HIT & MYTH
COHEN & COHEN
HIT & MYTH
Written by WILLIAM MOTLEY 莫志
30 October - 8 November 2014
科恩 & 科恩 COHEN & COHEN PO BOX 366 REIGATE RH2 2BB Tel:+44 (0) 1737 242180 Fax: +44 (0) 1737 226236 Email: firstname.lastname@example.org Website: www.cohenandcohen.co.uk
Exhibiting at: 67 Jermyn Street, St James’s, London, SW1Y 6NY
ÂŠ Cohen & Cohen 2014 Published October 2014 ISBN 0 9537185 4 6
Published by Cohen & Cohen Photographs by Dairy Digital Imaging Printed and bound by Albe De Coker, Antwerp With thanks to: Graeme Bowpitt, Miranda Keverne, Ken Adlard, Tan Yuanyuan, Hugh Jolly, Tom Maes
Like many specialist dealers we have a hit list of special items that we would like to own, however briefly, and from the plethora of mythological subjects on Chinese porcelain the two on our hit list were the Metamorphoses of Ovid Bowl in famille rose and the grisaille plate depicting Thetis dipping the baby Achilles in the River Styx. When, amazingly, we were able to acquire both within the space of one week, this year’s catalogue title wrote itself. Although we have a number of mythological subject pieces in this year’s catalogue there are also particularly strong sections on painted enamel with examples of both exceptional forms and exceptional decoration and, in the case of the painted enamel censer with Qianlong mark, and of the period, exceptional size. Other highlights are a pair of famille rose vases decorated with scenes of rice production on one side and of silk production on the other, a famille rose figure of a Frankfurt Jewish Lady, a pair of reclining ladies with nodding heads, a vividly enamelled goose tureen and two famille rose kendis. A massive figure of Zhong Kui, the demon slayer, is possibly the most sculptural item of Chinese porcelain we have ever come across and its size and quality suggest that it was made for an Imperial temple. We also have an interesting range of Pronk porcelain pieces with the Dame au Parasol pattern and a tentative list of the designs from the Pronk Workshop Enterprise. A full analysis of this is being prepared for eventual publication and information about any rare and little known examples would be much appreciated (see page 72). More decorative items include two pairs of jardinières, one in the rare tobacco leaf design found in the Swedish royal collection and the other in verte/imari with unusual recessed panels, two fine eggshell porcelain dishes and a number of famille rose chargers and plates of good quality, dating from the second quarter of the eighteenth century. A small section on European subjects includes a very rare bowl in iron red depicting one of Aesop’s fables, a teabowl and saucer depicting the Commedia del’Arte and a Scotsman plate with exceptionally strong enamels. Among this year’s armorial pieces are a saucer dish with the arms of Lee, a rare and unusual flared neck bottle with the arms of de Heere and a large basin with the arms of Grant. As ever, when I get to this stage of the introduction, I find I have missed out some of my favourite pieces, so do flick through the catalogue and choose your own favourites. Thanks go to Will Motley for his involvement in research, writing and production, to Miranda Keverne for producing the section on painted enamel, to Ken Adlard for additional photography and to my wife and business partner Ewa for overseeing everything and keeping us all in line. Michael and Ewa Cohen
1 Stem Bowl and Cover Yongzheng period circa 1725 Dutch or English Market Height: 6 inches; 15cm A rare Chinese porcelain stemmed shallow bowl with knopped cover, moulded with lotus petal panels and painted in underglaze blue and white with scrolling foliage, the interior painted with an insect hovering above a peach blossom spray, and the interior of the tall foot with lingzhi.
Reference: a similar stem bowl and cover from the Xuande period, Ming dynasty, is in the Freer/Sackler collection in the Smithsonian Museum (F1968.77a-b).
2 Pair of Bottles Kangxi period circa 1700 Dutch Market Height: 11Â˝ inches; 29cm
A pair of Chinese export porcelain blue and white bottles of hexagonal section with flared rim, painted with ladies and flowers.
Set of Four Salts
Pair of Salts
Kangxi period circa 1720 Dutch Market Height: 2Âź inches; 6cm A set of four Chinese porcelain salts each of hexagonal form with three mask feet, the sides with honeycomb reticulation, painted in underglaze blue with a pair of roosters, the rim with wave pattern border.
Kangxi period circa 1720 Dutch Market Height: 2Âź inches; 6cm A pair of Chinese porcelain salts en suite with the previous item.
References: Scheurleer 1974, No 176, a single example; Cohen & Cohen 2003, a set of four.
4 Two Jardinières Kangxi period circa 1700 Dutch or English Market Length: 15½ inches; 39 cm A very closely matched pair of Chinese porcelain jardinières, of lobed quatrefoil form on flared feet decorated in the verte imari palette with panels of flowers reserved on a star diaper ground.
5 Painted Enamel Mirror Frame Qianlong period circa 1740 European market Height: 20½ inches; 52cm Width: 12¼ inches; 31cm An extremely rare painted enamel mirror frame, brightly painted with flowers and insects with four pierced and moulded sections fixed to a wood frame. This rare piece demonstrates the versatility of the painted enamel medium, with the intricately pierced and moulded elements. In 1925 a discovery was made in the Forbidden Palace of a collection of very fine hua falang or 'painted enamels' which came from the period 1720-1780. Each was packed in individual cedarwood boxes and stored in the Duanming Palace, next to the east wing of the Qianqing Palace. These items are now in the National Palace Museum, Taipei. The objects tell the story of the evolution of Chinese enamelling, beginning with the activities in the reign of Kangxi. He was fascinated by the different techniques of enamelling on metal, glass, Yixing wares and porcelain and encouraged experimentation and the importing of ideas and expertise from the West. He extended the Beijing Workshops in 1693 and built a glass factory in 1696 under the direction of Kilian Stumpf (1655-1720) who taught the Chinese how to prepare different enamel colours. By 1706 Kangxi was distributing enamelled glasswares as gifts and enamelled copper boxes with Kangxi marks are known from this period. By the end of his reign the French Jesuit Missionary Jean Baptiste Gravereau was supervising the enamelling and this coincides with the development of the pink enamel that gave its name to famille rose. The artistic styles of enamels during the reign of Kangxi were mainly Chinese, derived from cloisonné. But under Yongzheng the designs flourished, influenced by European enamels brought to the workshops and by painters such as Castiglione, who is known to have painted in enamels, and his student Lin Chaokai who was active during Yongzheng's reign.
By the early Qianlong period an Imperial workshop had been established at Canton and the production of painted enamel in Canton was highly sophisticated and, as well as being mainly for the domestic market, some of the best pieces were exported to the Scandinavian Market, including a group of sconces (see Cohen & Cohen 2012, No 15) which were part of the orders for the King of Denmark by Christian Lintrup who was in Canton five times from 1736. In 1741/2 Lintrup’s orders included a group of enamel mirror frames ordered from a Monsieur Attey in Canton, which arrived in Copenhagen in July 1742 in the ship Dronningen af Danmark (Queen of Denmark). This was possibly part of that order. Very few examples of Canton ‘painted enamel’ mirror frames are recorded, though one example appearing for auction in Denmark some years ago came from the Lindencrone family. Christian Lintrup was ennobled in 1756 as Baron Lindencrone. References: Wirgin, 1999, p243, No 259, a painted enamel mirror frame of different design but the same date; Clemmensen & Mackeprang 1980, p151, the same frame as in Wirgin 1999; Cohen & Cohen 2012, No 16, an identical example, the pair to this frame.
6 Painted Enamel Incense Burner & Cover Qianlong mark and period Height: 27Âź inches; 69.2cm Formerly in an English private collection. A rare large painted enamel incense burner and cover, in the form of an archaic bronze ritual vessel (fangding), and decorated in the famille-rose palette. The flaring rectangular-section vessel, the corners of which are applied with notched flanges, is supported on four knopped cylindrical legs with wide circular feet, and has a stepped rim on which two upright loop handles are set. The drop-in cover, surmounted by a large domed finial supported on a waisted lotus base, rises in three steps, and the uppermost level is pierced with a band of clouds for the release of the incense smoke. Each wide face of the vessel is enamelled with a shaped cartouche, containing a shou (longevity) character, surrounded by nine bats, against a finely spotted yellow ground, and each narrow face with a similar medallion containing the five bats (Wu fu), all against scrolling millefleurs on a spotted greenishturquoise ground; the legs with pendent leaves around the tops above the millefleurs decoration, scrolling ribbons around the knops, and spotted yellow enamel around the feet; and the flanges with key-fret. The cover is similarly painted with four shaped cartouches, each containing a pair of entwined scrolling chilong against the spotted yellow ground, reserved against more millefleurs; and the yellow finial with precious objects and lotus flowers in brown enamel. The interior is enamelled turquoise, and the white base is painted in blue with the six-character seal mark of the Qianlong Emperor, and of the period. The Five Bats (Wu fu) represent the Five Blessings: longevity, wealth, health, love of virtue and a peaceful death. References: A smaller Qianlong period fangding with a similar cover is illustrated in Bahr 1911, Old Chinese Porcelain & Works of Art in China, pl. CX. For painted enamels with related decoration, see the footnotes to the Qianlong mark and period candlestick.
7 Painted Enamel Candlestick Qianlong mark and period Height: 12½ inches; 31.8 cm A fine painted enamel candlestick, of square section, with a bell-shaped base, a flaring central tray, a tapering column stem and a flaring drip-pan; the stick is painted in the famille-rose palette, and the rims and edges are gilt. The stick is finely decorated with scrolling millefleurs against a spotted pale blue ground, with bands of trefoils around the drip-pan and just above the foot. Each face of the central tray is painted with a shaped cartouche, containing a shou (longevity) medallion, surrounded by five bats (Wu fu), against a finely spotted yellow ground. The interior of the base is white and painted in blue with the six-character seal mark of the Qianlong Emperor, and of the period. The Five Bats (Wu fu) represent the Five Blessings: longevity, wealth, health, love of virtue and a peaceful death. References: An incense burner with similar decoration is illustrated in Keverne 2013, Fine and Rare Chinese Works of Art and Ceramics, no. 47, pp. 64–5. A large covered incense burner with related millefleurs decoration and a blue Qianlong seal mark is illustrated in Palace Museum, Compendium of Collections in the Palace Museum: Enamels, Vol. 5 (2005), no. 78, p. 113. For a vase painted with similar floral decoration, also with a blue Qianlong seal mark, see Ho et al 1992, Splendour of the Qing, no. 292, p. 424. See also a covered vase with blue floral decoration and a blue Qianlong seal mark in Jenyns and Watson 1963, Chinese Art: The Minor Arts, no. 110, pp. 240–1.
8 Painted Enamel Vase Qianlong period Height: 25¾ inches; 65.4 cm A large and rare painted enamel vase with an ovoid body, a convex shoulder and a trumpet-shaped neck, on which two scroll handles are set, terminating in a galleried rim. The vessel is painted in the famille rose palette with two large panels within rococo shellwork borders to the body and two smaller panels within scrollwork frames to the neck, all reserved against a yellow millefleurs ground; the shoulder with confronting chilong on a pink ground; the base of the neck with upright leaves; and the mouth and foot with key-fret bands. The main panels are decorated with scenes of European ladies and gentlemen on terraces with landscapes in the distance, and the panels on the neck with birds and floral sprays. The interior is enamelled turquoise and the base white.
References: A very similar Qianlong mark and period painted enamel vase is illustrated in Hájek and Forman 1966, A Book of Chinese Art: Four thousand years of sculpture, painting, bronze, jade, lacquer and porcelain, pl. 112. For Qianlong painted enamel vases decorated with westerners in related cartouches, see Great National Treasures of China: Masterworks in the National Palace Museum (1983), no. 94, p. 233; and Palace Museum, Compendium of Collections in the Palace Museum: Enamels, Vol. 5 (2011), nos. 70 and 71, pp. 102–05, and nos. 145 and 146, pp. 196–7. A Qianlong mark and period porcelain vase of related form, with the distinctive convex shoulder, is illustrated in Porcelains in Polychrome and Contrasting Colours: The Complete Collection of Treasures of the Palace Museum (1999), no. 242, p. 264.
9 Painted Enamel Ruby-backed Dish Yongzheng/Qianlong period Diameter: 15¾ inches; 39.6 cm With gently rounded sides supported on a broad foot, and metal-bound rims; the dish is painted in the famillerose palette. The well is painted with a leaf-shaped cartouche containing flowers, including peony, rose, magnolia, and day-lilies, butterflies and other insects, reserved against scrolling millefleurs on a deep greenishblue ground, beneath a blue key-fret border. The base is painted with two cranes, perched on one of two large branches of pine, around which are wound blossoms on long stems; the sky is painted with shades of blue enamel and the red sun is visible between the clouds. The exterior sides are covered with ruby enamel. References: A painted enamel dish with very similar cranes and pine decoration on the base, in the collection of the State Hermitage Museum, St Petersburg, is illustrated in Arapova 1988, Chinese Painted Enamels, cat. no. 146, pls. 92 and 93. For a related dish, see Bourlet and Bender 2007, Musée Fondation Zoubov, Genève, p. 21; note also a Yongzheng period porcelain dish painted with a very similar leaf-shaped cartouche in Jörg 1995, Oriental Porcelain: A Choice from the Boymans-van Beuningen Museum Collection, no. 28, pp. 67–8.
10 Pair of Painted Enamel Plaques First half of the 18th century Framed: 13Âž x 19Â˝ inches; 35.2 x 49.8 cm A pair of fine and rare painted enamel plaques of rectangular form and painted in the famille rose palette. One is decorated with two figures crossing a bridge on the way to a walled compound in the middle distance, all in a landscape with pines and tall mountains, amid which the top of a pagoda can be seen, clouds and the sun. The other is painted with a scholar and his attendant, carry-
ing a wrapped qin, in the foreground in a rocky landscape with pine and other trees, with fishing boats moored in the middle distance, and a village emerging from the clouds and mountains in the far distance. With hardwood frames. Reference: A related porcelain plaque is illustrated in Bahr 1911, Old Chinese Porcelain & Works of Art in China, pl. CV.
11 Painted Enamel Lantern & Stand 18th century Total height: 20 inches, 50.8 cm Formerly in a French private collection. A rare and large painted enamel lantern and stand of hexagonal section, the sides round from a straight foot, rise to a convex shoulder and a straight neck, and terminate in a shaped crown. The large faces have frames creating open windows for glass, surrounded by raised fretwork in the form of geometric dragons, and the foot, lower body, shoulder and neck are decorated with pierced panels of flowers or scrolls. The lantern is decorated in the famille rose palette with scrolling flowers against pale green and aubergine grounds, and the pierced crown with bold taotie masks reserved against a bright yellow ground. The interior is painted white. The stand is a mirror-image of the crown.
References: A painted enamel lantern is illustrated in Beurdeley 1966, The Chinese Collector through the Centuries: From the Han to the 20th Century, cat. 69, p. 234. Note also two lamps in the C. L. David collection, Copenhagen, in Krog et al 2006, Treasures from Imperial China: The Forbidden City and The Royal Danish Court, no. 209, p. 625. For a Yongzheng porcelain lantern of hexagonal section with similarly shaped crown and base, in the W. J. Holt collection, see Hobson, Rackham and King 1931, Chinese Ceramics in Private Collections, pl. 24.
12 Massive Porcelain Yanyan Vase Second quarter of the 18th century Chinese Market Height: 30Âž inches; 78 cm A fine and rare large porcelain yanyan vase, the wellrounded body, spreading towards the foot, rises to a tall cylindrical neck and terminates in an everted rim. The vase is finely enamelled in the famille rose palette, enhanced with gilding, with the Eight Immortals visiting Xi Wang Mu (the Queen Mother of the West), a large pine tree, rocks and a bat; and the neck with Xi Wang Mu, Magu, a legendary Daoist immortal, and a deer. A band of key-fret in bluish-green enamel surrounds the base of the neck. The thick enamels and palette are typical of the Yongzheng period. References: Famille verte decorated vases of this form are found in the Kangxi period: see, for example, Bushell 1981, Oriental Ceramic Art illustrated by examples from the collection of W. T. Walters, fig. 239, p. 182. For Yongzheng vases of various forms decorated with the Eight Immortals in this palette, see du Boulay 1984, Christieâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Pictorial History of Chinese Ceramics, no. 8, p. 244; Palace Museum Ancient Ceramics Research Centre, Palace Museum Collection: Ancient Ceramics, Vol. II (2005), no. 129, p. 151; and Tie 2005, The Complete Collection of Porcelain of Jiangxi Province: Porcelain of the Qing Dynasty (I), p. 120, in the collection of the Jingdezhen Pottery and Porcelain Museum; Cohen & Cohen 2014A, p46, this vase.
