BAROQUE & ROLL
Written by WILLIAM MOTLEY 莫志
detail from rim of Item 70, detail from print by Cornelis Pronk, Maria Sybille Merian, Arbour pattern, circa 1738 European Insects, 1730, pl CXI
5 - 14 November 2015
科恩 & 科恩 COHEN & COHEN PO BOX 366 REIGATE RH2 2BB Tel:+44 (0) 1737 242180 Fax: +44 (0) 1737 226236 Email: email@example.com Website: www.cohenandcohen.co.uk
Gallery at: 67 Jermyn Street, St James’s, London, SW1Y 6NY
ÂŠ Cohen & Cohen 2015 Published October 2015 ISBN 0 9537185 5 6
Published by Cohen & Cohen Photographs by Dairy Digital Imaging Printed and bound by Albe De Coker, Antwerp With thanks to: Graeme Bowpitt, Miranda Keverne, Ken Adlard, Dr Ni Yibin, Richard Marchant, Luis Alegria, Tan Yuanyuan, Hugh Jolly, Tom Maes, Geert Bogaert
FOREWORD This year’s catalogue title has been waiting in the wings for the right object but I never imagined that object would be the tureen, cover and stand (item 45) that is the cover illustration. I first saw an example in Michel Beurdeley’s book, Porcelain of the East India Companies, published in 1962, an essential reference for a dealer starting out a decade later. The one illustration that stood out for me was this tureen but it appeared that there had never been another on the market, nor could one be seen in any museum. From then on this tureen was my Holy Grail, the piece I would seek and never find but, after more than forty years, it takes pride of place in our 2015 catalogue alongside two other pieces with strong baroque influence, the massive blue and white tureen (item 44) and the extraordinary painted enamel epergne (item 26). This year’s catalogue is our largest to date and once again we are showing an exceptional collection of painted enamels, and another of figures in both pottery and porcelain. Other highlights include a massive famille rose cistern , a large famille rose garniture decorated with cockerels on a black ground, two massive Kangxi period chargers, one famille verte and one imari, and a pair of famille rose bottles that appear to complete a five piece garniture in Buckingham Palace. Every year we try to include a number of important European subject pieces, armorial pieces and a variety of designs by Cornelis Pronk and this years offerings are among our strongest with a wide variety in each of those categories with some new identification of their print sources. Although we are not known for dealing in nineteenth century porcelains we can never resist the exceptional nor the exceptionally large and our final two items fall into both those categories. Item 92 is a massive rose mandarin punchbowl ordered by the Clerke family to commemorate the tri-centenary of the Battle of Spurs whose victory was won by their ancestor. Item 93 is a pair of massive punch bowls ordered on behalf of the Grand Master’s Lodge No.1 where they remained, stored in the crate made for them prior to shipping from Canton until we acquired them. The crate alone is one of the rarest items we have ever offered. Once again praise is due to Will Motley for his extraordinary academic research. Every year he digs up information that allows him to make previously unrecorded connections and this year is no exception. Thanks also go to Miranda Keverne for researching and producing the section on painted enamel and to Ken Adlard for the additional photography. To my wife and business partner, Ewa, for whom this will be the last page of proof reading, we could not do any of this without you. Michael & Ewa Cohen
1 Figure of Li Tieguai Ming Dynasty, Wanli Period 1573-1620 Dutch or Portuguese Market Height: 13Âź inches; 34cm A very rare Chinese porcelain figure of the immortal Li Tieguai decorated in underglaze blue. A small number of blue and white figures from this period are recorded, mostly smaller figures of animals or the goddess Guanyin. There are also some examples of figural ewers of comparable size. No other example of this particular figure is recorded. Li Tieguai is one of the Eight Daoist Immortals and is always shown with an iron crutch and double gourd. Born in the Western Zhou period, he was a handsome young man called Li Yuan who studied Daoism and practised 'out-of-body' travelling. He set off on a visit to Lao Tzu, the founder of Daoism, to learn the secrets of immortality, and instructed his apprentice to guard his body while his spirit was away. Unfortunately, the apprentice thought he had died and had him cremated. When Li returned, he had to take the only available body, that of a starved lame beggar in a nearby ditch. His soul often resides in the double gourd vase, from which he also dispenses medicine to the lame and sick, for whom he is the patron deity. References: a related blue and white figure of Fuxing, the God of Good Fortune, dated to the Jiajing period, in the collection of the MusĂŠe Guimet, Paris, see Paris 1730-1930: A Taste for China, Hong Kong, 2008, p.223, no.98; Cohen & Motley (2008), p66, a famille verte biscuit porcelain figure of Li Tieguai; for Wanli figural ewers see J.Harrison-Hall (2001), Ming Ceramics in the British Museum, London, 2001: Nos 11:17 and 11:18 for a pair shaped as the Immortal He Xiangu, and No 11:19 for another shaped as a female musician.
2 Garniture Kangxi period circa 1700 Dutch Market Height: 12他 inches; 32.5cm A blue and white Chinese export porcelain five piece garniture with moulded spiral forms consisting of two beaker vases and three baluster vases and covers. The shapes here are copying a delft original, which was itself originally inspired by Chinese forms. The spiral shape was very difficult to make as it required moulds and could not be thrown on a wheel. Examples are also known in famille verte enamels.
3 Puzzle Jug Kangxi period circa 1700-10 Dutch Market Height: 8 inches; 20cm A rare Chinese export porcelain puzzle jug, decorated in underglaze blue with panels of maidens and flowers. This jug is a copy of a type made in Delft pottery, this particular type known from about 1680 onwards, though most examples are from the early eighteenth century. Various shapes were made but all have a disguised means of pouring the liquid, through a hollow handle. References: A Chinese example in The Metropolitan Museum, New York (79.2.174), Kangxi; Lunsingh Scheurleer 1974, No 105, a Chinese example in the Princesshof Museum, Leeuwarden; Shimizu & Chabanne 2004, p148, a Chinese example in the National Ceramics Museum, SĂ¨vres; Cohen & Cohen 2014A, No 4, a Japanese example in Arita porcelain.
A Chinese example of different form, Kangxi period. Image courtesy Thomas Lurie
A Delft example of similar type, first quarter 18th century. Image courtesy Robert Aronson
4 Pair of Salts and Liners Qianlong period circa 1780 English market Length: 3Âź inches; 9cm A rare pair of Chinese export porcelain blue and white salts of elaborate reticulated form, each in two parts, a pierced and footed base and an oval liner with interior landscape scene. The shape is derived from European silver examples, the lower part in silver and, usually, the liner in glass or other medium.
Pair of English silver reticulated salts with glass liners, circa 1775.
5 Teapot and Cover Kangxi period circa 1710 Dutch or English market Height: 5Âź inches; 13cm An unusual Chinese export porcelain teapot and cover decorated in underglaze blue, of double wall construction, the outer with reticulated panels, the body of square cross-section with bevelled covers and on four feet.
6 Punchbowl Qianlong period circa 1750 European Market Diameter: 13他 inches; 35cm A fine Chinese export punchbowl the exterior with underglaze powder-blue ground with gilded peonies and a trellis diaper border, the rim interior with a floral border in iron red and gold.
7 Coffeepot and Cover Yongzheng period circa 1725 Dutch or English market Height: 14¼ inches; 36cm A Chinese export lighthouse-form coffee pot and cover painted in the Imari palette, with a phoenix-form spout and an elaborate handle. The phoenix head at the spout is of the Chi-
nese mythical bird, fenghuang, distinct from the European phoenix that ‘rises from the ashes’. The fenghuang is the Empress of Birds and is a composite of real birds, the head of a chicken with exaggerated wattles and crest, the tail of a peacock or pheasant, though usually with only three main long feathers with ‘eyes’ at the ends, and the curled wing primaries on its back taken from the Mandarin Duck. This last is thought to be represented in the unusual shape of the handle in this coffee pot. References: Cohen & Motley 2008, p241, No16.15, a pair in famille rose.
8 Massive Saucer Dish Kangxi period circa 1690 European market Diameter: 20 inches; 51cm A very large Chinese export porcelain saucer dish painted in the Chinese Imari palette of underglaze blue, rouge-defer and gilt, with an extensive river scene, the rim with small landscape panels reserved on a trellis diaper.
This is a very early use of the Chinese Imari palette, the iron red and gold being used only to embellish a design in underglaze blue that is already complete. As the technique developed later by 1700, the artists would leave gaps in the blue that could be harmoniously completed by the overglaze red and gold.
9 JardiniĂ¨re Kangxi period circa 1710 Dutch or English market Diameter: 15 inches; 38cm Height: 9 inches; 23cm A large Chinese export porcelain verte imari jardiniĂ¨re, of hexagonal form, each side with moulded cartouches of flowers reserved on a diaper ground with lotus, on a short pierced foot.
10 Massive Charger Kangxi period circa 1710 European Market Diameter: 20 inches; 51cm Provenance: Collection Edmond Rothschild, Château d’Arminvilliers. A very large and finely painted Chinese porcelain charger with a central scene of ladies on horseback overseen by a lady with attendants on a balcony, painted in famille verte, the rim with a border of flowers including lotus and peony, painted in the verte imari palette. The scene appears to show Mu Guiying and seven others of the Yang widows preparing for battle, overseen by family matriarch She Taijan. The story comes from tales of the Yang clan in the early Northern Song Dynasty period (960-1127). General Yang Ye was a great warrior who defended the Middle Kingdom against attack from the Khitan forces of the Liao Dynasty. In a collection of stories known as Yang Jia Jiang, (Generals of the Yang Clan), Yang ye famously defended the Yanmen Pass in the Great Wall, becoming a favourite of the Emperor. This led to jealousy from the other generals who abandoned him on the battlefield and he was captured, starving to death. Yang Ye had eight sons, all great warriors and they successfully kept the Khitan forces at bay. However this took its toll and eventually the last of the Yang generals was killed as the enemy forces closed in. So it was left to the widows of the sons of Yang Ye, spurred on by his wife She Taijun, and led by her grand-daughter, Mu Guiying, widow of Yang Zongbao, to defend the Dynasty. They defeated the Khitan forces and then took charge of the emperor’s army defeating a new threat from the Tangut forces of the Western Xia, saving the dynasty. The stories are popuar in Chinese culture, especially in the Ming period, and more recently in many films, including Legendary Amazons (2011). An alternative interpretation, provided by Dr Ni Yibin, is that this is a version of a scene with the Emperor Yang of the Sui Dynasty (569-618). He ruled from 606-618 and later in life he indulged his tastes for spectacle with his many concubines in the West Park in Luoyang. His consorts often organised court ladies to
perform on horseback, imitating the procession of Lady Wang Zhaojun, who was married to a tribe chieftain in Central Asia. This version lacks the Emperor watching the scene. This latter is more likely as the Daughters of Yang are usually shown with more military apparel, including pheasant plumes in their hats. However the absence of Emperor Yang enjoying his equestrian ladies is also surprising. It may be that the painters were inspired by both scenes but, as this was produced for a Western market, they produced a design that would appeal best. References: Williamson 1974, plate XLIV, a charger with the same scene as this dish, in rose-verte enamels; Jörg, 1997, p91, No79, pair of bottles with scenes of the Yang generals including female warriors; Lunsingh Scheurleer 1974, fig. 150, the bottles.
But where only a free play of our presentational powers is to be sustained as in the case of pleasure gardens, room decoration, all sorts of useful utensils, and so on, any regularity that has an air of constraint is to be avoided as much as possible. That is why the English taste in gardens, or the baroque taste in furniture, carries the imagination's freedom very far, even to the verge of the grotesque, because it is precisely this divorce from any constraint of a rule that the case is posited where taste can show its greatest perfection in designs made by the imagination. Immanuel Kant
11 Garniture Kangxi period circa 1700 Dutch Market Height: 11Â˝ inches; 29cm. A chinese export porcelain five piece garniture painted in the famille verte palette, consisting of three baluster vases and covers and a pair of twohandled bottle vases, each brightly enamelled with mythical beasts, birds, butterflies and flowers. The main mythical beast shown here is the qilin, the most popular of such fantastical animals. It is peaceful and kind and according to Confucian tradition it appears during the reign of wise and virtuous rulers.
If you don't read the newspaper you are uninformed, if you do read the newspaper you are misinformed. Mark Twain
12 Pair of Dishes Kangxi period circa 1720 European Market Diameter: 15 inches; 38cm A fine pair of Chinese porcelain octagonal dishes painted in the famille verte palette, with a central scene of two birds with a pine tree, the rim with a dense border of Chinese phoenix, fenghuang, the rim edge moulded in â€˜pie-crustâ€™ style. The central pair of birds with their two long tails feathers are the shoudainiao, sometimes symbolic of longevity and often painted on items given as birthday presents. They are based on the Asian Paradise Flycatcher (Terpsiphone paradisi, L.1758).
13 Brushpot Kangxi period Chinese Market Height: 6 inches; 15cm Diameter: 7¼ inches; 18.4cm A rare Chinese porcelain cylindrical brushpot decorated in underglaze blue with scholars walking in landscapes and river scenes, the base with four character mark (wen zhang shan dou). Wen zhang shan dou can be translated as ‘Scholarship as high as the mountain and Great Bear’, meaning scholarship of significance and brilliance.
References: for brush pots with the same mark: Chen, Qing Shunzhi Kangxi Chao Qinghuaci, p326, No 213, an example in the Palace Museum, Beijing; Wang, Kangxi Porcelain Wares from the Shanghai Museum Collection, p68-71, Nos 45-6; White, Chen & Wang, Seventeenth Century Jingdezhen Porcelain from the Shanghai Museum and the Butler Collections: Beauty’s Enchantment, p280-1, No 102; for similar blue and white brushpots see Addis, Chinese Blue and White Porcelain, p88, No 103; du Boulay 1984, p199, No 13, Li, Mingmo Qingchu Ci Bitong Bianwei Shizhen, p138-9; Li, Chinese Ceramics: The New Standard Guide, p288, No 586 in the Asian Art Museum of San Francisco; note also a blue and white jar with similar decoration in Lu, Collections of the Palace Museum: Ceramics, p208-9, No134.
14 Eggshell Saucer Dish Yongzheng period circa 1730 Western or Chinese Market Diameter: 6 inches; 15cm A very fine Chinese eggshell porcelain saucer of lobed hexagonal shape, painted in famille rose with a scene of riverside figures including a lady and a boy on a boat and a fisherman selling fish to a sage.
This is a very fine example of a rare type that was sought after both in China and the West. Such thin, translucent porcelain, exquisitely painted in bright colours, was highly prized. This scene, spread across the dish without borders, is in Chinese taste.
15 Saucer Dish Yongzheng period circa 1730 Chinese Market Diameter: 13他 inches; 35cm A Chinese porcelain large saucer dish painted in famille rose enamels with a scene of Chinese figures, including a man on a blue-spotted horse talking to another dressed in a green robe.
16 Rouleau Vase Yongzheng period circa 1730 Chinese Market Height: 17Âź inches; 44cm An extremely fine Chinese porcelain vase of rouleau form with a narrow neck and everted rim, painted in famille rose enamels with Chinese figures. The main figure is Shoulao the God of Longevity, who is accompanied by a crane, another symbol of long life. References: Cohen & Cohen 2014B, p24, No12, a large yenyen vase of similar date and decoration.
Cheese it is a peevish elf It digests all things but itself. John Ray (1627-1705) English Proverbs, 1670 Cheese is milkâ€™s leap toward immortality. Clifton Fadiman (1904-99) Any Number Can Play, 1957
17 Imperial Nine Dragon Bottle Vase Qianlong period 1736-1796 Chinese Imperial Market Height: 12Âź inches; 31cm A rare Imperial Chinese porcelain bottle vase of yuhu form, painted in underglaze copper-red with nine swirling dragons amid scrolling foliage.
The nine dragon design indicates this to have been made for the Imperial court, though it is not marked. The copper red is of a good colour, which is difficult to achieve as the process is very temperature sensitive in the kiln.
18 Painted Enamel Dish 18th century Diameter:17他 in, 45.2 cm Formerly in a European private collection. of circular form with a scalloped edge, the dish is supported on a broad foot ring and is painted in bright famille rose enamels. The well is decorated with a scallopedged cartouche containing large lotus flowers, peony, pierced rocks and other flowers; a short-tailed bird with a long beak is perched on a lotus stem and another bird with long tail feathers is perched in the peony. The cavetto is decorated with lotus lappets in alternating pink, yellow, red and green, with smaller blue and white petals between the tips. The base is painted with a luxu-
riant spray of various flowers, and the exterior sides with sprays of flowers including lotus, rose, camellia, peony and chrysanthemum, all on a white ground.
A related but much smaller plate, in the collection of the State Hermitage Museum, St Petersburg, is illustrated in Arapova, Chinese Painted Enamels, pl. 80, no. 134.
19 Painted Enamel Plaque 18th century Dimensions: 7Â˝ x 8Âž inches; 19.3 x 22.2 cm A rare painted enamel plaque of rectangular form. The plaque is painted in the famille rose palette with a Buddhist lion crouching beneath a tall pine tree, with smaller plants, including lingzhi, and a small stream in the foreground, and brightly coloured swirling clouds against a brilliant lapis-lazuli blue sky above. Formerly in a European private collection.
