on many examples of this idiosyncratic group of watercolours was probably added later by the artist or a member of his family, and does not necessarily mean that they should be dated to after he was elected a full member of the Royal Hibernian Academy in 1860.

2.

Donald R. McClelland, ‘Foreword’, in Martyn Anglesea, Portraits and Prospects: British and Irish Drawings and Watercolours from the Collection of the Ulster Museum, Belfast, exhibition catalogue, 1989, p.xiv.

3.

Inv. U916; Anglesea, op.cit., pp.84-85, no.41; Eileen Black, ed., MAGNI (Museum & Galleries of Northern Ireland). drawings, paintings & sculptures: the catalogue, Belfast, 2000, p.81, no.U916, illustrated p.300. The watercolour measures 351 x 521 mm.

4.

Cork, Crawford Municipal School of Art, Irish art in the 19th century, exhibition catalogue, 1971, p.53, no.90, illustrated in colour on the cover. The watercolour measures 13 1/2 x 20 1/2 in.

5.

Anne Crookshank and the Knight of Glin, Ireland’s Painters 1600-1940, New Haven and London, 2002, p.210.

No.17 David Cox 1.

Scott Wilcox, Sun, Wind, and Rain: The Art of David Cox, exhibition catalogue, New Haven and Birmingham, 2008-2009, p.216, under no.97.

2.

Andrew Wilton and Anne Lyles, The Great Age of British Watercolours 1750-1880, exhibition catalogue, London and Washington, 1993, no.77, pl.233. The sheet measures 254 x 369 mm.

3.

Inv. P.3-1930; This watercolour is illustrated at http://collections.vam.ac.uk/item/O1070711/rhyl-sands-watercolour-david-cox/.

4.

London, Spink-Leger Pictures, ‘Air and distance, storm and sunshine’: Paintings, watercolours and drawings by David Cox, exhibition catalogue, 1999, no.24. The watercolour measures 267 x 369 mm.

No.18 Jean-Auguste Dominique Ingres 1.

Naef, op.cit., Vol.II, p.485; Quoted in translation in Condon, op.cit., p.49.

2.

Naef, op.cit., Vol.V, pp.78-80, no.291 (Mme. Gatteaux); Vol.V, pp.128-130, no.317 (M. Gatteaux) and Vol.II, p.500, fig,5 and Vol.V, pp.180-182, no.345 (Edouard Gatteaux), respectively. The last of these is Naef’s reconstruction of what he assumed the original drawing of Edouard Gatteaux looked like, combining the drawn copy of the bust portrait with the Réveil print (see fig.3). Naef has tentatively suggested that the drawn copies may also be the work of the engraver, Claude-Marie-François Dien.

3.

Naef, op.cit., Vol.II, p.501, fig.6. See also Naef, op.cit., Vol.V, p.481.

4.

Inv. 867.250; Ternois, op.cit., no.58; Vigne, op.cit., pp.476-477, no.2655; Fleckner, op.cit., p.166, fig.68; Goetz, op.cit., illustrated p.33. The drawing measures 224 x 175 mm.

5.

Inv. 867.251; Ternois, op.cit., no.59; Naef, op.cit., Vol.II, p.493, fig.4; Vigne, op.cit., p.476, no.2656; Fleckner, op.cit., p.166, fig.67. The drawing measures 187 x 115 mm.

6.

Inv. 867.249; Ternois, op.cit., no.57; Vigne, op.cit., p.476, no.2654; Fleckner, op.cit., p.167, fig.69; Florence Viguier-Dutheil, ed., Ingres: Secrets de dessins, exhibition catalogue, Montauban, 2011, illustrated p.183. The drawing measures 570 x 755 mm.

7.

Inv. RF 1450; Gary Tinterow and Philip Consibee, ed., Portraits by Ingres: Images of an Epoch, exhibition catalogue, London and elsewhere, 1999-2000, pp.92-94, no.23. The drawing measures 233 x 319 mm.

8.

Inv. 1948.837; Stephan Wolohojian, ed., A Private Passion: 19th-Century Paintings and Drawings from the Grenville L. Winthrop Collection, Harvard University, exhibition catalogue, London and New York, 2003-2005, no.55, p.26. The drawing measures 412 x 532 mm.

9.

Inv. RF 4114; Vincent Pomarède et al, Ingres 1780-1867, exhibition catalogue, Paris, 2006, pp.206-207, no.60. The drawing measures 463 x 371 mm.

10. Naef, op.cit., Vol.II, p.501, fig.8. 11. The Réveil engraving, however, seems also to have been based on the preparatory compositional study in Montauban, as it shows the seated figures full length. 12. Condon, op.cit., p.49. 13. A complete list of the very extensive publication and exhibition history of this drawing is available on request. 14. ‘Le morceau le plus admirable peut-être de cette précieuse collection était le dessin à la mine de plomb qui représentait la famille de M. Gatteaux...C’était un merveilleux travail, dont la vue causa une vive jouissance aux délicats.’; Lecomte, op.cit., p.247. 15. A Baltimore attorney, Gordon is perhaps best known today for his collection of some 1,200 French Renaissance books, which he bequeathed to the University of Virginia. He published The Censoring of Diderot’s Encyclopédie and the Re-Established Text in 1947, and was awarded the Legion of Honour by the French government in 1959. Gordon’s collection of drawings included works by Italian, Dutch, American and, above all, French and English artists. Some 215 drawings from the Gordon collection were bequeathed to the Virginia Museum of Fine Arts in 1986.


No.19 Alfred William Hunt 1.

Andrew Wilton, ‘Alfred William Hunt’ [exhibition review], The Burlington Magazine, May 2005, p.354.

2.

F. G. Stephens, ‘Mr. A. W. Hunt’s Pictures’, The Athenaeum, 19 January 1884, p.94.

3.

Wilton, op.cit., pp.254-255.

4.

Allen Staley and Christopher Newall, Pre-Raphaelite Vision: Truth to Nature, exhibition catalogue, London, 2004, p.154, under no.87.

5.

Inv. 2013.55; The watercolour, which measures 250 x 350 mm., is illustrated at http://www.clevelandart.org/art/2013.55?collection_search _query=alfred%20william%20hunt&op=search&form_build_id=formHN2soEueJ1mv4QBkLRclgosj0p8AH4FPw76jyHQxYc&form_id=clevel andart_collection_search_form&f[0]=field_images_field_large_image_url%3A1&c=1.

6.

Christopher Newall, The Poetry of Truth: Alfred William Hunt and the Art of Landscape, exhibition catalogue, Oxford and New Haven, 2004, pp.6061, no.5.

7.

Allen Staley, The Pre-Raphaelite Landscape, Oxford, 1973, p.145.

8.

Letter of 18 September 1857 from A. W. Hunt to William Greenwell; quoted in ibid., p.60, under no.5.

9.

Newall, op.cit., pp.62-63, no.6, where dated c.1857. The watercolour, which is not signed or dated, measures 340 x 500 mm.

10. Ruskin, op.cit., p.117. 11. Christopher Newall, ‘Alfred William Hunt: The Parabola of Pre-Raphaelitism’, in Newall, op.cit., p.33.

No.20 Edgar Degas 1.

Inv. RF 259; Vincent Pomarède et al, Ingres 1780-1867, exhibition catalogue, Paris, 2006, pp.174-175, no.39.

2.

Inv. RESERVE DC-327D, Carnet 20; Anne Roquebert, ‘The Classical Body: Degas’s Beginnings’ in George T. M. Shackelford and Xavier Rey, Degas and the Nude, exhibition catalogue, Boston and Paris, 2011-2012, p.13, fig.8.

3.

Ibid., p.15.

4.

Inv. RF 31216; Rome, Villa Medici, Degas e l’Italia, exhibition catalogue, 1984-1985, pp.142-143, no.47; Roquebert, op.cit., p.22, fig.20.

5.

Roquebert, op.cit., p.21.

6.

Inv. 1986-26-10; Jean Sutherland Boggs et al., Degas, exhibition catalogue, Paris, Ottawa and New York, 1988-1989, pp.143-146, no.84; George T. M. Shackelford, ‘The Body in Peril: Scene of War in the Middle Ages’ in Shackelford and Rey, op.cit., p.62, fig.67.

No.21 George Price Boyce 1.

Virginia Surtees, ed., The Diaries of George Price Boyce, Norfolk, 1980, p.viii.

2.

Christopher Newall, ‘Introduction’, in Newall and Egerton, op.cit., p.31.