13 Snuff Box Qianlong period 1736-1796 European market Length: 3 inches; 8cm A rare laque burgautĂŠ rectangular box, the hinged lid decorated in mother of pearl with ruins and distant buildings, the sides and base with flowers, the copper mounts gilded This style of inlay using mother-of-pearl and gold foil in laquer was developed in China in the Ming Dynasty (1368-1644) but was mainly used in the Qing. It is known as lo tien in China but the European term burgau refers to the â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;sea earâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; or abalone (Haliotis tuberculata L. 1758) whose shell is used.
It also became popular in Europe in the 18th century and examples inlaid in European porcelain are known made by Johann Martin Heinrici (1711-1786) who worked for the Meissen factory circa 1745.
14 Silver Box 18th century Length: 6¾ in, 17.1 cm A rare parcel-gilt silver filigree box and cover in the form of a butterfly with straight sides and a hinged cover. The top and sides are applied with enamelled floral sprays against delicate filigree scale and spiral grounds, and the top is further decorated with silver flowers, leaves and trefoils. The hinged top has a cloud-shaped thumb-piece decorated in raised relief with a scrolling flower. The interior and edges of the box and cover are gilt; a chain links the cover to the box. There is a lock to the central front panel of the box. References: Related parcel-gilt silver examples are illustrated in Chen 1999, Enamel Ware in the Ming and Ch’ing
Dynasties, no. 164, p. 290, a slightly later example; in Palace Museum, The Imperial Packing Art of the Qing Dynasty (2000), no. 120, pp. 240–1; and in Yang 1987, Tributes from Guangdong to the Qing Court, no. 40, p. 81, dated Yongzheng. Note also a parcel-gilt silver casket, dated 1740– 50s, in Arapova et al 2003, Chinese Export Art in the Hermitage Museum: Late 16th–19th centuries, cat. no. 154, p. 144; a small silver box in the same style, with an inscription stating that it was taken from the Summer Palace 1860, is in a private collection, with provenance to an English country house with descendants of a military man in China 1860; Cohen & Cohen 2013, p92, a pair of silver candlesticks from the same workshop; for other related silver examples, see Piotrovski 2000, Treasures of Catherine the Great, no. 352, p. 213, in the shape of a cloud, and no. 364, p. 218, two boxes, dated mid eighteenth century, with festooned sides.
15 Pair of Dinner Plates Yongzheng period circa 1730 European Market Diameter: 9 inches; 23cm A fine pair of famille rose dinner plates with a central image of two ladies in a garden, the rim with flowers. The lady on the left is carrying a qin, a Chinese musical instrument.
All animals, except man, know that the principal business of life is to enjoy it. Thomas D'Urfey (1653-1723)
16 Charger Yongzheng period circa 1730 European Market Diameter: 12Âź inches; 31.5cm A fine Chinese export porcelain famille rose charger painted with a scene of two maidens in a walled garden with two cranes, the rim border with Prunus, vine and butterflies on a delicate grisaille cell diaper ground.
17 Eggshell Soup Plate Yongzheng period circa 1730 European Market Diameter: 9 inches; 23cm An extremely fine egghsell porcelain soup plate decorated in famille rose enamels with a central scene of two ladies and two boys with two rabbits, within five borders of dense decoration the main one with floral panels and medallions on a pink cell diaper ground.
References: Williamson 1970, pl XXXIII, a very similar example with minor differences in colouring but the same central scene from the WJ Holt colln.; Santos & Allen 2005, p56, No 18, and back cover, another similar; Pinto de Matos 2003, Cat 47, another similar.
Beauty is a fragile gift. Ovid
18 Pair of Saucers Yongzheng period circa 1730 European or Chinese Market Diameter: 8 inches; 21cm A fine pair of semi-eggshell porcelain saucers delicately painted with peony and prunus sprays in famille rose enamels.
19 Charger Qianlong period circa 1740 European Market Diameter: 14 inches; 36cm An unusual and brightly painted porcelain charger decorated in famille rose enamels with a central scene of Chinese figures, the rim and cavetto with densely filled decorative borders.
The scene here shows a fortune teller talking to two elegantly dressed young officials, with two fan-bearing attendants behind them. The bearded fortune teller, with a bat flying above him, has a cloth over his sleeve with the Chinese characters for shan guan qi se, which means â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;skilled at seeing the colour (quality) of your aura (qi)â&#x20AC;&#x2122;.
20 Eggshell Saucer Yongzheng period circa 1730 European Market Diameter: 8 inches; 20cm An unusual Chinese eggshell porcelain saucer painted in the rose verte palette with medallions and peony on a black dot ground, the rim with panels of flowers on a cell diaper. The colouring and the design of this exquisite saucer are unlike other examples from this period. The use of many of the enamels in a translucent way is similar to the famille verte enamelling - though this includes the pink enamel - and in small areas this is mixed with white to render it opaque. One part of the design on the rim seems to be a stylisation of a fleur-de-lys, a western motif that was used in various armorial designs on Chinese porcelain and is here borrowed and altered by the Chinese artists.
If we behave like those on the other side, then we are the other side. Instead of changing the world, all weâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;ll achieve is a reflection of the one we want to destroy. Jean Genet (1910-86), The Balcony 1957
21 Wine Pot and Cover Kangxi period circa 1710 Dutch Market Height: 6Âž inches; 17cm A fine Chinese export porcelain wine ewer painted in famille verte enamels on each side with a panel containing two maidens in a fenced garden, one seated on a kang with a fan, the other holding a ruyi sceptre, the yokeshaped handle simulating wicker.
We must fight the fears that threaten our garden, for make no mistake, ours is the garden of the poets of Will Shakespeareâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s sonnets, of Marlowe, Catullus, of Plato and Wilde, all those who have worked and suffered to keep it watered... Pull yourself together and put on the best of your masks to face the new day. Derek Jarman (1942-94)
22 Kendi Yongzheng period circa 1730 European Market Height: 10 inches; 25cm A rare hexagonal form kendi painted in underglaze blue with cell diaper and scrolling foliage, the panels with roosters, tree peony and prunus in famille rose, the neck with alternating lappets of underglaze blue and famille rose. The combination of colours on this rare form is very unusual. The term kendi is a Malay word derived from the Sanskrit kunda, from an Indian drinking vessel a kundika. The kendi is well known in South East Asian ceramics from ancient times and in China from the Tang Dynasty onwards. It was originally derived from metal forms and, in ceramics, has many varieties from simple shapes to complex animal-form examples. Famille rose kendis for the export market, such as this and the next item, are rare - the form was not used in the West so they were intended only as exotic decorative objects.
The labour of painting the China-ware is also divided between a great number of workmen... it is the business of one to make the coloured circle near the edge; another traces the flowers, which are painted by a third. It belongs to one to make rivers and mountains, another makes birds, flies, and other animals. John Payne, 1794
23 Kendi Yongzheng/Qianlong period circa 1735-40 European Market Height: 8Âž inches; 22cm A fine famille rose kendi of globular form painted with scenes of Chinese figures on a terrace, looking at a rabbit. This exquisitely painted example of this rare type has an unusual use of the famille rose palette. There appears to be no use of the white enamel, though the pink and the new yellow that characterise the new colouring introduced at the end of the Kangxi period are used extensively, along with the a â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;dead-leafâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; brown in the border on the shoulder. This last indicates a date at the very end of the Yongzheng period. The lack of the white enamel makes the enamels translucent and the fine painting and the colouring are subtle and luminous, which does not show well in a photograph. In the hand this is a tactile and intensely beautiful object. References: Williamson 1970, pl XXVII, a similar famille rose kendi but with different figures.
24 Pair of Vases Qianlong period circa 1750-60 European Market Height: 13他 inches; 35cm An extremely rare pair of Chinese export porcelain vases painted in famille rose enamels with panels of detailed scenes of silk production and rice cultivation reserved on a ground of gilt scrolling foliage, the foot and rim with spearhead border. This remarkable pair of large vases is characterised by very dense and detailed painting of great quality. Dating them is difficult as the style is somewhere between the best Yongzheng pieces and the elaborate design of the Chinese scenes on vases and bowls from the last quarter of the eighteenth century. The quality and style here suggests an earlier date. These image are derived from the Gengzhi tu, a compilation of illustrations of rice cultivation and silk production by LouShou (1090-1162) during the Song Dynasty and published 1237. As well as instruction for practical processes it was also a metaphor for a well-ordered Confucian society - a common theme in Song period art. Many editions followed, including one in 1696 by the court painter Jiao Bingzhen for the Emperor Kangxi, who also commissioned several series of illustrations for other processes, including tea production and porcelain manufacture, scenes of which were also copied onto porcelain. The images on these vases are not taken directly from the Jiao Bingzhen illustrations, being more detailed with a greater emphasis on the machinery used, in particular the wheeldrives, though they make use of perspective learnt from Western artists, which Jiao had introduced in his drawings. The same silk production images are known on another pair of smaller eggshell vases from about 1730-40, which suggests that they could have been a new series painted for the Emperors Yongzheng or Qianlong. References: Furher, B & Monnet, N, 2003 Le Gengzhitu, pub JC Lattes; private Collection in Ohio (pers. comm.): a pair of eggshell vases of same shape but smaller, circa 1730-40, with a schematic of sericulture panels across both vases clearly derived from the same sources as this pair, several panels identical; Bushell, SW (1896) Oriental Ceramic Art; The Collection of WT Walters, p220, fig 287, a single example of a vase with the same silk production scenes.
25 Barbersâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; Bowl Yongzheng period circa 1728-30 European Market Length: 12 inches; 30.5cm A rare and fine Chinese export porcelain barbersâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; bowl painted in famille rose enamels with a central scene of a seated scholar with a boy attendant, a table of antiques beside him, the rim with a border of prunus and chrysanthemum.
This is an early example of this type, the hanging willow is reminiscent of designs on larger chargers of the period. References: Cohen & Cohen 2013, p44-5, two similar examples of such basins; Williamson 1970, pl XXVII, a barbersâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; bowl with the same border but different figures in the centre.
26 Set of Four Salts Qianlong period circa 1755-60 European Market Length: 3他 inches; 9.7cm A fine set of four Chinese export porcelain trencher salts decorated in famille rose with sprays of flowers. The bunch of flowers on these salts is of European style rather than Chinese and is similar to those on Meissen porcelain from this period and the shape is also one produced at Meissen.
27 Charger Yongzheng period circa 1730 European Market Diameter: 19 inches; 48cm A very large Chinese export porcelain octagonal charger, the circular centre having branches of tree peony and other flowers, the cavetto with lotus on a pink cell diaper ground, the moulded outer rim with further flowers.
28 Pair of Jardinières Qianlong period circa 1770 European Market Diameter: 15½ inches; 39cm Height: 9¾ inches; 27cm An extremely rare pair of large jardinières of ribbed fluted form, painted in famille rose with a variant of the tobacco leaf pattern including a phoenix. Only one other example of this type is recorded, and this variant of the tobacco leaf pattern is also very rare being known on a pair of vases in the Swedish Royal collection. The pattern is unusual in having no underglaze blue in the design and pastel shades used throughout.
References: Wirgin 1998, p107, one vase illustrated from the pair in the Swedish Royal collection; Cohen & Cohen 1999, p23, a single like these; Debomy 2013, p133, the same single as C&C 1999, and a large fish tank with the design which he classifies as A9.2 pattern.
29 Massive Figure of a Demonslayer Qianlong period circa 1740 Chinese Market Height: 25Âž inches; 65.5cm Provenance: the James E Sowell collection; formerly in a private European Collection, originating in France. A massive porcelain figure of Zhong Kui decorated in famille rose enamels, with a sword in his right hand and his left held up in a threatening pose, in robes of iron red and green, sculpted in swirling folds, with two belts of simulated jade and precious stones, the face painted in flesh tones with dramatic eyebrows and beard. This extraordinary figure is a masterpiece of Chinese art. The quality of execution, both in the enamelling and the sculptural dynamism, especially in the folds of the robes, suggests that this was made for an imperial commission. There is no precedent within Chinese porcelain, export or imperial, for a figure of this type. The size alone would have made it extremely difficult to fire. The cost of manufacture would have been prohibitive for the export or domestic markets, other than for the emperor. The enamelling is detailed and similar to examples of imperial porcelain. The sword is a recent replacement and might originally have been of another material, possibly jade. This originally emerged from an old private collection in Europe. Given the quality, it is possible that this was made for the Summer Palace (Yuanming yuan) outside Beijing. Other items from there have resurfaced in European houses throughout the twentieth century. As a young man, Zhong Kui travelled with his friend Du Ping to take the official examinations, which were essential for success. He took top honours but was disallowed by the emperor because of his disfigured appearance. In a fury, the student threw himself at the imperial gates until his head was broken; his body was taken and buried by Du Ping, who later married his younger sister. Zhong Kui's spirit descended into hell, where he became King of the Ghosts and set about vanquishing demons. In the Tang dynasty, the sick Emperor Xuanzong was terrorised in his dreams by a demon until a fierce spirit with a sword attacked the demon and ate him. He introduced himself to the emperor as Zhong
Kui, and the emperor commanded the artist Wu Daozi to paint his image. In the Song dynasty, Zhong Kui was absorbed into the Daoist pantheon. Images of Zhong Kui are popular on gates and entrances to ward off evil spirits, and are especially important for business premises selling high-value goods. He is always shown with his magic sword, a fierce expression and big beard, usually in an energetic pose. The Yuanming yuan, or Summer Palace, was begun by the Kangxi emperor in 1707 as a present for his son, the future Yongzheng emperor, who extended it into a whole complex of palaces and gardens with extensive waterworks, a pleasant place from which to conduct the Qing administration. The Qianlong emperor further developed the complex until it covered an area of almost nine hundred acres. Although famous for the European-style palace designed by the Jesuit Guiseppe Castiglione with Michel Benoist, in fact most of the buildings were Chinese in style, with some Mongolian and Tibetan architecture. They were filled with porcelain, bronzes, and other works of art arranged in themes and made by the very best artists and craftsmen in the empire. The European-style buildings were in stone, and so parts of them survived the catastrophic destruction brought about by the British and French troops in 1860 - an act of cultural vandalism that still resonates today. This was ordered by Lord Elgin as punishment for the execution of twenty Western prisoners. Charles Gordon (of Khartoum) was present as a young captain and wrote afterwards: â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;You can scarcely imagine the beauty and magnificence of the places we burned. It made one's heart sore.â&#x20AC;&#x2122; The Summer Palace took three days to burn. It was noted that the looters preferred the porcelain items, leaving behind the bronzes, many from the Shang and Han periods, which were rescued afterwards. Whatever had survived was finally destroyed in 1900 by Western forces during the Boxer Rebellion. References: Cohen and Motley 2008, p80-83, three figures of Zhong Kui including this one and two much smaller examples with demons; an example of a small figure with one demon is in the Victoria and Albert Museum, London, (FE.7-1978) labelled as Abraham and Isaac.
30 Figure Qianlong period circa 1750 European Market Height: 11 inches; 28cm A fine and large standing figure of a Chinese lady holding a peach, in famille rose enamels with a yellow dress. This is a rare figure of high quality. The face is smiling sweetly and the flat wood-effect base indicates an early date. The ears are pierced and might originally have been intended to hold small earrings, perhaps coral or jade on a gold wire. This figure is most likely Magu, an immortal symbolising longevity, who made elixirs and wines from the lingzhi fungus and she is also associated with hemp. She is often depicted ‘Presenting Longevity’ in the form of the lingzhi or peaches especially for the Peach Banquet for the eight immortals and attended by Hsi Wang Mu.