20 Painted Enamel Double-gourd Vase 18th century Height: 13Âź inches; 33.7 cm supported on a spreading foot rim, the vase is enamelled in tomato-red, aubergine, pink, blue, two shades of green and gold on a turquoise ground. The bulbs are each decorated with scrolling lotus and other flowers, and bats, between lappet bands, and with four characters, those on the upper bulb reading Da, and those on the lower Ji. The interior is covered with turquoise enamel and the rims are gilt. Da Ji can be translated as great auspiciousness. A painted enamel double-gourd vase with similar decoration is illustrated in Yang, Tributes from Guangdong to the Qing Court, no. 43, p. 83; for Qianlong vessels with related decoration, see Wu, Masterpieces of Chinese Enamel Ware in the National Palace Museum, no. 46; and Zhongguo Meishu Fenlei Quanji: Zhongguo Jinyin Boli Falangqi Quanji, Vol. 6, no. 235, p. 152, in the collection of the Palace Museum, Beijing. Such Da ji vases can also be found in other materials: see, for example, American Art Galleries, Illustrated Catalogue of the Remarkable Collection of the Imperial Prince Kung of China, no. 360, a pair of inlaid gilt-bronze wall vases; Carved Lacquer in the Collection of the Palace Museum, no. 389, a carved red lacquer version; and Rawski and Rawson, China: The Three Emperors 1662â€“1795, no. 286, p. 370, a gold perfumer in the collection of the Palace Museum, Beijing.
Note a detail from the scroll, Huangqing Zhigongtu (Illustrated Tributaries of the Qing Empire), by Ding Guanpeng and oth-
Painted Enamel Tray
ers, dated 1751â€“75, in the collection of the Palace Museum, Beijing, illustrated in Jackson and Jaffer, Encounters: The Meeting of
Asia and Europe 1500â€“1800, pl 16.9, p211, showing Europeans
Length: 12 inches; 30.4 cm
in a very similar style of dress.
Formerly in the collection of Sir Harry Garner and sold by Messrs Bluett, London.
For a quatrefoil tray with similar figural decoration, see Lloyd Hyde, Chinese Painted Enamels from Private and Museum Collec-
of shallow rectangular form with canted corners, the heavy ves-
tions, no. 52, p. 38. See also a saucer in the collection of the
sel is supported on four cloud-shaped feet and is enamelled in
State Hermitage Museum, St Petersburg, showing European fig-
the famille rose palette. The well is painted with four European
ures in similar dress in Arapova, Chinese Painted Enamels, pl. 71,
gentlemen, their two European attendants and a winged naked
no. 125; and note also pl. 105, no. 147, for a dish painted with
young child (putto), all in a pastoral landscape beside a lake. The
a dragon amid clouds similar to those on the base of this tray.
four gentlemen, each typically dressed in a full-skirted kneelength coat, knee breeches, stockings and stack-heeled shoes, rest beneath tall trees, one reclines on a rug, one has a walking stick and one wears a cloak and a tricorn hat; the two less elaborately dressed attendants bring refreshments. The interior sides are painted with cartouches of flowers against yellow and green diaper grounds with trefoils to the corners. The base is enamelled with two scaly four-clawed dragons, one yellow and one blue, amid crested waves and clouds in shades of grey, and the exterior sides with simple red blossoms on green cracked ice.
22 Painted Enamel Tray Illustrated: Gillingham, Chinese Painted Enamels, no. 3, p. 13; for 18th century
trays of this shape with similar decoration, see Arapova, Chinese
Length: 11 inches; 28 cm
Painted Enamels, pl. 108, p. 163, in the collection of the State
Formerly in the collection of Sir Harry Garner and sold by
Hermitage Museum, St Petersburg; and Hildburgh, Chinese
Messrs Bluett, London.
Painted Enamels with European Subjects, pl. 1A.
of quatrefoil form, the heavy vessel rests on four shallow metal
Note also a circular dish with similar figures, in the collection of
bracket feet and is enamelled in the famille rose palette. The well
the Ashmolean Museum, Oxford (Mallett Bequest), and dated
is painted with fourteen European figures, arranged in two
circa 1710â€“40, in Moss, By Imperial Command: An Introduction to
groups on a terrace beside a building, with a church and other
Châ€™ing Imperial Painted Enamels, pl. 3.
dwellings in the middle ground. One group of figures consists of a gentleman resting against a tree being offered a finger citron and another fruit by two small boys; a second gentleman sits on a table, with an open book in front of him; two women, one of whom holds a brush, are seated at the table; and a third woman is standing behind them. The other group is formed of five women, one of whom holds a child by the hand, and an elderly man. The interior sides are decorated with four simple cartouches on a yellow diaper ground. The base is finely painted with two European figures crossing a bridge towards a small village in a mountainous landscape with another village on the other shore of the river. The exterior sides bear a floral scroll.
23 Large Painted Enamel Vase 18th century Height: 14Âź in, 35.9 cm after an archaic bronze hu vessel, the flattened octagonalsection body, supported on a spreading foot, has wellrounded sides that taper towards the rim; two lug handles are set on the neck. The vessel is painted in the famille rose palette with four shaped panels reserved against a millefleurs ground; two raised bands of twisted ribbon around the neck that is further embellished with two pink scrolling dragon medallions; paired blue dragons on the handles; and elaborate lappet borders around the neck and foot. The two main panels are delicately painted with figures in landscapes in Chinese taste: one
with a scholar, holding a ruyi sceptre, accompanied by two attendants, one carrying a wrapped qin and the other a staff from which a double gourd hangs; and the second panel with two scholars, one holding a feather fan and the other with a staff, fur cloak and a large hat. The two side panels are painted with typical landscapes: one with a figure in a boat, and the other with a figure crossing a bridge. The interior is covered with turquoise enamel. Two Qianlong mark and period vases of this form and bearing similar decoration are illustrated in Palace Museum, Compendium of Collections in the Palace Museum: Enamels, Vol. 5, nos. 119 and 120, pp. 160â€“3; for a bowl and plate with a very similar background, but decorated with European figures, see Tam, An Anthology of Chinese Art: Min Chiu Society Silver Jubilee Exhibition, no. 255, pp. 464â€“5.
24 Pair of Painted Enamel Saucer Dishes 18th century Diameter: 6Â˝ in, 16.3 cm each with rounded sides standing on a broad foot ring, and painted in the famille-rose palette. Each well is decorated with a large spray of fruits and flowers, including chrysanthemum, peach, finger citron, camellia, rose, pink and prunus, all enclosed by a narrow frieze of scrolling flowers on a yellow ground. Each cavetto is painted with five bats (Wu fu) and clouds against a pinkish-mauve ground, beneath a formal blue classic scroll around the rim. The exterior sides are painted with a broad floral scroll above bands of blue and pink classic scroll, and each base bears a phoenix medallion in shades of blue on a yellow ground.
One formerly in the collection of Sir Harry Garner and sold by Messrs Bluett, London; and the other formerly in the collection of Alfred and Ivy Clark and illustrated in Keverne, Fine and Rare Chinese Works of Art and Ceramics (Winter 2008), no. 55, p. 72. Wu fu (The Five Blessings) are longevity, wealth, health, love of virtue and a peaceful death. A very similar dish is illustrated in Gillingham, Chinese Painted Enamels, no. 46, p. 44; for related dishes, see Arapova, Chinese Painted Enamels, no. 165a, pl. 109; and Palace Museum, Compendium of Collections in the Palace Museum: Enamels, Vol. 5, no. 232, pp. 294â€“5.
25 Painted enamel vase Qianlong mark and period Height: 4 inches, 10 cm A fine and rare painted enamel vase, supported on a waisted foot, the vessel flares to a short rounded shoulder and terminates in a waisted neck. It is painted in shades of cobalt blue with an island, with pavilions, terraces and a ceremonial column (huabiao), rising from crested waves, and with rocks in the foreground and a crane flying amid clouds above. The continuous scene is bordered by lappet
bands and key-fret to the mouth and foot. The interior is covered with pale turquoise enamel. The white base is painted with the four-character mark of the Qianlong Emperor within a double square in red enamel, and of the period. Illustrated: Gillingham, Chinese Painted Enamels, no. 72, p. 62. Such vases of this shape and with continuous landscape decoration are very rare but for a larger example in the collection of the Palace Museum, Beijing, see Zhongguo Meishu Fenlei Quanji: Zhongguo Jinyin Boli Falangqi Quanji, Vol. 6, no. 162, p. 106.
26 Painted Enamel Epergne Qianlong period circa 1740 European Market Length: 15 inches; 38cm An extraordinary painted enamel on copper epergne of complex baroque form with scrolling feet and everted rim, with ormolu heads. This is an exuberant example of baroque style, almost certainly copying a silver original. The ormolu heads are very much in the â€˜chinoiserieâ€™ style popular on early eighteenth century silver tureens and centrepieces.
A piece such as this would have been very difficult to make - each element beaten and soldered together before being enamelled. The arabesque strapwork on the end panels is very similar to decoration of rare Chinese export porcelain pieces traditionally described as copying Vezzi porcelain, made for the Portuguese and Italian markets, and dating to the same period.
27 Mother-of-pearl Inlaid Lacquer Stand Ming dynasty Length: 25½ inches, 65.2 cm of rectangular section with a pierced constricted waist and a shaped apron, and supported on four scroll-shaped legs. The top is inlaid in mother-of-pearl with figures on a terrace, pavilions emerging from clouds in the background and a phoenix flying in the sky. A scholar, holding a ruyi sceptre, stands on a platform flanked by two female attendants holding large fans, one of which is inscribed with the characters Tianxia taiping (Peace reigns under heaven); three women are depicted in the centre ground, one holding an alms bowl, one tending an incense burner and one holding a wrapped qin; two gen-
tlemen arrive on horseback through a gate, accompanied by an attendant holding another large fan; and two more attendants are shown in the foreground. The apron is decorated with cartouches of birds in flowering branches against a diaper ground, and the waist and borders are inlaid with various diapers, blossoms and scrolls. For similar examples, see Kwan, Chinese Lacquer, no. 33, pp. 108–09, and no. 43, pp. 130–1; Lee and Hu, Dragon and Phoenix, Chinese Lacquer Ware: The Lee Family Collection, Tokyo, no. 97, pp. 220–1; and Mother-of-pearl inlay in Chinese lacquer art, no. 56, p. 21 and p. 102, and no. 72, p. 114. A related table of very similar form is illustrated in Exhibition of Mother-of-Pearl Inlay in Chinese Lacquer Art, nos. 80 and 81.
28 Painted enamel & Gilt-bronze Belt Buckle 18th century Length: 4Â˝ inches; 11.5 cm formed of two enamel plaques either side of an agate cabochon. The plaques and the cabochon are surrounded by filigree gilt-bronze borders, and the giltbronze reverse, set with two loops and a heart-shaped button, is chased with leafy blossoms. The two enamel plaques are delicately painted in the famille rose palette with a European lady and gentleman, each surrounded by a twisted gilt border and reserved against lapis-lazuli blue bassetaille enamel. See Catalogue of the Exhibition of Châ€™ing Dynasty Costume Accessories no. 36, p. 119, for a pair of belt plaques with a similar bassetaille enamel ground, and no. 37, p. 120, for a tourmaline buckle with a related gilt-bronze border, both in the collection of the National Palace Museum, Taipei. Note also Classics of the Forbidden City: Timepieces in the Imperial Palace, nos. 132 and 133, pp. 207â€“08, for pocket watches bearing similar inlaid enamel plaques. For a related buckle, see Keverne, Fine and Rare Chinese Works of Art and Ceramics (Winter 2010), no. 70, p. 84.
29 Pair of Silver Gilt Filigree Boxes 18th century Length: 3½ inches; 9cm A rare pair of silver gilt boxes of lobed forms with detachable lids, the outside decorated in intricate wire filigree with applique flowers. These boxes compare with a small range of such items made for the Chinese Imperial court as tribute pieces. They also relate to similar boxes among the Treasures of Catherine the Great of Russia, in an inventory list of the Winter Palace of 1789 which gives the set as being 'Chinese'. The taste for 'things Chinese' was well developed in Russia by the eighteenth century. Merchants and embassies were requested to source items for the Russian court that were Chinese.
References: Related parcel-gilt silver examples are illustrated in Chen 1999, Enamel Ware in the Ming and Ch’ing Dynasties, no. 164, p. 290, a slightly later example; in Palace Museum, The Imperial Packing Art of the Qing Dynasty (2000), no. 120, pp. 240–1; and in Yang 1987, Tributes from Guangdong to the Qing Court, no. 40, p. 81, dated Yongzheng; a parcel-gilt silver casket, dated 1740–50s, in Arapova et al 2003, Chinese Export Art in the Hermitage Museum: Late 16th–19th centuries, cat. no. 154, p. 144; a small silver box in the same style, with an inscription stating that it was taken from the Summer Palace 1860, is in a private collection, with provenance to an English country house with descendants of a military man in China 1860; Cohen & Cohen 2013, p92, a pair of silver candlesticks from the same workshop; Cohen & Cohen 2014B, p27, No 14, another box with ahinged cover; for other related silver examples, see Piotrovski 2000, Treasures of Catherine the Great, no. 352, p. 213, in the shape of a cloud, and no. 364, p. 218, two boxes, dated mid eighteenth century, with festooned sides.
30 Pair of Figural Candlesticks Kangxi period circa 1710 Dutch Market Height: 11¾ inches; 30cm A rare pair of famille verte figures of Indian bearers, each holding a candle sconce above his head and squatting on a rectanglar base painted with flower roundels. A few other examples of this figure are recorded and it is an early example of a type more common in famille rose from the late 18th and early 19th centuries. A pair like these is now at Buckingham Palace, London, mounted on 18th century French ormolu bases with later four-light brass candelabra. They were originally supplied to King George IV (then Prince Regent) for Brighton Pavilion and described in the Inventory as ‘a pair of Josses for lights on square pedestals with ormolu bases, enamelled’. They were moved to Buckingham Palace in March 1847. The figures represent foreigners bearing tribute to the Chinese Imperial court. They also relate to the figure of an African cupbearer known in Kangxi famille verte as well as 19th century versions in the same palette. Traders and their labouring servants from India were known in China along the Silk Route and feature in Chinese art from the 1st century AD onwards following the introduction of Buddhism to China. References: Sargent 2012, p454, No 249, a similar pair in the Peabody Essex Museum, Salem, Massachusetts; du Boulay 1995, a single from the Taft Musseum, Cincinnati, Ohio; Cohen & Cohen 2012, p10, No5, a single example; Cohen & Motley 2008, p58, No 1.6, an example of the African cup-bearer, 19th C; Gorer & Blacker 1911, vol I, plate 74, a Kangxi example of the cupbearer; The Royal Palace in Munich also has an ormolu clock mounted with various porcelain items including two figures of the cupbearer; Arapova et al 2003, p64, No72, a later famille rose example of a similar model. Il ne faut jamais Vendre la peau de l'ours qu'on ne l'ait mis par terre. (Never sell the bear's skin before one has killed the beast.) Jean de la Fontaine (1621-95) Book V (1668) fable 20
31 Pair of Figures of Boys Qianlong period circa 1780 European Market Height: 13Âź inches; 33.5cm A pair of Chinese porcelain figures modelled as laughing boys decorated with lotus, enamelled in famille rose. Pairs of laughing boys are known as hehe erxian or the Twin Immortals of Harmony. They are the patron deities of Chinese merchants, particularly of Chinese potters, and in paintings they often accompany Cai Shen, the God of Wealth. Boys were always strongly favoured in Chinese culture, and these have special protective amulets or gilded lockets around their necks to ward off evil spirits, and their bracelets, which were traditionally worn by boys under sixteen years old, are made from the beaten iron nails of old coffins,. Pairs of these figure are recorded mainly in famille verte enamels and occasionally in blue and white, but the large famille rose examples are rare. References: Antunes 1999, p61, a pair of famille verte boys; Alves et al. 1998, p318, No 124, a pair of famille verte boys; Du Boulay 1963, p89, the figures of a boy and lady from the Lady Lever Art Gallery, also illustrated in Hobson 1925; GyllensvĂ¤rd et al. 1972, p295, No 76, a single famille rose boy very similar to these two; Howard & Ayers 1978, p579, No 600, a pair of famille verte boys; Howard 1994, p248, No 293, a pair of famille verte boys; Howard 1997, p135, No 171, a single boy in famille rose with a yellow jacket, 26 inches high, Yongzheng c. 1735â€” a magnificent example; Sotheby's London, 10 May 1994, lot 210 and again 17 Nov 1999, lot 982, the same boy with yellow coat, now in the Peabody Essex Museum, Salem, Massachusetts; Cohen & Motley 2008, an earlier pair of famille rose boys, p92, No 4.7; Williamson 1974, plate LIX, a single famille rose boy of this type holding a candle sconce.
32 Pair of Aviform Sauce Tureens Qianlong period circa 1750-60 European Market Length: 7 inches; 18cm Height: 5½ inches; 14cm A pair of aviform sauce tureens in Chinese porcelain, brightly enamelled in famille rose. This is a very rare pair of such tureens, early examples of the type and very colourful. The plumage is stylised but is probably based on the Common Shelduck (Tadorna tadorna, L. 1758), the crest and black bib being significant. Duck form covered vessels have a long tradition in Chinese art in ceramic, metal and other media. These follow that tradition but are also probably inspired by a figure modelled at Meissen by Kaendler that is a stylised combination of Shelduck and Mallard (Anas platyrhynchos, L. 1758). References: Sargent 1991, p231, a pair of duck tureens; Fuchs 2005, p96, No 55, a pair of duck tureens also illustrated in Howard 1994, p112, with less bright plumage; Cohen & Motley 2008, p257-266, various duck and goose export porcelain items; the Gubbay Collection, which included one of the finest collections of Chinese export porcelain bird figures, housed at Clandon Park, Surrey, was destroyed by fire, April 2015, it included several examples of Chinese and Japanese porcelain ducks.