3.

London, Tate Gallery, The Pre-Raphaelites, exhibition catalogue, 1984, p.298, no.238; Newall and Egerton, op.cit., pp.56-57, no.42, illustrated in colour p.39, pl.7.

4.

The steeply sloping Rabbit Banks from which Boyce made this watercolour has long since been built over, and may today be identified with Pipewellgate in the area of Bensham in Gateshead.

5.

Anonymous sale, London, Sotheby’s, 7 June 1995, lot 40. Signed and dated 1864 and measuring 220 x 550 mm., the watercolour was later with Peter Nahum, London. While the present sheet has been regarded as a study for this larger work, the latter is, however, not a night scene.

6.

Allen Staley and Christopher Newall, Pre-Raphaelite Vision: Truth to Nature, exhibition catalogue, London, 2004, p.197, under no.115.

7.

‘Society of Painters in Water Colours’, The Athenaeum, 20 April 1865, p.594.


No.22 Eugène Boudin 1.

Gérard Jean-Aubry, Eugène Boudin, Paris, 1922, new ed. London, 1969, p.50.

2.

Jules-Antoine Castagnary, Salons (1857-70), Paris, 1892, Vol.I, p.375; quoted in translation in Ibid., p.232.

3.

Gérard Jean-Aubry, op.cit., p.50.

4.

For example, Crinolines (Inv. RF 18202), dated 1866, which measures 151 x 265 mm.; Laurent Manœuvre, Eugène Boudin: dessins, Paris, 2001, p.40, fig.29.

5.

Inv. 2004.3.78; Annette Haudiquet et al., De Delacroix à Marquet: Donation Senn-Foulds. Dessins, 2011, pp.24-25, no.1.

6.

Christopher Lloyd and Richard Thomson, Impressionist Drawings from British Public and Private Collections, exhibition catalogue, Oxford and elsewhere, 1986, no.4, pl.52.

7.

Laurent Manœuvre, ‘Boudin’s Watercolours of Beaches’, in Vivien Hamilton, Boudin at Trouville, exhibition catalogue, Glasgow and London, 1992-1993, p.149.

No.23 Edward John Poynter 1.

This watercolour almost certainly belonged to the Conservative MP Alfred Baldwin (1841-1908), father of the future Prime Minister Stanley Baldwin. Through his wife, Louisa Macdonald, Alfred Baldwin was Poynter’s brother-in-law. The couple were married in August 1866, and the present sheet, which is dated that year, may have been intended as a wedding present. Louisa Macdonald was the sister of both Agnes Poynter and Edward Burne-Jones’s wife, Georgiana, as well as Alice Kipling, the mother of Rudyard Kipling.

2.

Though Poynter is not generally thought of as a watercolour draughtsman, it should not be forgotten that his father Ambrose was an amateur watercolour painter of some talent, and that his earliest artistic training was with the topographical watercolourist Thomas Shotter Boys. He was also one of the founding artist-exhibitors at the first of the annual General Exhibitions of Water Colour Drawings at the Dudley Gallery in London, held in 1865, and was elected to the Royal Society of Painters in Water-Colour in 1883.

3.

In later years, however, Poynter consented to show some of his landscape watercolours at the Fine Art Society, the Grosvenor Gallery and the New Gallery.

4.

Lewis Lusk, ‘Sir E. J. Poynter as a Water-Colourist’, The Art Journal, June 1903, p.190.

5.

Isabel G. McAllister, ‘Some Water-Colour Paintings by Sir Edward Poynter, P.R.A.’, The Studio, December 1917, p.90 and 94.

6.

Ingram sale (‘The Ingram Collection: Drawings and Watercolours from the Collection of the Late Michael Ingram’), London, Sotheby’s, 8 December 2005, lot 247.

No.24 Edward Burne-Jones 1.

John Christian, ‘The Compulsive Draughtsman’, in John Christian, Elisa Korb and Tessa Sidey, Hidden Burne-Jones: Works on paper by Edward BurneJones from Birmingham Museums and Art Gallery, exhibition catalogue, 2007, p.7.

2.

W. Graham Robertson, Time Was, London, 1931, pp.83-84.

3.

T. Martin Wood, Drawings of Sir Edward Burne-Jones, London and New York, n.d. (1907?), p.3.

4.

Inv. 961-3; London, Arts Council of Great Britain, Burne-Jones: The paintings, graphic and decorative work of Sir Edward Burne-Jones 1833-98, exhibition catalogue, London and elsewhere, 1975-1976, pp.57-58, no.156; Melbourne, National Gallery of Victoria, The Pre-Raphaelites and their Circle in the National Gallery of Victoria, Melbourne, 1978, pp.14-15, no.3; Stephen Wildman and John Christian, Edward Burne-Jones, Victorian Artist-Dreamer, exhibition catalogue, New York and elsewhere, 1998-1999, pp.266-267, no.120; Cincinnati, Cincinnati Art Museum, and elsewhere, European Masterpieces: Six Centuries of Paintings from the National Gallery of Victoria, Australia, exhibition catalogue, 2000-2002, pp.168-169, no.74 (entry by Jennifer Long).

5.

G. B.-J. (Georgiana Burne-Jones), Memorials of Edward Burne-Jones, London, 1904, Vol.I, p.308. The Scottish literary scholar J. W. Mackail was to become Burne-Jones’s son-in-law in 1888, when he married the artist’s daughter Margaret.

6.

Ibid., Vol.II, p.174.

7.

‘Fine Art Gossip’, The Athenaeum, 30 April 1887, p.584.

8.

‘The Grosvenor Exhibition’, The Athenaeum, 7 May 1887, p.613. A handful of critics, however, found fault with the painting, although one noted the fine draughtsmanship of the figures: ‘At first sight [Burne-Jones’s] ‘Garden of Pan’ of this year seems shorn of all that should make it touching, and voluntarily deprived of many natural beauties which we cannot help associating with nude legendary figures, supposed to inhabit the open air. Here are people, modelled finely it is true, but in that same conventional manner which gives no hint of special circumstances or surroundings.’; R. A. M. Stevenson, ‘The Grosvenor Gallery Exhibition’, The Art Journal, August 1887, p.283.


9.

G. B.-J. (Georgiana Burne-Jones), ibid., Vol.II, p.175.

10. Anonymous sale (‘The Property of a Gentleman’), London, Sotheby’s Belgravia, 22 February 1972, lot 48. 11. Inv. PDP 1085.f.16; http://webapps.fitzmuseum.cam.ac.uk/explorer/index.php?oid=82327 (not illustrated). 12. London, Arts Council of Great Britain, op.cit., p.58, no.157 (not illustrated); M. T. Ritchie, ed., English Drawings: An Anthology, London, 1935, pl.86. The drawing measures 53 x 140 mm. 13. Anonymous sale, London, Sotheby’s, 10 December 2014, lot 1. The pencil drawing measures 215 x 180 mm.

No.25 Jean-François Millet 1.

The J.F. Millet stamp at the lower left of the sheet was applied to the unsigned works dispersed at the sale of the collection of the artist’s widow in April 1894.

2.

The first owner of this drawing was the prominent Alsacian industrialist and collector Jean Dollfus (1823-1911). Dollfus owned numerous paintings and drawings by Corot, as well as works by Courbet, Daumier, Delacroix, Rousseau, Renoir, Sisley and many others. At the posthumous sale of Dollfus’s collection in Paris in 1912, this drawing and the large painting for which it is a study were both acquired by the Knoedler gallery in New York and almost immediately sold by them to the collector Robert Paterson of Massachusetts.

3.

Robert L. Herbert, ‘Peasant Naturalism and Millet’s Reputation’, in Robert L. Herbert, Jean-François Millet, exhibition catalogue, London, 1976, p.12.

4.

Millet spent many early evening hours on the plain of Chailly, on the edge of Barbizon, and once said that ‘It is astonishing towards the approach of night how grand everything on the plain appears, especially when we see figures silhouetted against the sky. They look like giants.’; Pierre Millet, ‘The Story of Millet’s Life at Barbizon’, Century, April 1894, p.909.

5.

Étienne Moreau-Nélaton, Millet raconté par lui-même, Paris, 1921, Vol.III, illustrated between pp.96 and 97, fig.293 (where dated 1873); Dollfus sale, Paris, Galerie Georges Petit [Lair-Dubreuil and Baudoin], 2 March 1912, lot 51; Anonymous sale (‘The Property of an American Collector’, New York, Christie’s, 16 October 1991, lot 88, sold for $2,145,000. The painting measures 81.3 x 100.4 cm.