“When I say ‘mind’,” said the blood relation, “I refer to the quarter-teaspoonful of brain which you might possibly find in her head if you sank an artesian well.” PG Wodehouse (1881-1975), Jeeves in the Offing 1960
31 Pair of Maiden Candleholders Qianlong period circa 1755 European market Height: 16Â˝ inches; 42.5cm Provenance: Casa de Peixinhos; Vila ViĂ§osa A large pair of famille rose maiden candleholders, each in flowing robes decorated with flowers and medallions and bearing gu form vases as sconces, the robes brightly enamelled. This pair of figures is a fine example of this rare type and the decoration and the moulding of the faces is of the highest quality. Such figures were originally intended as table decorations, with candles in the sconces. References: Cohen & Motley 2008, p103, Item 5.4, a pair standing on lotus leaves with red coats; Howard 1994. p258, No 307, a pair on lotus leaves in blue coats, No 308 another pair; Howard & Ayers 1978, p615, No 644 - a single example; p614, No 643, another pair which it is suggested are derived from a chinoiserie original; Williamson 1970, plate LIX, various single examples of the type; Sharp 2002, p209, a pair of ladies with lotus candleholders also derived from chinoiserie models but with unusual feather shoulder mantles possibly of South American influence; Cohen & Cohen 2001, p44, Cat 37, another pair; C&C 2004, Cat 26, another pair; C&C 2005, p36, a pair on lotus leaves with red coats; C&C 2007, several pairs; C&C 2008, a pair on lotus leaves in blue coats; C&C 2012, p42, a large pair 18 inches tall.
Hard by, in the fields called the Leith Links, the citizens of Edinburgh divert themselves at a game called golf, in which they use a curious kind of bat, tipt with horn, and small elastic balls of leather, stuffed with feathers, rather less than tennis balls, but of a much harder consistence. This they strike with such force and dexterity from one hole to another, that they will fly to an incredible distance. Of this diversion the Scots are so fond, that when the weather will permit, you may see a multitude of all ranks, from the senator of justice to the lowest tradesman, mingled together in their shirts, and following the balls with the utmost eagerness. Tobias Smollet, 1771
32 Pair of Maiden Candleholders Qianlong period circa 1760 European Market Height: 11他 inches: 29.3cm A fine pair of famille rose porcelain candleholders, each modelled as a Chinese maiden brightly decorated in contrasting yin and yang colours, each bearing a sconce modelled as a lotus bud. References: Sargent 1991, p133, No 61, a larger pair with lotus sconces; Sharpe 2002, p209, a similar pair; Cohen & Cohen 2007, p30, another pair.
Dear Lord, the gods have been good to me. As an offering, I present these milk and cookies. If you wish me to eat them instead, please give me no sign whatsoever... thy will be done. Homer Simpson
33 Pair of Nodding-head Figures Qianlong period circa 1740 European Market Length: 9 inches; 23cm An extremely rare pair of porcelain figures of reclining maidens each holding a book, decorated in bright famille rose enamels with an iron red dress, the heads separate and nodding, on a leaf shaped base painted with flowers.
This form is unrecorded but appears to be linked in style to a few other pairs of figures of seated maidens with pheonixes or deer. References: Cohen & Motley 2008, p100, a pair of seated ladies holding spaniels with phoenixes beside them.
34 Pair of Maiden Candleholders Qianlong period circa 1760 European Market Height: 14Â˝ inches; 37cm A pair of famille rose porcelain candleholders modelled as standing maidens, each perched on a dragon, the backs flattened and with apertures for wall mounting. This form is a rare adaptation of the usual type, both as a wall pocket and also the inclusion of the dragons, though the heads of these also resemble the qilin heads in some export models. The dragon is a male symbol (yang), connected to the east and the light and adopted as a symbol of imperial authority. Dragons are rare in export porcelain figures, usually appearing as attachments to other objects, such as handles on vases. The first dragon rose out of the sea, appearing before the sage Fu Xi and filling a great hole in the sky made by another monster; thus a dragon controls the weather and the seasons.
I've never been to New Zealand before. But one of my role models, Xena, the warrior princess, comes from there. Madeleine Albright (b1937)
35 Tureen and Cover Qianlong period circa 1760 European Market Length: 9Â˝ inches; 24cm A rare and unusual small tureen and cover modelled as a recumbent qilin with a small boy on its back, all brightly enamelled in famille rose. The qilin is one of the Four Sacred Creatures along with the dragon, the fenghuang (phoenix), and the tortoise, which was the only real animal in the quartet. A whole variety of 'unicorns' like the qilin are recorded, and they vary considerably in their symbolism and appearance in different eras, influenced by the relative ascendancy of Buddhism, Confucianism, or Daoism. The qilin is the most popular of the 'unicorns'. It often has two horns, as here with scaly skin and cloven hooves, and bears no relationship to the Western creature whose name it borrows in translation. Peaceful and kind, the qilin appears during the reign of wise and virtuous rulers, according to Confucian tradition. Probably based on the rhinoceros, â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;unicornsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; feature in some export porcelain as mounts for foreigners, particularly in Dehua blanc-de-chine models.
I believe in everything until it's disproved. So I believe in fairies, the myths, dragons. It all exists, even if it's in your mind. Who's to say that dreams and nightmares aren't as real as the here and now? John Lennon (1940-80)
36 Tureen and Cover Qianlong period circa 1750 Iberian Market Height: 15¼ inches; 39cm A Chinese export porcelain tureen and cover modeled as a goose and decorated in bright famille rose enamels, the breast in deep purple, the head in yellow. Goose tureens are understandably one of the most sought after items of Chinese export porcelain. Magnificently poised and elegant they make a bold statement as a table decoration. These tureens are known in two types, the other being a smaller form with a shorter neck and cruder decoration and just predating this larger form. They are apparently copied from a European original, though the precise models are not clear. Käendler at Meissen modelled standing geese, and white Chinese copies are recorded. Adam von Löwenfinck, who began work at the Elector of Mainz’s Höchst factory (where some animal model tureens were made), moved in 1749 to the Strasbourg factories under Paul-Antoine Hannong and developed a wide range of popular animal tureens. Examples of goose, turkey, woodcock, and oxhead tureens are known. In 1763 the Dutch VOC ordered twenty-five goose tureens, though most examples of this form would have been ordered through the private trade. Most examples were for the Spanish or Portuguese markets and a number are known with Spanish arms on them. Other bird tureens and covered boxes were made in English factories, for example the nesting partridges made at Bow, which were also accurately copied by the Chinese. Examples of similar tureens are also known from the Portuguese factory of Rato, but not until 1770, which is too late to have served as a model for the Chinese examples. It is more likely that the Portuguese were simply copying what was coming in from China. It is also likely that the Chinese contributed to these designs from their own tradition: avian-form boxes were known in earlier times (especially the Han dynasty), and later cloisonné and bronze examples of ducks and geese are also known.
This goose is the Chinese goose or swan goose (Anser cygnoides L. 1758) the ancestor of domesticated geese in China. A large, flock-forming goose that used to be widespread across India and Asia, its population is now declining due to habitat loss and unregulated hunting (between 60,000-100,000 remain in the wild); it is categorised as vulnerable (2008) by the IUCN. In Chinese mythology the goose symbolises yang and is the Prince of Light and Masculinity. It is also seen as the harbinger of good news and was often given as a betrothal offering. Geese pair for life, and there are many tales of a bereaved goose repeatedly returning to where its mate was shot. Pairs of flying geese often appear on Chinese porcelain and portray marital fidelity. By convention they also carry letters. In the Western Han period, General Su Wu, captured by invading Turkic tribesmen, sent a note to Emperor Wu attached to the leg of a goose; when the goose was brought down by an arrow in the imperial grounds, the message was read, rescuers were sent, and Su Wu was saved. During the Jin Dynasty (265–420 CE), a teacher named Dao An, of the Kunlun School of Daoism, developed an exercise system called Dayan Qigong or Greater Goose Qigong, with many of the movements imitating the style of wild geese. This was very popular with the Wanli emperor in the late Ming Dynasty, and it was further promoted by the Qianlong emperor, who established temples all over China. References: Lloyd Hyde 1964, frontispiece ; Beurdeley 1962, p172, an early example, p85, a later example with green feathers and the arms of Galvez; Howard 1997, p140, No 178, a nice example with mention of an order by the VOC for twenty-five such tureens in 1763; Howard & Ayers 1978, p590, No 615, the larger type; Howard 1994, p113, No 109, a large goose tureen; Pinto de Matos et al. 2002, p148, No 40, a pair similar to this tureen; Alves et al. 1998, p268, No 87, the smaller type, No 88, the larger type; Antunes 2000, p68, No 53, a bright example with the arms of D. Matias de Galvez y Gallardo; Phillips 1956, p160, plate 72, a similar tureen; Mudge 1986, p54. fig 62, a goose tureen with the arms of Cervantes; Mudge 1962, p138, Fig 74, a pair of white goose tureens and covers presented to the East India Marine Society of Salem, Mass., in 1803 by Capt. Ward Blackler, now in the Peabody Essex Museum, Salem; Sotheby's London, 9 June 2004, lot 72, a Tang dynasty, blue-splashed sancai goose vessel clearly based on A. cygnoides; Christie's New York, 29 March 2006, lot 320, a gilt-bronze goose form censer, Song/Ming, 17 inches high, the feathers in relief; Cohen & Motley 2008, p258, a similar example from the James E Sowell collection.
37 Figure Group Qianlong period circa 1755 Dutch or Chinese Market Height: 10 inches; 25.5cm A fine and very rare famille rose group of a dancing European couple standing on a pierced plinth, both with their left foot lifted off the ground in mid-dance. This group of dancers is one of the oddest, rarest and most famous types in Chinese Export Porcelain. They do not fit with most other such figures made for export and their market is unclear. Though it would seem that these are made for the Dutch Market (and some were clearly exported to Europe) they may also have been made for the entertainment of the Chinese. Almost certainly they were made as matching pairs: the first shows the couple preparing to dance with the man's feet parted and his arms guiding the woman’s shoulder; the second group shows them whirling in the middle of the dance. This is a particularly good example of this type, very possibly from the first order for such figures. The pose is very likely to have been influenced by an earlier model of a dancing couple that was first made for the Meissen factory and then copied by the Chinese as well as by Bow, Chelsea and Derby. First modeled by Johann Friedrich Eberlein in 1735 for Meissen it was reworked by Johan Joachim Kändler and listed in his Taxa of 1743 as "Harlequin and a maiden doing a Polish dance, possibly a Mazurka". There are very few examples of that group known but when the wreck of the VOC ship Geldermalsen was salvaged in 1985 five damaged examples were recovered, which had lost their enamels due to the corrosion of salt water, and enabled dating to 1752. This group is in a more naïve style and would have amused the Chinese who were known to find European activities very curious. The most interesting aspect of these groups is the combination of European and Chinese influences: the costumes are typical eighteenth century European fashion, but decorated in a Chinese manner with peonies, chrysanthemum, clouds and scrolls. The plinth provides another clue that indicates these groups might have been popular with the Chinese market and not purely for export, as this style is sometimes found on pieces made for the domestic market.
Perhaps they were "curiousities for those interested in the physiognomy, costumes and social habits of Westerners" as suggested by Sargent (1991). There exist books with illustrations of European figures that were made for the Chinese Court and the Emperor Qianlong encouraged the use of European scenes and figures on certain Imperial items. References: Du Boulay 1963, p82, No 116, an example; Beurdeley & Raindre 1987, fig 284, an example but the picture appears reversed; Sargent 1991, p220, cat 106 an example of the standing couple; p222, cat 107, the dancing couple; Cohen & Cohen 2002, p44, cat 30, an example of the earlier Tyrolean Dancers modeled after Eberlein, Kändler; C&C 2006, p26, a standing couple and p28, a dancing couple; C&C 2008, p40, a pair of couples fully matched; p42, another dancing couple; C&C 2012, p48, the Tyrolean group with illustrations of a range of models.
The Tyrolean Dancing couple, Cohen & Cohen 2012.
with satirists claiming that he stayed out of range in his ship Ramillies to protect his porcelain collection, shown in a contemporary broadside illustration.
Qianlong period circa 1740 Dutch or English Market Height: 16 inches; 42cm An extremely rare famille rose porcelain figure of a standing woman dressed in the formal clothes of the 16th Century Frankfurt Jewish community. This figure is one of only three known different models of this size and decoration, with thick enamelling. The other two are a bearded man holding out his left arm with a purse (a pair to this figure) and a Turkish dancer. All are extremely rare, with five examples of the Turkish girl recorded and about a dozen of the others, slightly more of the women known than men. They were a private order about 1740, but it is not clear for which market they were intended or who might have ordered them. All three derive from European prints but with modifications - suggesting either that the order specified the changes, or that they derive from intermediate prints as yet undiscovered. This figure and the male companion were long described as a Dutch couple but recent research by Ronald Fuchs has shown that they are in fact wearing the Jewish costume of 16th century Frankfurt, as illustrated in a print by Caspar Luyken, circa 1703. The Turkish dancer is from a print by Henri Bonnart, circa 1702. It is unclear why Jewish figures should have been chosen at this time. The prints come from two series of exotic foreign costume collections and the fashion for such things in the second quarter of the eighteenth century may have prompted the order without any particular distinction. A pair of these male figures was in the ship's cabin of Admiral John Byng described as 'Dutch Merchants', from a label on the reverse of the male figure in the Hodroff Collection. So the misidentification is almost contemporary. The Luyken print is probably also the source for a Meissen figural scent bottle of a woman in this costume (New York Metropolitan Museum, No 17.190.1728). Admiral John Byng (1704-1757) was the son of Admiral Sir George Byng, 1st Viscount Torrington (who also had a very fine export armorial service) and an avid collector of porcelain. He was court-martialled and executed after the loss of Minorca in the Seven Years' War,
The Cabin Council, circa 1756
Our prudent Adm'ral held it wise, Not to expose the Ramelies To the hards Blows of Iron Balls, Which would deface her Wooden Walls; Or might his Cabin Windows tare, And break his curious ChinaWare. (from The British Hero and Ignoble Poltroon, quoted in Cardwell 2004, p60) Dans ce pays-ci, il est bon de tuer de temps en temps un amiral pour encourager les autres. Voltaire (1694-1778), Candide 1759 References: Fuchs, Ronald 2008, European Subjects on Chinese Porcelain, Oriental Ceramics Society; For couples see: Sargent 1991, p112; Howard 1994, p252, a couple in the Hodroff Collection; For ladies see: Mengoni et al 2013, p140, a lady from the British Museum (No 1963,0422.11); another is in the Victoria & Albert Museum (No C.94-1963); Howard & Ayers 1978, p612; du Boulay 1963, p82; Williamson 1970, pl XLI; For Admiral Byng: Finlay, Robert (2010) The Pilgrim Art: Cultures of Porcelain in World History, University of
2004, Art and Arms: Literature, Politics and Patriotism During the Seven Years War, Manchester University Press, p60+; Cohen & Cohen 2013, p68, an example of the Turkish Dancer.