“It’s a bird of some sort. It’s like a duck, only I never saw a duck have so many colors.” The bird swam swiftly and gracefully toward the Magic Isle, and as it drew nearer its gorgeously colored plumage astonished them. The fathers were of many hues of glistening greens and blues and purples, and it had a yellow head with a red plume, and pink, white and violet in it tail. L. Frank Baum, The Magic of Oz
33 Pair of Figural Candlesticks Qianlong period circa 1750 European Market Height: 10 inches; 25.5cm A pair of Chinese export porcelain figural candlesticks modelled as standing maidens bearing sconces, on a rock moulded base each with a deer beside them, having a gourd around its neck. The figure is probably the goddess Magu, an immortal who made elixirs and wines from the lingzhi fungus and she is also associated with hemp. She is often depicted ‘Presenting Longevity’ in the form of the lingzhi or peaches or with deer, here bearing her elixir in the gourd hanging round their necks. This rare pair compares with another mirror image pair that has a seated Chinese maiden with a small dog beside a phoenix on a rock. References: Cohen & Motley 2008, p100, No 5.2, a pair of ladies with dogs and phoenixes, and an illustration of another single example incorporating a candlesconce; Sargent 1991, p124, pair of ladies and dogs; Bonham’s London 2003, a pair similar to these with standing maidens bearing sconces but with phoenixes beside them.
In my many years I have come to a conclusion that one useless man is a shame, two is a law ﬁrm and three or more is a government. John Adams (1735-1826)
34 Pair of Figural Candlesticks Qianlong period circa 1750 European Market Height: 20 inches; 51cm A pair of exceptionally large figures of standing maidens bearing gu form vases as candlesconces, painted in famille rose enamels with robes delicately decorated with flowers and medallions, the hair in a high chignon and black enamelled on the biscuit. This pair is unusually tall at 20 inches and forms a garniture of maidens with the next item in this catalogue. References: Howard & Ayers 1978, p615, No 644, a single, and p614, No 643; Howard 1994, p258, No 307, another pair; No 308, another pair; Williamson 1970, plate LIX, various single examples of the type; Cohen & Cohen 2001, p44, a pair; Cohen & Cohen 2004, p48, a pair; Cohen & Cohen 2007, several pairs.
You think that a wall as solid as the earth separates civilisation from barbarism. I tell you the division is a thread, a sheet of glass. Edward Leithen in The Power House by John Buchan
35 Pair of Figural Candlesticks Qianlong period circa 1750 European Market Height: 16 inches; 40.5cm A pair of large figures of standing maidens bearing gu form vases as candlesconces, painted in famille rose enamels with robes delicately decorated with flowers and medallions, the hair in a high chignon and black enamelled on the biscuit. These were made as a â€˜lady garnitureâ€™ with the preceding item in this catalogue, perhaps for use on a dining table.
Principles are like prayers - noble, of course, but awkward at a party. The Dowager Countess of Grantham, Downton Abbey
36 Pair of Figural Candlesticks Qianlong period circa 1750 European Market Height: 16 inches; 40.5cm A pair of large figures of standing maidens bearing iron red gu form vases as candlesconces, in famille rose enamels with robes painted in bright green with flowers on a cracked-ice ground, the hair in a high chignon and black enamelled on the biscuit. References: Cohen & Motley 2008, p102, No 5.3, another pair with green coats; Williamson 1970, pl LIX, a single.
Angela: You know the whole point of the week, is the weekend. This is not the cabaret, my friend. Life is the cabaret. Come to the cabaret. [Brennan stares at her blankly] It's like describing the moon to a mole. Bones, Series 1
37 Pair of Nodding Clay Figures Late 18th Century Chinese European market Height: 21½ inches; 52cm A fine pair of nodding-head figures, the man with a blue coat painted with a rectangular scholar’s badge at the front, the woman with a red robe decorated with moulded cloud motifs and waves at the hem. These are good examples of the type, made in unfired painted clay. The heads are on balances with weights extending into the hollow bodies so that when nudged they nod elegantly. The faces are well modelled and have individuality and character. The crane badge on the man’s coat denotes the first rank of scholar. Brighton Pavilion contains a number of such figures, about which there has been much discussion as to their origins, Chinese or European. Examples were made in northern Italy and also in London in plaster as well as unfired clay. Many of the European examples are obvious on stylistic grounds. However one figure at Brighton, attributed to possible European manufacture, was vandalised about ten years ago and the insides were found to contain Chinese wastepaper and plant material proving its Chinese origin. Some of the figures have also been repainted over the years and further detailed study is needed before a proper understanding of this type of figure is possible, though this particular pair is clearly of Chinese origin.
References: Gyllensvärd 1972, different examples of this type at the royal palace at Drottningholm, Sweden, where over a hundred 'china dolls' were recorded in an inventory of 1777; Crossman 1991, p316, plate 112, four figures; Wirgin 1998, p198-207, fig 227; Cohen & Motley 2008, p126, No 7.2, a pair of figures.
This isn't a smile, it's the lid on a scream. Bett Lynch, Coronation Street
38 Pair of Vases & Covers Yongzheng period circa 1730 European Market Height: 17Âź inches; 44cm A pair of Chinese export porcelain vases and covers each of ovoid form, brightly decorated in famille rose with pavilions sheltered amongst trees and jagged rocks, set in a riverside landscape with sampan boats, having similarly decorated domed covers.
39 Garniture Yongzheng period circa 1735 European Market Height: 17 inches; 43.5cm A Chinese porcelain five piece garniture consisting of three ovoid baluster vases and covers and two beaker vases, each decorated in famille rose with panels of roosters on a ground of black and green scrolling foliage with scattered chrysanthemums. The blue and white garnitures of an earlier period, that might have been used by Daniel Marot in his decorative schemes, gave way to more delicate famille rose forms such as these, suitable for the domestic interior in the mid-eighteenth century. Roosters, rocks and peonies were widely used together by the Chinese to symbolise success in obtaining official rank. References: Cohen & Cohen 2012, p18, No 12, a larger pair of vases with similar decoration; Williamson 1974, plate LIV, some vases of similar shape and decoration.
Cora: "I hope I don't hear sounds of a disagreement." Lady Grantham: "Is that what they call discussion in New York?" Downton Abbey
40 Massive Fishtank Yongzheng period circa 1735 European Market Height: 17Âź inches; 44cm Diameter: 24 inches; 60.5cm Provenance: The Princes Lobkowicz, Melnik Castle, Czech Republic. A massive Chinese porcelain fishtank or cistern, of flaring cylindrical form with everted rim, finely painted in famille rose enamels with birds and flowers inside and out, with moulded lion mask handles. The painting on this very large tank is of exceptionally good quality and this relates to a small number of similarly steep-sided large pieces, almost certainly produced by the same workshop. References: Cohen & Cohen 2005, p19, No 7, a pair of jardiniĂ¨res of similar size and quality; Cohen Cohen 2007, p15, No 10, a taller pair of jardiniĂ¨res of similar quality and decoration.
41 Pair of JardiniĂ¨res Qianlong period circa 1760 European Market Height: 15 inches; 38cm A pair of Chinese porcelain large jardiniĂ¨res or cache pots, painted in famille rose with peacocks and peonies, of footed form with wide flat rim. Of unusually large size and good quality, each has a partially glazed interior and a hole for drainage.
42 Charger Yongzheng period circa 1735 European Market Diameter: 17 inches; 43cm A very fine large Chinese porcelain charger with a central scene of figures on boats in a lake, the rim border with figure panels reserved on a dense floral ground, all in bright famille rose enamels.
This scene shows the emperor and empress of the Qing court inspecting the lotus blooms on the lake, which was a popular entertainment in the Qing court. References: Williamson 1970, plate XLIV, an identical dish
43 Covered Tankard Qianlong period circa 1740 European Market Height: 11 inches; 28 cm A rare Chinese porcelain tankard, brightly decorated in famille rose enamels with precious antiques and flowers, the handle in iron-red, with European metal hinged mounts and finial to the cover. This has some similarity to a small group of covered ewers of the period but this form is very unusual.
44 Tureen, Cover and Stand Qianlong period circa 1740-50 European Market Length of Stand: 18Â˝ inches; 47cm Length of Tureen: 17 inches; 43cm A Chinese export porcelain tureen, cover and stand of elaborate baroque shape, decorated in underglaze blue with landscapes and complex borders of flowers and diaper panels, the tureen with lion mask handles, the cover with a coronal knop. This shape is following a baroque silver original though the precise model has not been identified. Similar ceramic tureens are known in European porcelain and French faience. It is rare in Chinese export porcelain. A few examples are also recorded with famille rose decoration.
If you take a Baroque commode and put a Baroque clock on top of it, maybe it is not so interesting as when you put a computer on top of it. Then you see both items in a new way. Robert Wilson, American Theatre Artist, (b1941)
45 Tureen, Cover and Stand Qianlong period circa 1740 Scandinavian Market Length of Stand: 17 inches; 43cm Height of Tureen & Cover: 15 inches 38cm A rare Chinese export porcelain tureen, cover and stand of elaborate baroque form, decorated in famille rose enamels, the tureen with mask handles and on four scrolling feet, the cover with a high pointed knop, the stand with moulded rim. This tureen is one of the most important and impressive pieces of Chinese export porcelain made in the eighteenth century, a masterpiece of the highest quality both in modelling and decoration. The shape is inspired by baroque silver of the late 17th and early 18th centuries and is itself influenced by various eastern motifs - the high rising tent-like cover and the handles like â€˜plumed masksâ€™, which were also popular on Meissen tureens of this period. A precise
model in silver (or ceramic) has not been found though some Meissen tureens have similarities which may reflect a common inspiration. The flat tray-like stand is also similar to stands for some large baroque silver tureens For many years in the field of Chinese export porcelain studies only one example of this type was known in a French collection, with smaller (possibly restored) feet, missing the tip of the knop and lacking a stand. It was illustrated by Michel Beurdeley in his influential book Porcelain of the East India Companies, in 1962 (colour plate VIII, page 43). A few years ago a complete example appeared from a Scandinavian aristocratic source, descendants of those who had originally ordered it from China. That example is now in a major private collection. And then this example appeared from a related Scandinavian source. No other examples are known. References: Beurdeley 1962, p43, plate VIII; CassidyGeiger 2007, p239, fig10-66, a Meissen tureen with similar shaped cover, made for the Queen of Naples, 1748; p186, fig 8-21, a Meissen tureen with similar cover, made for Frederick V, King of Denmark, 1746.
46 Pair of Vases Qianlong period circa 1760 European Market Height: 20Â˝ inches; 52cm A fine pair of Chinese porcelain vases of hexagonal section, with double walls, the outer with reticulated panels and all brightly decorated in famille rose enamels with roundels of landscapes and flowers.
References: Cohen & Cohen 2007, p11, No7, a pair of reticulated vases of different shape; Wirgin 1998, pp106, No110, a single vase.
47 Pair of Bowls and Stands Yongzheng/Qianlong period circa 1735 European Market Stand: 8 inches square; 20cm Bowl: 6 inches square; 15cm A very rare pair of Chinese porcelain square bowls and stands, decorated in famille rose enamels with a pair of roosters, one standing on a blue rock. This is a very unusual form, the square bowl, with notched corners, being a European shape and having the stands remaining with the bowls is a rare survival. The design is Chinese with roosters, rocks and peonies together symbolising success in obtaining official rank.
I never see an egg brought on my table but I feel penetrated with the wonderful change it would have undergone but for my gluttony; it might have been a gentle useful hen, leading her chickens with care and vigilance which speaks shame to many women. St John de CrĂŠvĂ¨coeur (1735-1813) Letters from an American Farmer, 1782
48 Teapot and Cover Qianlong period circa 1770 European Market Length: 7¾ inches; 19cm A fine Chinese porcelain teapot and cover decorated with the ‘tobacco leaf’ pattern in underglaze blue and famille rose enamels, with leaves and flowers, the spout and handle modelled as bamboo.
The origins of the tobacco leaf design remain unclear though it is thought to have been inspired by designs on Indian textiles. It was very popular in the second half of the eighteenth century and appears in a wide range of versions which included pheasants or treeshrews and in so-called ‘pseudo-tobacco leaf’, with different colours, as well as a later nineteenth century versions in very thick bright enamels. References: Debomy 2013, p289, another teapot like this, which the author classifies as pattern A1.
49 Mug Qianlong period circa 1770 European Market Height: 5 inches; 13cm A fine Chinese porcelain mug decorated with the â€˜tobacco leafâ€™ pattern in underglaze blue and famille rose enamels, with leaves and flowers, the handle modelled as bamboo.
50 Pair of Candlesticks Qianlong period circa 1740 English Market Height: 8 inches; 20cm A very fine pair of Chinese export porcelain candlesticks decorated in famille rose enamels, the octagonal base with blue floral border, the chimney with flowers.
Porcelain candlesticks copying silver forms like these are quite rare as they are vulnerable to damage. These are very bright and elegant examples.
51 Punchbowl Qianlong period circa 1770 English Market Diameter: 15Âź inches; 39cm A Chinese export porcelain punchbowl finely painted with sprays of flowers, the foot with a gilt spearhead border.
This bowl is a rare example of decoration on a Chinese punchbowl that closely copies European style floral decoration rather than the more usual Chinese style peonies and other oriental blooms. Here the painting is of very good quality and is taken directly from European ceramics such as Chelsea.
52 Pair of Vases and Covers Qianlong period circa 1780 English or American Market Height: 17Â˝ inches; 45cm A pair of Chinese export porcelain vases and covers of flattened pear shape with moulded qilong handles to the sides, decorated with a large cartouche depicting scenes of figures in gardens, reserved on a Y-diaper ground, the finals to the covers modelled as Dogs of Fo; later wood stands. A bright and elegant pair of vases of the best quality of this period, with a usefully flattened shape, thought to be ideal for a narrow mantelpiece or small wall brackets.
An Aristocrat without servants is about as useful as a glass hammer. The Dowager Countess of Grantham, Downton Abbey
53 Dinner plate Qianlong period circa 1740 Dutch or English Market Diameter: 9 inches; 23cm A Chinese export porcelain plate painted in underglaze blue with a central image of figures by water, a cell diaper border at the rim. This unusual scene is known as the ‘shipwreck’ as it appears to show figures abandoned on a shore. Some have suggested that they are survivors of the famous wreck of the Grosvenor off the east African coast. The Grosvenor was lost in 1785 so that is unlikely but the possiblilty of being wrecked was always in the minds of those in the China trade. In fact this seems to be a much simplified and altered version of a composition known on other Chinese export plates, The Immersion of Achilles, engraved by Edme Jeaurat after a painting by Nicholas Vleughels. Prints of this period were frequently copied and copied again and reused for different purposes. The dark figure on the right, the two figures on the left, with reflections in the water and the rocks behind with trees all show similarities. References: Hervouët et Bruneau 1986, p 206, No 9.42 an identical saucer from the Groninger Museum; Sapage 1992, Cat 35, a pair of teabowls and saucers; Victoria & Albert Museum, another plate, C.368-1921; Cohen & Cohen 2002, p12, an earlier lotus-form dish with this scene; Cohen & Cohen 2014B, p85, No 48, a small blue and white plate with this pattern and p86, a dinner plate with the Jeaurat print painted en grisaille.
Print by E Jeaurat after N Vleughels, Achilles being dipped in the River Styx
54 Dinner Plate
No man will be a sailor who has contrivance enough to get himself into jail; for being in a ship is being in a jail, with the chance of being drowned. Samuel Johnson (1709-84)
Qianlong period circa 1755 Dutch Market Diameter: 9 inches; 23cm A Chinese export porcelain dinner plate decorated en camaïeu rose with a central scene of ship sailing near a town, surrounded by a snake with its tail in its mouth, the cavetto with gold spearhead border, the rim with flowers and foliage on various diaper grounds. This is a rare plate with only a few examples recorded. It is certainly a private order for a ship’s captian or supercargo, probably ordered personally. The snake around the ship is an ‘ouroboros’ - a symbol widely used from ancient Egyptian times. It usually represents a duality of life and death, wet and dry, light and dark, the circle of life - and was popular among early freemasons being connected symbolically with the compass. In Norse mythology it respresents Jörmungandr, the Midgard serpent, born of a giantess and the god Loki, and a mortal enemy of Thor. Many men in the China trade were freemasons and the symbolic connection to the sea would also have resonated. The flag could be Dutch and the port buildings in the background might be Amsterdam but the source print has not been found. Prints of this type were common in the 18th century, compare with a print of 1780 below. References: Hervouët & Bruneau (1986) p37, No 2.4, another example from the Groninger Museum.