6.

Jean Dollfus sale, Paris, Hôtel Drouot [Lair-Dubreuil and Baudoin], 4 March 1912, lot 84 (‘Le Retour des champs (l’Etoile du soir)’; measuring 255 x 330 mm.). Another preparatory study for the painting, a drawing in black chalk of the donkey, is last recorded with the art dealer Hector Brame in Paris in 1938 (Paris, Galerie Hector Brame, J. F. Millet, dessinateur, exhibition catalogue, 1938, no.19.) The drawing measured 190 x 170 mm.

7.

Inv. 17.1518; Herbert, op.cit., p.129, no.78, illustrated on the cover; Alexandra R. Murphy, Jean-François Millet, exhibition catalogue, Boston, 1984, pp.116-117, no.78; Alexandra R. Murphy et al, Jean-François Millet: Drawn into the Light, exhibition catalogue, Williamstown and elsewhere, 1999, pp.101-102, no.66. The sheet measures 550 x 429 mm.

8.

Anonymous sale, London, Sotheby’s, 21 June 1988, lot 35, where dated c.1865-1870 (sold for £68,200). The drawing measures 410 x 495 mm.

No.26 Auguste Allongé 1.

‘Un des peintres les plus fervents de la forêt, Allongé, dont les fusains et les aquarelles d’une exécution facile et large ont rendu le nom populaire, a passé à Marlotte la plus grande partie de sa vie et en toute saison, par tous les temps on était assuré de le trouver assis dans la plaine de Bourron, soit dans la forêt aux abords de la Mare-aux-Fées, où il ne se lassait pas de découvrir de nouveaux motifs.’

2.

Christopher Lloyd, ‘The Beginnings of Impressionist and Post-Impressionist Drawing: Methods, Materials and Modes’, in Christopher Lloyd, Impressionism: Pastels, Watercolors, Drawings, exhibition catalogue, Milwaukee, 2011-2012, p.43.

No.27 John William Waterhouse 1.

Waterhouse was elected to the Royal Institute of Painters in Water Colours in 1883 and exhibited there for several years before resigning in 1889. In a review of the Institute’s exhibition of 1885, in The Magazine of Art, one critic noted that ‘Mr. J. W. Waterhouse’s unnamed and beautifully liquid little drawing makes us regret this artist’s prolonged abstention from water-colours.’

2.

Rose E. D. Sketchley, ‘The Art of J. W. Waterhouse, R.A.’, The Art Journal Christmas Number, 1909, illustrated p.7; Hobson, op.cit., pp.183-184, no.80, illustrated p.53, pl.40; Peter Trippi, J. W. Waterhouse, London, 2002, p.100, pl.74. The painting measured 73 x 33 cm.

3.

Trippi, ibid., p.33.

4.

Alfred Lys Baldry, ‘J. W. Waterhouse and his Work’, The Studio, January 1895, p.107.


No.28 Gustav Bauernfeind 1.

Yehoshua Ben-Arieh, Painting the Holy Land in the Nineteenth Century, Jerusalem and Tel Aviv, 1997, p.186.

2.

Letter of 24 January 1881; Quoted in translation Alex Carmel and Hugo Schmid, Der Orientmaler Gustav Bauernfeind 1848-1904: Leben und Werk / The Life and Work of Gustav Bauernfeind, Orientalist Painter, Stuttgart, 1990, p.93.

3.

Petra S. Kühner, Gustav Bauernfeind: Gemälde und Aquarelle, Frankfurt, 1995, pp.285-286.

4.

MaryAnne Stevens, ed., The Orientalists: Delacroix to Matisse. European Painters in North Africa and the Near East, exhibition catalogue, London, Royal Academy of Arts, 1984, p.114, no.1, illustrated in colour p.70.

5.

Inv. 1999.4; Lisa Small, Highlights from the Dahesh Museum Collection, New York, 1999, pp.52-53, no.29.

6.

Carmel and Schmid, op.cit., pls.104 and 107, respectively; Hugo Schmid, Der Maler Gustav Bauernfeind und der Orient, Stuttgart, 2004, pls.83 and 87, respectively.

7.

Carmel and Schmid, op.cit., pls.110 and 114, respectively; Schmid, ibid., pls.90 and 94, respectively.

No.29 Aloys Zötl 1.

At the auction, the watercolours by Zötl were sold for sums between 7,000 and 190,000 francs.

2.

André Breton, Sur l’atelier d’Aloys Zotl, 21 March 1956; reprinted in translation in André Breton, Surrealism and Painting, New York, 1972 [2002 ed.], pp.354-355.

3.

Its very wide mouth has led to the horned frog being commonly known as the Pacman frog, after the video game character.

4.

Julio Cortazar, Le bestiaire d’Aloys Zotl (1881-1887), Parma and Milan, 1976, illustrated p.79; Giovanni Mariotti, Das Bestiarium von Aloys Zötl (1881-1887), Milan and Geneva, 1979-1980, illustrated p.59; Victor Francès, Contrées de Aloys Zötl, Paris, 2011, illustrated pp.72-73. The watercolour, which measures 295 x 395 mm. is dated 21 August 1863.

5.

The library remains in the possession of Zötl’s descendants.

6.

Franz Reitinger, Aloys Zötl oder Die Animalisierung der Kunst, Vienna, 2004, p.109, pl.88.

7.

Sale (‘Vente des 150 Aquarelles provenant de l’atelier Aloys Zötl’), Paris, Hôtel Drouot [Maurice Rheims], 19 December 1955, lots 39-44.

8.

Cortazar, op.cit., illustrated pp.24, 132, 135-137, 139-144.

9.

Breton, op.cit., p.355.

No.30 Carl Emil Baagøe 1.

Charles Boutell, The Arts and Artistic Manufactures of Denmark, London, 1874, pp.57-58.

2.

Anonymous sale, London, Sotheby’s, 27 November 1980, lots 134 and 135, respectively.

No.31 Louis-Albert Besnard 1.

The German collector Dr. Gustav Rau (1922-2002) assembled a large and eclectic collection while at the same time working as a doctor in Africa. He built a children’s hospital in the town of Ciriri in Eastern Zaire (now the Democratic Republic of the Congo), but would travel to Europe several times a year to attend auctions and visit art dealers. His collection of Old Master and Impressionist paintings – including works by Fra Angelico, Pierre Bonnard, Paul Cézanne, Lucas Cranach, Edgar Degas, Gerrit Dou, Jean-Honoré Fragonard, El Greco, Claude Monet, Camille Pissarro, Guido Reni and Auguste Renoir - was kept in a warehouse in Zurich. In 1993 he retired from his medical work and settled in Monaco; on his death in 2002 he left the bulk of his collection to UNICEF in Germany, to be used to finance humanitarian projects in Africa and elsewhere in the Third World.

2.

Georges Bernier, Sarah Bernhardt and her Times, New York, 1984, p.76.

3.

W. Graham Robertson, Time Was, London, 1931, p.112.

4.

New York and London, Colnaghi, Master Drawings, 1998, no.49. The drawing, which measures 168 x 229 mm., was included in the sale of Sarah Bernhardt’s estate in Paris in June 1923. It is signed, dated and inscribed ‘Au rêve blond / A Madame Sarah Bernhardt / Louis ABesnard / Fev.1894.’

5.

Anonymous sale, London, Christie’s, 25 November 1988, lot 190.


No.32 Henry Somm 1.

Elizabeth K. Menon, ‘Henry Somm: Impressionist, Japoniste or Symbolist?’, Master Drawings, Spring 1995, p.3.

No.33 Henry Somm 1.

Louis Morin, French Illustrators, New York, 1893, p.44; Quoted in Philip Dennis Cate and Patricia Eckerd Boyer, The Circle of Toulouse-Lautrec: An Exhibition of the Work of the Artist and of His Close Associates, exhibition catalogue, New Brunswick, 1986, p.154.

2.

Elizabeth K. Menon, ‘Henry Somm: Impressionist, Japoniste or Symbolist?’, Master Drawings, Spring 1995, pp.12 and 24.

3.

Inv. 85/22.1; Ibid., p.15, fig.9 (where dated to c.1889).

4. Anonymous sale, Versailles, Chevau-Légers Enchères, 30 September 2007, lot 70.

No.34 Odilon Redon 1.