p287; M John Cardwell
Engraving by Caspar Luyken, from Abrahan a Sancta Claraâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Neu Eroffnete Welt-Galleria, C.Weigel, Nuremberg 1703
39 Saucer Dish Qianlong period circa 1736 Dutch Market Diameter: 9¾ inches; 25cm A Chinese export porcelain famille rose saucer dish with the Dame au Parasol pattern, very finely painted, the reverse with eight insects painted in rouge-de-fer. The central scene is known as La Dame au Parasol and is after a design by the Dutch artist Cornelis Pronk, commissioned by the Dutch East India Company in 1734. It was the first design by Pronk sent to China, the porcelain returning on the ship Magdalena via Batavia and arriving in Amsterdam in Spring 1737. The design is also known in Chinese Imari and blue and white but this version is much the rarest. The VOC archives indicate three famille rose services being ordered, but they were very expensive to produce and only one is known, which is mostly intact in a private collection. This dish represents one of the very best and earliest examples of this design, having four rows of cells on the rim (as in the surviving drawing in the Rijksmuseum) rather than three, which is found in most examples. The Pronk porcelain enterprise was an ambitious venture by the VOC to create high quality, exciting new porcelains in China to specific European designs that were aimed at the current fashions in the market. Initially the VOC asked the Delft workshops to produce coloured ceramic models that could be taken to China, but they replied that the polychrome was too difficult and they commissioned Cornelis Pronk (1691-1759) to make drawings instead. He worked for three and a half years from the middle of 1734 to the end of 1737 and produced four drawings, one per year for which he was paid 1200 guilders per year. The designs were copied and sent to Batavia from where the enterprise seems to have been coordinated. The first design, La Dame au Parasol, was sent on to Canton, and also to Deshima in Japan where samples in blue and white and polychrome were made (a few of both exist) but no full orders given. The Canton orders were delayed at first, both by the weather and also the caution of the merchants as the Chinese dealers were demanding very high prices for the production of such a complicated pattern. Also the basins for the cistern and
basin sets were not surviving in the kiln. Two documented shipments of the first design (Parasol) returned to Amsterdam: (see Jorg 1980, p20-21): 1.Magdalena, (arrived in Amsterdam March 1737) - 3 Dinner services; 10 teaservices; 9 vases & basins; 19 mantlesets (garnitures) 2. Hogensmilde (arrived in Amsterdam 1739) with porcelains ordered from dealer Tan Suqua in Canton, Jan 1738) - 5 dinner services; 5 teaservices; 10 vases and basins (5 big & 5 small) The original orders for these had been much larger but the cost had brought about the reduction. These are the only records of orders received for this pattern. It has been suggested that later orders were made circa 1770-5 as some of the shapes known in Chinese Imari colouring are thought to be of later date. However the painting on these is of equal quality, in most cases, so the precise dating for some of these pieces remains unsure. These figures, and those for subsequent orders of other designs, highlight a significant problem with the whole Pronk workshop enterprise for modern students of ceramics, which is that the range of porcelains known today circulating in the market and in private and public collections does not appear to correspond with the proportions in these orders. For example there are no known cisterns and basins or garniture sets with the Dame au Parasol pattern in any colourway. However there does exist a small number of cisterns with a similar pattern The Handwashing in both famille rose, blue and white and Chinese Imari palettes, and also some basins with Two Swans in the same colours, which could fit together. One surviving example of these basins has a delicate leaf shaped footrim (Arapova 2003, p48) - but most other examples have the foot rim ground down (Wirgin 1998, p177; Christie’s, Sale 1523, Lot426), suggesting that this was easily damaged in the kiln and might have been the problem in manufacture mentioned in the VOC reports. Later basins for the Archer and Doctors’ Visit pattern have a different, stronger footrim. The Handwashing examples could be those in the first shipment on the Magdalena. References: Jörg 1980, essential reading on this subject; Howard & Ayers 1978, p292-305, discussion of Pronk items; Beurdeley 1962, p56; Howard 1994, p73; Le Corbeiller 1974, p55; Wirgin 1998, p173; Lunsingh Sheurleer 1974, pl 192-6; Jörg 1989, p138159, various Pronk workshop pieces; Mezin 2004, p128.
The Pronk Workshop Enterprise
Tripod Coffee Pot and Cover
As well as the four designs known to be by Pronk (two for sure and two attributed) there are a number of other designs that have the distinctive style of known Pronk pieces which must have come from the same workshops. This strongly indicates that there was an active contributor either in Amsterdam or, more likely, in Batavia who was creating additional designs to broaden the range and who used the similar source material as Pronk, including Pronk’s own designs. The only drawings by Pronk (or contemporrary copies of his drawings) are in the Rijksmuseum, showing the Dame au Parasol (A) and the three figures version of the Doctors' Visit (B2). Tantalisingly the sale of art and books from the estate of Pronk’s brother Aldert Pronk in 1772 lists six lots of folders of drawings of models for porcelain by Cornelis. This suggests he might have created more than four designs - or at least more variants. An accurate list of possible 'Pronk' designs is difficult to assemble, but there are possibly as many as 20 attributable to the Pronk Workshop Enterpise as a whole, using comparisons of styles and certain distinctive elements, and the use of shared sources in Natural History prints.
Qianlong period circa 1737-8 Dutch Market Height: 12¾ inches; 32.5cm An extremely rare porcelain tripod coffee pot and cover on three feet decorated in famille rose with the Dame au Parasol pattern after Cornelis Pronk, with European metal tap fitted near the base. This is one of only three known examples of this form for this pattern, the Dame au Parasol by Dutch artist Cornelis Pronk. The shape follows similar late 17th century Japanese types known in blue and white and polychrome, made for the export market, with three feet and metal taps fitted in this way - as is also found in some Delft coffeepots of this period. Despite what is known from the records of the VOC orders for this pattern there appears to have been only one large service made in famille rose for this pattern, including a tea service. This coffee pot exhibits most elements of the design, though the painting of the figures suggests it might have been part of a separate private order. The floral designs on the feet and handle are not part of the surviving design by Pronk and this appears related to the rare fluted dish also in this catalogue. References: Alves et al 1998, p276, No 94, another coffee pot like this but with different knop to cover (possibly restored);
Jörg 1980, p68, No 24 another, lacking a cover.
Summary notes: The Pronk Four: A Dame au Parasol known in famille rose (FR), Imari and blue and white on dinner, tea and coffee services B1 Doctors' Visit four figures, known on all forms including cisterns and basins, bottle garnitures, in famille rose (FR) and blue and white, no Imari versions? B2 Doctors' Visit three figures - rare, tea services known. C Archer - cisterns and basins only, FR and blue & white (basins with roses and moths after Marie Sybille Merian); two celadon-ground vases, shaped as small cisterns, imari palette. D The Arbour - dinner and tea services in FR and blue and white, no Imari versions? A Meissen teabowl with this pattern is in the New York Metropolitan Museum, No 64.101.165 from the Untermyer Collection, possibly Amsterdam decorated, which suggests that Pronk or the VOC may have had a European example made up as a trial.
Closely associated: E The Plume - tea wares and plates only, in yellow and violet or iron red and grey, relates to D. F Insect coffee service - coffee pot, teapot and cup and saucer known, relates to D. G Trumpeter - black ground - plates and tea wares. H Flowers after Merian - plates and dishes in FR and blue & white; a later and cruder version is known; also some later pieces in Imari palette; this design also relates to an Imperial vase, (Qianlong mark and of the period) in the Victoria and Albert Museum. Cisterns and Basins only: I 1 Handwashing - cisterns only, FR, Imari I 2 Two Swans - basins only, FR, Imari, blue & white These show similarities and seem to match; possibly ordered with Parasol pattern, to which it relates in some ways, the swans being taken from the same prints by Matthaus Merian as the birds in A and some of B1. J The Potentate - cisterns and basins only, FR; an unusual example with the ‘Pronk’ figures’ but with later and ordinary export style decoration was offered at auction recently (Bonham’s, London). Sconces: part of the last order from the VOC, several sizes and frame styles known, all famille rose K The Phoenix - sconces only L The Flame Bearer - sconces only M The Girl on a Swing - sconces only
Square-form garnitures mostly derived from Maria Sybille Merian prints from European Insects) N Fritillary, white ground O Dewberry, violet ground P Redcurrants, black ground Q Foxgrape, white ground, small examples only (R flowers, yellow ground - one vase known from poor image)
Qianlong period circa 1738 Dutch Market Diameter: 14 inches; 36cm
Possibles: S Parrot on a Swing - garnitures known, circular cross section shapes same as B1 garnitures (T Spaniel - unlikely to be Pronk workshop, possibly derived from a Meissen type.)
This magnificent charger is very finely painted and unusually has a continuous honeycomb on the rim without the cartouches in the official design. This would have been difficult to paint, as the slightest mistake and the painter would have had to restart on a new piece. It is interesting to note that in the price listgiven by the porcelain dealer Tan Suqua in Canton for the second order of Parasol porcelain (January 1738) the blue and white examples are the most expensive, a blue and white dinner service (371 pieces) costing 1,160 G, Chinese Imari 1,120G and famille rose 1,040 G.
A large charger painted in underglaze blue with the Dame au Parasol pattern, the rim with a continuous honeycomb diaper border of three bands, the reverse with eight insects.
42 Charger Qianlong period circa 1740 Dutch Market Diameter: 13Âź inches; 34cm A large charger in Chinese porcelain painted in the Imari palette with the Dame au Parasol pattern, the reverse with seven insects painted in underglaze blue.
43 Butter Cooler, Cover and Stand Qianlong period circa 1740-80 Dutch Market Diameter of stand: 9 inches; 23cm A rare butter cooler, cover and matching stand in Chinese porcelain painted in the Imari palette with the Dame au Parasol pattern. The dating of this example is difficult. The pattern is known from 1736 onwards and the painting on this is similar in quality to other examples from about 1740. However Sargent 2012 states that the shape derives from a moulded blown glass model that is not known before 1780. Professor Jรถrg on the other hand dates it to about 1770-75.
There is no documented evidence of later orders of Pronk designs from China but Jรถrg suggests that it is possible that after the sale of the Pronk drawings from the Aldert Pronk sale of 1772 there may have been more orders made. The pattern is known in a few copies from European factories in the late 18th century, such as Cozzi (c1765), Oude-Amstel (c1780) and later in Brameld English pearlware (c1810-20). References: Jรถrg 1980, p68, No 24, a similar buttertub; Sargent 2012, p150, No 56, a blue and white butter cooler of a similar shape; p277, tureen, cover and stand dated to 1770-75.
44 Charger Qianlong period circa 1750 Dutch or European Market Diameter: 14 inches; 35.5cm A famille rose charger painted with a scene of a Chinese maiden and her attendant bearing a parasol, in front are two Chinese phoenixes, fenghuang, the rim with sprays of pomegranate and peony.
This dish is clearly inspired by the Dame au Parasol pattern of Cornelis Pronk but simplified and without the European birds. The enamelling and the gilt border in the cavetto suggest a later date and the whole style indicate that this is not from the Pronk workshop.
45 Fluted Dish Qianlong period circa 1740 Dutch Market Diameter: 11他 inches; 30cm A rare fluted dish with a central scene of the Dame au Parasol pattern after Cornelis Pronk, the cavetto from that design, but the fluting with distinctive floral tassels that depart from the usual design, the reverse with seven insects in rouge-de-fer.
This rare form is known in a few other examples with this design in the rim. It may have been from the second order of the Parasol or a private separate order. The tassels in the rim are similar to the decoration on the handles and feet of the tripod coffee pot in this catalogue, so it could be related to that - though the detail of the central design is slightly different. References: Alves et al 1998, p299, an armorial dish of the same shape as this; Cohen & Cohen 2008, p33, another dish from the Hodroff collection
46 Charger Qianlong period circa 1738 Dutch Market Diameter: 17¼ inches; 44cm A very large famille rose charger brightly enamelled with a scene showing The Doctors’ Visit after a design by Cornelis Pronk, with a low table of European design on which rests a large kraak porcelain dish, the rim with reserves of fish and waterbirds. The scene on this charger is known as The Doctor's Visit to the Emperor after the Dutch artist Cornelis Pronk. It was the second drawing for the VOC, commissioned from Cornelis Pronk in 1735, and, like the others, it portrays a very Western view of life in China. For example the table is of a European design and the dish on it is of the kraak style, which is a type that was exported to the West in the late sixteenth and seventeenth centuries and would not have been used by the Emperor. The parrot often symbolises a prostitute or painted courtesan in Chinese art, so would never have been included next to the Emperor. The design may have been inspired by a design on a Ming jar which depicts three Daoist 'star-gods' in a cave playing chess. Another possible source for the design is found in a late Ming blue and white bowl with the poet Su Dongpo on a boat, seated at a table with two drinking companions, with an inscription that quotes from the Ode to the Red Cliffs, about catching fish. The design arrived in Canton in 1737 and presented the supercargoes responsible for placing the porcelain order with a problem familiar from the first Pronk design: both were highly detailed and therefore very expensive to produce, and so the supercargoes dared place only a small order. A second slightly larger order was placed the following year, but in 1739 another less detailed version of this design, omitting the standing figure, was sent to Canton in hope of reducing the price of production. The supercargoes were unable to obtain a satisfactory reduction in the price and reported that they would not be placing an order after all. However, the records from the VOC show that a large order of 60 dinner services of 371 pieces, thirty more of 94 pieces and 830 pieces of tea wares was placed. Strangely, pieces of the second version are now much less common than pieces of the first, despite being apparently ordered in far larger numbers.
In this design the two seated figures on the right are each presenting a small fish to the Emperor on the left. This may be a reference to Le Comte’s Nouveau mémoire sur l'état présent de la Chine (1696) in which he compares the Chinese custom of prescribing rice and fish as a curative to the Dutch tradition of selling fresh herring (Hollandse Nieuwe) as a cure for illness. This was referenced in Vol IV of The Religious Ceremonies of the World by B Picart & JF Bernard, first published in Amsterdam, 1723-1737, so Pronk may have been aware of the idea from the latter. The trios of fish that are on the rim are a very unusual set of images. The significance of the trio is not clear, but they seem to be echoing the fish in the main image. Although it is not possible to identify all of these, they seem to be mainly tropical marine fish from the Indo-pacific region, where a number of Dutch naturalists were working in the seventeenth and early eighteenth centuries. Notable among them was VOC naturalist Samuel Fallours whose drawings were used for Louis Renard’s Poissons, Ecrevisses et Crabes, (1719, Amsterdam: Louis Renard) and later for the fanciful Vol. 3 of Francois Valentijn’s Oude en Nieuw Oost Indien, (1726, Dordrecht & Amsterdam: Joannes van Braam & Gerard Onder de Linden) which has fish laid out in similar trios, on land! The birds in this design are waterbirds, apart from the peacock and parrot in the main image which are copied closely from a ‘European eye’ drawing: the parrot is generic and probably derived from an African species which at this time were popular as pets in Europe and embodied all that was exotic about the East and West Indies; the peacock is the blue peacock from India (Pavo cristatus, L 1758) rather than the Green peafowl (P. muticus L 1766) found in China - most export models of Peafowl have a green colouring. The source for the storks has not been found but the Avocet and the two ducks, (Garganey and Muscovy Duck), are from the 1718 edition of Theatrum Universale Omnium Animalium by John Jonston and engraved by Matthaus Merian. References: Jörg 1980, pp 26-7, items with this design; Howard & Ayers 1978, p294, discussion of Pronk designs; Pietsch, TW (Ed) 1995, discussion of the Fallours fish drawings in Renard’s Poissons etc; Cohen & Cohen 1999, p35, a pair of famille rose cisterns with this design; C&C 2008, a cistern and basin with identification of many of the fish; C&C 2012, p38, a plate; Wirgin 1998, p177, a basin with different fish trio inside, in Imari palette; C&C 2014-A, p34, for Pronk bird sources; Hunt et al (2010) The Book That Changed Europe, (Belknap press) p235-6
47 Punchbowl Qianlong period circa 1745-50 English or European Market Diameter: 15 inches; 38cm
these prints would have been the most up to date versions of these stories around in the 1740s. In 1721 an opera written by the English writer Thomas D'Urfrey (1653-1723) Ariadne, or The Triumph of Bacchus was performed in London. D'Urfrey was a versatile writer and poet with ten of his songs in The Beggars' Opera. He wrote numerous bawdy country songs, including The Lusty Young Smith, and his biggest hit The Fart.
Provenance: ex-Mottahedeh Collection. An extremely rare famille rose punchbowl, the three outer panels and the interior having panels of mythological scenes with scattered flowers around them. This is one of the finest famille rose punchbowls known. The scenes are all exceptionally well painted and it is an early example of European mythological subjects painted on Chinese porcelain. A few plates are known with some of the individual scenes shown here, of a slightly later date. All four scenes on this bowl are from Volume I of the 1732 edition of Ovid's Metamorphoses published in Amsterdam by R&J Wetstein and W Smith, dedicated to the Countess of Pembroke. With Latin edited by Abbe Banier and an English translation by Sir Samuel Garth, it was lavishly illustrated throughout, with plates by various artists including Bernard Picart (1673-1733) who supervised the illustration. The three panels on the outside of the bowl are from prints by Pieter Stevens van Gunst (1659-1732) The Fall of Phaeton, The Rape of Proserpina and Perseus and Andromeda. The interior panel of The Triumph of Bacchus is by Picart himself. There is no immediately obvious connection that explains why these four images were chosen out of over two hundred in the books but the expense of producing such bowls means that it is unlikely to be random. French composer Jean-Baptiste Lully (1632-87) wrote thirteen operas on classical themes from 1673 to 1687 but between 1680 and 1683 he wrote just three: Proserpina 1680; Perseus 1682 and Phaeton 1683. Of these Phaeton was the most successful as it was seen as an allegory of the downfall of Nicolas Fouquet, whose ambitions had brought him too close to the Sun King Louis XIV. Phaeton was revived at the Palais-Royale in 1742 so it is possible that this bowl was ordered by an opera lover and fan of Lully's works, probably in England where opera had become extremely fashionable after the success of Handel's Rinaldo (1711) until about 1750. And
A. The Fall of Phaeton Book II, Fab. I, p46, print by P Gunst, reworked from an earlier image in a 1702 Dutch edition of the 1677 French translation by P du Ryer. Phaeton was the son of Apollo the Sun-God and Clymene, though, as is usual in these cases, his father was largely absent during his upbringing. Provoked by his playmates into proving that he was indeed the son of the god, he asks his father for a gift and Apollo agrees to offer anything. Phaeton demands to ride Apollo's chariot and, despite trying to talk him out of it, the headstrong youth is finally given permission. When the horses realise that the god's strong hand is no longer at the reins they run riot and cause chaos threatening to burn the earth and the heavens. To save the world Zeus kills Phaeton with a thunderbolt.
hero Perseus happened to be passing by just then. He slew Cetus and married Andromeda. Since then the event has made a great excuse for artists to draw a naked woman in chains.
