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Vol. 2 Field Studies

The St. Croix Estuary 1604 - 2004 The Environmental Health of the St. Croix Estuary after 400 Years Arthur MacKay, Jennifer Cameron, Mark Bader St. Croix Estuary Project Inc. March, 2003


The St. Croix Estuary 1604 - 2004 The Environmental Health of the St. Croix Estuary after 400 Years

Volume 2 of 2, Field Studies

Arthur MacKay, Jennifer Cameron, Mark Bader* * Currently with New Brunswick Department of Environment and Local Government, Saint John, N.B.

March 2003

St. Croix Estuary Project Inc. St. Stephen, N.B., Canada Occasional Report No. 03/2

Primary funding provided by:

Your Environmental Trust Fund at Work Votre Fonds en fiducie pour l’environnement au travail

Atlantic Coastal Action Plan Environment Canada

International Joint commission Commission mixte internationale


CONTENTS 1. INTRODUCTION 6. ANIMALS 1.1 Acknowledgements.....................................................................................1.1 1.2 Project Objectives........................................................................................1.1 2. METHODS 2.1 Sampling and Sampling Sites......................................................................2.1 2.2 Subtidal Transects.......................................................................................2.1 2.3 Intertidal Transects......................................................................................2.2 2.4 Abundance Criteria.....................................................................................2.2 2.5 Substrate and Zonation Criteria...................................................................2.2 2.6 Study Site Codes..........................................................................................2.2

6.1 PORIFERA - Sponges 6.1.1 Introduction...............................................................................................6.1 6.1.2 Regional Distribution................................................................................6.1 6.1.3 Sponges of Passamaquoddy Bay and St. Croix Estuary...........................6.1 6.1.4 Status of Sponges in the St. Croix Estuary...............................................6.1 6.2 CNIDARIA - Hydrois, Anemones, Jellyfish 6.2.1 Introduction...............................................................................................7.1 6.2.2 Regional Distribution................................................................................7.1 6.2.3 Cnidaria of Passamaquoddy Bay and St. Croix Estuary...........................7.1 6.2.4 Status of Cnidaria in the St. Croix Estuary...............................................7.1

3. STUDY AREA 3.1 Location.......................................................................................................3.1 4. PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENT 4.1 Physiography................................................................................................4.1 4.2 Geology........................................................................................................4.1 4.3 Climate and Meteorology.............................................................................4.4

5. OCEANOGRAPHY 5.1 Introduction..................................................................................................5.2 5.2 Bathymetry...................................................................................................5.2 5.3 Substrates.....................................................................................................5.2 5.4 Tides............................................................................................................5.5 5.5 Water Sources..............................................................................................5.5 5.6 Currents.......................................................................................................5.6 5.7 Light and Water Clarity................................................................................5.7 5.8 Temperature.................................................................................................5.7 5.9 Salinity........................................................................................................5.7 5.10 Waves and Erosion...................................................................................5.7

6.3 MOLLUSCA - Chitons, Gastropods, Bivalves 6.3.1 Introduction.............................................................................................6.13 6.3.2 Regional Distribution..............................................................................6.13 6.3.3 Mollusca of Passamaquoddy Bay and St. Croix Estuary........................6.13 6.3.4 Status of Mollusca in the St. Croix Estuary............................................6.13

6.4 ANNELIDA - Segmented Worms 6.4.1 Introduction.............................................................................................6.25 6.4.2 Regional Distribution..............................................................................6.25 6.4.3 Annelida of Passamaquoddy Bay and St. Croix Estuary........................6.25 6.4.4 Status of Annelida in the St. Croix Estuary............................................6.25 6.4.5 Recommended Action............................................................................6.25 6.5 ARTHROPODA - Sea Spiders,Crustaceans, Insects 6.5.1 Introduction.............................................................................................6.35 6.5.2 Regional Distribution..............................................................................6.35 6.5.3 Arthropods of Passamaquoddy Bay and St. Croix Estuary.....................6.35 6.5.4 Status of Arthropods in the St. Croix Estuary........................................6.35 6.5.5 Recommended Action............................................................................6.35


6.6 ECHINODERMATA - Sea Cucmbers, Urchins, Sand Dollar,Starfish, Brittlestars 6.6.1 Introduction.............................................................................................6.45 6.6.2 Regional Distribution..............................................................................6.45 6.6.3 Annelida of Passamaquoddy Bay and St. Croix Estuary........................6.45 6.6.4 Status of Annelida in the St. Croix Estuary............................................6.45 6.6.5 Recommended Action............................................................................6.45 6.7 MISCELLANEOUS PHYLA - Bryozoa, Worms, Brachiopods, Protochordates 6.7.1 Introduction.............................................................................................6.51 6.7.2Miscellaneous Phyla of Passamaquoddy Bay and St. Croix Estuary......6.51 6.7.3 Status of Annelida in the St. Croix Estuary............................................6.51 6.6.4 Recommended Action............................................................................6.51 6.8 PISCES - Marine resident and migrant fishes 6.8.1 Introduction.............................................................................................6.59 6.8.2 Fishes of Passamaquoddy Bay and St. Croix Estuary.............................6.61 6.8.4 Status of Annelida in the St. Croix Estuary............................................6.61 6.8.5 Recommended Action............................................................................6.61 7. PLANTS 7.1 Introduction.................................................................................................7.1 7.2 Regional Distribution..................................................................................7.1 7.4 Status of Marine Plants in the St. Croix Estuary.........................................7.1 7.5 Recommended Action.................................................................................7.1 8. WATER QUALITY 8.1 Status of Water Quality in the St.Croix Estuary...........................................8.1 8.2 Sources of Industrial Pollution in the St. Croix Estuary..............................8.1 9. SEDIMENTS 9.1 Status of Sediements in the St. Croix Estuary..............................................9.1 9.2 Using Redox and Sulphides for environmental Monitoring........................9.6 10. AIR 10.1 Status of Air Quality in the St. Croix River Valley..................................10.1 10.2 Sources of Air emmissions in the St. Croix River Valley........................10.1 0.3 SignificantAir-borne Emissions.................................................................10.2 REFERENCES..............................................................................................11.1 APPENDIX......................................................................................................CD


1. INTRODUCTION 1.1 Acknowledgements Primary funding for this study was provided by: Atlantic Coastal Action Program, Envrionment Canada (ACAP); New Brunswick Environmental Trust Fund (ETF); The International St. Croix River Board, International Joint Commission (IJC). Student staff funding was provided by Human Resource Development, New Brunswick’s SEED program, and Environment Canada’s Science Horizons.