Huysmans wrote perceptively of the artist that, ‘It would be difficult to define the surprising art of M. Redon. Basically, if we except Goya, whose spectral side is less rambling and more real, if we also except Gustave Moreau, of whom M. Redon is, after all, in the healthy parts of his work, a very distant pupil, we shall find his ancestry only among musicians perhaps, and certainly among poets. It is indeed a genuine transposition of one art into another.’; Joris-Karl Huysmans, L’art moderne, Paris, 1883, p.215; Quoted in translation in John Rewald, ‘Odilon Redon’, in New York, Museum of Modern Art and Chicago, Art Institute of Chicago, Odilon Redon, Gustave Moreau, Rodolphe Bresdin, exhibition catalogue, 1961-1962, p.30.

2.

Perrin Stein, French Drawings from the British Museum: Clouet to Seurat, exhibition catalogue, New York and London, 2005-2006, p.210, under no.90.

3.

Letter of 16 August 1898; Quoted in translation in Harriet K. Stratis, ‘Beneath the Surface: Redon’s Methods and Materials’, in Douglas Druick et al, Odilon Redon: prince of dreams 1840-1916, exhibition catalogue, Chicago and elsewhere, 1994-1995, p.359.

4.

Christopher Lloyd, ‘The Beginnings of Impressionist and Post-Impressionist Drawing: Methods, Materials and Modes’, in Christopher Lloyd, Impressionism: Pastels, Watercolors, Drawings, exhibition catalogue, Milwaukee, 2011-2012, p.45.

5.

Odilon Redon, ‘Confidences d’artiste’, L’Art Moderne, 25 August 1894; Quoted in translation in Marie-Pierre Salé, ‘The Singularity of Odilon Redon’s Charcoals’, in Margret Stuffman and Max Hollein, ed., As in a Dream: Odilon Redon, exhibition catalogue, Frankfurt, 2007, p.43.

6.

Inv. 199.52; Druick et al, op.cit., p.440, no.66, illustrated p.147, fig.38; Stuffman and Hollein, ed., op.cit., p.193, no.83; Wildenstein, op.cit., p.160, no.1065, illustrated p.160, illustrated in colour p.150. The drawing measures 533 x 371 mm.

7.

Stuffman and Hollein, ed., op.cit., p.195, no.84; Rodolphe Rapetti, ed., Odilon Redon: Prince du Rêve, 1840-1916, exhibition catalogue, Paris and Montpellier, 2011, pp.174-175, no.47 (where dated c.1882). The drawing, which is not recorded in Alec Wildenstein’s catalogue raisonné, measures 640 x 560 mm.

8.

Druick et al, op.cit., illustrated p.146, fig.35; Stuffman and Hollein, ed., op.cit., p.192, no.82. The drawing measures 393 x 327.

9.

Wildenstein, op.cit., p.160, no.1066, illustrated p.160; Druick et al, op.cit., p.439, no.58, illustrated p.154, fig.53 (as Behind the Grating (The Secret). The drawing measures 415 x 375 mm. [sight].

10. Druick et al, op.cit., p.154. 11. A partial reconstruction of the drawings included in the exhibition is in Druick et al, op.cit., p.134-135, fig.13.

No.35 Paul Gauguin 1.

Quoted in translation in Daniel Guérin, ed., The Writings of a Savage: Paul Gauguin, New York, p.54.

2.

A facsimile of the entire sketchbook, accompanied by a commentary by Bernard Dorival, was published in Paris in 1954.

3.

‘La page 43 R présente un magnifique et ravissant portrait, celui d’un jeune garcon dont Gauguin, dans la partie supérieure droite de sa feuille a note, le nom: Taoa. Or ce dessin est une étude ou seulement un matériau dont l’artiste a fait usage dans le tableau du Repas: Taoa y figure à droite. A gauche s’y voit un autre gamin, dont nous trouvons le croquis dans notre volume, au milieu de la page 43 V.’; Dorival, op.cit., p.24., p.44

4.

Frèches-Thory in Shackelford and Frèches-Thory, op.cit., 2004, p.25.

5.

Inv. RF 1954-27; Georges Wildenstein, Gauguin, Paris, 1964, pp.166-167, no.427 (‘Le repas, ou Les bananes’); Marla Prather and Charles F. Stuckey, ed., Gauguin: A Retrospective, New York, 1987, illustrated p.177; Richard Brettell et al., The Art of Paul Gauguin, exhibition catalogue, Washington and Chicago, 1988-1989, pp.233-234, no.129; Frèches-Thory and Shackelford, op.cit., 2003-2004, illustrated p.76; Shackelford and Frèches-Thory, op.cit., 2004, illustrated p.29.

6.

Brettell et al., op.cit. pp.233-234.


7.

Rewald, op.cit., 1956, illustrated p.493; Rewald, op.cit., 1958, p.27, nos.32-33, pls.32-33; Pickvance, op.cit., 1998, pp.124-125, p.278, nos.7172. One of these is today in a private collection in New York; Rewald, op.cit., 1958, p.27, no.33, pl.33; Pickvance, op.cit., 1970, p.32, pl.67; Pickvance, op.cit., 1998, p.125, p.278, no.72.

8.

‘ces visages qu’il dessine dans notre carnet, comme ils deviennent différents quand ils réapparaissent dans les tableaux définitifs! Que l’on compare seulement les trois jeunes tahitiens des pages 43R, 43V et 101R, avec ce qu’ils deviennent dans le tableau du Repas. Ceci du coup est évident: autant le peintre a saisi la singularité des trois personnages dans les croquis, autant il tend, dans le tableau, à les dépouiller de leurs particularités et à les transformer, d’individus qu’ils étaient, en specimens d’une race humaine, peut-être davantage: en simples représentants de l’humaine condition.’; Dorival, op.cit., p.44.

9.

‘Ainsi, dans le délicieuse tête de Taoa, à un trait large et ferme, qui donne le contour et suggère le modelé, exprime le caractère sans que sa pureté en souffre, ni sa musicalité, s’associent des bâtonnets, destines à traduire la chevelure du garçonnet, et qui non seulement trahissent un certain mécanisme dans leur facture, mais avouent encore une imitation de Van Gogh: que de dessins, en effet, Vincent a-t-il laissés, en traçant, du bout d’un calame de Roseau, des vibrions plus ou moins serrés, plus ou moins parallèles, dont il avait cru trouver le modèle dans l’art japonais!...Pourquoi cette copie de Van Gogh chez Gauguin? On a peine à en trouver la raison...’; Dorival, op.cit., p.44.

10. Paul Gauguin, Avant et après, MS, 1903; translated in Belinda Thomson, ed., Gauguin by Himself, London, 1993, p.279.

No.36 Auguste Rodin 1.

Clément Janin, ‘Les dessins de Rodin’, Les Maîtres Artistes, 15 October 1903, pp.286-287; quoted in translation in J. Kirk T. Varnedoe, ‘Rodin as a Draftsmam – A Chronological Perspective’, in Albert Elsen and J. Kirk T. Varnedoe, The Drawings of Rodin, New York, 1971, pp.69-76.

2.

A photograph of Rodin standing in a room in the Place de l’Alma exhibition, showing the drawings hanging in three rows on the wall behind him, is in the Musée Rodin (Catherine Lampert, Rodin: Sculpture & Drawings, exhibition catalogue, London, 1986-1987, p.17).

3.

Felix Klee, ed., Tagebücher von Paul Klee 1898-1918, Cologne, 1957, p.114; quoted in translation in J. A. Schmoll gen. Eisenwerth, ‘Rodin’s Late Drawings and Watercolors’, in Ernst-Gerhard Güse, Auguste Rodin: Drawings and Watercolors, New York, 1985, p.226.

4.

For example, a drawing of Homer (Inv. D.4637) and three drawings entitled Neptune (Inv. D.4229, D.5627 and D.4257); Pascale Picard, ed., Rodin: la lumière de l’antique, exhibition catalogue, Arles and Paris, 2013-2014, p.241, no.153 and pp.246-247, nos.158, 160 and 161, respectively. Another drawing of Neptune is in the Museum der bildenden Künste in Leipzig (Güse, ibid., p.258, pl.144).

5.

For examples of the Ulysses drawings in the Musée Rodin, see Inv. D.4244 and D.4632; Picard, ed., ibid., p.243, no.155 and p.244, no.156, respectively.

6.