B. The Triumph of Bacchus Book III, Fab. VIII, p102, print by B Picart The central image inside the bowl shows The Triumph of Bacchus - a procession of figures arriving in Greece from Asia Minor, symbolised by the leopards that draw the chariot. Bacchus is seated with the angel of fame above him, to his left is Silenus on a donkey and in front is Ariadne his wife, daughter of King Minos of Crete, whom Bacchus stole from Theseus after she had freed him from the Minotaur and the labyrinth. In this part of the Metamorphoses the story focuses on Pentheus, King of Thebes, who imprisons Bacchus' servant, the sailor Acoetes. Ovid follows Euripides' play The Bacchae in which Pentheus spies on the sacred rites of the female worshippers of Bacchus. The god so intoxicates them, including Pentheus's mother, that they take Pentheus for an animal and hunt him down, tearing him to pieces.
C. Perseus and Andromeda Book IV, Fab. XVIII & XIX, p141, print by P Gunst Andromeda was the daughter of King Cepheus of Aethiopia and Cassiopeia, who boasted that her daughter was more beautiful than the nereids. The sea nymphs were loved by Poseidon so the insulted sea god sent a monster, Cetus, to attack the Aethiopian coast. Upon consulting the Oracle of Apollo, Cepheus was told to sacrifice his daughter to the monster so it would leave. He took Andomeda and chained her naked to a rock. Fortunately for the abandoned girl the
D. The Rape of Proserpina Book V, Fab. VII, p162, print by P Gunst Proserpina was the daughter of Ceres the goddess of corn and and agriculture. She was abducted by Pluto, God of the Underworld, who had been struck by Cupid's arrow on the orders of Venus. The amorously inspired Pluto emerges from Mount Etna in a chariot drawn by four horses (Orphnaeus, Aethon, Nycteus and Alastor, according to Claudian) and seeing Proserpina playing with some nymphs collecting flowers, decides to take her back to the underworld as his wife. Subsequently terms of release are agreed with her mother on condition that she has eaten nothing. However she had eaten some pomegranate seeds and so was allowed home for only part of each year. Her mother's mourning during her time away explains winter. The abduction is another classical event popular with illustrators from this period for obvious reasons. References: Howard & Ayers 1978, p334, No 330, this bowl; HervouĂŤt et Bruneau 1986, p314, No 13.84, a punchbowl; Mezin 2004, p83, another; Palmer 1976, plate 6, a bowl in the Winterthur Museum, du Pont bequest 1961.823; two others are known in collections in New York and Ohio; Cohen & Cohen 2001, p49, a dinner plate with the Fall of Phaeton image; p50, a punchbowl with a different scene of The Triumph of Bacchus.
48 Small Plate Qianlong period circa 1765 English or European Market Diameter: 6¼ inches; 16cm A small Chinese export porcelain plate painted in underglaze blue with a central image of figures by water, a cell diaper border at the rim. This unusual scene is known as the ‘shipwreck’ as it appears to show figures abandoned on a shore. Some have suggested that they are survivors of the famous wreck of the Grosvenor off the east African coast. The Grosvenor was lost in 1785 so that is unlikely but the possiblilty of being wrecked was always in the minds of those in the China trade.
In fact this seems to be a much simplified and altered version of the composition on the next item in this catalogue, The Immersion of Achilles, painted by Nicholas Vleughels. Prints of this period were frequently copied and copied again and reused for different purposes. The dark figure on the right, the two figures on the left, with reflections in the water and the rocks behind with trees all show similarities. References: Hervouët et Bruneau 1986, p 206, No 9.42 an identical saucer from the Groninger Museum; Sapage 1992, Cat 35, a pair of teabowls and saucers; Victoria & Albert Museum, another plate, C.368-1921; Cohen & Cohen 2002, p12, an earlier lotus-form dish with this scene.
49 Dinner Plate Qianlong period circa 1740 English Market Diameter: 9 inches; 23cm An extremely rare Chinese export dinner plate painted en grisaille over the whole upper surface with a mythological scene. This is one of the rarest grisaille European subject plates in Chinese export porcelain. The scene shows Achilles being dipped in the river Styx by his mother Thetis, to render him immortal. It is taken from a print by Edme Jeaurat (1688-1738) in 1719, after a painting by Nicolas Vleughels (1668-1737) which is now lost. A contemporary version of this composition - but following the orientation of the print which it must have copied - is known attributed to Adriaan van der Werff (1659-1722). This belongs to a small group of export plates and dishes from circa 1740 that have similar fine monochrome painting over the whole surface of the plate, without any additional borders. Five larger dishes are known with the arms of French of Thornidykes and Frenchlands, Berwickshire, Scotland, painted on the underside: one with this scene, one with a biblical scene (The Triumph of Mordecai, also from a Jeaurat print after Sebastien Leclerc), and three with different baskets of flowers after Jean Baptiste de Monnoyer. This dinner plate is slightly later and follows the ‘French’ service dish, one other example like this being in the Victoria & Albert Museum. A further group is also recorded with various scenes of birds engraved by Francis Place (1647-1728) derived from drawings by Francis Barlow and prints by Nicolas Robert, among others. All are extremely rare. There are eight figures shown on this plate. The pair on the left are Nike, the winged goddess of victory presaging the success in battle of Achilles, and a nymph representing the River Styx with water pouring from a vessel. In the middle is the sea nymph Thetis who holds her son Achilles over the water with her hand around his left foot. This was the only part left unprotected and is where he was eventually hit with an arrow and slain. Behind her are two other nereids or seanymphs.
To the right, with a bowl of burning coals, is Hephaestus, who made the armour for Achilles to use in the Trojan war. The distant figure of a centaur on the far right is Chiron who tutored the young Achilles. Thetis, the daughter of the sea-god Nereus, had been pursued by Zeus and Poseidon but Prometheus had prophecied that a son by Thetis would be greater than his father, so the gods withdrew and Thetis was reluctantly married to Peleus, King of the Myrmidons, Achilles’s father. Edme Jeaurat (1688-1738) was apprenticed to Bernard Picart in Paris and, like Picart, moved to The Netherlands in later life to be in the centre of the book trade in Amsterdam. His younger brother Etienne was apprenticed to Nicolas Vleughels as a painter and later was Guardian of the King’s paintings in Versailles. Nicolas Vleughels (1668-1737) was a painter who was Director of the French Academy in Rome and a close friend of Watteau. Another painting by Vleughels, engraved by Larmessin, is also known on Chinese export porcelain entitled Le Villageois Qui Cherche Son Veau. References: Beurdeley 1962, p 59; du Boulay 1984, p. 272; Hervouët et Bruneau 1986, p. 300; Krahl & Harrison-Hall 1994, p54; Howard 1974, p 335; Mengoni et al 2013, p126-129, the two dishes from the French service in the British Museum, (The Immersion of Achilles and The Triumph of Mordecai); Le Corbeiller 1974, p71-79, two of the dishes after Monnoyer and Place et al.; Sargent 2012, p364, a third dish after Monnoyer; an oil painting attributed (possibly) to Adriaan van der Werff (16591722) sold at Dargate Auction House Feb 6 2009; Hercenberg, Bernard 1975, Nicolas Vleughels (catalogue) plate XLV, No 71 & p80; Victoria & Albert Museum, No C.76-1963, a plate like this from the Ionides bequest.
The 1719 print by Edme Jeaurat after Nicolas Vleughels
50 Charger Qianlong period circa 1750 Swedish or Scandinavian Market Diameter: 15¼ inches; 39cm
A rare Chinese export porcel ain famille rose charger with a central image of Neptune on a dolphin’s back with a European ship flying the Swedish flag, the rim with gilt shell and scroll border. This design is known also with Danish and Dutch flags on the ship and was probably offered as a special order to sailors in Canton, with the flag painted in the final firing; the versions with Scandinavian flags have this border, but the one with a Dutch flag has a different border. The source of the image is unknown, but its rather stiff composition indicates that it may have been put together in Canton by an enterprising supercargo, using earlier prints, three of which are shown below. It may also have been inspired by another image of Neptune riding dolphins that is also known on Chinese export porcelain, from an engraving by Frederick Bloemaert after his father Abraham’s painting The Triumph of Neptune (see below right). References: Wirgin 1998, p187, No 202, a dinner plate with Swedish flag; Hervouet p40, No 2.13, an example with Dutch flag and different border; Mezin 2004, p94, famille rose teabowl and saucer with a scene of Neptune and Amphitrite, the teapot from that service in the Winterthur Museum, illustrated Palmer
The man who has experienced shipwreck shudders even at a calm sea. Ovid
1976, plate 43.
anonymous print, circa 1520-50
Jewel design, circa 1582
A personification of Amsterdam on a sea chariot, with Neptune behind, circa 16501708
detail from a Chinese export detail from engraving by saucer, 18th Century Frederick Bloemaert (161069)
51 Teapot and Cover Qianlong period circa 1740 European Market Length: 6 inches; 15cm A very fine Chinese export porcelain teapot and cover, of globular form and painted in famille rose enamels with a mytholigcal scene. This exquisite teapot has a scene of Leda and the Swan, taken probably from a print of 1722 by Gaspard Duchange after the painting of 1531 by Antonio Allegri da Correggio (1489-1534) that is now in the Staatliche Museen, Berlin. The scene is very rare on Chinese export porcelain and only teawares are recorded, probably from only one tea service. Usually prints were taken to China to be copied but it is possible that a drawing taken from the original painting was used - or a second print redrawn from the Duchange print - either would explain why the image is not reversed from the painting, though the latter is more likely as there are a few changes to the figures that might have been done in a simplified second generation print: the attendant behind the main couple is now a boy, and the group to the left is changed to a single winged figure offering a cup to Leda. In the original, this part has a winged figure playing a lyre, likely Cupid, and two infants, probably the twins Castor and Pollux, who were patrons of sailors in ancient legends. Leda, the wife of King Tyndarus of Sparta, was pursued by Zeus who disguised himself as a swan in order to successfully seduce her. Nine months later she gave birth to a pair of eggs, from one of which emerged Pollux and Helen (of Troy) and from the other came Castor and Clytemnestra. She is seen here bathing in the River Eurotas, with a swan approaching, and also in the clutches of the disguised god, surrounded by a variety of attendants. This subject was very popular at this time, as was the vogue for mythological subjects on Chinese export tea services. Leda symbolises the apparently virtuous wife who is nonetheless easily seduced with a little duplicity on the part of the amorous deity.
Mythology is the crop which the Old World bore before its soil was exhausted. Henry David Thoreau (1817-62), Walking (1862)
Oil on canvas by Antonio Allegri da Correggio
References: JĂśrg 1989, p182, No 62, teabowl and saucer; Lunsingh Scheurleer 1966, No 227, a saucer; HervouĂŤt et Bruneau 1986, p310 another saucer; Williamson 1970, pl XIX, p56, a teabowl and saucer; Cohen & Cohen 2000, p26, tb&s. The 1722 print by Gaspard Duchange after Correggio
52 Mug Qianlong period circa 1750 European Market Height: 5Â˝ inches; 14cm A Chinese export porcelain mug painted in famille rose enamels with a scene of European figures on a gilt ground.
This is an unusual design of European men with ships in a harbour in the distance, which is inspired by the generic views produced on Meissen porcelain of the period. It may also be a reworking of the scene of Peter the Great studying Dutch shipbuilding in Zaandam in 1697, which is known on some Chinese export plates. The Tsar went incognito as Pyotr Mikhailov and stayed in the humble house of Gerrit Kist, who had worked as a smith in the Moscow shipyards. Peter also worked at the VOC shipyards in Amsterdam.
53 Teapot Stand Yongzheng/Qianlong period circa 1735-50 European Market Diameter: 5½ inches; 14cm A Chinese porcelain teapot stand of lobed hexagonal form, painted with musicians in a Venetian scene, the border in rouge-de-fer and gilt. This is a fanciful scene bringing together two romantic elements, - the musical couple at the front with a faithful hound symbolising fidelity, and the canal view of Venice in the background. The roughly drawn covered bridge appears to be a version of the Rialto Bridge but using the design by Palladio. A competition had been held for the design of the bridge and Palladio’s was rejected in favour of one by Antonio Da Ponte with a single span. However Antonio Canaletto revived interest in the classical design by Palladio by painting two capriccios showing his bridge in place. It is this which may
have inspired this image. At this date Caneletto’s views of Venice were highly fashionable following Joseph Smith’s commissioning of Antoni Visentini to engrave a series of them, completed circa 1735. References: Hervouët & Bruneau 1986, p188, No 8.16, a saucer with this design; No 8.17, a teapoy with the same couple but no bridge in the background; Huitfeld 1993, p75, another teapot stand.
Palladio’s design for the Rialto
Two capriccios by Canaletto, 1740, inspired by the Palladio design.
54 Teabowl and Saucer Qianlong period circa 1740 French Market Diameter of Saucer: 4½ inches; 11.5cm An extremely rare Chinese export porcelain teabowl and saucer, of thin eggshell porcelain, painted in famille rose enamels with a scene of European figures on a terrace, within a grisaille cell diaper border. This image is taken from a print by CharlesNicholas Cochin the Elder (1688-1754) after a painting by Antoine Watteau (1684-1721). The image is one of a pair, the first titled: “Belle n’écoutez rien - Harlequin est un traître” and the second, which is used here, with the verse: “Pour garder l’honneur d’un belle, Viellez et la nuit et la jour Contre les pieges de l’amour C’est trop peu de Pierrot pour faire sentinelle.” These are early compositions by Watteau still influenced by his mentor Claude Gillot (1673-1722) with the elongated and slightly stiff figures and the theatrical setting. The original paintings are now lost, only surviving in the Cochin prints, but they show the earliest examples of figures outdoors, which he then developed into his fêtes galantes. The Commedia del’Arte involves a range of stock characters acting out various conventional plots that usually have a pair of lovers trying to get together, being frustrated by older people and calling on the aid of various eccentric servants. In this case we have The Lovers in the centre, the man, probably Scaramouche, cross-legged and the woman, Columbine, playing the mandolin. The sinister Doctor is on the right in black robes. In the Italian original Il Dottore is always shown in black with a white collar. Behind the couple are two servants, the two most famous characters in the Commedia - Harlequin the joker and plotter and Pierrot always shown in white with a rather vacant expression. The design has inspired several ceramic imitators in Bow, Meissen and Chelsea. The standing figure of Harlequin in this striking attitude with arm raised was much copied, and one Meissen figure like this, modelled circa 1730 by Johann Gottlieb Kirchner, is in the Un-
figure of Harlequin, Meissen, 18th Century
pair of porcelain figures, Chelsea, third quarter 18th Century
engraving by CN Cochin after a lost painting by Antoine Watteau
termyer collection, now in the New York Metropolitan Museum (No 64.101.73). A pair of Chelsea figures reproduce The Lovers, as does a group at Bow. Another tea service of the same date is recorded that uses a print by HS Thomassin after a painting Les Coquettes by Watteau; and a slightly later grisaille saucer is known that follows another print by Cochin after Watteau’s La Danse Paysanne. References: Hervouët & Bruneau 1986, p203, No 9.32, a saucer from this teaservice; Scheurleer 1966, pl 291 &221; Litzenburg 2003, p160, saucer with Le Danse Paysanne.