The following individuals gave valuable advice and assistance: Environment Canada Colleen McNeill - Atlantic Costal Action Program Roy Parker

Dominator Environmental Diving Ltd provided a detailed survey of the estuary including underwater videos, Redox and Sulphide readings, and bottom sediment samples for later analysis.

NB Department of Environment and Local Government Jane Tims Nelda Craig Marianne Janowicz

Rick McConkey provided his boats for intertidal and subtidal transects as well as water quality sampling. Chris LeBlanc provide boat services for water quality sampling in 2002.

NB Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Aquaculture Karen Coombs

We would like to thank the following individuals for their assistance: Divers - Mark Bader, Karen MacKay, Tanya Leverette Transect surveyors - (2001) Jeff Hughes, Peter Fenety, Karen MacKay, Christa Carpenter, M. Doe, Mike Chamberlain. (2002) Jennifer Cameron, Art MacKay, Rick McConkey, Maria Seman, Lea McConkey, Stephen Raye, Tina Spires, Travis Allen, Karen MacKay. Office support - Peggy Ross, Mary Gilmore Water quality surveys - (2001) Mark Bader, Karen MacKay, Rick McConkey, Jeff Hughes, Peter Fenety; (2002) Bill McAlister, Barry Rimmer, Tina Spires, Rick McConkey, Jennifer Cameron, Art MacKay, Chris LeBlanc.

1.2 Project Objectives Many studies have been carried out in the St. Croix River Estuary over the past 100 years or so. In general, they had relatively narrow and project-specific objectives which were not related to measuring long-term change or assessing the environmental health of this ecosystem. Hopefully, this work will establish historic sampling sites, baseline data, scientific protocols, and mechanisms for measuring the relative health of the estuary on an ongoing annual basis. Once these protocols are in place, the next step will be to initiate restoration work. It is believed the tools developed during the course of this work will allow assessment of the success or failure of future remediation efforts. This was a multi-stage, two-year project designed to determine the current health of the St. Croix Estuary and the ecological trend in the estuary for the last 20 years. Tasks, deliverables, status, and deadlines for the two year term of the project are as follows for all funding agencies: 1-1


1) Collect historical and literature reference data - Publications, information, and data were assembled from a variety of sources including: individual authors, public and private libraries, publications on internet sites, the DFO library in St. Andrews, members of the project advisory committee, local historians and naturalists, and others. SCEP’s Environmental Technician Jennifer Cameron undertook the primary bibliographic review. Documents were purchased where possible. Other documents were copied, bound, and introduced into the SCEP library. As a result of this effort, SCEP now has an extensive resource specializing in the St. Croix Estuary and Passamaquoddy Bay Region. Total acquisitions now at hand number over 2,000 titles that can be reviewed at http://www.scep.org/library. 2) Advisory Committee - New Brunswick Department of Environment and Local Government (NBDELG) partners for this project recommended that an advisory committee of regional experts in areas of estuarine ecology and chemistry be organized. An advisory committee, composed of representatives for DELG, was formed and met, in person and by phone, on several occasions to discuss on-going protocols as well as future initiatives for the project. Other experts were contacted for input on an individual basis. 3) Staff Training - Field Staff were primarily trained in-house by Arthur MacKay and Jennifer Cameron. Dr. G. Pohle of the ARC (Atlantic Reference Centre) at the Huntsman Marine Science Centre, St. Andrews, provided an overview of intertidal biodiversity monitoring protocols for staff and volunteers in 2001. Jennifer Cameron and Tina Spires attended a training session at Acadia University where they learned identification and sampling techniques for freshwater invertebrates to be sampled and identified under a National water quality assessment program, the Canadian Aquatic Biomonitoring Network (CABIN). 1-2

Training for bacterial monitoring and sampling was carried out inhouse. Analyses were undertaken at the Environment Canada Water Quality Lab in Moncton, N.B., and at the XRAL laboratory in Saint John, N.B.. The need for other training useful to the project, such as SCUBA certification, small vessel safety, first aid and WHMIS training, was addressed by selecting candidates with the required training and experience or by providing such training from external sources. Technician Jennifer Cameron and Executive Assistant Peggy Ross received certification for Canadian Red Cross’s CPR “C” Standard First Aid at New Brunswick Community College, St. Andrews, N.B. in April 2002 4.) Water and sediment analyses - Sampling was carried out by SCEP volunteers, staff, and by Dominator Environmental Diving Ltd. staff. Field measurements were taken for a variety of parameters. Analyses were carried out in the field and by the Environment Canada Water Quality Lab in Moncton and the XRAL laboratory in Ontario. 5) Survey Protocols - A survey was made of existing protocols for classifying estuaries and these were reviewed with a view to designing protocols that are easy to use by knowledgeable volunteers as well as professionals, are affordable to implement, and are acceptable by both US and Canadian partners. The protocols for intertidal and subtidal work have been developed. There was considerable interest in testing the redox/sulfide techniques being used by the New Brunswick Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Aquaculture to assess the sea floor beneath aquaculture cage sites. This sampling technique was tested. The overall objective was to produce an estuarine classification system that will augment the highly successful inland water classification program that is currently in place. References and data were collected that will serve as the foundation for a recommended classification system.