Anonymous sale, New York, Christie’s, 10 September 2008, lot 144; Picard, ed., op.cit., p.173, no.90 (where dated 1890-1896). The drawing measures 325 x 232 mm.

7.

Paris, Christie’s, Oeuvres modernes sur papier, 26 March 2014, under lot 52.

8.

Varnedoe, op.cit., p.85.

9.

Inv. D.463; Claudie Judrin, Musée Rodin: Inventaire des dessins, Paris, 1987, Vol.I, p.60, no.463. The drawing, which measures 195 x 311 mm., was originally part of a sketchbook made up mostly of pencil studies of nude male figures, which was broken up, and the individual sheets mounted separately, in 1933.

10. Inv. D.4181; Dominique Viéville et al, La saisie du modèle: Rodin 300 dessins 1890-1917, exhibition catalogue, Paris, p.149, no.83, illustrated p.70 (where dated before 1899). Like the present sheet, this drawing was in turn based on a rough pencil drawing, from the same sketchbook noted above, also in the Musée Rodin (Inv.475; Judrin, op.cit., Vol.I, p.63, no.475.) 11. Schmoll gen. Eisenwerth, op.cit., p.226. 12. Varnedoe, op.cit., pp.99-102.

No.37 Lucien Lévy-Dhurmer 1.

For the German collector Dr. Gustav Rau (1922-2002), see No.31, note 1, above.

2.

One such set of wall paintings, painted between 1910 and 1914 for a dining room in a Parisian home, is today installed in the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York.

3.

Gabriel Mourey, ‘A Dream Painter: M. L. Lévy-Dhurmer’, The Studio, February 1897, p.11.

4.

Jean-David Jumeau-Lafond, ‘Symbolisms’, in Paris, Musée d’Orsay, Mystery and Glitter: Pastels in the Musée d’Orsay, exhibition catalogue, 20082009, p.130.

5.

The painting is illustrated at http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File%3AOsman_Hamdi_Bey__Naile_Han%C4%B1m_Portresi_%2C_ Portrait_of_Naile_Han%C4%B1m_-_Google_Art_Project.jpg. Another, earlier portrait of ‘Naile Hanim’ by Hamdi Bey is in the collection of the Istanbul Museum of Painting and Sculpture; Nancy Micklewright, ‘Public and Private for Ottoman Women of the Nineteenth Century’, in D. Fairchild Ruggles, ed., Women, Patronage, and Self-Representation in Islamic Societies, Albany, 2000, p.164, fig 8.5 (illustrated in reverse).


No.38 Edgar Degas 1.

Jill DeVonyar and Richard Kendall, Degas and the Dance, exhibition catalogue, Detroit and Philadelphia, 2002-2003, p.231.

2.

Anne Pingeot and Frank Horvat, Degas Sculptures, Paris, 1991, pp.65-75 and pp.154-156, nos.5-8 (bronze casts illustrated); Jill DeVonyar and Richard Kendall, Degas and the Ballet: Picturing Movement, exhibition catalogue, London, 2011, pp.174-175, nos.85-87 (bronze casts illustrated).

3.

Kendall, op.cit., 1996, p.259, no.71 (bronze cast); DeVonyar and Kendall, ibid., p.174, no.86 (bronze cast).

4.

François Thiébault-Sisson, ‘Degas sculpteur par lui-même’, Le Temps, 23 May 1923, p.3; quoted in translation in Richard Kendall, Degas beyond Impressionism, exhibition catalogue, London, 1996, p.255.

5.

Alison Luchs, ‘The Degas Waxes’, in Washington, National Gallery of Art, Art for the Nation: Gifts in Honor of the 50th Anniversary of the National Gallery of Art, exhibition catalogue, 1991, p.196.

6.

Third vente Degas, Paris, Galerie Georges Petit, 7-9 April 1919, lot 196 (‘Trois danseuses en maillot’).

7.

It is interesting to see this reference to the spiral staircase of the Rue Le Peletier classroom in Degas’s work well into the 1890’s and beyond, since the building itself was destroyed by fire in 1873.

8.

Inv. 35.246; Paul-André Lemoisne, Degas et son oeuvre, Paris, 1946, Vol.II, pp.236-237, no.430; Browse, op.cit., p.347, no.34, illustrated pl.34; DeVonyar and Kendall, op.cit., 2002-2003, p.149, pl.165; DeVonyar and Kendall, op.cit., 2011, p.23, no.1.

9.

Lemoisne, ibid., Vol.II, pp.368-369, no.653; Browse, op.cit., p.388, no.156, illustrated pl.156. A variant of this composition, also in pastel, was formerly in the Parisian collections of Georges Viau, Jacques Doucet and Maurice Exsteens (Lemoisne, op.cit., Vol.II, pp.370-371, no.654).

10. Kendall, op.cit., 1996, p.257, no.69; DeVonyar and Kendall, op.cit., 2011, p.217, no.105. The drawing measures 508 x 432 mm. 11. DeVonyar and Kendall, op.cit., 2011, pp.218-219. 12. Kendall, op.cit., 1996, p.256. 13. George T. M. Shackelford and Xavier Rey, Degas and the Nude, exhibition catalogue, Boston and Paris, 2011-2012, p.173.

No.39 Vincenzo Gemito 1.

This large drawing was one of a number of works by Vincenzo Gemito in the collection of the Marchese Filippo Eugenio Albani (1868-1940) and his wife Giulia, née Pignatari. The Marchese and Marchesa Albani lived in a splendid home on the Via Caracciolo in Naples, and were close friends of the artist, who drew a number of portraits of Giulia Albani.

2.

Inv. 1999-4-1; Ann Percy and Innis Howe Shoemaker, ‘Collecting Collections: Drawings at the Philadelphia Museum of Art’, Master Drawings, Spring 2004, p.14, fig.12; Ann Percy and Mimi Cazort, Italian Master Drawings at the Philadelphia Museum of Art, Philadelphia, 2004, no.74. The drawing, which measures 1362 x 780 mm., is dedicated and dated by the artist ‘A Laura Bertolini / di sua avenenza / ispirò quest’opera / l’autore dedica 1913/ Vincenzo. Gemito.’

3.

A drawing by Gemito of what appears to be the same dog, executed in black chalk and pencil heightened with white, was on the art market in 2008; London, A. Pallesi & C. at Trinity Fine Art, Vincenzo Gemito: Drawings, exhibition catalogue, 2008, no.13. The drawing measures 560 x 500 mm.

No.40 Georges Valmier 1.

Among the handful of extant works of the same period by Georges Valmier is a stylistically comparable (albeit rapidly drawn) portrait sketch in pencil of another military figure, a Général Dourakine, which is signed and dated 1914; Bazetoux, op.cit., p.45, no.23.

2.

Gleizes, op.cit.; quoted in translation in Bazetoux, op.cit., p.17.

3.

Daniel Robbins, Pierre Georgel and Anne Varichon, Albert Gleizes: Catalogue raisonné, Paris, 1998, pp.195-196, no.555; Brooke, op.cit., p.47, pl.27. A watercolour Cubist portrait of Dr. Lambert by Gleizes, dated 1914 and dedicated the following year to Mme. Jeanne Lambert, was on the French art market in 1984 and 1986 (Robbins, Georgel and Varichon, op.cit., p.186, no.529), while a related watercolour is in the Guggenheim Museum in New York (Robbins, Georgel and Varichon, op.cit., p.186, no.530, as a portrait of Théo Morineau).

4.

Gleizes, op.cit.; quoted in translation in Brooke, op.cit., p.46.

No.41 Giacomo Balla 1.

Anonymous sale, Milan, Sotheby’s, 30 May 2001, lot 301. The drawing measures 147 x 377 mm.

2.

Maurizio Fagiolo dell’Arco and Elena Gigli, Balla a sorpresa: astrattismo dal vero, decor pittura. “realtà nuda e sana” 1919-1929, exhibition catalogue, Milan, 2000-2001, p.62, no.6, illustrated in colour p.28, pl.6. The painting measures 22 x 36 cm.


3.

Ibid., p.62, no.10, illustrated in colour p.31, pl.10. The gouache measures 184 x 410 mm.

4.

Anonymous sale, London, Sotheby’s, 3 December 1980, lot 146b (where dated c.1920). The gouache measures 250 x 370 mm.

5.

Fagiolo dell’Arco and Gigli, op.cit., p.63, no.19, illustrated in colour p.37, pl.19. The work measures 190 x 320 mm.

No.42 William Orpen 1.