55 Dinner Plate Qianlong period circa 1745-50 Scottish Market Diameter: 9 inches; 23cm A Chinese export dinner plate decorated in famille rose enamels with two members of the Highland Regiment, one holding a gun and the other playing the bagpipes, the rim with four reserves of birds and landscapes. This rare plate is one of the most sought after and iconic examples of Chinese export porcelain. The striking central design is derived from two drawings by George Bickham (1706-71). The piper is taken from the frontispiece of A Short History of the Highland Regiment, 1743 and the private from another drawing by Bickham. These and two further images of privates were issued as a set of prints by John Bowles (1701-79) in 1743 and two of these were taken to China to be copied for this plate. The Regiment, called the 43rd Highlanders (formed in 1739, later renamed the 42nd Foot in 1748 and, later still, incorporated into the Black Watch) was summoned to London in 1743 to be inspected by George II but after rumours that they were to be shipped to the West Indies to fight in the War of the Austrian Succession, many mutinied and returned to Scotland. Three leaders were caught and shot in the Tower and a Piper Donald Macdonnell, was transported as a convict to Georgia. This execution was the reason for Bowlesâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s prints being published and the piper is believed to be Macdonnell and the private is one of those shot, possibly Private Farquhar Shaw. So it is believed that this apparent commemoration of two mutineers is an expression of Jacobite sympathy. The enthusiasm was short-lived as the uprising and the cause were defeated at Culloden in April 1746, where the Duke of Cumberland, son of the King, defeated Bonnie Prince Charlie, whose flight afterwards became emblematic of romantic failure.
It is never difficult to distinguish between a Scotsman with a grievance and a ray of sunshine. PG Wodehouse (1881-1975), Blandings Castle 1935
References: a small bowl with these two figures on the outside formerly in the J Louis Binder Collection (sold 2003) where the piper is shown in reverse - matching the original engraving; Le Corbeiller 1974, p94, an example; Howard & Ayers 1978, p239; Buerdeley 1962, p99, plate XIX an example in the MusĂŠe Guimet; Howard 1997, p112; Gordon p74, No 58; Lloyd Hyde 1964, plate XV; Scheurleer 1974, pl 221; Coleman Brawer 1992, plate IV; examples in the Royal Scottish Museum and the Zeeuws Museum, Middleburg; Cohen & Cohen 2012, p78, another example.
A Highland Regiment piper by George Bickham, frontispiece to A Short History of the Highland Regiment 1743
Engraving by George Bickham, of A Highland Piper in His Regimentals, circa 1743 (image reversed here to correspond with this plate)
56 Snuff Box Qianlong period circa 1780 Dutch Market Length: 4 inches; 10cm A rare Chinese porcelain snuff box in the form of a shoe, painted with small sprays of flowers in famille rose enamels, with later European mounts. This form clearly follows a type made in Mennecy, France circa 1750-60. Shoe-shaped water droppers were also known in earlier Chinese porcelain but these are of Chinese slipper type rather than a European manâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s shoe such as this. Examples are also known in 18th Century Delft as posy vases.
Chinese export snuff boxes are a rare type as most porcelain boxes were of European porcelain, the expensive material being cost effective for small items in the European factories - and the Chinese themselves used snuff bottles not boxes. References: Santos & Allen 2005, p130, No 46, a similar shoe snuff box; Cohen & Cohen 1999, No 21, a similar example; Sargent 1991, p160, another.
Snuffbox, c 1750, Mennecy
57 Pair of Snuff Boxes Qianlong period circa 1780 Dutch Market Length: 4 inches; 10cm A very rare pair of Chinese porcelain snuff boxes in the form of shoes with high heels and upturned toes, painted with sprays of flowers in famille rose enamels and a gilt cell diaper border, with later European mounts.
58 Punchbowl Qianlong period circa 1790 European Market Diameter: 11½ inches; 29cm An extremely rare Chinese export porcelain bowl very finely painted with scenes of foxes, chickens and a swan in rouge-de-fer, the interior with a roundel of two phoenixes (fenghuang). This late 18th century bowl has two scenes on it, one of a fox catching a rooster, watched by a hen with her chicks - and another with the fox caught in a trap with a startled swan and her cygnets nearby. This design is known as the ‘fables’ pattern as it is thought to show an illustration from Aesop’s Fables or those of La Fontaine. However the scenes don’t appear to have a narrative and there is no fable that fits this pair of events. The style is closest to the work of the artist Jean-Baptiste Oudry (1686-1755) who produced a range of drawings, engraved by Charles-Nicolas Cochin for an edition of Jean de la Fontaine’s Fables Choisie, mis en vers, (1755-9). This is not from that edition, but looks similar. An image by Francis Barlow of a House-Dog and a Wolf from a 1667 edition of Aesop’s fables is found on Chinese export porcelain and several images of Fables by La Fontaine are known on plates.
A large export punchbowl (circa 1790) with these two scenes in panels but with simpler vegetation, was sold at Christies New York in 2005, though that bowl had the ‘Collapsed Hussar’ scene in the centre. About fifteen years ago a pair of large oils on canvas, painted in grey with carved 18th century-style frames appeared at auction in Budapest, described as ‘after Jean-Baptist Oudry’. They clearly show these exact scenes but it has not been possible to trace the originals by Oudry. References: Litzenburg 2003, p182, the Barlow image on a cup and saucer; a pair of Chinese export porcelain plaques are also known with these images; Locquin, Jean 1912, Catalogue Raisonné de Jean Baptiste Oudry (Pub: Paris, H Champion), No367, a picture of swans with young surpirsed by foxes, sold in 1875, No 779, a pastel study of a fox in a trap, sold 1773; No 332, a fox catching a rooster, with hen and chicks nearby, painted for M de Trudaine at the Château de Montigny, exhibited: ‘Salon de 1748, No 25’, similar to one in the Wallace Collection (CR 357) and another sold in 1777 in the Vente Conti (CR 364).
59a Trio Yongzheng period circa 1732 Dutch Market Diameter of saucer: 5 inches; 13cm A Chinese export porcelain famille rose armorial trio consisting of a teabowl, saucer and coffee cup with handle, each with a large medallion with a coat of arms and crest surrounded by elaborate mantling on a blue ground, the border of blue floral panels reserved on a gilt key-fret ground, with further borders of grisaille cell diaper and guilloche.
This teaservice was ordered by Daniel Tuineman (d1740) of Zeeland in Canton 1732-3 as 2nd mate of the VOC ship Nieuwvliet. Daniel was the son of Daniel, the first to bear the arms of Tuineman, granted in 1725 (tuin = fence, hence the enclosure in the armorial). Daniel Sr was a cloth merchant in Middelburg and a middleman in the Zeeland Admiralty. His son joined the VOC in 1718 as an apprentice on the Meijenburg, serving on various ships until his first voyage to China on the Nieuwvliet under the captain Gerrit Fiers. The ship sailed in a group of four VOC ships and arrived in Canton in the summer of 1732. A number of mariners on this voyage ordered armorial porcelain at this time: Fiers (Kroes, cat 58), Jan Blonkbijle (cat 71); Cornelis Schippers (cat 62, 64) all on the Nieuwvliet and Jan van Ens (cat 67, 68) who was on the Anna Catharina. The Schippers and Blonkbijle services are inscribed and dated. Daniel later became captain of the Langewijke but his ship, departing from Batavia on 2 April 1740 was lost somewhere near the Cape of Good Hope. He left a wife Maria and three daughters. References: Howard 1974, p249, the spoon tray from this service which he then suggested was possibly ordered by Simon Theunemans, a director of the English East India Company 1720-32; Kroes 2007, cat 59 (flatware with different borders) and cat 74 the spoon tray which he says is then the only known piece of the teaservice; Kroes gives a detailed account of this and the other porcelains ordered on this voyage.
59b Teapot, Cover and Stand
Yongzheng period circa 1732 Length of teapot: 6 inches; 15cm
Sugar bowl and Cover
Yongzheng period circa 1732 Diameter: 5¾ inches; 14.5cm
Yongzheng period circa 1732 Diameter: 4¾ inches; 12cm
Teapoy and Cover Yongzheng period circa 1732 Height: 5½ inches; 14cm
60 Albarello Kangxi period circa 1720 Russian Market Height: 9¼ inches; 23.5cm A Chinese export porcelain cylindrical albarello painted in famille verte enamels with the arms of Peter the Great surrounded by entwined rose stems. An albarello is a distinct form that is used as a drug storage jar by apothecaries and is widely found in faience, particularly in Italy. However Chinese porcelain examples are extremely rare and this one is from a special order made for Peter the Great’s official pharmacy, described by the Danish Ambassador, Juste Yule, in the early eighteenth century. Peter the Great established a trading route across land with China and encouraged the trade, even deciding to build an Orthodox Church in Beijing. A Danish envoy for the Tsar, Evert Isbrand, describes one caravan of goods from China, destined for Russia, with 300 camels. The Russian trade from China went by land to Moscow and then to the port of Archangel, where competition from English and Dutch East India traders eventually out-competed the Russian traders until an edict of 1743 banned all trade in Chinese goods from Western traders. The arms here have been simplified and altered - the centre does not have the shield with St George for Moscow, and the eagle holds a sceptre, with a sword rather than an orb. References: Howard and Ayers 1978, Vol.2 no.578 an example with a similar styled armorial for a religious man; Beurdeley 1962, p125, pl. XXIII, three pharmacy jars with the Russian arms of Peter the Great, two identical to this one; Arapova 2003, p57, another example like this; Krahl &Harrison Hall, 1994, Cat 12, (in the British Museum); a blue and white albarello, inscribed ‘Diapr. Sol.’ was offered for sale at Bonhams in 2012; Cotinat Louis 1974, Pots de pharmacie des origines au XIXe siècle, Exposition du Musée National de la Céramique à Sèvres, mai-décembre 1974, In: Revue d'histoire de la pharmacie, 62e année, N. 223, 1974, p263-271, two examples of this type and reference to examples in collections of Dr Debat & PI Stchourine.
Les habiles tyrans ne sont jamais punis. Voltaire (1694-1778), Mérope 1743 (Clever tyrants are never punished.)
61 Pair of Salts Yongzheng/Qianlong period circa 1735-40 Dutch Market Length: 4 inches; 10cm A fine pair of Chinese porcelain armorial salts, with an elaborate coat of arms in silver (now black), blue, gold, iron red and green enamels, the floral border in underglaze blue. These are the arms of de Jonge and come from a large dinner service that included candlesticks, a cruet set and two large monteiths. They have also been attributed to Chastelein but Kroes 2007 corrects this. The service was made for Cornelis de Yonge (1687-1743) of Middelburg, son of Pieter de Jonge (16441709) and Johanna Stevense. His godmother was Henriette Chastelein who bore similar arms; the families were close which explains the confusion. Cornelis was a VOC official in Bengal. He sailed east in 1710 in the Schonewal and settled in Bengal where he eventually rose to be senior merchant and first administrator in 1732. He was appointed director of Bengal in August 1743 succeeding Jan Albert Sichterman (who also ordered some well known armorial porcelain, including a service with identical border design to this one). He died two months later in October 1743. He
never married but had three children by two different women who were legitimised in Zeeland in 1744. His son Cornelis was a lawyer in Middelburg and his other son Christiaan was a doctor in Schoonhoven. References: Kroes 2007, p198, cat 113, this service and cat 114 is the similar Sichterman service; Mezin 2004, p153, a dinner plate; Lunsingh Scheurlee 1974, pl 263; Jรถrg 1989, p252, cruet set and dinner plate.
62 Dinner Plate Yongzheng period circa 1725 European Market Diameter: 9 inches; 23cm A Chinese export armorial dinner plate in Imari palette of underglaze blue, iron red and gold but with a central crest of a parrot or popinjay in opaque green enamel.
The simple crest could be a falcon but the green suggests it is a parrot. As such it is listed in Fairburn, plate 101, No 4 for the De Butts family. This family seems to have used several crests, which was often the case as they are not so strictly governed as the coat. Most of the De Butts were from the south of England, either Norfolk or Surrey, and many ventured overseas in the military. A branch in Maryland, USA, included Henry De Butts who was Adjutant General and Inspector General of the US Army in 1792-3 and William Hunter DeButts who married Mary Lee the granddaughter of Robert E Lee.
63 Dinner Plate Kangxi period circa 1699 Italian Market Diameter: 11 inches: 28cm A large Chinese blue and white dinner plate with the central arms of Ginori and borders of foliage copied from Delft. Castro 1989 had originally ascribed this service to Caldeira but he adds the now accepted attribution to Lorenzo Ginori, an Italian in Lisbon who ordered this service through the Portuguese East India Company - and the design is almost identical to a service with the Portuguese arms of Coelho, and a dish with the arms of da Costa. Lorenzo was the son of senator Carlo Ginori of Florence and Fiammetta Oricellari and he went to Lisbon in 1668 and was appointed Tuscan consul in 1676 by Cosimo III de Medici. His brother Francesco was made Tuscan consul in Cadiz, another brother Bartolomeo was made Danish consul in Seville and youngest brother Niccolo took over from Lorenzo in Lisbon before 1688. Lorenzo built up contacts in global trade especially in Goa and Macao, from which he supplied Cosimo III with 'curiosities from the Indies' including Chinese porcelain (Chinese porcelain is recorded in Florence as early as 1463) and Lorenzo himself had a noted porcelain collection when he returned to Italy and became Provveditore in the Custom House at Livorno, circa 1689. In the late 1690s Cosimo III commissioned an elaborate altar piece for the Jesuit Church in Goa. The pieces were made in Tuscany and were shipped from Livorno, and the arrangements for shipping, including passage of two engineers from Tuscany to Goa via Lisbon, were overseen by another of Lorenzo's brothers, Giovan Francesco (1668-1731) in Lisbon. The order for this service almost certainly went with them, along with the orders for the Coelho and da Costa services. Among the Ginori archives is a document showing that the service arrived in Livorno from Goa on 31 March 1699, in time for Lorenzo's marriage to Ann Maria Minerbetti. The family interest in ceramics continued as Lorenzo's son Carlo Andrea founded the Manifattura Ginori in Doccia.
There are two seasons in Scotland, June and Winter. Billy Connolly
References: Le Corbeiller 1974, p34, an example with the arms in the rim; Castro 1989, p43, a plate; Ginori Lisci & Listri 1988, Il Servito Ginori; Sargent 2012, p357, a plate; Antonella Alimento, ed. 2011, War, Trade and Neutrality: Europe and the Mediterranean in the Seventeenth and Eighteen Centuries, pp59-67; Viola, Antonella 2014, Trade and Diplomacy: the Ginori familyâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s trading network in the Iberian Peninsula (1660-1700); Alves et al 1998, p206-9, three similar items.
64 Meat Dish Qianlong period circa 1761 Portuguese (English) Market Length: 10½ inches; 26.5cm
A rare Portuguese market octagonal meat dish with the central arms of Mendes da Costa, the cavetto with a chain border, the rim with scattered flowers in bright famille rose. Previously attributed to Joao and Catarina Mendes da Costa, the monogramme HMDC would be for Hananel Mendes da Costa (1739-1810) son of Jacob and Branca (d1777), and of a related family though the genealogy is uncertain. Hananel was born in Hackney and became a successful and wealthy merchant in London, trading diamonds and coral with India, working with his uncle Benjamin and very active with the East India Company. The Mendes da Costas had a close association with the de Castro family who also traded coral from India, a relationship that was further cemented when Hananel’s daughter Judith married Moses de Castro in 1784. From 1761 he traded under his own name and he married about this time to Ester (named in his will as his widow 1810 and she died 1813). It is assumed that the service was also ordered at this time - the chain border in the cavetto of the plate is very typical of the 1760s. He lived in Willoughby House, Edmonton from 1764-1773 moving to Devonshire Square, Bishopsgate Street about 1780. His son Hananel (1789-1826) was President of the Royal Medical Society in 1816. Hananel Sr traded in whatever he could: in 1774 he is mentioned as buying 291 hogsheads of tobacco imported from Maryland, in the American Colonies, by Joshua Johnson, which he sold on to the Dutch market. The Mendes family were from a Sephardic Jewish family that had been forced, under threat of execution, to convert to Christianity by the Inquisition in the Iberian peninsular in the sixteenth century. By the seventeenth century a number of such families had moved to London, Vienna or Amsterdam where they had become very successful merchants. These families included da Costa, Lousada and D’Aguilar - all of whom intermarried with the Mendes family and some were later ennobled.