 6) Implement multi-stage sampling programs - Transects were chosen in ten study zones located in the Estuary from Passamaquoddy Bay at St. Andrews to the towns of St. Stephen and Calais. For analytical purposes, these coincided as much as possible with other survey work that was completed in 1977-78. It was envisioned that all sampling would take place along these transects forming 10 threedimensional cross-sectional zones (intertidal on each end, sub-tidal in the middle, and water quality data collected from stations across the Estuary). Sampling took place over two field seasons as follows: a) Sub-Tidal Benthic - The contract called for a total of 20 samples to be collected over two years (40 total), four replicates taken at five of the ten transects. In 2001, subtidal samples were taken at 8 of the 10 study areas. Two planned dives on the U.S. side of the Estuary were cancelled due to the September 11th tragedy but were run in 2002. Approximately 80 stations were sampled at each study site for a total of 640 sample stations overall. Bottom sediment samples were also taken at approximately 100 stations. Dominator Environmental Diving provided videos for 22 intertidal transects and 33 mid-estuary spot dives. These were analysed by SCEP staff. b) Intertidal - Intertidal sampling was carried out in the 10 study areas on both sides of the Estuary. Qualitative and quantitative counts for resident flora and fauna were taken from more than 236 quadrats located at various levels on the beach. c) Water Quality - Water quality sampling was carried out in and adjacent to each of the 10 sampling zones as detailed in this report. Chemical analyses were carried out on an estimated 20 samples by XRAL Laboratories. An additional 30 bottom samples were taken across the estuary within each of the 10 zones. Funds were not available for analysis and these samples were frozen and stored for later processing.

d) Bacterial Monitoring - As in previous years, Bacterial samples were taken in conjunction with clam monitoring programs at 5 stations for clams and 9 stations for water in Oak Bay. In all, 45 clam meat samples and 99 marine overlay samples were collected and shipped to Moncton for analysis in bringing about a conditional opening in Oak Bay for clam harvest on two occasions Another 110 marine overlay samples were collected in Maine from Calais to Robbinston as part of the state shellfish beach classification program. Because of the focus on the Oak Bay and lower Estuary area, no bacterial sampling had been done in the upper Estuary. Consequently, 2002 sampling were concentrated in the upper Estuary. It was hoped that analyses would be made for Enterococcus spp., an organism important for some estuarine classification protocols. Funding levels did not allow for these analyses e) Other Pollutants - A number of existing studies show historic levels for metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, butyl-tins, dioxins and furans etc. Funds were not available to do analyses for PAHs and related chemicals. However, metal analyses were obtained for samples taken in or near the 10 Sampling Zones. In addition to planned fieldwork, a preliminary field survey was conducted to determine the sites of elevated pollution input to the Estuary. These were identified and will be “flagged� elsewhere in a separate report. 7) Establish criteria for determining estuary health - An analysis was undertaken to determine the 20-year trend of the health of the St. Croix Estuary. In addition, a classification system is presented separately for the estuary based upon water chemistry, biology, and physical parameters. This classification system will be used, in part, to determine the location and extent of future remediation within the estuary. 1-3


1-4


2. METHODS 2.1 Sampling and Sample Sites. Site data were compiled by the staff and volunteers of St. Croix Estuary project Inc. during the summer field seasons of 2001 and 2002. Transects, shore collection and observation, dip nets, minnow seines, core samplers, and diving were used to sample the flora and fauna . Identifications were confirmed using a number of references including: Miner (1950), Gosner (1978), Brinkhurst & Linkletter (undated), South (1981), and others. Location of sites for shore examination, spot dives or transects was considered to be critical. Since the number of study sites were limited by time and cost, it was essential that these sites be representative of the Sudy Zone and provide reasonable coverage. In addition, they should allow for replication of sampling in subsequent years. Since the senior author had surveyed the St. Croix Estuary in 1977-78, it was possible to choose sites for detailed examination on the basis of known information and to obtain data that were more representative of the Zone than would be true with randomly selected sites.

A

B

C

Water quality sites were located within each of the ten Study Zones. Subtidal sediment assessments for redox and sulphides was carried out within each of the 10 Study Zones; 3 samples from each of the two 150 meter transects on both sides of the Estuary and 1 from the deep water between the tansects.

D

Study Zones and Sites are shown in Figure 2.1 2.2 Subtidal Transects. All subtidal information was collected and recorded by divers and through analysis of videos taken by divers. In 2001, subtidal data were collected by teams of SCEP divers working from a local boat operated by Rick McConkey. Recordings of depth were taken from underwater depth gauges checked against measured depths. Underwater observations were recorded in pencil

E Figure 2.2 Sampling methods used in the survey. A. Subtidal diving technique. B. One of the boats used for water quality and sediment sampling. C. Quadrates on an intertidal transect. D. Training sampling teams. E. High water start to an intertidal transect. 2.1


on waterproof paper. Where quantitative data were required, a quadrate was placed on the bottom and the numbers of organisms within this square were counted. Upon completion of the dive, the diver was debriefed using a special Site Data Form. The technique used was similar to that shown in Figure 2.2

This activity was carried out along the length of the transect line from low water to the outer depth. When data were required beyond the outer limit of the transect line, spot dives were made at various depths at sites recorded by GPS. A “shot line� was generally used with a stand-by diver acting as safety man.

In 2002, all subtidal data were collected by a team of divers from Dominator Environmental Diving of Saint John. For many years this company has provided environmental assessments of the bottom under aquaculture sites and has provided a classification of these sites based on macrofauna, macroflora, redox, sulphide and the presence or absence of bacterial and fungal mats.