‘Sir William Orpen, R.A., The Holy Well. Allegorical Subject of numerous figures in different attitudes gathered around a holy well on the Aran Islands off the coast of Ireland...Together with this work are sold seventeen framed studies for the above, pencil and water-colour, etc.; exhibited at the Royal Academy, Winter Exhibition, 1933, nos.735-750 and 766’; bt. Reid and Lefèvre for £210.

2.

Inv. NGI 4030; Bruce Arnold, Orpen: Mirror to an Age, London, 1981, p.295; John Christian, ed., The Last Romantics: The Romantic Tradition in British Art; Burne-Jones to Stanley Spencer, exhibition catalogue, London, Barbican Art Gallery, 1989, p.179, no.412, illustrated in colour p.74; Robert Upstone, William Orpen: Politics, Sex & Death, exhibition catalogue, London and Dublin, 2005, no.39, illustrated pp.62 and 89. The painting measures 234 x 186 cm.

3.

Arnold, ibid., p.277.

4.

It was in fact Keating who seems to have inspired the painting, as he had spent the summer of 1915 painting in the Aran Islands, in Galway Bay, and had returned to London with paintings and drawings of the area, as well as a selection of local costumes, which Orpen used for his picture.

5.

Letter from Sean Keating to James White, quoted in Dublin, National Gallery of Ireland, William Orpen 1878-1931: A Centenary Exhibition, exhibition catalogue, 1978, p.53, under no.99.

6.

Writing of a visit to Cam House in 1932, one critic noted that ‘Mrs. St. George owns...one of [Orpen’s] most important paintings – “The Holy Well” – and with it sixteen beautiful, nearly quarter life-size studies...’; Herbert Furst, ‘Mrs. St. George’s Collection of Pictures by Sir William Orpen’, Apollo, December 1932, p.266. The painting of The Holy Well, together with its preparatory studies, was lent by Mrs. St. George to the retrospective exhibition of Orpen’s work held at the Royal Academy in 1933.

No.43 Frederick Cayley Robinson 1.

This drawing was, in all likelihood, acquired directly from Cayley Robinson by his friend, the Irish artist Cecil French (1879-1953). A painter, printmaker and illustrator, French seems to have abandoned painting after around 1903, devoting himself instead to assembling a collection of works by late 19th and early 20th century painters. Most of the artists whose works he collected were largely unappreciated by the 1930’s and 1940s, when he was most active, and he was able to acquire works by Edward Burne-Jones, Simeon Solomon, Frederic Leighton, Albert Moore, Dante Gabriel Rossetti and others. Among living artists, French was particularly fond of the work of Cayley Robinson, William Shackleton and Edward Stott. At his death his collection was left to several museums, including the British Museum, the William Morris Gallery in Walthamstow and the Guildhall Art Gallery in London. In 1922 French published an article on Cayley Robinson’s work in The Studio, in which he noted that ‘it was the infrequent appearance of Cayley Robinsons at the [Society of] British Artists that drew me, as a boy, to those exhibitions. The potency of spell, the visionary strangeness, the almost desperate sincerity, of the new, mysterious, isolated artist brought to mind the first strenuous beginnings of the English Pre-Raphaelite group.’; Cecil French, ‘The Later Work of F. Cayley Robinson, A.R.A.’, The Studio, June 1922, p.293.

2.

In Paris Cayley Robinson came into contact with the work of Pierre Puvis de Chavannes and the Nabis painters, who were to have a strong influence on his style, although he was also much inspired by the work of Edward Burne-Jones and the painters of the early Renaissance in Italy.

3.

James Greig, ‘Frederic Cayley Robinson, A.R.A.’, in Randall Davies, ed., The Old Water-Colour Society’s Club 1927-1928: Fifth Annual Volume, London, 1928, p.63.

4.

Charlotte Gere, ‘Introduction’ in London, Fine Art Society, op.cit., 1969 and London, Fine Art Society, op.cit., 1975, unpaginated. As another modern scholar has written, ‘Cayley Robinson’s pictures are almost always of people, denizens of a silent, timeless world. There are symbolic allusions but no clear cut messages...Cayley Robinson suggests an artist who, almost consciously, evaded worldly success; his life and work evoke that of a musician who, with only a limited number of notes available to him, is able to create a corpus of amazingly subtle harmonies which is neither forced nor false.’; David Brown, ‘Introduction’, in London and Edinburgh, The Fine Art Society, Frederick Cayley Robinson A.R.A 1862-1927, 1977, unpaginated.

5.

French, op.cit., [see note 1], illustrated p.297 (as in the collection of E. Drage, Esq.); Anonymous sale, London, Christie’s, 10 June 2003, lot 85.

6.

MaryAnne Stevens, ‘Frederick Cayley Robinson’, The Connoisseur, September 1977, p.31, fig.12; Anonymous sale, London, Sotheby’s, 7 June 1995, lot 167; Anonymous sale, London, Sotheby’s, 6 June 2001, lot 97.

No.44 Herbert Dalziel 1.

Kenneth McConkey, Impressionism in Britain, exhibition catalogue, London, 1995, p.115, under nos. 49-50.


No.45 Albert Moulton Foweraker 1.

David Tovey, Pioneers of St. Ives Art at Home and Abroad (1889-1914), Tewkesbury, 2008, p.256.

No.46 Pierre Bonnard 1.

Timothy Hyman, Bonnard, London, 1998, p.65.

No.47 Paul Signac 1.

Marina Ferretti Bocquillon, ‘Neo-Impressionist Drawings’, in Margaret Morgan Grasselli and Andrew Robison, ed., Color, Line, Light: French Drawings, Watercolors, and Pastels from Delacroix to Signac, exhibition catalogue, Washington, 2012-2013, p.133.

2.

Marina Ferretti Bocquillon, ‘Signac: Drawings and Watercolors’, in Marina Ferretti Bocquillon et al, Signac 1863-1935, exhibition catalogue, Paris, Amsterdam and New York, 2001, pp.25-26.

3.

Inv. 23293; Klaus Albrecht Schröder and Christine Ekelhart, ed., Impressionism: Pastels, Watercolours, Drawings, exhibition catalogue, Vienna, 2012, p.267, pl.162.

4.

Grasselli and Robison, ed., op.cit., pls.91and 95 respectively; the latter drawing is dated 1926.

5.

Inv. 99.065.060; Ferretti Bocquillon et al, op.cit., pp.262-263, no.147.

No.48 Paul Klee 1.

Sabine Rewald, ‘An Interview with Felix Klee’, in Sabine Rewald, Paul Klee: The Berggruen Collection in The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York and the Musée National d’Art Moderne, Paris, exhibition catalogue, London, 1989, p.23. It should be noted that the present sheet, although not a watercolour per se, was regarded by Klee as finished and complete work of art, rather than a drawing or study, and as such was released to his dealer Hans Goltz for sale.

2.

Will Grohmann, Paul Klee: Drawings, London, 1960, p.40.

3.

Quoted in translation in Rewald, op.cit., p.204.

4.

Quoted in translation in Rewald, op.cit., p.204.

5.

Will Grohmann, The Drawings of Paul Klee, New York, 1944, unpaginated, pl.23; Bern, Paul Klee Foundation, op.cit., p.312, no.3762; Anonymous sale, London, Christie’s, 4 December 1990, lot 165; Anonymous sale, Berlin, Villa Grisebach, 26 May 1995, lot 57. The drawing, titled and dated 1925, measures 282 x 225 mm.

6.

For example, Gartenlage in Felsen (Garden among Rocks), Die Freitrippe im Garten von N. (Outside Stairs in the Garden of N.) and Obstgarten (Orchard); Bern, Paul Klee Foundation, op.cit., p.307, no.3747, illustrated in colour p.326, p.311, no.3758 and p.312, no.3760, illustrated in colour p.327, respectively.

7.

For example, the paintings Blühender Baume (Blossoming Tree) in the National Museum of Modern Art in Tokyo, Maibild (May Picture) in the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York and Buntharmonisch (Colourful Harmonies) in a private Swiss collection; Bern, Paul Klee Foundation, op.cit., p.349, no.3800, illustrated in colour p.332, p.350, no.3801 and p.396, no.3938, illustrated in colour p.333, respectively.

8.

Roland Doschka, ‘Foreword’, in Roland Doschka, ed., Paul Klee: Selected by Genius, 1917-1933, exhibition catalogue, Balingen, 2001, p.7.