The port of Amsterdam, engr. Mathias de Sallieth, Dirk de JOng, Pieter Yver, Smit & Zoon, 1780-7 (Courtesy the Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam)
55 Cup & Saucer Qianlong period circa 1740 English or Dutch Market Diameter of Saucer: 4 inches; 10cm A Chinese export porcelain cup and saucer painted in famille rose with a mythological scene. The scene here is taken from Ovid’s Metamorphoses, Book VI, and shows Apollo and Issa in a print by F Chauveau. Apollo has disguised himself as a shepherd in order to seduce Issa the daughter of Makareus and grandaughter of Aolius; he is successful and she bears him a son Prylis. The scene was a popular one for artists of the period. This scene and at least six others known on Chinese export porcelain are taken from an edition of the Metamorphoses, ﬁrst published in Paris, 1676, in a new French translation by Isaac de Benserade (1612-91), with two hundred and twenty-six engravings by Sebastien Le Clerc (1637-1714), Charles Le Brun (1619-1690) and François Chauveau (1613-1676). The ﬁrst edition was successful and quickly copied, with a major edition published in Amsterdam, 1679, with re-engravings by Christian van Hagen. And then in several other re-engraved editions (Augsburg, 1690, re-engraved by Johann Krauss; Paris and Liege 1698, by F Ertinger and Amsterdam 1700 by E Mortier (using most of the van Hagen re-engravings). An analysis of the seven known reproductions on Chinese export porcelain suggests that the precise source is the 1679 van Hagen re-engraved edition published in Amsterdam, though the porcelain mainly dates from about 1740, with one earlier blue and white teapot. The van Hagen re-engraving has reversed the compositions of the original edition - and all the porcelain versions follow this orientation. One scene of Jupiter disguised as a shepherd seducing Mnemosyne (Book VI) appears in the 1676 and 1679 editions but is omitted from the later ones. It makes sense that an Amsterdam edition was the one that ended up in China being copied, as the VOC was strong at this time. All the porcelain is from teaservices and in famille rose circa 1740-50, apart from the blue and white teapot, which is earlier in date, circa 1700 (three examples known: Sargent 2012, p296, Peabody Essex Museum; Hervouet & Bruneau 1986, p309, Groninger Museum, NL; New Haven Colony Historical Society, CT, 1968, No. 93). All the porcelains are extremely rare and it is likely that only one teaservice was made of each design. References: Hervouët & Bruneau (1986) p306. No 13.61, a spoontray from the teaservice, from the Winterthur Museum.
Apollo & Issa, Book VI, Ovid’s Metamorphoses, original print from the ﬁrst edition 1676 by François Chauveau
Apollo & Issa, Book VI, Ovid’s Metamorphoses, re-engraved by C van Hagen, 1679.
Metamorphoses d'Ovide en rondeaux imprimez et enrichis de ﬁgures par ordre de Sa Majesté, et dediez à monseigneur le dauphin. Ovid, (43 BC - 18 AD); translated into French verse by Isaac de Benserade (1613-1691); illustrated with 226 engravings by Sébastien Le Clerc (1637-1714); François Chauveau (1613-1676); re-engraved for this edition by Christian van Hagen (17th cent.); Charles Le Brun (1619-1690). Published Amsterdam : Chez Abraham Wolfgang, MDCLXXIX (1679). The Porcelain (details)
The Prints Derceto & Nais, Book IV, (1679 edn, p82-3) Derceto was the mother of Semiramis. She was so beautiful that Venus had her transformed into a man so she could enjoy him. Unfortunately Derceto met Nais a nymph who was prone to turning handsome young men into ﬁsh and Derceto suffered the same fate. Nais is then punished in the same way.
Pyramus & Thisbe, Book IV, (1679 edn, p86-7) Pyramus and Thisbe are two Babylonian lovers separated by a wall and a family feud. They arrange to meet up secretly but Thisbe is chased away by a lion, leaving behind a bloody shawl. Pyramus arrives and on seeing the blood assumes she is dead and so kills himself with a sword. Thisbe returns and seeing her dead lover stabs herself with the same sword.
Arethusa Turned into a Fountain, Book V, (1679 edn, p148-9) Arethusa, a water nymph and daughter of Nereus, is pursued by Alpheus a river god. She is turned into a fountain by Diana so she can escape, re-emerging as a stream in Ortygia in Syracuse.
Apollo and Issa, Book VI (1679 edn, p176-7) Apollo is disguised as a shepherd to seduce Issa the daughter of Makareus and grandaughter of Aolius; with Apollo she has a son Prylis.
Neptune into a Dolphin, Book VI, (1679 edn, p180-1) Neptune disguised as a dolphin seduces Malantho. She was a sea nymph, daughter of Deucalion, and with Neptune had a son Delphus.
Jupiter as a Shepherd, Book VI, (1679, edn p186-7) Jupiter disguised as a shepherd seduces Mnemosyne, goddess of memory. They sleep together over nine consecutive nights and she then gives birth to the nine muses. This image appears to be missing from many later editions. Death of Procris, Book VII (1679 edn, p22-23) Procris, daughter of Erectheus, King of Athens and Praxithea is the beloved of Cephalus, son of Deioneus. When he is out hunting he mistakes her movement in the bushes for a wild animal and shoots her with an arrow.
56 Saucer Qianlong period circa 1740 English Market Diameter: 4 inches; 10cm An unusual Chinese export porcelain polychrome saucer with a scene of a European woman sewing.
57 Dinner Plate Qianlong period circa 1750 European Market Diameter: 9 inches; 23cm A Chinese export porcelain famille rose dinner plate with a central scene of two figures with buildings in the distance, the rim with a gilt spearhead border. The scene is an illustration taken from an engraving by Nicolas de Larmessin IV (1684-1755) after a painting by Nicolas Vleughels illustrating Le Villageois Qui Cherche Son Veau from Jean de la Fontaine’s Contes et Nouvelles. The young boy wanders the woods looking for his missing calf and climbs a tree for a better view. Meanwhile a couple arrive to sit beneath the tree and the young man declares loudly that he is graced with such a vision of loveliness that he can now see all that he would ever want to look upon. The boy overhears this and innocently asks that, if the man can see so much, can he also see his missing calf. Around 1730, a collection of engraved illustrations for Fontaine’s Contes using paintings by a number of artists including Boucher, Le Mesle, Vleughels, Pater, Eisen, Lorrain and Lancret were published. Known as Le Suite de Larmessin after the principal engraver, these prints were initially sold as a print collection and then published in book form along with Fontaine’s text. Four of the prints from the Suite are reproduced on Chinese export porcelain, including this one, which is known in two versions. The earliest is only recorded en grisaille and follows the original print very closely, including a boy in a tree watching the amorous couple. The second version, seen here, omits the boy and is only found in polychrome. The other three are: Les Oies de Frère Philippe after a painting by Nicolas Lancret (see the next plate in this catalogue); La Servant Justifiée, also after Lancret and Le Cuvier after P. Le Mesle. All four are reversed, suggesting that the prints taken to China were re-engraved copies of the Larmessin prints. References: Hervouët & Bruneau (1986) p198, Nos 9.11-12; Cohen & Cohen 2002, No 53, another example; Mezin 2002, p108-9, Nos 87-8, examples of both type; Beurdeley 1962, fig 41-2, a plate and the print.
Le Villageois Qui Cherche Son Veau, engr Nicolas de Larmessin after Nicolas Vleughels.
Le Servant Justiﬁée, engr Nicolas de Larmessin after Nicolas Lancret image of famille rose plate courtesy of Richard Marchant
Le Cuvier, engr Nicolas de Larmessin IV after Pierre Le Mesle
58 Dinner Plate Qianlong period circa 1745 European Market Length: 9 inches; 23cm A rare Chinese export porcelain dinner plate decorated in famille rose with a scene of European figures. The scene is Les Oies de Frère Philippe, engraved by Nicolas de Larmessin after a painting by Nicolas Lancret that is now in the Metropolitan Museum, New York. The story is from Jean de la Fontaine’s Contes et Nouvelles, and is inspired by one from Boccacio’s Decameron. An innocent young man spies some beautiful girls and asks Br Phillip what they are. To prevent the youth succumbing to temptation the monk replies that they are only geese. This was a popular subject on Chinese export porcelain mostly on teawares and painted en grisaille. It was produced for about twenty years and some later pieces are quite crudely drawn. It is very rare in famille rose, here executed in high quality, and only a few examples of plates are recorded. Its popularity may be a consequence of its echoes of the Dame au Parasol pattern from the Pronk workshop. References: Hervouët & Bruneau (1986) p199, Nos 9.13-15; Arapova 2003, a plate in purple and grisaille.
To hell with pleasure that's haunted by fear. Jean de la Fontaine (1621-95) Les Oies de Frère Philippe engr. Nicolas de Larmessin IV, after Nicolas Lancret
59 Teabowl and Saucer Qianlong period circa 1745 English Market Diameter of Saucer: 5¼ inches; 13.5cm A rare famille rose teabowl and saucer with a scene depicting Don Quixote putting on a barber’s bowl as the Helmet of Mambrino, after an image by Charles-Antoine Coypel (1694-1752) originally for the Gobelins tapestry factory. This pattern is one of the most sought after by collectors of European subjects on Chinese export porcelain. The traditional view is that there were two services, the first about 1745 just after the Folkema print was published and a second about 1750. There are significant differences between the two versions and the dating has always followed the idea that, as the earlier one is more detailed, with finer quality enamels, then it must be earlier and the later one has been reduced somewhat. However there is no direct evidence for this. In fact a closer analysis of different examples of this pattern suggests three services and a different dating sequence. The first (A) would appear be a teaservice, painted as here in excellent quality and including the pony, Dapple to right of the figure of Sancho, but lacking the fleeing figure in the background (his blue horse remains) - though a teapot from this service illustrated in Willamson (1970) spreads out the composition and does include this figure. This dates to around 1745-50. The second (B) is a service of table flatware, dinner plates and meatdishes, very close in date to the teaservice, the composition lacking Sancho’s pony or any fleeing figure and his horse. Pieces from this service have a border with four Meissen style cartouches containing grisaille landscapes and birds, a rim very similar to the Scotsmen plate (circa 1745). The third (C), of dinner plates and chargers only, is the rarest and best quality (see the next item in this catalogue). It includes all the elements of the original print and has very different enamels, thicker and in an unusual palette (look at the tones under the horse’s feet). The border consists of gilt flowers and edging and the cavetto has a chain border. This last is very diagnostic as it is used to date pieces from about 1755 onwards, most
commonly around 1760. In Howard’s two books on armorial porcelain the earliest with this border is 1755. Although a decrease in quality with time is the usual story it does not always have to be that way. The borders suggest otherwise. It is possible that the Folkema print (dating to 1744) was sent to Canton to be copied onto a service, initially a teaservice. The success of this first order could have prompted another order of larger pieces. The image is complicated and the Chinese artists could easily have decided to simplify bits that did not make sense to them. Such a reduction in so famous a story would have been noticed immediately by the customer back home. So then a supercargo with a later order would have been careful to get it right and it might have been placed with a specialised enamelling workshop that was producing very fine European subject images. An example of this is seen in the small hunt bowl (Cohen & Cohen 2008, No35) which is of much better quality than earlier punchbowls using the same James Seymour image. And the colours in that bowl are also distinctive and similar to those in the third Quixote service (C). So it is suggested that these three services should be considered in a new light: a teaservice circa 1745, a flatware service circa 1745-50 and the third as circa 1755-1770. The scene shows the figure of Don Quixote on his horse Rosinante, he is placing a basin over his head, beside him is his faithful squire Sancho Panza with his pony Dapple and on the other side are two women behind a tree. In this episode Quixote has encountered a barber who is holding a basin over his head to shelter from the rain (the woman on the left appears to be sheltering herself with her cloak too). With his characteristic ability to conjure up heroic adventures out of the mundane, Quixote has assumed the basin to be the Helmet of Mambrino, a legendary possession of a Moorish King, made of pure gold and rendering the wearer invulnerable. It was the goal of many of the Knights of Charlemagne to find it, not dissimilar to King Arthur’s Knights searching for the Holy Grail. Quixote commands the astonished barber to give him the helmet and, thinking he is mad, the barber drops it and flees. The story is popular and emblematic of all that Quixote represents. Don Quixote is a hero for any age but especially for ours. He has a huge imagination nurtured by reading many books and his innocence and excitement at the prospect of adventure appears as madness to the grey people around him. He is the awkward and airy creative
force that is anathema to the bean-counter mentality of our modern age. He has his own code: an ancient one of morality and honour, the code of Chivalry, and he sets out bravely to rectify the wrongs he encounters - and inevitably falls foul of the tick-box mentality of those who see the world only in straight lines and spreadsheets. Book One of the novel by Miguel de Cervantes (1547-1616) was published in 1605, written in prison to pay off his debts. Cervantes had a colourful life: as a young man he was servant to a Spanish Cardinal in Rome, then he enlisted with the Spanish Militia and was wounded in the Battle of Lepanto against the Turks. He went to sea and spent five years as a slave, captured by Barbary pirates. He was ransomed by his family and returned to Madrid where he had children by two women, was a Commissary for the Armada in 1587 and then became a Tax-collector in Seville, where he ran out money. After the success of the first book he wrote a sequel in which, rather than being beaten up at every turn, Quixote and Sancho are greeted as heroes and friends everywhere by those who have read the first book. Up to the middle of the 20th Century it was, after the Bible, the most printed book. Cervantes never matched it and died penniless on 23 April 1616 (the same day as Shakespeare).
60 Charger Qianlong period circa 1755-70 English Market Diameter: 15 inches; 38cm A large Chinese export porcelain charger with a central scene depicting Don Quixote putting on a barber’s bowl as the Helmet of Mambrino, after an image by Charles-Antoine Coypel (16941752) originally for the Gobelins tapestry factory, the cavetto with gilt chain border, the rim with flowers, the outer rim with a border of scrolling lotus. This is the third service (C), ordered between 1755-70 and executed by the purple-foliage workshop. For further information see the article in The Magazine Antiques, January 2013, by Michael Cohen proposing several pieces of exceptional quality and distinctive enamelling made by this workshop, possibly all for the English market. References: Howard & Ayers 1978, p345, No 342, a dinner plate service B; Lloyd Hyde 1964, plate XV, p15, service C; Buerdeley 1962, Cat 33, service C; Williamson 1970, pl XXIV, a teapot, service A; Cohen & Cohen 2013, p72, No 49, a meatdish from service B.
The Porcelain Image Source: Don Quixote & The Helmet of Mambrino 1714-1734 - Charles-Antoine Coypel (1694-1752) was commissioned to produce paintings for the Gobelins factory to make a series of tapestries to illustrate The Story of Don Quixote. 27 were made with one more in 1751. 1723-30 - these images were also engraved as prints to be sold separately or as a ‘suite’. This image was engraved by Louis Surugue (1686-1762) in 1723. It reverses the Coypel image. 1725 - a copy of the Surugue print is produced by Jan van der
C-A Coypel, tapestry (detail), c1714
Louis Surugue after Coypel, print, 1723-4
Gucht (1697-1776), of Queen Street, Bloomsbury (London) which reverses back the image to the Coypel orientation; title in English, (plates used in English edition published London: Walthoe 1731) (1732 - an engraving by Bernard Picart, copying Surugue, but this omits the two ladies behind the tree.) 1732/3 - Paris editions, engr unknown, after Surugue, vertical 1744 - a copy of the Surugue print, by Jacob Folkema (1692-1767), a narrower vertical composition for a book illustration. This is traditionally regarded as the source used for the porcelain but it is also possible that the English edition by van der Gucht is the one used.
Jan van der Gucht after Surugue after Coypel, print, 1725/1731
Jacob Folkema after Surugue after Coypel, print, 1744
61 Dinner Plate Qianlong period circa 1740 Dutch Market Diameter: 9 inches; 23cm A Chinese export dinner plate decoratd in famille rose enamels with a central scene of a Dutch skating couple, the rim with a bright border of fruit and flowers. This is a very rare design, known mainly on chargers and a few plates. The design is taken from a print by Jacob Gole (1670-1724) from a drawing by Cornelis Dusart (1660-1704). The print is December from a series of the months of the year, though none of the other months are known on Chinese porcelain. Dusart was an important Dutch genre painter, a pupil of Adriaen van Ostade, who lived in Haarlem. Jacob Gole was a prolific printmaker and several of his prints are known on Chinese porcelain, including one of Ignatius of Loyola after Rubens, and another of Susannah and the Elders after Coypel. References: HervouĂŤt & Bruneau 1986, p83, No4.5 a charger; Beurdeley 1962, p189, No 171.
An aristocracy in a republic is like a chicken whose head has been cut oďŹ€; it may run about in a lively way, but in fact it is dead. Nancy Mitford (1904-73)
December, from The Months of the Year, circa 1679-1704 Engraving by Jacob Gole (1670-1724), after a drawing by Cornelis Dusart (1660-1704) image courtesy Rijksmuseum
62 Dinner Plate Qianlong period circa 1770 European Market Diameter: 9 inches; 23cm A Chinese export porcelain dinner plate painted in famille rose enamels with a central scene of European figures outside an inn, the rim with scattered flowers. This rare plate uses a scene from a print by Johann Esaias Nilson (1721-88) from a series of four images of Times of the Day, circa 1760. This one is Meridies or noon. References: HervouĂŤt & Bruneau (1986) p95, No 4.44, an example of this plate; an example was in the J. Louis Binder Collection, sold in London, Christieâ€™s King St, June 2003; Mezin 2003, p133, No 109, a plate
A person often meets his destiny on the road he took to avoid it. Jean de la Fontaine (1621-95) Johann Esaias Nilson, Meridies, print circa 1760
Of soup and love, the ﬁrst is best. Thomas Fuller (1654-1734) Gnomologia, 1732
Soup Plate Qianlong period circa 1770 European Market Diameter: 9 inches; 23cm A Chinese export porcelain soup plate painted in famille rose enamels with a central scene of a European couple beside a tomb, the rim with scattered flowers. The image is from a series of four prints Cartouches Modernes avec des Differentes Figures by Augsburg printmaker Johann Esaias Nilson (1721-88). One other from the series is also known on export porcelain and it is possible that they were part of the same order, along with the previous item in this catalogue, also using a Nilson print. They all have the same border and the enamels date them to the same period. Nilson, sometimes known as the ‘German Watteau’, was a significant figure in the art of the rococo and a prolific artist and publisher of series of finely drawn prints. In 1761 he was appointed court painter to Prince Carl Theodor von der Pfalz und Bayern, and from 1769-88 was Director of the Augsburg Academy of Art. References: Hervouët & Bruneau (1986) p155, No 7.38, a soup plate with this design and p144, No 7.9, the drinkers plate.