2.3 Intertidal Transects.

Transect sites were established in each of the Study Zones. Two 150 meter transects were run in each Zone; one on the Canadian side of the Estuary and one on the American side. Spot dives were made at three mid-estuary sites for each transect set. Divers entered the water at a site chosen by GPS and dove directly to the bottom where they recorded the bottom type, flora, fauna, depth and condition. They recorded the dive on video and took core samples from which they measured redox and sulphides. All samples were subsequnetly frozen for later analysis. The dive team usually consisted of two divers, a dive-tender, and boat operator-debriefer. The divers were responsible for examination of the transect area, recording of data, and the collection of specimens. The dive tender was responsible for deploying and picking up the diving team and insuring their safety on the surface. The boat operator-debriefer was responsible for maintaining the support vessel, recording the dive site data, and debriefing the divers at the conclusion of each dive to insure that the maximum amount of information was obtained. Two divers entered the water at the anchor line or outer marker buoy and proceeded to dive to the other end of the transect line. Numbered markers, at 3 meter intervals, on the 150 meter transect line indicated each station on the line. At each station, the diver recorded the depth, substrate, and organisms. Where quantitative data were required, a quadrate was placed at the station and counts were made within the square. Any distinct change in substrate or faunal composition which occurred between stations was also recorded. 2.2

Intertidal areas were sampled by running a marked 150 meter transects from high water to low water. Where the transect was longer than the line, the line was moved to the end of the first transect portion, and so on until low water was reached. Sampling and recording was done within two quadrates placed and sampled on either side of the transect at each marked station (Figure 2.2). Water and sediment samples were taken by field teams operating from shore or boat. Samples were taken and delivered in containers specified by the analytical labratory. 2.4 Abundance Criteria. Counts were made for some species and estimated of present, common, and abundant were used for others as indicated in Table 2.1. 2.5 Substrate and Zonation Criteria. Criteria for substrate type and zonation are well established for the Bay of Fundy. Standards shown in Figures 2.3 and 2.4 were used during this study. 2.6 Study Site Codes. Different field codes were used in 2001 and 2002. These have been converted to a common code as shown in Table 2.2


Sampling Sites - 2001 - 2002

Study Zone Intertidal Transect Subtidal Transect

Figure 2.1 Study Zones, transects and sampling sites established in the St. Croix Estuary. 2.3


Table 2.1 Abundance criteria used in this study. Species PLANTS 1. Marsh Plants

scattered plants

-50% coverage

+50% coverage

2. Lichens 3. Enteromorpha

scattered plants scattered patches

-50% coverage -50% coverage

+50% coverage +50% coverage

4. Ulva 5. Agarum 6. Alaria 7. Ascophyllum 8. Fucus 9. Spongomorpha 10. Chondrus 11. Corallina

scattered patches 1-3 1-3 scattered plants scattered plants scattered plants scattered plants scattered plants

-50% coverage 3-10 3-10 -50% coverage -50% coverage -50% coverage -50% coverage -50% coverage

+50% coverage +10 +10 +50% coverage +50% coverage +50% coverage +50% coverage +50% coverage

12. Gigartina 13. Halosaccion 14. Lithothamnion 15. Polysiphonia 16. Porphyra 17. Palmeria

scattered plants scattered plants scattered patches scattered patches scattered patches scattered patches

-50% coverage -50% coverage -50% coverage -5/plant -50% coverage -50% coverage

+50% coverage +50% coverage +50% coverage +5/plant +50% coverage +50% coverage

ANIMALS 1. Chalina 2. Halichondria 3. Iophon 4. Encrusting Sponge

1/Station 1/Station 1-2/Station

2-3/Station 2-3/Station 2-10/Station

+3/Station +3/Station +10/Station

5. Complex Sponge

scattered patches 1-2/Station

-50% coverage 3-5/Station

+50% coverage +5/Station

6. Antennularia 7. Bunodactis 8. Corymorpha 9. Hydractinia 10. Metridium 11. Obelia

1-10/Station 1/Station 1-5/Station 1 colony/Station 1-5/Station scattered patches

10-20/Station 2-3/Station 5-20/Station 2-3 colonies/Station 5-20/Station -50% coverage

+20/Station +3/Station +20/Station +3/Station +20/Station +50%coverage

2.4

Present

Common

Abundant

Species 12. Tealia 13. Tubularia 14. Amphitrite 15. Arenicola 16. Capitella 17. Clymenella 18. Lepidonotus 19. Discocelides 20. Lineus 21.Nephthys 22. Nereis 23. Polycirrus 24. Potamilla 25. Procerodes 26. Balanus 27. Cancer 28. Carcinus 29. Corophium 30. Crangon 31. Gammarus 32. Homarus 33. Hyas 34. Libinia 35. Idotea 36. Mysis 37. Neomysis 38. Orchestia 39. Pagurus 40. Pandalus 41. Acmaea

Present 1-2/Station scattered patches 1-2/Station 1-2/Station 1-20/Station 1-20/Station 1-2/Station 1-5/Station 1-5/Station 1/Station 1/Station 1/Station 1-10/Station 1-25/Station scattered individuals 1/Station 1/Station 1-50/Station 1-20/Station 1-20/Station 1/Station 1/Station 1/Station 1-5/Station 1-20/Station 1-20/Station 1-20/Station 1/Station 1-10/Station 1-10/Station

Common 3-5/Station -50% coverage 3-5/Station 3-10/Station 21-50/Station 21-50/Station 2-5/Station 5-20/Station 5-20/Station 2-5/Station 2-5/Station 2-5/Station 1-20/Station 25-100/Station -50% coverage 2-3/Station 2-3/Station 50-100/Station 20-40/Station 20-40/Station 2-3/Station 2-3/Station 2-3/Station 5-10/Station 20-40/Station 20-40/Station 20-40/Station 2-3/Station 10-30/Station 10-30/Station

Abundant +5/Station +50% coverage +5/Station +10/Station +50/Station +50/Station +5/Station +20/Station +20/Station +5/Station +5/Station +5/Station +20/Station +100/Station +50% coverage +3/Station +3/Station +100/Station +40/Station +40/Station +3/Station +3/Station +3/Station +10/Station +40/Station +40/Station +40/Station 3+/Station +30/Station +30/Station