No.49 Percy Drake Brookshaw 1.

A poster designed by Brookshaw for the 1927 Cup Final at Wembley is illustrated in Oliver Green, Art for the London Underground: London Transport Posters 1908 to the Present, New York, 1990, p.51.

2.

These are both visible, alongside other posters by the artist, at http://www.ltmcollection.org/posters/artist/artist.html?IXartist=Percy +Drake+Brookshaw.

3.

Mike O’Mahony, ‘Imaging Sport at the Grosvenor School of Modern Art (1929-37)’, in Mike Huggins and Mike O’Mahony, ed., The Visual in Sport, Abingdon, 2012, p.32, note 30. Frank Pick (1878-1941) was largely responsible for the introduction of posters as an integral part of the publicity campaigns for the London Underground and its successor, London Transport. Appointed the head of publicity for the Underground Electric Railways Company of London in 1908, Pick rose to become the Managing Director of the Underground Group before his retirement in 1940. It was Pick who realized that a prominent poster campaign could be a powerful method of visual communication, and a highly effective way of publicizing the virtues of London’s public transport system.


No.50 Pablo Picasso 1.

The Picasso Project, Picasso’s Paintings, Watercolors, Drawings and Sculpture: A Comprehensive Illustrated Catalogue 1885-1973. Surrealism - 19301936, San Francisco, 1997, pp.62-63, nos.31-044 and 31-046 to 31-051, and p.69, nos.31-067 and 31-068.

2.

Inv. 1054 and 1055; Michèle Richet, The Musée Picasso, Paris. Catalogue of the Collections, Vol.II: Drawings, Watercolours, Gouaches, Pastels, London, 1988, p.302, nos.942-943; Ibid., p.64, nos.31-052 and 31-053 (both entitled The Sculptor).

3.

A similar head in profile, for example, is found in a drawing of c.1932 in the Museum Ludwig in Cologne; Evelyn Weiss and Maria Teresa Ocaña, ed., Picasso: The Ludwig Collection, exhibition catalogue, Barcelona and elsewhere, 1992-1993, unpaginated, no.33 (where dated 1932).

4.

Anonymous sale (‘Pablo Picasso: Collection d’un Amateur’), Paris, Drouot Montaigne [Francis Briest], 24 June 1992, lot 66 (unsold). The drawing measures 325 x 255 mm.

No.51 Graham Sutherland 1.

Most of Sutherland’s works from this period were acquired by the War Artist’s Advisory Commission and presented to museums around the country.

2.

Malcolm Yorke, The Spirit of Place: Nine Neo-Romantic artists and their times, New York, 1988, pp.125-126.

3.

The Sunday Telegraph Magazine, 10 September 1971, pp.27-28; Quoted in Martin Hammer, Graham Sutherland: Landscapes, War Scenes, Portraits 1924-1950, exhibition catalogue, London, Dulwich Picture Gallery, 2005, p.104.

4.

Inv. WA 1947.416; Hammer, ibid., p.128, no.57. The drawing measures 505 x 366 mm.

5.

Anonymous sale, London, Sotheby’s, 25 October 1972, lot 121. The drawing, signed and dated 1942, measures 485 x 375 mm.

6.

Anonymous sale (‘A Collection of Works by Graham Sutherland, O.M.’), London, Sotheby’s, 5 April 2000, lot 97; Tassi, op.cit., p.128, fig.123.

7.

Inv. LD 1770; Ronald Alley, Graham Sutherland, exhibition catalogue, London, Tate Gallery, 1982, pp.96-97, no.98. The drawing measures 495 x 370 mm. The composition is repeated in a drawing formerly in the collection of Kenneth Clark; Tassi, op.cit., p.129, fig.124; Hammer, op.cit., p.126, no.55.

8.

Noel Barber, Conversations with Painters, London, 1964, pp.47-48.

No.52 John Minton 1.

Frances Spalding, John Minton: Dance till the Stars Come Down, Aldershot, 1991 [2005 ed.], p.93.

2.

Alan Ross, in London, Michael Parkin Gallery, John Minton and Friends, exhibition leaflet, 1997, unpaginated.

3.

London, The Maas Gallery, British Pictures, exhibition catalogue, 2006, p.19, no.19. The watercolour measures 10 1/2 x 14 1/2 in.

4.

Photograph in the Witt Library, Courtauld Institute of Art, London. The watercolour, which measured 10 1/2 x 14 3/4 in., was lent by Mrs. Oliver Brown to the Arts Council’s retrospective travelling exhibition of Minton’s work in 1958-1958.

5.

Photograph in the Witt Library, Courtauld Institute of Art.

6.

London, Royal College of Art, and elsewhere, John Minton: 1917-1957. A Selective Retrospective, exhibition catalogue, 1993-1994, no.46. The drawing measures 11 x 6 in.

No.53 Lucian Freud 1.

Quoted in Sebastian Smee, Lucian Freud: Drawings 1940, exhibition catalogue, New York, Matthew Marks Gallery, 2003, p.16.

2.

Sebastian Smee, ‘Introduction’, in Lucian Freud, Sebastian Smee and Richard Calvocoressi, Lucian Freud on paper, London, 2008, pp.7-8.

3.

Nicholas Penny, ‘The Early Works 1938-1954’, in Penny and Johnson, op.cit., p.10.

4.

Interview on 7 May 2009; ‘Lucian Freud in Conversation with Michael Auping’, in Sarah Howgate, Lucian Freud Portraits, exhibition catalogue, London and Fort Worth, 2012, p.208.

5.

Ibid., pp.208-210.

6.

Adrian Clark, British and Irish Art 1945-1951: From War to Festival, London, 2010, p.73.

7.

Quoted in Robert Hughes, Lucian Freud: paintings, London, 1987, p.16.


No.54 Henri Matisse 1.

Henri Matisse, ‘Interview with Charbonnier’, in Jack Flam, ed., Matisse on Art, Oxford, 1978, p.141.

2.

Isabelle Monod-Fontaine, ‘Introduction’, in Brisbane, Queensland Art Gallery, Matisse: Drawing Life, exhibition catalogue, 2011-2012, p.37.

3. Thomas Primeau and Kimberly Schenck, ‘Matisse’s drawings and prints: Materials and techniques’, in Ibid., p.321. 4.

John Golding, ‘Introduction’, in John Elderfield, The Drawings of Henri Matisse, exhibition catalogue, London, 1984-1985, p.14.

5.

Henri Matisse, ‘Notes d’un peintre sur son dessin,’ Le Point, July 1939; translated into English as ‘Notes of a Painter on his Drawing’, Jack Flam, ed., Matisse on Art, Berkeley and Los Angeles, 1995, pp.131-132.

6.

Louis Aragon, ‘Matisse-en-France’, in Henri Matisse dessins: Thèmes et variations, Paris, 1943; Quoted in translation in Ernst-Gerhard Güse, ed., Henri Matisse: Drawings and Sculpture, Munich, 1991, unpaginated, under no.38.

7.

Matisse, ‘Notes d’un peintre sur son dessin,’ in Flam, ed., op.cit., pp.130-131.

8.

Elderfield, op.cit., p.119.

9.

Raoul Jean Moulin, Henri Matisse: Drawings and paper Cut-Outs, London, 1969, p.26.

10. Inv. 1953.158; John Jacobus, Henri Matisse, London, 1984, pp.96-97, pl.25; Stephanie d’Alessandro and John Elderfield, Matisse: Radical Invention 1913-1917, exhibition catalogue, Chicago and New York, 2010, pp.346-349, no.54. 11. Moulin, op.cit., illustrated pl.47. 12. Moulin, op.cit., pl.45. The drawing is dated October 1950 and is also inscribed ‘Carmen’. Carmen Leschennes, whom the artist called ‘Katia’, was one of Matisse’s favourite models at the end of his life. 13. Elderfield, op.cit., p.280, nos. 144-147, pp.240-241, pls.144-147; Güse, ed., op.cit., nos.96-97. 14. Elderfield, op.cit., p.131.

No.55 Adolph Gottlieb 1.

April Kingsley, ‘Adolph Gottlieb, Imagist’, in San Francisco, The Art Museum Association of America, Adolph Gottlieb: Works on Paper, exhibition catalogue, 1985, p.30.

2.

Los Angeles, Manny Silverman Gallery, Adolph Gottlieb. Works on Paper: 1966-1973, exhibition catalogue, 1990, p.6.

3.