Johann Esaias Nilson, from Cartouches Modernes, print 1769
Chinese famille rose plate, circa 1770, courtesy Luis Alegria
Johann Esaias Nilson, from Cartouches Modernes, print 1769
64 Soup Plate Qianlong period circa 1770 European Market Diameter: 9 inches; 23cm A Chinese export porcelain soup plate decorated in famille rose with a pair of European dancers. This is a rare plate with only a few similar examples known, including the next item. It was reputed to show Benjamin Franklin being received by Marie Antoinette at the French court but there is no evidence for this. More likely they are simply an elegant couple of a type used in numerous prints of the later 18th century such as by JE Nilson. This couple are found on several examples of Chinese porcelain, including in a courtouche on the forehead of an oxhead tureen. References: HervouĂŤt & Bruneau (1986) pp140-1, Nos 7.1-7.3, examples of this design.
two prints, c1760-88, by Johann Esaias Nilson (1721-88)
65 Dinner Plate Qianlong period circa 1770 European Market Diameter: 9 inches; 23cm A Chinese export porcelain dinner plate decorated in famille rose with a pair of European dancers. The central imagine here is a mirror image of the previous plate though with different colouring. References: HervouĂŤt & Bruneau (1986) p141, No 7.3 an example of this plate is illustrated.
66 Dinner Plate Qianlong period crica 1740 European Market Diameter: 9 inches; 23cm A rare Chinese export porcelain dinner plate decorated in famille rose enamels with a biblical scene, the rim with a bright border of flowers. This is a rare and important example of European subject decoration. It is of a religious subject showing David spying on Bathsheba being washed. The image was created by Mathaeus Merian the Elder for his Icones Biblicae and published initially in booklets of plates from 1627 and then in a complete Bible in 1630 (Strasbourg) using a German translation by Martin Luther (14831546). In 1669 (Paris) an illustrated version of the bible, Histoire du Vieux et du Nouveau Testament, was printed by P Le Petit, written by Nicolas Fontaine (16251709) secretary to the jansenist Isaac-Louis Le Maistre de Sacy, who was possibly a contributing author and translator but was at the time imprisoned in the Bastille. This used the Merian images, re-engraved in a smaller size, reversing the compositions. Known as the Bible de Royaumont it was reissued several times and in 1724 a larger edition was produced with new re-engravings, which reversed the images back to the Merian orientations. It is most likely this 1724 edition that was used for this plate. However, why this image was chosen remains a mystery - especially as one of the women attendants upon Bathsheba has been rendered as a man. It could be that the supercargo who ordered it in China had not understood that David is already in the image, high on a parapet with his harp, so adjusted the composition. This figure high up has been transformed into someone blowing a horn (or shofa). Additionally the gardens and buildings in the background have been lost with just two parterres remaining. The story is from 2 Samuel 11, where David, walking on his balcony, spies Bathsheba, wife of Uriah the Hittite, being washed. He later seduces her, making her pregnant, and then contrives to have her husband placed at the front of battle. After his death David marries her and she is the mother of Solomon. One other print from this book is also known on Chinese export porcelain, the scene of Moses being discovered in the bulrushes by Pharaohâ€™s daughter.
References: HervouĂŤt & Bruneau (1986) p262, No 11.11; Litzenberg (2003), p200, No 200; Krahl & Harrison-Hall (1994), No 52.
Mathaus Merian the Elder, from Icones Biblicae 1625-30
from Bible de Royaumont, edition of 1669, Paris, P. Le Petit.
from Bible de Royaumont, edition of 1724
67 Punch Bowl Qianlong period circa 1745 English Market Diameter: 15½ inches; 39cm An extremely rare and previously unrecorded famille rose punch bowl with a scene of European figures before a castle, the interior with a grisaille roundel depicting ‘Autumn’. The scene is after a 1749 print “Mr Quin as Coriolanus” published by C Bowles. This remarkable bowl is unrecorded. The scene, depicted twice, initially presented something of a mystery. It appears to show a heroic figure standing in front of a throne on a dais and receiving two women who kneel in supplication before him, holding handkerchiefs and in a state of grief. He is very finely dressed and carrying a sceptre, whereas the women are dressed as grieving widows. The style of costume is seventeenth century. After extensive research the image has been located as a theatrical print of James Quin as Coriolanus on the the stage at Covent Garden in 1749. It is known in two versions, one published by Carrington Bowles (examples in the British Musem and Victoria and Albert Museum) - and another by B Dickinson with attached verses in appreciation of the actress Peg Woffington, which begin ‘Delightful Woffington! so formed to please’ (an example in the Queen’s Collection, Buckingham Palace) - this is probably the first version. James Quin was the foremost actor of his day and dominated the London stage in the second quarter of the 18th century. His famous declamatory style was well suited to the fashion for very stylised depictions of classical heroes. This fashion also extended to a particular costume structure for heroes, evolved from 17th century ballet, with a very wide skirt and high plumed hat, all based upon a James Quin Renaissance understanding of by William Hogarth (detail) Roman armour. Quin was a large and well built figure who was best known for playing Falstaff in Shakespeare. His style was coming under threat from the more naturalistic acting of the younger David Garrick by the end of the 1740s and eventually fell out of fashion. There was great rivalry between the two, but also a friendship that lasted - and
Mr Quin as Coriolanus pub: Carrington Bowles, c 1749-60
Garrick wrote the epitaph on Quin’s memorial in Bath. One of Quin’s lifelong friends was the Scottish poet James Thomson (1700-1748) who wrote a series of long poems The Seasons as well as many plays, though he is most famous now for having written the words for Rule Brittania. Quin had rescued Thomson from debtors’ prison and joined him in many debauched drinking sessions - and they lived together for a time in Richmond. In 1746 Thomson James Thomson completed his version of Coriolanus, which differs significantly from Shakespeare and is based on Livy’s account of the Roman general who threatened revolt against Rome but was persuaded to turn back from the gates of Rome by the tearful pleas of his wife and mother - Shakespeare’s play covers more action and uses Plutarch as the main source. Thomson was using this theme to reflect the recent Jacobite uprising. The play was due to be performed, with Quin in the title role and Garrick as Tullus (Aufidius) but Garrick eventually withdrew and the production was shelved until Thomson died in 1748 leaving significant debts and two destitute sisters in Scotland. Thomson’s main patron, the Whig politician George Lyttelton (17091773) then staged a production of Coriolanus at Covent Garden as a benefit for Thomson’s heirs, with Lyttelton writing a prologue so powerful that Quin is reported to have burst into tears when reciting it. Peg Woffington and Mrs Bellamy played the two women, Volumnia and Veturia. The play ran for a week to full houses and was quite an event and this print is one of several known of the production, though the artist is not recorded and the date is approximate. Another different image of this
detail from the interior of the bowl
scene is known from a 1762 edition of Thomson’s work. It is possible that the bowl was ordered by George Lyttelton in memory of his friend Thomson. Lyttelton was very wealthy and built Hagley Hall in Worcestershire in the 1760s. He was secretary to Frederick, Prince of Wales in 1737, made a baronet in 1751 and Baron in 1756. He was a strong opponent of Walpole and after his fall became Chancellor of the Exchequer in 1756. He married twice, firstly Lucy Fortescue (d1747) and then Elizabeth Rich, daughter of Sir Robert Rich, 4th Bt. Both the Fortescue and the Rich families have 18th century Chinese armorial services recorded. Lyttelton was a patron of Alexander Pope and Henry Fielding (who dedicated Tom Jones to him) as well as Thomson whose Seasons were addressed to Lyttelton. This latter could explain why the interior of the George Lyttelton
bowl has a grisaille roundel with a personification of Autumn, the last of the season poems to be published in 1730, dedicated to Lyttelton. The source has not been found for this image - the poems went through numerous editions with illustrations by William Kent at first and then later by various artists including engravings by Bartolozzi. The same image of Autumn is also inside a bowl in the Peabody Essex Museum with images of the London Royal Exchange on the outside (Sargent 2012, p338, No 180) so it could just be a reference to the proposed contents of the bowl. Theatrical subjects on porcelain are extremely rare. Hervouët and Bruneau illustrate a saucer with the famous image of Garrick as Richard III by Hogarth and there is a Worcester porcelain bowl with the figure of Garrick. Several Bow porcelain figures of theatrical characters exist from the 1750s and 1760s, copied later in Derby. These include versions of Quin as Falstaff but no other use of the Coriolanus image is known and the print itself is scarce.
Two Bow porcelain ﬁgures, one of James Quin as Falstaﬀ, left, and the other reputed to be Peg Woﬃngton as The Sphinx, right.
68 Cup and Saucer Qianlong period circa 1738 Dutch Market Diameter of Saucer: 4 inches; 10cm A Chinese export porcelain cup and saucer painted in underglaze blue with the Dame au Parasol pattern after Cornelis Pronk. This is probably from the last order for this pattern, brought to Amsterdam in 1739 on the Hogensmilde. The pattern has been simplified for a small object and the cell border lacks the figural and bird cartouches. See the next item for a full account.
interior of the cup, this is a modiﬁcation of one of the border cartouches from the larger pieces.
69 Dinner Plate Qianlong period circa 1740 Dutch Market Diameter: 9 inches; 23cm A Chinese export porcelain famille rose dinner plate with the Dame au Parasol pattern, very finely painted, the reverse with eight insects painted in rouge-de-fer. The central scene is known as La Dame au Parasol and is after a design by the Dutch artist Cornelis Pronk, commissioned by the Dutch East India Company in 1734. It was the first design by Pronk sent to China, the porcelain returning on the ship Magdalena via Batavia and arriving in Amsterdam in Spring 1737. The design is also known in Chinese Imari and blue and white but this version is much the rarest. The VOC archives indicate three famille rose services being ordered, but they were very expensive to produce and only one is known, which is mostly intact in a private collection. This plate represents one of the best and earliest examples of the design, having four rows of cells on the rim (as in the surviving drawing in the Rijksmuseum) rather than three, which is found in most examples. The Pronk porcelain enterprise was an ambitious venture by the VOC to create high quality, exciting new porcelains in China to specific European designs that were aimed at the current fashions in the market. Initially the VOC asked the Delft workshops to produce coloured ceramic models that could be taken to China, but they replied that the polychrome was too difficult and they commissioned Cornelis Pronk (1691-1759) to make drawings instead. He worked for three and a half years from the middle of 1734 to the end of 1737 and produced four drawings, one per year for which he was paid 1200 guilders per year. The designs were copied and sent to Batavia from where the enterprise seems to have been coordinated. The first design, La Dame au Parasol, was sent on to Canton, and also to Deshima in Japan where samples in blue and white and polychrome were made (a few of both exist) but no full orders given. The Canton orders were delayed at first, both by the weather and also the caution of the merchants as the Chinese dealers were demanding very high prices for the production of such a complicated pattern. Also the basins for the cistern and basin sets were not surviving in the kiln.
Two documented shipments of the first design (Parasol) returned to Amsterdam: (see Jörg 1980, p20-21): 1. Magdalena, (arrived in Amsterdam March 1737) - 3 Dinner services; 10 teaservices; 9 vases & basins; 19 mantlesets (garnitures) 2. Hogensmilde (arrived in Amsterdam 1739) with porcelains ordered from dealer Tan Suqua in Canton, Jan 1738) - 5 dinner services; 5 teaservices; 10 vases and basins (5 big & 5 small) The original orders for these had been much larger but the cost had brought about the reduction.
References: Jörg 1980, essential reading on this subject; Howard & Ayers 1978, p292-305, discussion of Pronk items; Beurdeley 1962, p56; Howard 1994, p73; Le Corbeiller 1974, p55; Wirgin 1998, p173; Lunsingh Sheurleer 1974, pl 192-6; Jörg 1989, p138-159, various Pronk workshop pieces; Mezin 2002, p128; Sargent 2012, pp274-293, a very useful survey of various items from the ‘Pronk workshop’.
70 Pair of Dinner Plates Qianlong period circa 1739 Dutch Market Diameter: 9 inches; 23cm A pair of dinner plates painted in undeglaze blue with a scene of a Chinese couple in an arbour surrounded by several children, with ducks on a pond in the foreground, the rim with panels of fruit, flowers and insects interspersed with palmettes. These plates have a design by the Dutch artist Cornelis Pronk, who was commissioned by the Dutch East India Company in 1734 to make drawings to be reproduced on porcelain. This is probably his fourth design for the VOC, produced in 1737, and is known in blue and white and famille rose but not in Chinese Imari, though the original drawing has not been found. The sources for the design are complex and Pronk worked by assembling elements from various prints and drawings in a manner that was standard procedure in his day. Yasumasa Oka (1985), has identified a drawing by Pronk of a cholon - or ‘Chinese teahouse’ in the gardens of Bosch en Hoven, near Haarlem, that is the same shape as the topiary here. Such teahouses were a popular feature of many Dutch gardens and were usually small buildings in which tea could be drunk - and an expression of the interest in the East at that time. The Bosch en Hoven cholon was also engraved by Hendrik de Leth - and it was replaced in the 1920s by a small chapel. The fours insects in the rim are taken from Maria Sybilla Merian’s Erucarum Ortus, published in full in 1718, and in an enlarged Dutch edition, European Insects, 1730. Three of these have been identified before (Cohen & Cohen 2013, p66-7). The flowers in the other eight panels are European in style but have not been found. A Meissen teabowl with this pattern is in the New York Metropolitan Museum, No 64.101.165 from the Untermyer Collection, and another in the Gröninger Museum (CJ Jörg, pers. comm.), possibly Amsterdam decorated, which suggests that Pronk or the VOC may have had European examples made up as a trial or that an alternative place of manufacture was being investigated as it was becoming clear that the ‘Pronk’ venture in Canton was not proving cost effective.
In fact this ‘arbour’ design seems to have influential on other designs made in the ‘Pronk workshop’, probably created by someone else - perhaps in Batavia from where the venture was monitored. One (possibly two) of the insects in the border panels is found on the Insect teaservice which is also attributed to the workshop. It has colouring and other features that match - and the cups have a very distinctive shape only found on a few services (Doctors’ Visit, Insect, Trumpeter, Parrot and Spaniel) - all connected with the workshop. One insect from the rim appears in the Archer pattern, another is repeated on the ‘fritillary’ vases. In addition, the palmette feature in the plate rim reappears in the ‘palmette’ services, in two colourways, which also echoes the design on the back of these plates. References: Scheurleer 1974, plate 202; Jörg 1980, p34, Nos 48-50; Jörg 1989, No 52; Du Boulay 1966, p262; Le Corbeiller 1973, Cat 30; Ibid. 1974, fig 24; Forbes 1982, p42, No 69; Litzenburg 2003, p177; Howard 1994, Nos 55-6; Clunas 1987, pl 48; Shimizu & Chabanne 2003, p207, No 158; Oka, Yasumasa, 1985, Antiek, 20th year, no. 2, aug/sept 1985, pp69-76; Mezin 2002, p53, No 28, a blue and white plate.
drawing by Cornelis Pronk, 1730 cholon at Bosch en Hoven
engraving by Hendrik de Leth, c1730 cholon at Bosch en Hoven
71 Pair of Saucer Dishes Qianlong period circa 1740 Dutch Market Diameter: 10 inches; 25cm A pair of famille rose saucer dishes brightly enamelled with a scene showing The Doctors’ Visit after a design by Cornelis Pronk, with a low table of European design on which rests a large kraak porcelain dish, the rim with waterbirds and reserves of fish. The scene on these saucers is known as The Doctor's Visit to the Emperor after the Dutch artist Cornelis Pronk. It was the second drawing for the VOC, commissioned from Cornelis Pronk in 1735, and, like the others, it portrays a very Western view of life in China. For example the table is of a European design and the dish on it is of the kraak style, which is a type that was exported to the West in the late sixteenth and early seventeenth centuries and would not have been used by the Emperor. The parrot often symbolises a prostitute or painted courtesan in Chinese art, so would never have been included next to the Emperor. The design arrived in Canton in 1737 and presented the supercargoes responsible for placing the porcelain order with a problem familiar from the first Pronk design: both were highly detailed and therefore very expensive to produce, and so the supercargoes dared place only a small order. A second slightly larger order was placed the following year, but in 1739 another less detailed version of this design, omitting the standing figure, was sent to Canton in hope of reducing the price of production. The supercargoes were unable to obtain a satisfactory reduction in the price and reported that they would not be placing an order after all. However, the records from the VOC show that a large order of 60 dinner services of 371 pieces, thirty more of 94 pieces and 830 pieces of tea wares was placed. Strangely, pieces of the second version are now much less common than pieces of the first, despite being apparently ordered in far larger numbers. In this design the two seated figures on the right are each presenting a small fish to the Emperor on the left. This may be a reference to Le Comte’s Nouveau mémoire sur l'état présent de la Chine (1696) in which he compares the Chinese custom of prescribing rice and fish
as a curative, to the Dutch tradition of selling fresh herring (Hollandse Nieuwe) as a cure for illness. This was referenced in Vol IV of The Religious Ceremonies of the World by B Picart & JF Bernard, first published in Amsterdam, 1723-1737, so Pronk may have been aware of the idea from the latter. It is possible that these saucers are from one of the later orders as the trios of fish in the rim panels in some examples are here reduced to single fish. Although it is not possible to identify all of these, they seem to be mainly tropical marine fish from the Indo-Pacific region, where a number of Dutch naturalists were working in the seventeenth and early eighteenth centuries. Notable among them was VOC naturalist Samuel Fallours whose drawings were used for Louis Renard’s Poissons, Ecrevisses et Crabes, (1719, Amsterdam: Louis Renard) and later for the fanciful Vol. 3 of Francois Valentijn’s Oude en Nieuw Oost Indien, (1726, Dordrecht & Amsterdam: Joannes van Braam & Gerard Onder de Linden) which has fish laid out in trios, on land, as does a plate in Pluche’s Spectacle de la Nature, first published in 1732. The birds in this design are waterbirds, apart from the peacock and parrot in the main image. The source for the storks has not been found but the Avocet and the two ducks, (Garganey and Muscovy Duck), are from the 1718 edition of Theatrum Universale Omnium Animalium by John Jonston and engraved by Matthaus Merian the younger. References: Jörg 1980, pp 26-7, items with this design; Howard & Ayers 1978, p294, discussion of Pronk designs; Pietsch, TW (Ed) 1995, discussion of the Fallours fish drawings in Renard’s Poissons etc; Cohen & Cohen 1999, p35, a pair of famille rose cisterns with this design; C&C 2008, a cistern and basin with identification of many of the fish; C&C 2012, p38, a plate; Wirgin 1998, p177, a basin with different fish trio inside, in Imari palette; C&C 2014-A, p34, for Pronk bird sources; Hunt et al (2010) The Book That Changed Europe, (Belknap press) p235-6
73 Teabowl and Saucer Qianlong period circa 1740 Dutch Market Diameter of Saucer: 4 inches; 10cm A very rare teabowl and saucer decorated in the palmette pattern in yellow and purple, attributed to the ‘Pronk workshop’. En suite with the previous item.