Table 2.1 (continued) Abundance criteria used in this study. Mud to Sand Species 42. Anomia 43. Arctica 44. Astarte 45. Buccinum 46. Colus 47. Crepiduls 48. Hiatella 49. Ischnochiton 50. Littorina 51. Lunatia 52. Macoma 53. Mya 54. Mytilus 55. Modiolus 56. Nudibranchs 57. Neptunea 58. Nassarius 59. Placopecten 60. Thais 61. Asterias 62. Crossaster 63. Henricia 64. Ophiopholis 65. Psolus 66. Strongylocentrotus

Present 1-10/Station ? 1-5/Station 1/Station 1/Station 1/Station 1-5/Station 1-5/Station 1-20/Station 1/Station 1-10/Station 1-10/Station 1-20/Station 1-5/Station 1/Station 1/Station 1-10/Station 1-5/Station 1-5/Station 1-10/Station 1/Station 1/Station 1-3/Station 1-3/Station

Common 10-30/Station ? 5-10/Station 2-5/Station 2-5/Station 2-5/Station 5-10/Station 5-10/Station 20-40/Station 2-3/Station 10-20/Station 10-20/Station 20-40/Station 5-10/Station 2-5/Station 2-5/Station 20-40/Station 5-10/Station 5-10/Station 10-20/Station 2-3/Station 2-3/Station 3-10/Station 3-10/Station

Abundant +30/Station ? +10/Station +5/Station +5/Station +5/Station +10/Station +10/Station +40/Station +3/Station +20/Station +20/Station +40/Station +10/Station +5/Station +5/Station +40/Station +10/Station +10/Station +20/Station +3/Station +3/Station +10/Station +10/Station

67. Bryozoans 68. Flustra

1-20/Station scattered patches 1-5/Station

20-50/Station -50% coverage 5-10/Station

+50/Station +50% coverage +10/Station

69. Terebratulina

1-10/Station

10-50/Station

+50/Station

70. Boltenia

1-5/Station

5-10/Station

+10/Station

2-5/Station

+5/Station

71. Dolichlioglossus 1/Station

Pebble Cobble Boulder Bedrock

Figure 2.3 Graphic representation of substrate types.

Lichen Zone Fucus Zone

Ascophyllum Zone

Red Alga Zone Laminarian Zone Lithothamnion Zone Figure 2.4 Typical intertidal and shallow subtidal zones in the outer Bay of Fundy. 2.5


Table 2.2 Study Zones, intertidal transects, subtidal transects, location, field numbers ,and survey crew, 2001 and 2002

STUDY ZONE

SITE # I=Intertidal S=Subtidal

LOCATION

FIELD #

TEAM

ZONE A I-1 I-2 I-3 I-4 S-1 S-2 S-3

Indian Point Navy Island Pottery Cove Mill Cove Navy Island-Mill Cove Niger Reef Indian Point

Transect 9 LE5C Transect 8 LE5A #14 Site 5 Site 6

Hughes, K.MacKay, Doe K. MacKay, Spires Hughes, K.MacKay, Fenety Cameron, Seman Dominator Bader, K.MacKay Bader, Tanya

I-1 I-2 I-3 S-1 S-2

Brandy Cove Maise Farm Robbinston Boat Landing near Brandy Cove Maine to NB shore

LE10C Transect 5 LE10A Site 4 #12

A. MacKay, McConkey Hughes, K.MacKay, Fenety A.MacKay, McConkey Bader, K.MacKay Dominator

I-1 I-2 S-1

Lamb Cove Johnson Cove Maine to NB shore

LE15A LE15C #11

Cameron, Allen Cameron, Allen Dominator

I-1 I-2 I-3 S-1 S-2

Red Beach Sand Point Ford Point near Sand Point Maine to NB shore

Transect 2 LE20C LE30A Site 7 #10

Fenety, Hughes K. MacKay, Raye Cameron, Seman Bader, K.MacKay Dominator

ZONE B

ZONE C

ZONE D

2.6


STUDY ZONE

SITE # I=Intertidal S=Subtidal

LOCATION

FIELD #

TEAM

ZONE E I-1 I-2 I-3 I-4 S-1 S-2 S-3

Devil’s Head Todd’s Point Todd’s Point Hill’s Point Todd’s Point to Devil’s Head Todd’s Point to Hill’s Point Hill’s Point

UE5A Site 1 Site 3 OB5E #5 #9 Site 2

Cameron, Seman Hughes, K.MacKay, Fenety Hughes, K.MacKay, Fenety Fenety, Hughes Dominator Dominator Bader, K.MacKay

I-1 I-2 S-1 S-2

Campbell Point Hill’s Point Bar Campbell Pt. to Hill’s Pt.bar Oak Bay shore to shore

OB10W OB10E #8 #9

Cameron, Allen A.MacKay, McConkey Dominator Dominator

I-1

Oak Bay Causeway

Tansect 10

Hughes, K.MacKay, Fenety

I-1 I-2 S-1

Stone House Ledge Loop Maine to NB shore

UE10E Transect 7 #4

Cameron,Semans (2002) Hughes, K. MacKay, Fenety Dominator

I-1 S-1

Across from Lenintines auto UE15C Maine to NB shore #3

A.MacKay, McConkey Dominator

I-1 S-1

Calais Golf Course Maine to NB shore

K.MacKay, Spires Dominator

ZONE F

ZONE G ZONE H

ZONE I

ZONE J UE15A #1

2.7


2.8


3. STUDY AREA 3.1. Location The St. Croix River Estuary is located at the northwest corner of Passamaquoddy Bay at the western mouth of the Bay of Fundy in Charlotte County, New Brunswick, Canada. (Figure 3.1)