References: Howard 1974, p551, this service; CAP Vol II, p348, the milk jug with ‘crescent for difference’; p704, the 1880 service; The Gentlemen’s Magazine, Jan 1812, Vol 82, p22, an article on the Mendes da Costa family by a member of the family using personal MSS; Joshua Johnson's Letterbook 1771-1774: Letters from a merchant in London to his partners in Maryland (London Record Society, 1979), pp. VII-XXVIII ; Castro 1988, p97 a circular dinner plate from this service; NB: the Mendes da Costa genealogy is tortuously complex as they routinely married cousins, aunts etc, used a small range of names repeatedly and the various online accounts contradict each other - a definitive account has yet to be published.
65 Pair of Chargers Yongzheng period circa 1732-5 Swedish Market Diameter: 14 inches; 36cm A rare pair of Chinese export porcelain armorial chargers painted in famille rose enamels with the central arms of Hรถpken, the cavetto with flowers on a lilypad ground, the rim with dragon roundels and peony.
The arms are for Daniel Nicholas Hรถpken (1669-1741), the son of the Swedish governor of Altenburg Nicolaus Hopken and Anna Margareta von Greiffencrantz. They have claimed descent Daniel Hรถpken in 1725, by JH Scheffel from an English family of Hopkins who fled persecution under Mary I and were ennobled by Emperor Maximilian II in 1571 in Bremen, becoming Swedish when Bremen transferred to Sweden in 1649 after the Thirty Years War.
Daniel Höpken was a powerful politician rising to Secretary of State for Foreign affairs in 1718. He was aligned with the Hat party and a notable orator. He was also one of the founders of the Johan Anders Höpken Swedish East India Company and by Carl Brander this service may have been ordered and carried for him by Colin Campbell on the first voyage to Canton in 1732-3. His first wife having died a few weeks after their marriage he married secondly Baroness Eleonora
Lindhielm who bore him many children, notably Johan Anders Höpken (1712-1789) one of the six founding members of the Academy of Sciences (with Linnaeus) in 1739 and a famous political orator, known as ‘Sweden’s Tacitus’, and Arvid Höpken, a noted composer. Reference: Wirgin 1998, p122, three plates from the service.
memorial to Daniel Höpken in Salems Kyrka, Södermanland
66 Basin Qianlong period circa 1740 European Market Diameter: 15½ inches; 39cm A Chinese export porcelain armorial basin with a large central coat of arms with two supporters, the cavetto with daoist symbols on a grisaille cell diaper, the rim with flowers and a further crest. The arms are for Grant of Luss: Gules three eastern croans or, with a badge of a Baronet of Nova Scotia. Crest: a burning hill Motto: Stand Fast Craig Elachie (which refers to the clan rallying cry to a beacon on a large rock by the Spey near Aviemore) This service was ordered by Sir James Grant, 6th Baronet of Luss (1679-1747), who inherited the title from his father-in-law in 1718. He was the son of Ludovic Grant (1641-1714), 8th Laird of Freuchie and 1st of Grant and Janet Brodie (c1650-1697) He married Ann, daughter and heir of Sir Humphrey Colquhoun of Luss in 1702 and she bore him six sons and eight daughters. Sir James had initially changed his name to Colquhoun in order to inherit his father-in-law’s Baronetcy when Sir Humphrey died in 1718. He changed it back to Grant in 1719 as he became Chief of Clan Grant when his older brother Alexander died without heir. Alexander, a Brigadier-General had sided with the Governement in the Jacobite uprising of 1715 but by 1717 he was described as “under the care of the physician of Bedlam and in iron cuffs”. Sir James was MP for Invernessshire (17221741) and Elgin Burghs (1741-47). His eldest son inherited the Grant titles and his second son Ludovic inherited the Colquhoun titles. That simple plan failed when the eldest son died and Ludovic became Grant again, the Colquhoun titles and land passing to a third son James who built a famous house Rossdhu on the banks of Loch Lomond with his wife Lady Helen Gordon`, entertaining Samuel Johnson and James Boswell there on their tour of the Highlands in 1773. During the 1745 rebellion he remained in London, advising his son “to stay at home, take care of his country and join no party”.
Ann Colquhoun was descended from the famous Sir John Coquhoun, created a Baronet of Nova Scotia in 1625. He married a daughter of the Earl of Montrose but in 1632 he absconded to Italy with his wife’s sister and in his absence was accused of witchcraft and sorcery. Sir James’s great-grandson, James Ludovic, was Captain of the ship Brunswick which was in Canton in 1798 and 1802 but he died in India in 1804. His brother Francis William Grant (d1853) ordered another Chinese dinner service in 1820 with these arms but without the badge. References: Howard 1974, p242, this service, p1002, the 1820 service for Francis Grant.
Ludovic Grant (1641-1714), 8th Laird of Freuchie and 1st of Grant, father
Ann Colquhoun (1685-1724) wife
Alexander Grant (d1719) brother Sir James Grant, 6th Baronet of Luss (1679-1747) who ordered this basin
Sir James Colquhoun (1714-1786) 3rd son
Lady Helen Gordon (d 1791) daughter-in-law
Rossdhu House built 1772, now Loch Lomond Golf Club
67 Saucer Dish Yongzheng period circa 1734 English Market Diameter: 13 inches; 33cm A fine Chinese porcelain saucer dish with a central coat of arms, the rim with two panoramic views, painted en grisaille, one of London and the other of the Pearl River and the city of Canton. The arms are of Lee quartering Astley. Lee of Coton: Gules a fess componee (painted chequy) or and azure between ten billets argent, Astley: Azure a cinquefoil with a bordure ermine, Crest: (for Lee) On a staff raguly, a squirrel cracking a nut, from the dexter end of the staff, an oak branch fructed proper, Motto: Virtus Vera Est Nobilitas This dish is from one of three orders with these arms made between 1730 and 1734. Plates are known from about 1732 with simple floral borders and a fine teaservice from 1730. This service is especially fine and one of the most well known and sought after by collectors of Chinese export armorials. The service was most likely ordered by Eldred Lancelot Lee (1661-1734) a wealthy man with significant interests in the cloth trade in London, possibly for his son Lancelot Lee of Coton (1719-1775) who bore the same arms. The quartering of the arms is ancient, from a marriage between Roger de la Lee and an heiress Margaret Astley of Coton (d1424), Eldred Lee being Roger's 7 x great grandson. Eldred was the son of Thomas Lee of Coton, Shropshire (1620-1687) and Dorothy Eldred. At the age of 52 Eldred married Isabella Gough, daughter of Sir Henry Gough of Perry Hall in 1713 and she bore him at least three sons and seven surviving daughters who can all be seen in a portrait of the family by Joseph Highmore in 1736 after Eldred's death, he being present in a portrait on the wall.
detail from a painting of the Lee family by Joseph Highmore 1736, Eldred Lee in the portrait on the wall and one deceased daughter shown with an angel, Lancelot is at front right and Henry at centre back.
detail from a print by Joseph Smith (after Johannes Kip, 1707) A Prospect of the City of London (La Ville de Londres) from Nouveau théâtre de la Grand Bretagne (1724)
detail from a drawing by Carl Gustaf Ekeberg (1716-1784) a captain with the Swedish EIC, published 1773.
Isabella Gough’s brother Captain Harry Gough, was captain of the ship Streatham in 1704-5 and was known in Canton as ‘Amy Wang’ (‘the White-haired boy’). He ordered a crested porcelain service circa 1710 and in 1736 was Deputy Chairman of the English East India Company. He may well have supervised the orders of the Lee services. Lancelot Lee married three times, firstly to Elizabeth Scrope, then Anne Elizabeth Michel, daughter of John Michel of Kingston Russel & Dewlish, Dorset who bore him at least four children (including his heir Henry born in 1759) and thirdly Catherine Danvers, daughter of Sir John Danvers. Lancelot's brother the Rev Henry Lee, D.D., (b1720) married Caroline Michel, Elizabeth Anne's sister, and became Warden of Winchester College). David-Robert Michel, brother to the two wives, also ordered an export dinner service in 1755, as did George Hurst of Horsham Park who married Lancelot’s sister Isabella. The arms have also been assumed by the Lee family of Virginia who claimed to be related to this Lee family of Coton. The US descendants included the Civil War General Roger E Lee. Their descent is from a Colonel Richard Lee (1613 or 1619 - 1664), who arrived in Jamestown, Virginia, circa 1640,
serving as a clerk under Governor Sir Francis Wyatt and then Governor Sir William Berkeley. He became one of the largest landowners in Virginia. He appears to have been in London in 1654 (where a deposition has him aged 34) and then he returned to Virginia with 200 ounces of silver bearing these arms, which was seized by customs, but eventually regained. The silver is recorded in 1715 (“spoons marked with a squirrel”) but probably lost in a fire in 1729. He gave a silver cup to Queen’s College, Oxford in 1658, engraved wih the arms of Lee but not quartered with Astley. His arms were confirmed in 1682 by John Gibbon of the College of Arms. However no 17th century documents show a relation between the two families. He returned to London in 1658 with his son John and bought land in Essex and had his portrait painted by Sir Peter Lely. He died in Virginia. His son Francis moved to London and traded there. In 1745 Lancelot Lee of Coton wrote to Thomas Lee, President of the Colony of Virginia (Richard’s grandson) with genealogical information stating that the Americans are descended from a younger brother of his great great grandfather Thomas Lee, but there is no evidence that this is the same Richard. Recent work has shown that Colonel Lee was probably the son of a weaver from Worcester, but was bright and well connected enough to gain an education and rise to office in the Colonies. Whether these Lees of Worcester are related to the armigerous Lees of Shropshire has not been found, though it remains a possibility, perhaps descended from Walter Lee, the disinherited eldest son of Thomas Lee of Langley, Shropshire, related to the Lees of Coton. Walter was a ‘notorious... and evil disposed person’ a swindler and conman, also an MP and a Roman Catholic, who fled to France after the Babington plot of 1586 but was back in Shropshire in 1597 ‘practising and attempting sundry violent and outrageous courses’. The two remarkable border scenes show London and Canton, at either ends of the China trade. The London view is probably taken from a print by Joseph Smith, 1724, after Johannes Kip, 1707, though there were many similar prints of this view. The scene of the Pearl River, with the walls of Canton city and an abandoned ‘folly fort’ in the river is one of the earliest depictions of this area in Western art. It is probably derived directly from a drawing by a supercargo, though the earliest surviving example is by CG Ekeberg published in 1773. Harry Gough could well have been involved in choosing these and might even have supplied the drawing of the Pearl River himself. References: Howard 1974, p329, this service, p227, another service with floral border, p235, a teaservice, p554, a service with Hurst imp. Lee, p489, a service with the arms of Michel, p165-171, several Gough services; Phillips 1956, p13,
68 Basin Qianlong period circa 1750 European Market Diameter: 16 inches; 41cm A Chinese export porcelain large basin with a central coat of arms within a leaf panel reserved on a biancosopra-bianco ground, the rim with an elaborate border of rococo scrolls and groups of classical emblems. The design on this basin is very unusual and clearly the whole design is a specific order. The arms have usually been ascribed to Krüger of Austria but their arms are different (three large wine vessels in the coat - a pun on the name, krug = jar or pitcher). A branch of that family is found in Holland and in Sweden around 1700 and a supercargo Sophonias Krüger was in Canton for the Swedish East India Company in 1734. However an alternative view is that this is a Jacobite reference. Despite similarities to the arms of England and Scotland - the supporters are used for Royal arms - there is no other evidence for this - and such symbols are not usually found in Jacobite artworks., though a caduceus appears on a medal made to commemorate the Act of Settlement of 1717.
pl 36; Litzenberg 2003, p94, a charger; Sargent 2012, p365, a plate; Sargent 1996, p146, a plate; Fuchs 2005, p61, a plate and a Mother of Pearl Gaming counter; Howard & Ayers 1978, p204; William Thorndale 1988, The Parents of Colonel Richard Lee of Virginia, Nat. Genealogical Qtrly 1988, Vol 76,No 4; Alan James Nicholls 2011, Collections for the Ancestry of Colonel Richard Lee, Viginia Emigrant (Pub: lulu.com ISBN: 9781447723998)
References: Howard & Ayers 1978, p65, No 460, a plate given as Krüger of Austria; Jörg 1982, p202, mention of Sophonias Krüger in Canton, 1734; Kroes 2007, p14.
69 Pair of Dinner Plates Qianlong period circa 1752 Dutch Market Diameter: 10 inches: 26cm A pair of Chinese export porcelain dinner plates with a central coat of arms and the name Zeelandt underneath, the rim with panels of Chinese figures and flowers, painted in famille verte enamels but including an opaque white enamel.
This pair are from a late order recorded circa 1752, of a type that was mainly ordered at the end of the reign of Kangxi. At that time five series of chargers and basins were ordered, four from China and one from Japan, between 1710 and 1730 with the arms of 24 different places, mainly towns in the Netherlands and Belgium, but also the arms of France and England. This sixth order is only known for Zeelandt and copies the first series but significantly the blue is overglaze not underglaze and the white enamel is included, though the remaining enamels are still used as in the famille verte palette. References: Maertens de Noordhout 1997, p127-67, various town plates, though none from Zeelandt.
70 Bottle Vase Qianlong period circa 1749-63 Dutch Market Height: 16 inches; 40.5cm A large Chinese export porcelain bottle vase with a large coat of arms, the waist, shoulder and neck with incised rings. This is a very unusual shape with no other example in Chinese export porcelain recorded. The form is probably not of Chinese origin and most likely follows a Dutch 17th century metal or glass vessel. The three groups of rings at the waist, shoulder and neck are very suggestive of decorative bands on brass vessels. The service is known to have included a range of rare shapes, including three covered tankards and an elongated teapot. The dramatic design with the complete absence of any enamelled border or other embellishment, is very rare in Chinese Armorial Porcelain. The style is reminiscent of some early Dutch delft armorial pieces and is probably inspired by them. The lack of other decoration also makes the dating of this service difficult. A dinner service and tea service are both known, the shapes of the tureens of the former suggest a date about 1760 but the teapot from the latter is of an earlier form. In 1865 the arms on this service were wrongly attributed to the Nijssem family and then by the early 20th century they were called ‘de Heere der Holy’, as these arms were carried in the early 19th Century by Pieter Jansz. de Heere van Holy (1768-1815) who acquired the manor of Vlaardingen in 1802. He was distantly related to the de Heere family but is too late to have ordered this service. The arms are of de Heere of Middelburg, Goes and Dordrecht an old family of this region. One early ancester was the 16th century painter Lucas de Heere (153484) who worked in England and possibly trained Marcus de Gheerhaerts the Younger and Robert Peake the Elder. Another was Gerrit de Heere who was Governor of Ceylon for the VOC in 1697, with other relatives who were involved in the VOC in the Far East and in South Africa in the early 18th century.
These arms are first recorded accollée for Jan de Heere and his unidentified wife in 1704. They are first recorded in this impaled form on a seal in Middleburg in 1735 by Johan de Heere, probably the son of Jan. He was married circa 1730 to Maria Eversdijk and died before 1749 leaving a son Huijbert and a daughter Susanna. Huijbert Johan de Heere (1731-1777) is almost certainly the man who ordered this service. He left Holland in 1749, as a junior merchant for the VOC in the East Indiaman Gustaaf Willem, arriving in Batavia. By 1751 he was a supercargo of Mocha and resident of Gamron, Persia. In 1752 he moved to Bantam, Java, and then from 1754 to 1763 he was in Palembang, Sumatra where in 1758 he married Jacoba Frederica Nemegheer (17331798). He returned to Goes, Holland, in 1763 with three young sons Jan, Pieter and Willem on the East Indiaman Nieuwland, probably bringing these porcelains with him. References: Jörg 1997, p310, No 366, a bowl; Jörg1989, p240, No 94, a smaller plate; Kroes 2007, p501, No 424, examples from this service and information about the order and No 425, a plate, dated about 1735-40 with same arms but very different border decoration; Litzenburg 2003, p114, No 102, a large dish.