72 Teapoy Qianlong period circa 1740 Dutch Market Height: 4 inches; 10cm
two rim details from the Arbour pattern: above, back of rim right, front of rim
A very rare teapoy decorated in the palmette pattern in yellow and purple, attributed to the ‘Pronk workshop’. This is one of the rarest designs from the ‘Pronk workshop’. It is not directly attributed to Pronk himself but elements from it are found in the Arbour pattern which is attributed to him. The rim of that pattern has small palmettes on a similar ground as here, and the design on the back of the rim is similar to the outer border here.
References: Le Corbeiller 1974, p59, No 25, ten pieces from this service; Howard & Ayers 1978, p302, No296, a teabowl and saucer; Williamson 1970, plate XVIII, sevee pieces; Shimizu & Chabanne 2003, p208, No 159, a milk jug & saucer; Jörg1989, p154, a teapot; Sargent 2012, p290, a cup with distinctive shape & a thorough acount of other examples recorded.
74 Spoontray Qianlong period circa 1740 Dutch Market Length: 4 inches; 10cm A very rare spoontray decorated in the palmette pattern in iron-red and grisaille, attributed to the ‘Pronk workshop’. This is one of the rarest designs from the ‘Pronk workshop’. It is not directly attributed to Pronk himself but elements from it are found in the Arbour pattern which is attributed to him. A number of pieces of this pattern including a range of plates and large chargers remain with one family, whose family legend attributes the original order for the pieces to their ancestor Cardinal Sluse, calling it “le service de Cardinal Sluse”. This cannot be strictly accurate as the Cardinal, Jean-Gualter Sluse, lived from 1628-1687. His brother René-François was an important mathematician and the youngest brother was a lawyer who became Baron de Sluse. The Baron built a big memorial to his distinguished brothers in Liege Cathedral and his son, or his grandson may have ordered this service in the same manner - it is tempting to connect the scarlet and grey colouring with the cardinal. References: Jörg 1989, p155, a milk jug in this colourway; Sargent 2012, p291, a saucer.
two dinner plates and two large chargers, Chinese porcelain circa 1740 private collection
75 Teabowl and Saucer Qianlong period circa 1740 Dutch Market Diameter of Saucer: 4 inches; 10cm A very rare teabowl and saucer decorated in the palmette pattern in iron-red and grisaille, attributed to the ‘Pronk workshop’. En suite with the previous item.
76 Cup and Saucer
A crust eaten in peace is better than a banquet partaken in anxiety. Aesop (620-560BC) The Town Mouse and the Country Mouse
Qianlong period circa 1740 Dutch Market Diameter of Saucer: 4 inches; 10cm A Chinese export porcelain cup and saucer decorated with a design of a parrot on a perch and a small dog in over glaze blue enamel with black and gilt, the rim with an elaborate border. This is a very rare pattern that has been attributed to the ‘Pronk workshop’ because of its distinctive style, and further corroborated by the unusual shape of the cup, previously unrecorded with this pattern, but known in some other examples with Pronk or Pronk-attributed designs. The actual design has been attributed to Pieter Schenck in some auction catalogues because of a significant Meissen service with this design (see image) and Schenck’s prints of views and devices were used by Meissen extensively. Schenck had been sent to Japan by the VOC around 1700 but a definitive account of this has yet to be established. Although not by Pronk himself it is reasonable to assume that this is from the same workshop. As the venture came to an end because it could not be made financially viable, it seems that a wider range of porcelains were being put together in the workshop using some elements of the Pronk designs and from other sources. These may have included patterns such as the trumpeter, the palmette, the ‘insect’ pattern, the various garnitures of square section vases using elements of Maria Merian’s prints, and this design. The parrot in this design is also known on some garniture vases, in a much reduced version - and the spaniel also appears on some plates, with the parrot on the rim, that are clearly a little later and roughly drawn.
Chinese cup, 1740, ‘insect’ pattern attributed to the Pronk workshop.
References: a teabowl and saucer from the service is in the Victoria & Albert Museum, London, No 642&A1903; Sargent 2012, p290, a yellow/purple palmette cup of this shape.
dinner plate, Meissen circa 1735-40 image courtesy Christophe Perlès, Paris
77 Pair of Bottle Vases and Covers Qianlong period circa 1745-50 Dutch Market Height: 15 3/4 inches; 40cm A rare pair of Chinese export porcelain square section bottle vases and covers decorated in famille rose with tree peonies and chrysanthemums beside a blue rock and a fence.
Thus after wasting, not employing, a Life of Fifty odd Years, on the Tenth Day of June 1735, this Studier and Preserver of Monkish-Trumpery gave up the Ghost. He was a most sordid poor Wretch; had a universal Mistrust of the Generality of Mankind; lived in a slovenly, niggardly Manner, and died possessed of what he had not the Heart to enjoy. from Impartial Memorials of the Life and Writings of Thomas Hearne MA, by several hands, 1736.
These are a very rare pair of vases. Although the decoration is of a fairly standard Chinese type for this period, the shapes are very unusual and most examples are recorded with specialised designs attributed to the Pronk workshop. Because it could not be made profitable, the Pronk venture ceased trading around 1740 but it is believed that private orders continued after that - and these could represent porcelain blanks left over at this time and so were enamelled in a more familiar style. A garniture of identical decoration and size, consisting of one bottle vase (lacking cover) and two beaker vases is in the Queenâ€™s collection at Buckingham Palace, formerly in the North Lobby at Brighton Pavilion, moved to London in 1847 - these appear to be the only other recorded examples of this type.
some of the rare examples of this shape
78 Saucer Dish Qianlong period circa 1748-52 English Market Diameter: 13¾ inches; 34cm A large Chinese export porcelain saucer dish painted in underglaze blue with a tiger beside bamboo, the rim moulded with raised ogee scrolls and painted with mythical beasts and pine, bamboo and prunus, the underside with a coat of arms in the foot well, the rim with Ming-style scrolls. This rare dish is from a small service or set of dishes, as the few recorded examples are all of this size, made for Horatio Walpole (1723-1806) and is unique in its decoration imitating the kakiemon pattern found on earlier Japanese porcelain. Having the arms on the underside is a feature known on very few other services including those for Fisher and French. The front copies the design from the kakiemon workshop, ‘Tiger and Bamboo’ and an example, acquired in 1723, is in the Dresden collection. The arms on the reverse are Walpole impaling Cavendish for the marriage of Horatio Walpole to Lady Rachel Cavendish (1725-1805), daughter of the 3rd Duke of Devonshire. They married on 12 May 1748 but the porcelain was probably acquired by Horatio’s youngest brother Richard, who was a Captain in the East India Company and was in Canton in 1752 on the ship Houghton (Houghton was the ancestral home of the Walpole family in Norfolk). Horatio’s other brother, Thomas, was elected a Director of the East India Company in 1753. Horatio Walpole (1723-1806) was the son of Horatio, 1st Baron Walpole of Wolterton and Mary Magdalene Lombard. His father’s brother was Sir Robert Walpole, Whig Prime Minister and the dominant political figure in the early 18th century. Horatio himself was MP for King’s Lynn from 1747 until he succeeded his father as 2nd Baron Walpole of Wolterton in 1757 and moved to the House of Lords. He was created Earl of Orford (3rd Creation) in 1806 after the death of his first cousin Horace Walpole (son of the Prime Minister) who built Strawberry Hill House in Twickenham, a magnificent Gothic revival castle and wrote the seminal ‘gothic novel’ The Castle of Otranto.
References: Howard 1974, p585, a dish; another dish is in the Dr & Mrs Roger G Gerry Collection of Japanese Art in the Metropolitan Museum, New York, No 2002.447.107; Howard 2003, p134, a service with the arms of Walpole, made for Sir Robert Walpole circa 1715, and still at Houghton Hall, Norfolk; a Japanese dish, early 18th century, of identical design (on the front) was sold at Sotheby’s London, 19 June 2001, Lot 293.
Violet: "I'm so looking forward to seeing your mother again. When I'm with her, I'm reminded of the virtues of the English." Matthew: "But isn't she American?" Violet: "Exactly." Downton Abbey
Horatio Walpole, 1746 by Pierre Subleyras, detail
Lady Rachel Cavendish, detail
79 Small Punchbowl Qianlong, circa 1770-75 English or American Market Diameter: 10 inches (25.5cm) A famille rose bowl with a political pseudo-armorial featuring two portraits and several figures. This bowl accompanies a tea service which is known scattered though various important collections. It features The Arms of Liberty and must have been ordered by a supporter of John Wilkes or possibly even by Wilkes himself. There are a number of bowls with this design though they appear to be of two types, either having the inscription 'The Arms of Liberty' as for this item, or 'Wilkes and Liberty' which is more common. The image is taken from a broadside written by Wilkes and published 18 June 1768, while he was in prison, (the print source first identifed by Sargent 2012). The left hand portrait is of Wilkes and his two supporters, Serjeant Glynn (1722-1779) his legal advisor and Richard Grenville, 2nd Earl Temple (1711-1779), the motto is 'Always Ready in a Good Cause'. The right hand portrait is of William Murray, 1st Earl of Mansfield (1705-1793), who condemned Wilkes for 'seditious libel' which later resulted in his expulsion from the House of Commons in 1769, and his supporters are John Stuart, 3rd Earl of Bute (1713-1792), the Prime Minister, and the Devil, the crest being a serpent rampant and their motto 'Justice Sans Pitie'. Other symbols include a cap of liberty on a pole, a cornucopia, and a hydra. John Wilkes (1725-1798) was one of the most colourful characters of the eighteenth century and he excited enthusiastic support and vitriolic condemnation in equal measure. He was extremely ugly, with a contorted face and a squint but he was also witty, clever and ambitious. He was the son of a distiller from Clerkenwell and he married a rich heiress and set about working his way though her fortune as a notorious rake. Wilkes published an attack on King George III in issue No 45 of The North Briton for which he was charged with sedition and tried in 1764 in his absence. He returned in 1768 and was arrested and sent to the Tower of London, which led to riots in London. He was censured in the House of Lords for obscenity in his Essay on Women, which he had privately printed for the Hellfire Club. He had been expelled and re-elected from the Commons on four occasions and was Lord Mayor of London in 1774 when he was elected again for parliament and spoke in support of the rebellion in the American colonies - after which his popular support diminished considerably. In later life he admitted that many of his attacks had been simply to gain popularity. Serjeant Glynn was a successful lawyer and supporter of Wilkes. The other figures on this bowl were more significant in eighteenth century England (including, in all probability, the Devil). Richard Grenville, Lord Temple, was the son of Richard Grenville (1678-1727) and Hester, 1st Countess Temple. He was reputed to be the richest man in England at the time and backed Wilkes's attempts to enter parliament in 1757. His younger brother George Grenville (1712-1771) was Prime Minister (176365) and their sister Hester married William Pitt the Elder.
John Stuart, 3rd Earl of Bute was Prime Minister briefly from 1762-3 but was influential behind the scenes for much of his life and rumoured to be having an affair with the mother of King George III. The Hon. William Murray, created 1st Earl Mansfield, was the eleventh child of the impecunious 5th Viscount Stormont and an important legal figure in the second half of the eighteenth century. He became Lord Chief Justice in 1754 and bought Kenwood House, employing Robert Adam as his interior decorator. Macauley called him "the father of modern Toryism" and he was a moderate, Jacobite pragmatist. On this bowl he is representing the 'Establishment' against which Wilkes fought but in fact, although he disapproved of Wilkes strongly, he reversed his outlawry in 1774. In 1772 Mansfield heard the petition of freedom of a slave, James Somerset, belonging to a Mr Stewart of Virginia. During the trial Somerset's Counsel stated: "The Air of England is too pure for a slave to breath." At the end Mansfield freed Somerset and declared: "Let Justice be done, though the Heavens may fall" - in effect he had abolished slavery in England though this did not apply to the rest of the British Empire until 1807, by which time the American Colonies had broken away. In his will he left £100 per annum to Dido Elizabeth Belle, the natural daughter of his nephew, Viscount Stormont, with a former slave. All these people demonstrate not only the diversity of character in the period but the almost incestuous nature of politics at that time. Another of Wilkes's chief enemies, John Montagu, 4th Earl of Sandwich and former member of the Hellfire Club, was Postmaster General and First Lord of Admiralty 174851 & 1771-82. Famously Sandwich declared of Wilkes that he would die either of the pox or upon the gallows. Wilkes replied: "That depends on whether I embrace your Lordship's mistress or your Lordship's principles.”
References: Beurdeley 1962, p184, cat 152, a bowl, Wilkes & Liberty; Litzenberg 2003, p185, a bowl and cream jug from the tea service; Gordon 1984, fig 16, a bowl, Arms of Liberty; Godden 1979, plate 149, a bowl, Wilkes & Liberty; Hervouët & Bruneau 1986, No 9.51, a bowl, Wilkes & Liberty; Howard & Ayers 1978, p244, punchbowl with portrait of Wilkes after a print by Hogarth; Howard 1974, p955, a bowl, Arms of Liberty; Sargent 2012, p325, No173, a teapot and a thorough account of related pieces.
from a broadside written by John Wilkes and published 1768 Image courtesey the City of London.
80 Pair of Dinner Plates Qianlong period circa 1740-50 English Market Diameter: 9 inches; 23cm A pair of Chinese export porcelain dinner plates with a central coat of arms, the cavetto with gilt spearhead border and the rim with bianco sopra bianco floral sprays. The arms are: Chapman quartering Webb, impaling Wood quartering Russell, with Edmondson in pretence (Howard 1974). This service is a fine example of Chinese porcelain for the discerning collector, having the arms of five different families, illustrating the three generations of the Chapman family of London, their marriages with three heiresses and their baronetcy (created 1720 - extinct 1785). Howard states that the impaling is incorrect and the arms should be quartered. However the genealogy is uncertain with some sources conflating Wood and Webb. The service was ordered by Sir John Chapman, 3rd Baronet (1710-1781) who married Rachel Edmondson, an heiress. He was the son of Sir William Chapman (1670-1737) and Elizabeth Wood. Sir William was Director of the South Sea Company and a wealthy benefactor of hospitals and schools. Sir William, the 1st Baronet, was the son of Sir John Chapman, Kt, (and Elizabeth Webb), a Lord Mayor
of London in 1688, significantly proclaiming William and Mary as King and Queen in the ‘Glorious’ Revolution. Sir John, 3rd Bt, was a successful merchant and MP for Taunton, living at Cockenheath in Hertfordshire. This service was probably brought to England on the EIC ship Durrington which was part owned by Sir John and in service between 1739-54. References: Howard 1974, p411, this service, including a punchbowl and teawares, p293, an earlier service with only the arms of Chapman, circa 1735, probably ordered by the same man before his marriage and the death of his father.
81 Pair of Chargers Qianlong period circa English Market Diameter: 12¾ inches; 32.5cm A pair of Chinese export porcelain chargers with a central coat of arms, the cavetto with gilt spearhead border and the rim with bianco sopra bianco floral sprays. En suite with the previous item.
82 Milk Jug and Cover
Life is a pill which none of us can bear to swallow without gilding. Samuel Johnson (1709-84 )
Qianlong period circa 1780-90 English Market Height: 5½ inches; 14cm A Chinese export porcelain milk jug and cover, decorated in famille rose enamels with an elaborate pseudo-armorial cartouche with a monogramme and motto, the rim and cover with gilt spearhead border. This remarkable and rare item is one of only a few surviving pieces of this teaservice which tells a wonderful tale of eighteenth century life. Sargent (2012) has uncovered the story from an article in the ‘Notes & Queries’ of the Sussex Archaeological Society in 1868 by one W. Holloway. The initials in the cartouche are RP, for Richard Philcox, a cobbler of Rye, a small town on the south east coast of England. The medallion at the top has a boot and there are other items of leather footwear around the rococo border. Inside are two figures, a man with a leather apron seated on a bench holds a thread and a younger man sits before a small work table holding what look likes a hammer. The motto is: ‘I must Work for Leather is dear’. Presumably the larger man is Philcox and this must be a phrase associated with him. Possibly the other is his son Joseph, who inherited the business from his father and is listed in Pigot’s 1823 Directory of Sussex: Joseph Philcox, Boot & Shoe Maker, Rye. A mug in the British Museum has a similar design but the monogramme is replaced with an inscription: “VIVAT Richd Philcox Whit His Honest Fammily” and on the reverse: “VIVAT RYE”.