Figure 3.1 Location of the Study Area in the Bay of Fundy

3.1


3.2


4. PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENT 4.1 Physiography The St. Croix River Estuar/Passamaquoddy Bay area is a drowned shoreline with an indented coast reflecting the bedrock geology and structure of the region. The main features were shaped by glacial ice and the Estuary undoubtedly held a valley glacier that may have extended into Western and Head Harbour Passages (Forgeron, 1959). The coastline is generally rugged with numerous small mountains reaching heights of 600 feet. General features, place names, topography, and bathymetry are shown in Figure 4.1.

area since 1870. He reports that after a network of seismograph stations was installed in southeastern Maine in 1975, an average of 7 earthquakes per year had been recorded with a magnitude range of 1 to 3.2. A search of the Canadian National Seismological Database for dates between 1800 and October 1,1999 found 77 earthquakes for the region (44.5ยบN to 45.5ยบN; 66.5ยบW to 67.5ยบW). Twelve unlisted events found by scanning of local newspapers await evaluation for inclusion in the database.

4.2 Geology

The largest historically reported event in this region was in the early morning hours (2:04 am. local time) on March 21st, 1904, when a strong earthquake was felt throughout the Maritime provinces, the St. Lawrence Lowlands and the New England states. Minor damage to buildings was reported from several communities along the coasts of New Brunswick and Maine and chimneys were thrown down at St. Stephen in southwestern New Brunswick and Eastport in southeastern Maine. Using the area within the IV isoseismal, Leblanc and Burke (1985) estimated a felt area IV magnitude of 5.9.

1) Glaciation - The valley glacier that originated in the St. Croix River Estuary cut across the northeastern structural trend of the bedrock (Cumming, 1967) and evidence of glaciation is common throughout the area. Directions of striae range from south 50 degrees west to south 64 degrees east and fall into at least two sets, an older set trending southerly and a younger southeast set. Drift and deposits of stratified outwash gravels are commonly found throughout the area (Alcock, 1945). 2) Bedrock Geology - The bedrock geology has been well documented and is summarized in Figure 4.2. 3) Surficial Geology - Surficial geology is dominated by glacial deposits as shown in Figure 4.3. 4) Faults - Faults occur around the margin of the Bay as shown in Figure 4.4. 5) Earthquakes - Burke (2000) writes: Passamaquoddy Bay was identified as a seismically active region by Barosh (1981), who stated that more than 50 earthquakes had been reported from the

An earthquake at 5:45 am on October 22nd, 1869 was found to have a similar isoseismal map to the 1904 earthquake. This earthquake was relocated to Passamaquoddy Bay and given a magnitude of 5.7. Minor damage to chimneys and walls were reported from a widespread distribution of communities; e.g. Eastport in southeastern Maine, Fredericton and Woodstock in central New Brunswick, Newcastle (Miramichi City) in northern New Brunswick and Saint John, along the southern coast of New Brunswick. A May 22nd, 1817 event was for many years assigned to a central Maine location, but a study of newspaper and journal accounts by Leblanc and Burke (1985) clearly identifies this as another Passamaquoddy Bay earthquake. The same study assigned a 4.1


Figure 4.1 Physiography of the St. Croix Estuary showing general features, place names, topography, and bathymetry. 4.2


magnitude between 4.5 and 5. Newspapers and diaries of the day gave accounts of violent shaking of houses from Calais in southern Maine, Grand Manan Island in the Bay of Fundy and St. Stephen in southwestern New Brunswick, but no damage was reported. Plots of epicentres on a geological map of the Passamaquoddy Bay region in the 1970s suggested that earthquake activity might be related to movement on the Oak Bay Fault (Rast et al.,1979). This north to northwest trending fault offsets Silurian and Devonian rock units with a regional strike direction of northeast and shows a major discontinuity in aeromagnetic and gravity contours associated with these units. However, a Triassic dyke that crosses the fault in the St. Croix River is not offset by the Oak Bay Fault, showing that there has been no recent movement along the fault. Glacial striations checked at twenty-four locations showed no sign of postglacial displacement and no disturbances of Quaternary sediments were found along the faults examined on land. However, a marine geophysical survey, in 1988, did map pock marks and plumose structures on the bottom of Passamaquoddy Bay and the northwestern alignment of some of the pock marks is associated with northwest trending faults. Recent movement along these faults may have allowed the release of gas that created the pock marks in the soft sediments. Other workers have related the earthquake activity to a general subsidence of Passamaquoddy Bay with accompanying minor movements on the faults in the area.

Figure 4.2 Bedrock geology of the St. Croix river Estuary - Passamaquoddy Bay area.

6) Mining - With the exception of an aggregate excavation operation at the Bayside Port in the St. Croix River Estuary, there is little coastal mining activity in the area at the present time. However, current prospecting activities show promising results for a number of minerals, including gold. It is likely that coastal operations will be started in the future and this could influence the marine resources of the area. Claims located at Oak Bay as of January 2003 are shown in Figure 4.5.

Figure 4.3 Surficial geology of the St. Croix Estuary. 4.3


Figure 4.4 Faults of the St. Croix Estuary and Passamaquoddy Bay

Figure 4.5 Mineral claims located in the vicinity of Oak Bay. DNRE Map, January 2003.

4.3 Climate and Meteorology The area is influenced by a north-temperate marine climate that is characterized by warmer winter temperatures and cooler summer temperatures than inland, extensive periods of summer fog, and strong fall and winter winds.

produces several local peculiarities and two general air masses meet in the area: a continental air mass which moves in from the west and an Atlantic air mass which moves in from the ocean. The result can be rapid local changes in cloud conditions, temperatures, humidity, and winds. Fog occurs frequently in spring and summer and results in cooler temperatures over the water.

The climate of the St. Croix Estuary and Passamaquoddy Bay is similar to that of the Bay of Fundy. The proximity to land, however,

Large daily temperature shifts can occur and in winter these sometimes exceed 20 Celsius degrees. Similarly, spring weather

4.4


Table 4.1 Climate Normals for Saint Andrews, N.B. for the period 1874 to 1990 (Environment Canada).