Lawrence Alloway, ‘Adolph Gottlieb and Abstract Painting’, in Lawrence Alloway and Mary Davis MacNaughton, Adolph Gottlieb: A Retrospective, exhibition catalogue, Washington and elsewhere, 1981-1982, pp.57-58.

4.

‘Small Burst’; Anonymous sale, New York, Christie’s, 17 May 2007, lot 129 (sold for $96,000). The drawing measured 381 x 254 mm.

5.

‘Gottlieb Pinta Explosoes’, Ultima Hora La, 27 September 1963; Quoted in translation in Pepe Karmel, ‘Adolph Gottlieb: Self and Cosmos’, in Luca Massimo Barbero, Adolph Gottlieb: A Retrospective, exhibition catalogue, Venice, 2010-2011, p.42.

No.56 Wayne Thiebaud 1.

Stephen C. McGough, Thiebaud Selects Thiebaud: A Forty-Year Survey from Private Collections, exhibition catalogue, Sacramento, 1996, Introduction, p.4.

2.

As one scholar has noted, ‘Thiebaud’s paintings are quiet, like those of some of the artists he admires: Vermeer, Chardin, Morandi, Eakins and Hopper. They are, in fact, essentially the reverse of the clamor of advertizing [sic] pitches proclaimed in Warhol’s soup cans or the melodramatic comic strips that form much of Lichtenstein’s early imagery.’; Ibid., p.4.

3.

Stephen C. McGough, ‘An Interview with Wayne Thiebaud’, in McGough, op.cit., p.8. Thiebaud often treated the same subject in a range of different media; in oil, pencil, charcoal, ink and pastel, as well as in the form of prints. As Karen Tsujimoto has written, ‘Thiebaud has always been curious about how an image is transformed in different media as well – how images change when rendered in color versus black and white or with a textured rather than flat surface...Thiebaud is married to the traditional idea of working compositions out slowly and coming to know his subjects with some depth and care.’; Karen Tsujimoto, Wayne Thiebaud, exhibition catalogue, San Francisco, 1985, p.46.

4.

Phoenix, Phoenix Art Museum, and elsewhere, Wayne Thiebaud: Survey 1947-1976, exhibition catalogue, 1976-1977, no.34, illustrated in colour; John Wilmerding, Wayne Thiebaud, exhibition catalogue, New York, Acquavella Galleries, 2012, illustrated p.132. Another early and significant treatment of this subject is the painting Girl with an Ice Cream Cone of 1963, in the Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden in Washington, DC (Wilmerding, op.cit., illustrated p.49). Thiebaud has produced several other paintings of single and multiple ice cream cones, well into the present century, as well as treating the theme on painted cigar boxes and in the form of etchings.


No.57 Eliot Hodgkin 1.

Eliot Hodgkin, ‘Painter’s Purpose’, The Studio, July 1957, p.6.

2.

Hodgkin in a letter to Brinsley Ford dated 20 May 1975; quoted in Sir Brinsley Ford, ‘Introduction’, in London, Hazlitt, Gooden & Fox, Eliot Hodgkin, Painter & Collector, exhibition catalogue, 1990, p.24.

3.

London, Reid Gallery, Fifty Still Life Paintings by Eliot Hodgkin, 1963, nos.48 (Two Oyster Shells) and 49 (Two Views of an Oyster Shell). The former, which is dated October 26th, 1963 and measures 127 x 216 mm., was later in the collection of Brooke Hayward and was recently sold at auction (New York, Christie’s, 28 February 2012, lot 146).

No.58 René Gruau 1.

In a 1999 interview; Quoted in translation in Réjane Bargiel and Sylvie Nissen, René Gruau, exhibition catalogue, Paris, Musée de la Publicité, 19992000, pp.38 and 42.

No.59 R. B. Kitaj 1.

Robert Hughes, ‘Edgy Footnotes to an Era’, Time, 26 October 1981.

2.

Kitaj, op.cit., p.79.

3.

Rios, op.cit., p.61.

4.

Dorment, op.cit., p.20.

5.

Inv. 1992.41; Morphet, ed., op.cit., no.85, illustrated p.183. The drawing measures 775 x 572 mm.

6.

Joanne Northey, ‘Chronology’, in Morphet, ed., op.cit., illustrated p.64 (where dated 1991); Marilyn McCully, Michael Raeburn and Helen Watson, Kitaj: Portraits and Reflections, exhibition catalogue, Kendal, Abbot Hall Art Gallery, 2011, p.48, no.25 (where dated 1988-1991); Cilly Kugelmann, Eckhart Gillen and Hubertus Ga ner, Obsessionen: R. B KItaj 1932-2007, exhibition catalogue, Berlin, 2013, illustrated p.230 (where dated 1988-1991). The drawing measures 590 x 340 mm.

No.60 Avigdor Arikha 1.

Robert Hughes, ‘Avigdor Arikha’, in London, Marlborough Fine Art, Avigdor Arikha: Inks, Drawings and Etchings, exhibition catalogue, 1974, p.7.

2.

Avigdor Arikha, in New York, Marlborough Gallery, op.cit., 2007, unpaginated.

3.

Duncan Thomson, Arikha, London, 1994, pp.161 and 171.

4.

‘Reflections on the Drawings’, dated 9 IX 89, and measuring 146 x 114 cm. (London, Marlborough Fine Art, Avigdor Arikha, exhibition catalogue, 1990, p.8, no.6; Thomson, ibid., illustrated p.198). Arikha returned to the motif of reflections in a wall of framed drawings several years later, in a large pastel drawing, entitled ‘Reflections’ and measuring 645 x 495 mm., executed on the 11th and 12th of January, 2000 (London, Marlborough Fine Art, Avigdor Arikha: Paintings, pastels and drawings 1999-2000, exhibition catalogue, 2000, no.6).


INDEX OF ARTISTS

ALLONGÉ, Auguste; No.26 ARIKHA, Avigdor; No.60 BAAGØE, Carl Emil; No.30 BAGLIONE, Giovanni; No.4 BALLA, Giacomo; No.41 BAUERNFEIND, Gustav; No.28 BÉLANGER, Louis; No.13 BESNARD, Louis-Albert; No.31 BONNARD, Pierre; No.46 BOUDIN, Eugène; No.22 BOYCE, George Price; No.21 BROOKSHAW, Percy Drake; No.49 BURNE-JONES, Edward Coley; No.24 CAYLEY ROBINSON, Frederick; No.43 CIGNANI, Carlo; No.6 COX, David; No.17 CRUYL, Lieven; No.9 DALZIEL, Herbert; No.44 DEGAS, Edgar; Nos.20 & 38 DELLA BELLA, Stefano; No.5 DE WIT, Jacob; No.11 FOWERAKER, Albert Moulton; No.45 FRANCHOYS, Lucas the Younger; No.7 FREUD, Lucian; No.53 GAINSBOROUGH, Thomas; No.12 GAUGUIN, Paul; No.35 GEMITO, Vincenzo; No.39 GOTTLIEB, Adolph; No.55 GRUAU, René; No.58 HODGKIN, Eliot; No.57 HUNT, Alfred William; No.19 INGRES, Jean-Auguste-Dominique; No.18


KITAJ, R. B.; No.59 KLEE, Paul; No.48 KLINSKY, Johann Gottfried; No.14 LÉVY-DHURMER, Lucien; No.37 MATISSE, Henri; No.54 MILANESE SCHOOL, 16th Century; No.1 MILLET, Jean-François; No.25 MINTON, John; No.52 NICHOLL, Andrew; No.16 NOSADELLA, Giovanni Francesco Bezzi, called; No.3 ORPEN, William; No.42 PICASSO, Pablo; No.50 POYNTER, Edward John; No.23 PRUD’HON, Pierre-Paul; No.15 PUPINI, Biagio; No.2 REDON, Odilon; No.34 RODIN, Auguste; No.36 SAFTLEVEN, Cornelis; No.8 SIGNAC, Paul; No.47 SOMM, Henry; Nos.32-33 SUTHERLAND, Graham; No.51 THIEBAUD, Wayne; No.56 VALMIER, Georges; No.40 VAN BLOEMEN, Pieter; No.10 WATERHOUSE, John William; No.27 WIT, Jacob de; No.11 ZÖTL, Aloys; No.29


Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres (1780-1867) The Gatteaux Family

No.18


Back cover: Carlo Cignani (1628-1719) The Head of a Child Looking Down No.6


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Stephen Ongpin - Master Drawings 2015  
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