Holloway says that sometime around 1778 a ship destined for the East Indies had foundered in a storm just off the coast. One bedraggled man had been taken in by Philcox and looked after with great generosity. The man, probably a supercargo, had returned to London and then again set off for Canton, this time with more success. There he ordered this teaservice, including the mug, and presented it to Philcox in gratitude. Holloway then recounts how he had helped his son, Joseph, sell off the porcelain much later in small lots. References: Krahl & Harrison Hall 1994, p100, No 41, the mug (Franks.779.+); Sargent 2012, p381-3, a teapot and stand from the teaservice, and a full account of the story including the article by Holloway.
83 Pair of Dinner Plates Qianlong period circa 1750 Belgian Market Diameter: 9 inches; 23cm A fine pair of Chinese export armorial porcelain dinner plates with a central coat of arms and the rim with a border of flowers in bianco-sopra-bianco. The arms are of van den Cruyce. The van den Cruyce family was numerous in and around Anvers, mostly descended from PasquierFrançois van den Cruyce ennobled in the mid 17th century. He was awarded the right to have unicorns as supporters for his arms by King Charles II (of Spain, which ruled the area then). Many were soldiers or burgomasters and they intermarried with other wealthy Belgian families. Three different services are known with these arms. This service, and a similar one with different borders, could have been ordered by sons of Albert van den Cruyce, châtelain du château royal de Tervueren and his wife Anne-Thérèse de Coninck (whose sister married Albert’s older brother). There were four sons: Jean-Baptise-Joseph; Albert-Louis-Joseph; Joseph and FrançoisJean-Joseph. All were unmarried in 1750 but the youngest François was married in 1760 to Barbe-JeanneFrançoise de Potter - there is a Chinese armorial teaservice with the arms accollée of van den Cuyce & de Potter, suggesting that the family had the wherewithall and taste for Chinese armorial porcelain and that the other two services were for different brothers, but which two is not known. Alternatively it could have been ordered by any of their cousins, the five sons of Pasquier-Jean-Augustin van den Cruyce who married Marie-Mechtilde de Coninck.
References: M. de Vegiano & Sr. d’Hovel & de Herckenrode, Baron JSFJL, 1862, Nobiliaire des Pays-Bas et du Comté de Bourgogne et des Suppléments, p594-99, van den Cruyce genealogy; Cogels & Cardon 2014, pp84-86, the three services with arms of van den Cruyce; Maertens de Noordhout 1997, p80-85, the same three services.
Government is the great ﬁction, through which everybody endeavors to live at the expense of everybody else. Frederic Bastiat, French economist (1801-1850)
84 Charger Yongzheng period circa 1735 Dutch market Diameter: 15 inches; 38cm An armorial charger decorated in iron red, blue, white, lavender tone and black enamels with gilt, painted in the centre with the large arms of Valckenier topped by a rising falcon crest, the rim with three sprays of peonies and plum blossom within an undulating gilt band at the edge. The Dutch family Valckenier of Amsterdam were prominent in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, especially in the Dutch East India Company (VOC). By 1670 some had settled in the East Indies and their position in the VOC was influential especially from their residence in Batavia, which gave them ready access to the China trade, which explains why there are at least fifteen armorial services known with these arms. This service was made for Adriaan Valckenier (16951751) who was resident in Batavia from 1715 and rose through the VOC as bookkeeper, counsel, director-general and Governor-General of the Dutch East Indies (1737-41). His career ended in disgrace following his involvement in the massacre of some 10,000 Chinese in 1740, after which he returned home on the ship Amsterdam, carrying at least 2,400 pieces of Chinese porcelain with his arms. Kroes lists 15 different designs of which this one is 2C. Valckenier had initially been acquited of his involvement in the massacre but on his way home he was arrested in Cape Town and brought back to Batavia where he was imprisoned during an investigation that was still ongoing when he died in 1751. However his porcelain made it home to The Netherlands and was inherited by his son. References: Phillips 1956, p95, plate 22 a dinner plate from this service; Le Corbeiller 1974, p87, fig 47, a dinner plate from this service that is in the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, The Helena Woolworth McCann Collection; p87, fig 46, the blue and white mug with silver mounts; JĂśrg 1989, p254, No 101, a teapot stand and teabowl and saucer in famille rose; Howard 1994, p79, No 62, a dinner plate from this service; No 61, a dinner plate from the service with the grisaille scenes; p211, No 247, a jug and cover from this service and a charger decorated in underglaze blue with three sprays of flowers on the rim; Litzenberg 2003, p100, No 84, a dinner plate from the service with the grisaille panels, Kroes 2007, p134, Cat 36, this service, p646, Appendix 1G, a list of all the Valckenier services.
portrait of Adriaan Valckenier by TJ Rheen, (in the Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam)
detail from the portrait above showing the Valckenier coat of arms
The only diďŹ€erence between a tax man and a taxidermist is that the taxidermist leaves the skin. Mark Twain
85 Dinner Plate Qianlong period circa 1740-43 Dutch/Batavian Market Diameter: 9 inches; 23cm A rare armorial dinner plate with a central coat of arms and the rim with an elaborate design of shell-scrolls. These arms were formerly attributed to the Snoeck family of Amsterdam but Jochem Kroes has attributed them to Elias Guillot (1695-1743) who was governor of the Coromandel Coast 1733-7 and died in Batavia. The Guillot family were originally from Bordeaux, where Elias was born. They moved to Amsterdam and several members of the family became wealthy merchants. Elias went to the Indies in 1714 as a junior merchant and master of the warehouse in Masulipatnam in 1715. He moved through the Coromandel Coast and by 1730 was senior merchant, promoted to Governor in 1733. In 1737 he moved to Batavia where he probably ordered this service from Canton. He died unmarried in Batvia in 1743 and left his estate to various relations in London and Amsterdam. The border is striking and also known on blue and white plates with scenes of tea processing. Howard & Ayers 1978 suggest that the border may have been commissioned specifically for the tea processing plates and then used for this service too. As a merchant Guillot would have handled tea, so it is possible that he also ordered the tea processing series. The Pignatelli armorial service has a similar border and Le Corbeiller 1974 suggests the influence of Rouen faience. References: Kroes 2007, p324, No 242 with illustrations also of the Japanese plate and a Samson copy; Howard and Ayers 1978 p396, No 393 an example of this plate and also a later Japanese dish with the same arms; Le Corbeiller (1974) p103 two tea processing plates; Phillips 1956, p71 Plate 5 a plate from the Helena Woolworth McCann collection, arms attributed to Snoeck; Crosby Forbes (1982) a dinner plate with the same border and a central scene of two cockerels, peonies and rocks; Sargent 2012, p249, No 124, plate with roosters and the same border as this; Howard 1994, p85, a plate from the Pignatelli armorial service which has similar border to this one.
I would like to graduate high school knowing at least how to make some sort of pĂ˘tĂŠ. Kurt Hummel, Glee
All men dream: but not equally. Those who dream by night in the dusty recesses of their minds wake in the day to ﬁnd that it was vanity: but the dreamers of the day are dangerous men, for they may act their dream with open eyes, to make it possible. TE Lawrence (1888-1935)
Pair of Salts Qianlong period circa 1775 Spanish Market Diameter: 3¼ inches; 8cm A fine pair of Chinese export armorial porcelain footed salts, with a central coat of arms in famille rose enamels, the outside having a garland of flowers in puce and brown. These are from a large service of 1,114 pieces bearing the arms of a lady, Juana Antonia Bucareli y Baeza, 4th Marchioness of Vallehermoso, Grandee of Spain and 6th Countess of Gerena. She was born in Seville, 1739 and married her uncle Nicolas Bucareli in 1757. She died in 1810. Her husband was Governor of Cadiz. The service is mentioned in a letter from Jose Alergui y Leoz to another of Juana’s uncles Antonio Maria Bucareli (and also, therefore, her brother-in-law) written from Manila, in which he mentions the size of the service. Antonio Maria Bucareli was a significant figure, Governor of Cuba and Viceroy of New Spain (177179).
Antonio Maria Bucareli (1717-79)
References: Diaz 2010, p274, No 39, where some of the service is illustrated with much information; some pieces from this service are in the Metropolitan Museum, New York, The Helena Woolworth McCann Collection (51.86.380ab-.382); there is a sauce tureen modelled as a seated buddhai with these arms on its belly in the RA Collection, No 529.
87 Tureen, Cover and Stand Qianlong period circa 1774 Portuguese Market Length of Stand: 14½ inches; 37cm A Chinese export armorial porcelain tureen, cover and stand, decorated in famille rose with a central coat of arms and a border of gilt ribbons and floral swags, the form modelled after a silver shape. This service was ordered by Diogo Inácio de Pina Manique (1733-1805) after his marriage in 1773, for his eldest son Pedro António de Pina Manique Nogueira de Matos de Andrade, 1st visconde de Manique do Intendente, whose arms it carries. The arms are, clockwise from top left: de Pina (tower); Andrade (serpent heads); Nogueira (red band on blue and white); Manique (nine squares of towers and lions). Diogo Pina Manique was a Portuguese Lawyer and official, originally of German descent, who rose to be Superintendant of Police in Lisbon and was a close confidant of the powerful Marquis de Pombal and later counsellor to João VI. He established many colleges including the Casa Pia in Lisbon, which educated homeless children, and he developed his home town of Manique with ambitions for a grand square, only partly fulfilled. He married Inácia Margarida Umbelina de Brito Nogueira de Matos, a naturalised daughter of a powerful Church figure, Nicolau de Matos Nogueira de Andrade, Archbishop of Évora.
References: de Castro 1988, p128.
Escutcheon with the same arms from the Town Hall, Manique, built by Diogo Pina Manique.
Diogo Pina Manique.
88 Meat Dish Qianlong period circa 1755 Prussian Market Length: 14½ inches; 37cm A Chinese export porcelain armorial meatdish with lobed rim and decorated in famille rose with a central elaborate armorial with two wild men as supporters, on the rim the crest of a black eagle and a narrow border of a variant of the Greek key motif. The arms are for Frederick the Great as King of Prussia, the standard Grossewappen for the Prussian Monarchy of 1747. This is one of the most famous and sought after armorials on Chinese export porcelain. The dish comes from a large service with many unusual shapes and with a dramatic and complex history. Armorial services for the German market are rare and mainly for princely families including the Anhalt-Zerbst (see Cohen &Cohen 2002) and Mecklenberg-Schwerin (see Cohen & Cohen 2001). The first German East India Company had been founded in 1684 by the Elector of Brandenburg (Frederick the Great's grandfather) but none of its ships reached China. A second Company was founded by Frederick in 1751, the Königliche Preussische Asiatische Companie zu Emden based in Emden and several ships made successful journeys to Canton but this company closed at the start of the Seven Years' War in 1756. The porcelain trade of this company also had to contend with competition from the growing manufacture of hard-paste porcelain in Meissen. There are several stories and legends surrounding this service, including a romantic story of the returning ship running aground on the East Frisian island of Borkum and the porcelain salvaged and sold off, having originally been intended as a present for Frederick. Another story has it as a present from the town of Leer to Frederick the Great after his success in the Seven Years War but he refused it because he had no money left to offer a reciprocal gift. It was certainly a very large service and seems to have been scattered early on. Jörg (1989) has shed light on all this having discovered a notice in a Dutch Newpaper posted by the Emden Preussian East India Company on 23 August 1756 advertising for sale '200 blue and white and enamelled porcelains, among which several Royal dinner are outstanding'. He has correlated this with two Prussian Company ships which were in Canton in 1755, the Burg von Emden and the König von Preussen. The cargo of the former mentions a service with wavy rims while the latter does not - so he suggests that this service was carried to Europe aboard the Burg von Emden in 1756. This ship was not wrecked so the more dramatic elements of the legends seem apocryphal. The border on this plate is only known on one other service, that for the family of Famars of Amsterdam (see Cohen & Cohen 1999), which may have also been ordered through the Prussian Company at the same time. Le Corbeiller illustrates a plate with a different filigree gilt border after Meissen. Other pieces are known with only the eagle crest and in the Hermitage Museum is a warming plate with these arms. The last presents a conundrum as this shape dates to the end of the eighteenth century and could be part of a later order for replacements. Frederick the Great (1740-1786) is one of the towering figures of the eighteenth century - a century with more than its fair share of long lived, cultured and memorable rulers including Catherine the Great (1762-1796), George III of England (1760-1823), Gustav III of Sweden (1746-1792), and the Emperor Qianlong (1735-1796). Frederick was born in 1712 to Frederick William I and Sophia Guelph, daughter of King George I of England. His paternal grandfather was
the first King of Prussia and married to another Sophia Guelph who was sister to George I of England! In fact George's wife was also his second cousin, also called Sophia. Such a narrowing of the gene pool was not unusual in Royal circles, yet Frederick was intelligent and cultured. His father was coarse and tyrannical, hating his son who was fond of French Literature and music and had no interest in government and war. At the age of eighteen Frederick, who had been repeatedly humiliated and ill-treated, planned to escape to England. He was arrested, imprisoned, and forced to witness the beheading of his friend and accomplice, Lieutenant Katte. Frederick submitted to his father and was released. In 1733, at his father's request, he married Elizabeth of Brunswick-Bevern, but he separated from her shortly afterwards and for the rest of his life showed no interest in women. Prince Frederick spent the next few years at Rheinsberg, where he wrote an idealistic refutation of Machiavelli and began his long correspondence with Voltaire. His period of relative inactivity ended with his accession to the throne in 1740, after which Frederick immediately showed the qualities of leadership and decision that were to characterize his reign. In the War of the Austrian Succession (1740-48) and the Seven Years War, he established his military reputation and despite the defeat at Kunersdorf (1759) he ended victorious thanks to the accession of his admirer Peter III of Russia in the 1762. The Peace of Hubertusburg (1763) made Prussia the foremost military power in Europe. Frederick is widely recognized as the eighteenth century's greatest general and military strategist. His tactics were studied and admired by Napoleon Bonaparte and exerted great influence on the art of warfare. An "enlightened despot", Frederick instituted important legal and penal reforms, set up trade monopolies to create new industries, forwarded education, and accomplished internal improvements such as drainage projects, roads, and canals. He was tolerant in religious matters, personally professing atheism to his intimates. Cold and curt with a corrosive wit, he relaxed only during his famous midnight suppers at Sans Souci, his residence at Potsdam. There he was surrounded by a group of educated men, mostly French, that included Voltaire, d'Alembert, La Mettrie, and Maupertuis. He wrote inconsequential poetry and remarkable prose on politics, history, military science, philosophy, law, and literature. Nearly all his writings were in French. He played the flute creditably and he composed marches and concertos for the flute. At his death in 1786 Frederick had increased the size of his Kingdom by half as much again, taking Silesia from the Austrians, a large part of Poland (1772) and adding Franconia in 1779. In old age he cut a wiry and eccentric figure, sharp-featured, untidy and snuffstained. He was succeeded by his nephew Frederick William II. "At such moments I have realized that the advantages of birth and that vapour of grandeur with which vanity soothes us is of little service or, to speak truly, of none. These distinctions are foreign to ourselves and but embellish outwardly. How much more preferable are the talents of the mind! How much is due to men whom nature has distinguished by the mere fact that she has created them!" Frederick the Great in a letter to Voltaire. References: Howard 1994, p110, No 104, a tureen stand from this service; Le Corbeiller 1974, pp80-83, several pieces illustrated and a discussion of the service; Beurdeley 1962, p195, Cat 195, a dinner plate from this service; Jansen 1976, p157, Cat 375, a dinner plate; Williamson 1970, plate XXXVIII, a dinner plate; Jörg 1989, a dinner plate and discussion; Maertens de Noordhout & Kozyreff 2000, No 3 a dinner plate; Lunsingh Scheurleer 1974, No 156, a wine cooler and a tureen and cover, with the knop moulded as a black eagle; Arapova, Menshikova et al. 2003, Cat 38, a warming plate, with drilled holes which may have been part of some ormolu mounted assembly, and is of a later date than the main service; Cohen & Cohen 1999, p26, Cat 19, two plates from the Famars service.