4.5


Figure 4.7 Long-term average percentage of days with fog at Eastport, Maine. (MacKay, 1978)

Figure 4.6 Extent of winter ice in the St. Croix River Estuary.

is highly changeable being generally cool but often switching to summer-like weather in a short time. Fall is generally a stable, pleasant period with a gradual transition into winter. Snow usually starts in October or November, becoming more frequent as the season progresses and declining after March. Permanent frost occurs between December and April. Passamaquoddy Bay remains open during the winter and provides good winter conditions for shipping and general boat activities. In recent years, the St. Croix Estuary has remained open due to mild winter temperatures. However, during severe winters, such as 20022003, ice may extend to St. Croix Island as shown in Figure 4.6. 4.6

Warmer sea water is created by the large tidal range and the intense vertical mixing in the waters of the Passamaquoddy and West Isles marine areas. As a result, there is very little ice formation in the Bay, although it does occur in the deeper bays and estuaries and shores do ice up during very cold periods. Historical summaries for are provided in Table 4.1 for Saint Andrews, N.B. for the period 1874 to 1990. a) Air Temperature. The average annual temperature in Passamaquoddy Bay is very constant at approximately 5째C. The warmest period is generally between July and August and the coldest is between January and mid-February. Thomas (1983)


Figure 4.8 Comparison of hours of fog at Head Harbour, Campobello and Gannet Rock, Grand Manan. (MacKay, 1978)

quotes recordings from ships showing seasonal means as follows: February, -3째C; May, 8째C; August, 14째C; November, 6째C. b) Precipitation. Precipitation occurs on about 160 days per year and averages about 1400 mm per year. About 75% of this is rain and the balance is snow or snow equivalents (Thomas, 1983). See Table 4.1 for summaries from Saint Andrews, N.B. c) Fog. Fog is most intense during the spring and early summer with July generally being the worst month. During the period May to August, 10-14 days per month are foggy, while this drops to 2-4 days per month during the winter. Fog is most common during mild

Figure 4.9 One-year wind rose from an aquaculture site at Deer Island, showing typical regional wind directions. (MacKay, 1981)

weather or with low velocity southerly breezes which cause offshore banks to move into Passamaquoddy Bay through Big Letete, Little Letete and Western Passages. This influences the lower St. Croix Estuary, but has little effect on the mid and upper Estuary regions. During the summer it is common for the continental air mass to force fog banks out of the Bay during the day, but they generally return quickly at sunset. Figure 4.7 shows long-term average percentage of days with fog at Eastport, Maine. Heavy coastal fog occurs in this area annually for an average of 50 to 90 days (Putnam, 1940). 4.7


Gaskin (1979) analysed the daily movement of fog banks in the vicinity over a 9 year period. A major feature of the fog in Head Harbour is the mobility of the fog banks, which may persist for days in the offshore region, especially in the early part of the summer season. He also recorded the percentage of days with some fog present. These were: May - 37%, June - 32% July - 33%, August 34%. Long-term averages from Eastport, including winter “sea fog” or “vapour”, show similar trends. An interesting comparison of the Gannet Rock fog alarm at Grand Manan and the Head Harbour fog alarm shows that the area has somewhat less fog than Grand Manan, but the pattern is very similar (Figure 4.8). d) Wind. The predominant winds in the study area are southwesterly in summer and northwesterly in winter. A one-year wind rose from an aquaculture site at Richardson Harbour, a short distance away, shows prevailing winds at Lord’s Cove. Deer Island (Figure 4.9). Northwesterly winter winds are often strong and characterised by clear weather. Summer southwesterlies are usually gentle but bring fog. Southeasterlies are generally accompanied by precipitation. The jet stream face often passes through the area producing great variations in wind pattern and variable weather. Winds accompanying certain depressions start from the northeast and back to the northwest, producing very cold conditions in winter. Gale force winds (force 8, 34 knots, 63 km/hr, or more) occur at sea 10% to 15% of the time during the winter months but are extremely rare in summer. Winds of 70 kn (129 km/h) have been recorded at Eastport and those over 87 kn (161 km/h) at Point Lepreau and Saint John (Thomas, 1983). Such storms can cause extensive damage. The average wind speed in the Bay is about 20 kn (38 km/h) in winter but closer to 10 kn (19 km/h) in summer. Storms or hurricanes of tropical origin occur occasionally during the late summer, but most move offshore or strike the United States coast further to the south. See Table 4.1 for summaries from Saint Andrews, N.B. e) Sunshine. Overcast conditions of 0.8 to 1.0 sky cover at coastal stations range from about 55% to 68% in winter and from 30% to 40% in summer. 4.8

f) Freshwater Resources. Numerous rivers and streams drain into the St. Croix Estuary and Passamaquoddy Bay as shown in Figure 4.10.


Figure 4.10 Freshwater Drainages in the St. Croix River - Passamaquoddy Bay Region. 4.9


4.10


5. OCEANOGRAPHY

DEPTHS are in metres and are reduced to Chart Datum (Lowest Normal Tide), which at Saint Andrews is 3.8 metres balow Geodetic Datum. ELEVATIONS, spot elevations and clearances are in metres above Higher High Water, Large Tide. Underlined figures on drying areas or in brackets against drying featuras are in metres above Chart Datum. Spot elevations in italic figures and topographic contours are in metres above Mean Sea Lavel. The contour interval is 20 metres. Elevations spot elevations and clearances in U.S.A. waters are in metres above Mean High Water. HORIZONTAL DATUM: North American Datum 1983 (NAD 83), which is equivalent to WGS 84. SOURCE: Based on Canadian Hydrographic Serice chart, 1:50,000 scale, Mercator Projection

Figure 5.1 Chart of the St. Croix River and Passamaquoddy Bay Coastal and oceanographic features of the area.