71 Pitcher and Cover Qianlong period circa 1765 English Market Height: 15 inches; 38cm A large Chinese porcelain pitcher and cover painted in famille rose enamels with a large coat of arms and with scattered flowers and further copies of the crest. The arms are for Richardson, granted to William Richardson of Rotherhithe in 1765: Or three palettes gules, on a chief embattled vert, as many lions’ heads erased of the first. Crest: out of a mural coronet or, a demi lion rampant gules holding between its paws a guidon argent, charged with a slip of oak proper, fructed of the first, the staff and tassels of the last. In pretence: Argent on a chevron sable a mullet of the field (for Mixfine of Cambridgeshire) but if the mullet is ‘for difference’ then it could be a number of families, Howard suggests it might be Trelawney. The family of Archdeacon of Cornwall also has just Argent a chevron sable. Alfrey of Gulledge, East Grinstead, Sussex has Argent on a chevron sable a fleur-de-lys of the field, which is very similar but no corresponding marriage has been found for any of these. The ‘in pretence’ coat suggests a marriage with an heiress. The Gentleman’s Magazine Vol 36 (1766) has a marriage announcement for William Richardson of Rotherhithe to a Miss Coulton, also of Rotherhithe, but there is no corresponding coat of arms of Coulton. Burke has Colton: Sable, a saltire engrailed between four crosses crosslet or. William Richardson was the son and heir of John Richardson of Rotherhithe and Newdigate. William was a timber mechant, dealer and chapman closely associated with ship building, so he would have had connections to the East India Company Trade and a desire to acquire a Chinese dinner service. By 1772 he was declared bankrupt and his estate at Milland, Sussex was being sold to pay creditors. The decoration on this service is quite simple but Howard 1974 notes that on the plates the four crests around the rim all face the same way which he says is unique.
References: Howard 1974, p481 a plate from this service; William Cave writing under the name Sylvanus Urban, 1766, The Gentleman’s Magazine, Vol 36; Tudor Craig 1925, p77, a pitcher with the arms of Parker, p73, a pair of pitchers and covers with the arms of Mawbey imp. Pratt.
Objects acquired from Cohen & Cohen are now in the following museum collections: British Museum, London Bristol Museum Jeffrye Museum, London Foundling Hospital Museum, London Groniger Museum, Groeningen East India Company Museum Lorient Adrien-DubouchĂŠ National Porcelain Museum, Limoges SĂ¨vres Ceramics Museum Peabody Essex Museum, Salem Mass. Kenton Foundation, California New Orleans Museum Of Art Virginia Museum Of Art, Richmond Va Minneapolis Museum Winterthur Museum Norton Museum of Art, plam Beach Fl Los Angeles County Museum of Art The Tea Museum, Hong Kong Hong Kong Maritime Museum Nanchang University Museum The Mint Museum, Charlotte, North Carolina
BIBLIOGRAPHY: ALVES, Jorge et al (1998) Caminhos da Porcelana - Dinastias Ming e Qing, Lisbon: Fundacao Oriente. ANTUNES, Mary ESSL (1999) Porcelanas e Vidros, Lisbon: Fundação Ricardo do Espírito Santo Silva. ANTUNES, Mary ESSL (2000) Porcelana da China, Colecção Ricardo do Espírito Santo Silva, Lisbon.
CHEN, Hsia-Sheng; Enamel Ware in the Ming and Ch’ing Dynasties, National Palace Museum, Taipei, 1999
Great National Treasures of China: Masterworks in the National Palace Museum, National Palace Museum, Taipei, 1983
CLEMMENSEN, T & MACKEPRANG, M B. (1980), Kina og Danmark 1600–1950: Kinafort og Kinamode; Nationalmuseet, Copenhagen, 1980
GYLLENSVÄRD, Bo (1990) Porslinet Från Kina. Västerås, Sweden: Ica Bokförlag.
CLUNAS, Craig (1987) Chinese Export Art and Design, London: Victoria & Albert Museum.
AYERS, J (1980) Far Eastern Ceramics in the Victoria & Albert Museum, London: Sotheby Parke Bernet
COHEN & COHEN: (author: Motley, W) (1999) Big Is Beautiful (2000) From Poems To Piglets (2001) School’s Out (2002) After You! (2003) Soldier Soldier (2004) Bedtime Stories (2005) Now & Then (2006) Double Dutch (2007) Ladies First! (2008) Tiptoe through the Tulipieres (2012) Angels and Demonslayers (2013) Think Pink! (2014-A) A Game of Bowls
BAHR, AW (1911); Old Chinese Porcelain & Works of Art in China, Cassell and Company Limited, London, New York, Toronto and Melbourne, 1911
COHEN, M & MOTLEY, W (2008) Mandarin & Menagerie, Chinese & Japanese Ceramic Figures, Volume I: The James E Sowell Collection, Reigate, UK
BEURDELEY, Michel (1962), Porcelain of the East India Companies. London: Barrie and Rockliff.
CONNER, Patrick (1986) The China Trade 1600-1860, Brighton, UK.
ARAPOVA, Tatiana E. (1988); Chinese Painted Enamels; The Hermitage Museum, St Petersburg, 1988 ARAPOVA, Tatiana E. et al (2003); Chinese Export Art in the Hermitage Museum: Late 16th–19th centuries, The State Hermitage Museum, St Petersburg, 2003
BEURDELEY, Michel (1966) The Chinese Collector Through the Ages, Rutland, Vermont
DEBOMY, Pierre L. (2013) Tobacco Leaf and Pseudo: A Tentative Inventory; Société des Amis du Musée National de Céramique, Sèvres.
BEURDELEY, M & RAINDRE, G (1987) Qing Porcelain: Famille Verte, Famille Rose. London: Thames and Hudson Ltd.
DETWEILER, Susan Gray (1982) George Washington's Chinaware, New York
BOURLET, Catherine and BENDER, Elena (2007); Musée Fondation Zoubov, Genève, Lenzi, Vernier, 2007
DIAS, Pedro (1996) Symbols and Images of Christianity on Chinese Porcelain, Museo de São Roque.
BRAWER, Catherine Coleman (1992) Chinese Export Porcelain from the Ethel (Mrs Julius) Liebman and Arthur L. Liebman Collection. Madison, WI: Elvejhem Museum.
DU BOULAY, Anthony (1984) Christies' Pictorial History of Chinese Ceramics, Oxford: Phaidon/Christies.
BUSHELL, SW (1919), Chinese Art, vol. II, Victoria and Albert Museum Handbooks
DU BOULAY, Anthony (1963), Chinese Porcelain, London: Octopus Books Ltd (Edition of 1973)
BUSHELL, SW; Oriental Ceramic Art illustrated by examples from the collection of W. T. Walters, Frederick Muller, London, 1981 (reprint)
FORBES, HA Crosby- (1982) Yang-Ts'ai: The Foreign Colours - Rose Porcelains of the Ch'ing Dynasty. Milton Massachusetts: China Trade Museum.
BUTLER, Sir Michael et al., (1990) Seventeenth Century Porcelain from the Butler Collection
FUCHS, RW (2005) Made In China, Export Porcelain from the Leo and Doris Hodroff Collection at Winterthur, University Press of New England.
CARNIERO, Jose Manuel Martins, The Porcelain Garden, Pub: Palaciao National da Pena CASTRO, N (1988) Chinese Porcelain and the Heraldry of the Empire, Oporto, Civilizacao, 1988 CASTRO, N (2007) Chinese Porcelain at the Time of the Empire, Oporto, Civilizacao, 2007
GODDEN, Geoffrey A, (1979) Oriental Export Market Porcelain and its Influence on European Wares. London: Granada Publishing. GORDON, Elinor (1984) Collecting Chinese Export Porcelain, Pittstown, New Jersey: The Main Street Press. GRANDJEAN, Bredo L. (1965) Dansk Ostindisk Porcelaen, Copenhagen: Tahning & Appels Forlag.
GYLLENSVÄRD, Bo et al. (1972) Kina Slott på Drottningholm, Malmö: Allhems Förlag HÁJEK, Lubor and FORMAN, Werner; A Book of Chinese Art: Four thousand years of sculpture, painting, bronze, jade, lacquer and porcelain, Spring Bks, London, 1966 HOBSON, RL, RACKHAM, Bernard and KING, William; Chinese Ceramics in Private Collections, Halton & Truscott Smith Ltd, London, 1931 HERVOUËT, F&N & BRUNEAU, Y, (1986) La Porcelaine Des Compagnies Des Indes A Décor Occidental. Paris: Flammarion. HERBERT, P and SCHIFFER, N (1980) China For America, Pennsylvania: Schiffer Publishing Ltd. HO, Kam-chuen et al; Splendour of the Qing Dynasty, The Urban Council, Hong Kong, 1992 HOWARD, DS & AYERS, J (1978) China For The West. Volumes I and II. London: Sotheby's Parke Bernet Publications. HOWARD, David S, (1974) Chinese Armorial Porcelain, Volume I, London: Faber and Faber. HOWARD, David S, (2003) Chinese Armorial Porcelain, Volume II, Heirloom and Howard. HOWARD, David S. (1994), The Choice of the Private Trader. London: Zwemmer. HOWARD, David S (1997) A Tale of Three Cities, Canton, Shanghai and Hong Kong. London: Sotheby's. HUITFELDT, Johanne (1993) Ostindisk Porslen i Norge. Oslo: C. Huitfeldt Forlag AS. JANSEN, B (1976) Chinese cermiek, cat. Haags Gemeentemuseum, Lochem. JENYNS, Soame and WATSON, William; Chinese Art: The Minor Arts, Oldbourne Press, London, 1963 JÖRG, CJA (1980), Pronk Porcelain, Porcelain designs by Cornelis Pronk, Groninger Museum, JÖRG, CJA, (1984) Interaction in Ceramics: Oriental Porcelain and Delftware. Hong Kong: Hong Kong Museum of Art. JÖRG, CJA (1986) The Geldermalsen History and Porcelain. Groningen: Kempner JÖRG, CJA (1989) Chinese Export Porcelain, Chine de Commande from the Royal Museums of Art and History in Brussels. Hong Kong: The Urban Council of Hong Kong.
JÖRG, CJA (1995) Oosters Porslein. Rotterdam: Museum Boymans van Beuningen. JÖRG, CJA (1997) Chinese Ceramics in the Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam. London: Philip Wilson. JÖRG, CJA (2003) Oriental Porcelain in the Netherlands; Four Museum Collections. Groninger Museum, Groningen. KERR, Rose (1991) Chinese Art and Design, The TT TSui Gallery of Chinese Art. London, Victoria and Albert Museum. KERR, Rose & MENGONI, Luisa B (2011) Chinese Export Ceramics, London, V&A Publishing. KRAHL, Regina et al (1986) Chinese Ceramics in the Topkapi Saray Museum. London: Sotheby's Publications. KRAHL, R & HARRISON-HALL, J (1994) Ancient Chinese Trade Ceramics from the British Museum, London. Taipei: Chen Kang-Shuen. KROES, JOCHEM (2007) Chinese Armorial Porcelain for the Dutch Market, KROG, Ole Villumsen et al (2006), Treasures from Imperial China: The Forbidden City and The Royal Danish Court; The Royal Silver Vault, Copenhagen, 2006 LANGE, AMANDA E (2005) Chinese Export Art at Historic Deerfield, Historic Deerfield, Inc. LE CORBEILLER, Clare (1973) China Trade Porcelains, a Study in Double Reflections, New York, China House Gallery. LE CORBEILLER, Clare (1974) China Trade Porcelain: Patterns of Exchange. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art. LE CORBEILLER, C & FRELINGHUYSEN, AC (2003) Chinese Export Porcelain, New York: Metropolitan Musem of Art. LEE, Jean Gordon, (1974) Philadelphians and the China Trade 1784-1844, Philadephia: Philadephia Museum of Art LITZENBERG, Thomas V, (2003) Chinese Export Porcelain in the Reeves Center Collection at Washington and Lee University, London: Third Millennium Publishing. LLOYD HYDE, JA (1964) Oriental Lowestoft - Chinese Export Porcelain. Newport, Wales: The Ceramic Book Co. MAERTENS de NOORDHOUT, Henry & KOZYREFF, Chantal (2000) Porcelaines Armoriées du Pavillon Chinois, Brussels.
MEZIN, Louis (2002) Cargaisons de Chine, Lorient: Musee de Lorient. MUDGE, Jean McLure (1981) Chinese Export Porcelain for the American Trade. New York: Clarkson N Potter, Inc. MUDGE, Jean McLure (1986) Chinese Export Porcelain in North America, New York: Clarkson N Potter Inc. MYRDAL, Eva (2007) Mittens Rike - exhibition catalogue; Ostasiatiska Museet, Stockholm. NADLER, D (2001) China to Order, Paris: Vilo International. Palace Museum; Compendium of Collections in the Palace Museum: Enamels, Forbidden City Publishing House, Time Publishing and Media Co. Ltd and Anhui Fine Arts Publishing, Beijing, 2011
SAPAGE, Antonio (1992) Porcelana Chinesa de Exportacao - Diálogo Entre Dois Mundos. Macau: Leal Senado de Macau. SARGENT, William R (1991) The Copeland Collection, Chinese and Japanese Ceramic Figures in the Peabody Museum. Salem, Massachusetts. SARGENT, William R (1996) Views of the Pearl River Delta, Hong Kong, 1997. SARGENT, WIlliam R (2012) Treasures of Chinese Export Ceramics from the Peabody Essex Museum. Yale; Yale University Press SCHEURLEER, LUNSINGH DF (1974) Chinese Export Porcelain: Chine de Commande. London: Faber and Faber. SHARP, Rosalie Wise(2002) Ceramics: Ethics & Scandal, Pub: RWD Books.
Palace Museum (ed.); The Imperial Packing Art of the Qing Dynasty, Forbidden City Publishing House, Beijing, 2000
SHIMIZU, C & CHABANNE, L (2003) L'Odysée de la Porcelaine Chinoise, (Collections du Musée National de Céramique, Sevres et du Musée National Adrien Dubouché, Limoges) Paris.
Palace Museum Ancient Ceramics Research Centre; Palace Museum Collection: Ancient Ceramics, Vol. II, Forbidden City Publishing House, Beijing, 2005
STAEHELIN, WA (1965) The Book of Porcelain, London.
PERCIVAL DAVID FOUNDATION (1991) The Illustrated Catalogue of Qing Enamelled Wares. London: School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London. PHILLIPS, John Goldsmith (1956) China Trade Porcelain. Cambridge, Mass.:Harvard University Press. PINTO DE MATOS, MA & SALGADO, M (2002) Chinese Porcelain in the Carmona and Costa Foundation, Lisbon. PINTO DE MATOS, MA (2003) Chinese Porcelain in the Calouste-Gulbenkian Collection, Lisbon. PIOTROVSKI, Mikhail B. (ed.); Treasures of Catherine the Great, Thames and Hudson and Harry N. Abrams Inc., 2000 Porcelains in Polychrome and Contrasting Colours: The Complete Collection of Treasures of the Palace Museum, Shanghai Kexue Jishu Chubanshe, Shanghai, 1999 PREISNER, Olga K, (1980) Chinese Export Porcelain from the Collection of Dr and Mrs Harold L Tonkin. Pennsylvania: The Pennsylvania State University. Roger Keverne; Fine and Rare Chinese Works of Art and Ceramics, London, Winter 2013 SANTOS, Varela A. and ALLEN, Caroline (2005) Yongzheng, A Private Collection. Santos, London.
STRÖBER, EVA (2001) La Maladie Porcelaine…East Asian Porcelain from the Collection of Augustus the Strong, Berlin. TAFT MUSEUM (1995) Chinese Porcelain and Works of Art. New York, Hudson Hills Press. TIE, Yuan (ed.); The Complete Collection of Porcelain of Jiangxi Province: Porcelain of the Qing Dynasty (I), Morning Glory Publishers, Beijing, 2005 VEIGA, Jorge Getulio et al (1989) Chinese Export Porcelain in Private Brazilian Collections. London: Han-Shan Tang Ltd. WILLIAMSON, George C (1970) The Book Of Famille Rose. London: Kegan Paul, Trench, Trubner & Co. WIRGIN, Jan (1998) Från KINA till EUROPA. Stockholm: Östasiatiska Museet Stockholm. WOLFF, Martine & WASSING-VISSER, Rita (1986) Met Andere Ogen. Delft: Volkenkundig Museum Nusantara. YANG, Boda; Tributes from Guangdong to the Qing Court, The Palace Museum and Art Gallery, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, 1987