1 = J체lich 2 = Magdeburg 3 = Mecklenburg 4 = Cassuben 5 = Brandenburg 6 = Geldern 7 = Stettin 8 = Pomerania 9 = Cleves 10 = Berg 11 = Wenden 12 = Crossen 13 = Kammin 14 = Halberstadt 15 = Ruppin 16 = Meurs 17 = J채gerndorf
18 = N체rnberg 19 = Principality of Schwerin 20 = Principality of Ratzeburg 21 = Mindne 22 = Wenden 23 = Hohenzollern 24 = Marck 25 = Regenstein 26 = Tecklenberg imp. Linden 27 = Lauenberg 28 = Rostock 29 = Ravensberg 30 = Hohenstein 31 = Leerdam
32 = Ravenstein 33 = Stargard 34 = Buren 35 = Schwerin 36 = Breda A = Brandenburg (Sceptre of the Holy Roman Empire) B = Prussia C = OrangeNeuch창tel D = Unidentified
89 Fruit Plate Qianlong period circa 1785 Russian Market Diameter: 7½ inches; 19cm A Chinese export porcelain armorial small fruit plate with reticulated border, decorated in famille rose with the central arms of Russia, and a border of ribbon and flowers. This is the second of three services known with the arms of Russia, one from about 1750-70 (dating uncertain) and a third one that is early 19th century. This one was ordered for Catherine the Great, who also collected many porcelain services from European factories. She ordered two services from Wedgwood, the 'Husk' service in 1770 and the 'Frog' service (some stylistic similarities to this one) for her Palace of Grenouillère at Tsarsköe Selo, St Petersburg, in 1773 which suggests that this Chinese service was probably ordered through the English East India Company as Russia had very limited direct trade with China at this date. The central image is the Arms of Russia which has a double headed eagle on whose breast is the arms of Moscow, a red shield with St George slaying the dragon. Around this is a collar for the Order of St Andrew, the highest order of chivalry in Russia. Catherine the Great is one of the most interesting and dominant figures of the eighteenth century. She was born Sophia Augusta Fredericka of Anhalt-Zerbst, 1729, in Stettin (now in Poland) and was the daughter of Prince Christian Augustus of Anhalt-Zerbst and Princess Johanna Holstein-Gottorp. Johanna's brother Karl August had been betrothed to Elizabeth Petrovna, daughter of Peter the Great of Russia, but he had died of smallpox just before the wedding. In 1741 Elizabeth Petrovna seized the Russian throne and declared her nephew Peter Ulrich HolsteinGottorp (1728-1762) as her heir. She invited the young Sophia to marry Peter (who was her second cousin) in 1744. Sophia was required to convert from Lutheranism to the Russian Orthodox Church and took the new name Catherine. Peter was very immature physically and mentally and the marriage was not consummated for some while though eventually a son Paul was born in 1754. Peter succeeded as Tsar Peter III in January 1762 but was removed in a coup in July that year, with Catherine's backing, and he was then killed in a supposedly drunken brawl. Catherine immediately took control and reigned as Catherine II for the next thirty four years always conscious of establishing the legitimacy of her rule,
one reason for ordering the services with the Arms of Russia. Catherine is famous for her voracious appetite for handsome and intelligent young men and she had many lovers who were well rewarded even after they had been replaced in the royal bedchamber. They included: Gregory Potemkin, highly intelligent and an advisor for many years who selected most of her lovers; Gregory Orlov, who fathered a child with her, (Alexei Bobrinsky), and whose brother Alexis Orlov was instrumental in the killing of Peter III; Ivan Rimsky-Korsakov ancestor of the composer, and lastly Plato Zubov, some forty years her junior. Such activity in a male monarch of the period would have been simply regarded as virility. One lover Stanislaw Poniatowski, by whom she had a daughter, Anna, she made King of Poland in 1764. Other more lurid tales of her appetites have no basis in fact and were most likely spread by her antimonarchist enemies in France after she died. She was succeeded by her son Tsar Paul I, who she detested and who she hinted was not fathered by Peter III but rather by her first lover Serge Saltuikov. She added almost 200,000 square miles to Russia during her reign, including the Ukraine and the Crimea (1783) and waged successful campaigns against the Ottoman Empire and her cousin Gustav III of Sweden. She aimed to rule as an enlightened despot and she read widely and corresponded with the main figures of the French enlightenment (at the Russian Court French was the main language spoken) including Voltaire, Diderot and D'Alembert, though she strongly opposed the French revolution and declared six weeks of mourning in Russia after the execution of Marie-Antoinette. Upon her accession in 1762 she published a manifesto inviting foreigners to move to Russia, even offering to help pay with relocation costs. She encouraged the studies of economics and science, she wrote a manual for the education of children based on the ideas of John Locke and the Hermitage was founded with her personal collection of art and other objects. Voltaire called her the Semiramis of Russia after the Babylonian Queen. She died from a stroke at the age of 67 in November 1796, the same year that the elderly Chinese Emperor Qianlong abdicated in favour of his son Jiaqing. References: porcelain from this service of 1785: Howard & Ayers 1978, Vol II, p455, No 461, a dinner plate; a tureen and stand sold at Christie’s in 1964; a fruit plate exhibited at The China Institute, New York, 1973-4 (Cat 54); Coleman Brawer 1992, p53, pl29; porcelain from the earlier service: Hervouet & Bruneau 1986, p332. No 14.23, a dinner plate; Beurdeley 1962, p199, cat 210, a dinner plate from the Pierre Blazy Collection; Le Corbeiller 1974, pp110-112, a dinner plate from the earlier service and a fruit plate from this service, fig 60; Arapova & Menshikova et al. 2003, Cat 62 a dinner plate.
90 Dinner Plate Qianlong period circa 1782 English Market Diameter: 9 inches; 23cm A Chinese export armorial porcelain dinner plate decorated in sepia and grisaille with a central roundel with various putti playing with baskets of fruits and flowers within a foliate-shaped rim, the cavetto with a painted border of acanthus leaves and darts, the rim with floral swags and ribbons and an armorial crest of a marten. This design is taken from one of the Four Seasons (Summer) by Giovanni Battista Cipriani (17271785), engraved by Francesco Bartolozzi (1727-1815) and published by Pergolesi in London, 1782. Cipriani settled in England in 1755 arriving from Rome with his good friend Joseph Wilton and may have been inspired by Francois Boucher (1703-1770) who did a similar series of the seasons, which were engraved by Claude Duflos (1700-1786) some of whose engravings are also known on Chinese Export Porcelain. Cipriani died at Hammersmith in London and was buried at Chelsea, where Bartolozzi erected a monument to his memory. It would seem that this plate is part of an armorial service as there is an heraldic crest of a marten. Howard (1974) suggests that this could be a rebus on the family name of Martin but he has not found any particular family that ordered such a service. Plates are also known with the design Autumn from the series but Spring and Winter remain to be discovered, if they were used at all. The service included many elaborate items including pierced baskets and vases with pierced covers. The Autumn design is also known on Wedgewood pearlware.
References: Howard 1974, p335, the service is discussed; Howard & Ayers 1978, p376, a plate; Beurdeley 1962, No 63a/b, p128, vases with pierced covers and an illustration of the Bartolozzi engraving; HervouĂŤt & Bruneau 1986, p320, two plates fig 13.97 (Autumn) and fig 13.96 (Summer); Veiga 1989, p180, a dinner plate ; Cohen & Cohen 2006, p64, a bowl with two medallions with the Bartolozzi engraving (Summer) and with further decoration copying that found around the image in the prints; Sargent 2012, p340, No 182, a dinner plate with Summer; Phillips 1956, pp164-5, figs 55 and 75, items with the Autumn designs and an example of the Wedgewood pearlware; Conner 1986, Cat 127, a plate with circular rim and the Autumn design; Litzenberg 2003, No 196, a plate of octagonal form with Autumn.
details of prints by Bartolozzi after Cipriani, 1782, Summer, top and Autumn, right
91 Reticulated Dish Jiaqing period circa 1801 English Market Length: 10Âź inches; 26cm A Chinese export porcelain reticulated oval dish with the arms of the Honorable East India Company, the rim with a neo-classical border on pale brown. The Honorable English East India Company had been established by Act of Parliament, 1698, incorporating an earlier company established during the reign of Elizabeth I in 1599. This service was ordered for use by East India Company officers in India, possibly to celebrate these centenaries. Howard (1974) says that it was used by the Company in Bombay and Madras and that some Governors were known to have brought parts of it back to England when they completed their term of office. The border is inspired by a similar one in a pattern book of 1770 by Josiah Wedgwood and used on creamware for several decades. The small British coat of arms in one quadrant was adopted in 1801. References: an identical dish in the V&A, No 335J-1898, purchased in 1898 for ÂŁ13 10s, illustrated Kerr & Mengoni 2011, p9, plate 1; Howard 1974, p774, details of this service; Le Corbeiller 1974, p120, No 51, two similar dishes.
I don't believe that Nature's powers Have tied her hands or pinioned ours, By marking on the heavenly vault Our fate without mistake or fault. That fate depends on conjunctions Of places, persons, times, and tracks, And not on the functions Of more or less of quacks. Jean de la Fontaine (1621-95)
92 Massive Punchbowl Jiaqing period circa 1813-15 English Market Diameter: 21 inches; 53.5cm A massive Chinese export armorial porcelain punchbowl brightly decorated in rose mandarin palette with scenes of Chinese figures inside and out, with quatrefoil panels bearing two crests and a ribbon with the motto: MUNUS ET MONUMENTUM VICTORIA HENRY VIII SPURS 1513. The two crests are for the family of Clerke and the motto suggests that this very unusual bowl was made to commemorate the 300th anniversary of the Battle of Spurs in 1513 in which Sir John Clerke had captured the commander of one half of the French Army, Louis d’Orleans, Duke of Longueville. As a reward for this Henry VIII awarded him an augmentation to the Clerke arms, an extra ‘canton’ with a ram and fleurs-de-lys, which appears on a Chinese armorial service made in 1730. A descendant of Sir John was made a Baronet, of Hitcham, in 1660 and this bowl and a porcelain service were probably ordered by Sir William Clerke, 8th Bt. Sir William (1751-1818) was the younger brother of Sir Francis, 7th Bt, (aide-de-campe of General Burgoyne), who died at Saratoga in the American Colonial Rebellion. William was a Fellow of All Souls, Oxford, and Rector of Bury in Lancashire with a great interest in social health and an investor in agricultural schemes. He was robbed by his partners and died imprisoned for debt in the Fleet Prison, 1818. He married Byzantia Cartwright and his son, Sir William, 9th Bt, fought at the Battle of Waterloo. The Battle of Spurs took place on 16 August 1513 between the forces of Henry VIII allied with the Imperial forces defending the Pope against the French. The battle was a resounding defeat for the French and earned its name from the speed with which the French cavalry fled the battlefield. References: Howard 1974, p785, a meatdish from the service, with birds and insects and the same crests and motto - & p396, a service circa 1730 with the full coat of arms of Clerke including the augmentation.
detail of 1539 brass in Thame Church, Oxfordshire from the tomb of Sir John Clerke who fought at the Battle of Spurs
93 Pair of Massive Masonic Punchbowls Daoguang period circa 1823-7 English Market Diameter of each bowl: 22 inches; 56cm Provenance: from the Grand Master's Lodge since 1827, acquired by Bro. Robert Edwards in Canton. A pair of Chinese porcelain massive punchbowls decorated in the rose mandarin palette with scenes of scholars and sages, with other Chinese literary and philosophical scenes, the interior of each decorated with a medallion enclosing the Masonic arms of ‘Grand Masters Lodge No. 1’, this device repeated in panels on the sides; in original wood shipping crate. These large bowls are most unusual. The colour scheme is typical of the period and the execution is of the highest quality for this time. They are decorated with a complex scheme of Chinese scenes, as yet not fully identified but possibly specially commissioned to fit with Masonic ideas of the universality of their craft. Some of the calligraphy on the bowls is from Preface to the Poems Composed in the Orchid Pavilion, by the famous Jin Dynasty Sage of Calligraphy, Wang Xizhi (303-361), that was very popular in the Tang Dynasty. According to Williams & Davis 1957, they were acquired in Canton by Bro. Robert Edwards for the Grand Master’s Lodge, where they were recorded from 1827 until recently. The original crate is a remarkable and very rare survival. The wood is English spruce and the construction simple, probably the work of ship’s carpenters reusing materials on board. Robert Edwards could well have had this made specifically for these bowls and, when back in London, the bowls were kept in it between use at Masonic events; it bears the marks of successive maintenance and appears to have been relined later in the 19th century, in cloth similar to the oiled canvas used on ships, possibly recreating what had been there before. The crates resemble the remains of crates from the Diana cargo, a China trade wreck sunk 1817, (Alistair Gibson, pers. comm.) The carry-nets look to be original too, though nothing similar has survived for comparison. Prints of life on board ship from this date show such string bags used as hanging containers for sailors’ possessions.
Freemasonry is said to have its origins in the builders of Solomon’s temple, although in their present form they emerged in the 18th century. Some masons were involved in large trading companies and the merchant navy, particularly in the East India Companies. In 1813, the Lodges of England were combined together into two Grand Lodges, with Prince Augustus Frederick, Duke of Sussex, (a son of King George III) becoming Grand Master of the Premier Grand Lodge (No 1) (1813-43) and his brother Prince Edward Augustus, Duke of Kent as Grand Master of the Antient [sic] Grand Lodge. Augustus Frederick had theories that Freemasonry was pre-Christian and could serve the cause of humanity as a universal religion. These bowls would have fitted very well with his thinking and their order may well have been instigated by him. References: Jean McClure Mudge, Chinese Export Porcelain in North America, New York, 1986, pl. 373, a punchbowl of similar size decorated with Chinese figures in pavilion settings and a plaque containing details of the commission; E.M.P. Williams and Bernard Davis, A Revised History of the Lodge and List of Members 1756 to 1957, London, 1957, pp 78-79, details of provenance
Manuscripts/MS JM/F14, No 1, Lease of the Imperial Hong, a lease by Charles Magniac to Robert Edwards, Richard Markwick, William Lane and Aming, the English Company's Compradore, of a factory or houses to be rebuilt at Magniac's expense on the ground formerly occupied by Factories Nos 2, 3 and 4 of the Imperial Hong, Canton, for a period of ten years from the completion of the building(s), 6 February 1823.
Robert Edwards Robert Edwards was an English entrepreneur in the East India Company, in Canton from at least 1823 when he leased the site of the Imperial Hong from Charles Magniac (an Englishman of Huguenot origins also resident in Canton). It appears that Edwards and Charles Markwick ran a hotel here together. Later Edwards ran a hotel in the American Hong. Edwards was in China (Canton or Macau) until at least 1837. His business with Markwick ceased in July 1837: “Notice, 1st July 1837 – Mr John Smith has joined Charles Markwick to trade as commission agents, warehouse keepers and auctioneers under the style Markwick & Smith at 3 Imperial Hong. The previous business of Markwick, Edwards & Co is closed.” His activities appear in local newspapers. He wrote a letter, 31 Jan 1837, defending against criticism of his postal service on the Pearl River: “ I do not distinguish or select letters. Nothing is intentionally delayed. Your criticism of my postal service was severe. Please publish this correction. Sgd Robert Edwards.” It was also announced on 18 April 1837: “Robert Edwards of 3 Imperial Hong has sold his auctioneering and warehousing business to Charles Mark-
wick w.e.f. 1st April 1837.” He continued as an auctioneer and on 25 April 1837 he announced: “Auction at Sir George B Robinson’s house near Penha Hill on Saturday 29th April of the contents of A P Boyd’s house on his departure from China. Signed Robert Edwards, auctioneer” In 10th October 1837 was published: “Letter to the Editor – I am the owner of the ferries Sylph, St George and Union. I established ferry boat services in China in 1826. My boats are not involved in smuggling. Everyone knows which two boats are used for smuggling, even How Qua knows, and they are not mine. My boats go up and down to Canton. They do not stop at Whampoa. Sgd Robert Edwards, 3rd October. (Editor – the original advertisement of ferry services in 1836 just said application was to be made to 1 British Hong for passages. It did not identify the owners of the other ferries Rose, Bombay or Jane as different. We will take Mr Edwards at his word.)” In fact Edwards did not originate ferry services. The first passage boat, the Sylph, was built by Alexander Robertson in 1824 for the use of himself and his friends, notwithstanding opposition from the Canton government.
Games of Bowls (2014A)
As is often the case with producing catalogues to a deadline we sometimes find that new discoveries about pieces emerge after printing!
p100, No 69
We would like to share some new discoveries here:
Set of 16 Dinner plates (one illustrated) Qianlong period circa 1745 European market Diameter: 9 inches; 23cm
Hit & Myth (2014B) p5, No 1 Ciborium Yongzheng period circa 1725 Spanish Colonial Market Height: 6 inches; 15cm This shape appears to be a ciborium - a con-
A remarkable set of 16 famille rose European subject dinner plates with an amorous couple, Acis and Galatea, the rim with puce panels reserved on a grisaille cell diaper.
tainer for the consecrated host when placed in a tabernacle in Roman Catholic ritual. It has a shallow depression in the interior for this. Most examples are taller but these compressed types are recorded in Spanish Colonial silver, copying earlier medieval examples such as the Malmesbury ciborium. Other items in Chinese export porcelain were also made for use in Catholic churches such as the holywater stoupes.
the Malmesbury ciborium, 12th century
Spanish colonial silver ciborium late 17th century
The scene is taken from a print by E Jeaurat in 1722, after a painting by C La Fosse (below right). The image was also used for a large tapestry, now in the Rijksmuseum, and it adds to a growing number of such designs that appeared both on Chinese porcelain and woven as a tapestries. Another engraving, also by Jeaurat, of the same subject after Georg Hertel is also known on Chinese export porcelain (below left).
engraving by E Jeaurat, circa 1740, after Johann Georg Hertel.
engraving by E Jeaurat, 1722, after C La Fosse.
Objects acquired from Cohen & Cohen are now in the following museum collections: British Museum, London Bristol Museum Jeffrye Museum, London Foundling Hospital Museum, London Groniger Museum, Groeningen East India Company Museum Lorient Adrien-DubouchĂŠ National Porcelain Museum, Limoges SĂ¨vres Ceramics Museum Peabody Essex Museum, Salem Mass. Kenton Foundation, California New Orleans Museum Of Art Virginia Museum Of Art, Richmond Va Minneapolis Museum Winterthur Museum Norton Museum of Art, Palm Beach Fl Los Angeles County Museum of Art The Tea Museum, Hong Kong Hong Kong Maritime Museum Nanchang University Museum The Mint Museum, Charlotte, North Carolina The Asian Civilisations Museum, Singapore
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