5.1


5.1 Introduction The St. Croix River Estuary extends from tidehead at Salmon Falls in St. Stephen (Milltown) to St. Andrews. It is the largest river flowing into Passamaquoddy Bay and its influence is felt well out into this body of water. The Upper Estuary, from Salmon Falls to The Ledge, is a typical river estuary. However, because of its configuration and topography, the Lower Estuary has more marine characteristics and closer ecological affinities with Passamaquoddy Bay and is considered by some to be a fjord. 5.2 Bathymetry Figures 5.1 and 5.2 show the bathymetry and general marine and oceanographic features of the St. Croix River Estuary and Passamaquoddy Bay. The Estuary has an average depth below low water of 38 ft. with channel depths reaching 100 - 130 feet. There are approximately 10 square miles of exposed intertidal area (Forgeron, 1959). Passamaquoddy Bay has an average depth of about 78 ft. It is shallow in the northern portion with the deepest areas being found to the south where depths reach 200-250 feet. The exposed intertidal area is approximately 51 square miles, with approximately 6 square miles of intertidal mudflat (Forgeron, 1950). 5.3 Substrates

Figure 5.2 Bathymetry of the St. Croix River Estuary. Adapted from MacKay, 1978. 5.2

Subtidally the St. Croix Estuary is dominated by mud with cobble, boulder bottom in scoured areas and occasional emergent ledges. Intertidally the shores are primarily mud with emergent ledge. There are a few sandy areas and mixed beaches of cobble, boulder, sand, and mud are relatively common. Figures 5.3, 5.4, and 5.5 show the three typical intertidal habitats.


Figure 5.3 Emergent intertidal ledge dominated by Asophyllum nodosum at Todd’s Point.

There are three generalized bottom profiles which are shown in Figure 5.6. The first (A) is a rocky intertidal shore dropping, subtidally, to a mud, sandy-mud or sandy bottom with emergent rocks and ledges. This is a relatively uncommon type found only where rocky bluffs drop to low water. The most common type of profile is ledge striking the shore relatively high in the intertidal area (B). The remaining intertidal area varies considerably from site to site but is usually mud or sand covered with cobble beach, boulders and emergent ledge grading to mud or sand near low water. The third type (C) is relatively uncommon and is found where on-shore sand or soil creates a sand or mud beach. Boulders which emerge from the soil or sand banks are often deposited at the high water mark. In all cases, rock and boulder is usually most common intertidally and the mud or sand grades gradually from relatively firm bottom to soft silty mud, subtidally at depths of 20 feet or more. Where currents have a great scouring effect, a “hardpan� type of bottom is formed

Figure 5.4 A typical mudflat at Oak Bay.

Figure 5.5 Sand and mixed beach at Sand Point, Bayside. The excavated area is a sand pit. 5.3


Figure 5.6 Three typical bottom profiles in the St. Croix River Estuary. Adapted from MacKay, 1978. 5.4


dominated by cobble and boulders. Bars are commonly found at locations where current and wave action promote their growth (MacKay, 1978). 5.4 Tides The semidiurnal tides in Passamaquoddy Bay have a 12.4 h cycle and are typical for the outer Bay of Fundy with a maximum range of 8.3 m. The great tidal magnitude and gentle sloping character of the area results in a large intertidal area (approximately 6 square miles) which significantly affects the diversity and abundance of marine plants and animals. From an economic point of view, the intertidal area supports good beds of soft-shelled clams (Mya arenaria) which occur in areas that have generally been closed due to coliform pollution. Figure 5.6 shows tidal cycles for the year 2002 at Fairhaven, Deer Island, N.B. in Passamaquoddy Bay. 5.5 Water Sources Passamaquoddy Bay tides are semidiurnal, entering and exiting the Bay twice daily through four passages, Big Letite Passage, Little Letite Passage, Pendleton’s Passage, and Western Passage. Water exchange is restricted by these passages and Passamaquoddy Bay is a large “settling basin” as re-

Figure 5.7 Freshwater entering the Upper Estuary at St. Stephen. flected in the predominance of mud bottom in the study area. Tidal Water from Passamaquoddy Bay flows into and out of the St. Croix River Estuary, reaching to tidehead at Salmon Falls in St. Stephen. This water mixes with the large volume of freshwater that enters the Estuary from the St. Croix River and other Estuary tributaries (Figure 5.7). Annual stream flows are provided in Table 5.1 5.6 Currents

Figure 5.6 Tidal cycles for the year 2002 at Fairhaven, Deer Island, N.B.

Figure 5.9 shows current patterns in the Lower Estuary. Currents in the Upper Estuary are typical of a river estuary with strong freshwater outflow on the surface and sea water incursions below the surface. As can be seen from this Figure, moderate to extreme currents were encountered at the mouths of rivers or passages. In addition, 5.5


Table 5.1 Historic streamflow data for the St. Croix River at Baring, Maine. Hydrologic Unit Code 01050001, Lat. 45°08’12”, Long. 67°19’05” NAD27, Drainage area 1,374.00 square miles, Contributing drainage area 1,374.00 square miles, Gage datum 66.23 feet above sea level NGVD29 (USGS). Year Annual mean streamflow in ft3/s 1960 2,979 1961 3,042 1962 2,436 1963 3,393 1964 2,141 1965 1,786 1966 1,750 1967 2,246 1968 2,455 1969 2,705 1970 3,075

Year Annual mean streamflow in ft3/s 1971 2,347 1972 2,693 1973 3,960 1974 2,408 1975 1,869 1976 3,269 1977 3,170 1978 2,536 1979 3,808 1980 2,226 1981 3,545

Year Annual mean streamflow in ft3/s 1982 2,614 1983 3,122 1984 3,258 1985 1,414 1986 2,128 1987 1,778 1988 2,098 1989 2,514 1990 2,933 1991 2,708 1992 2,236

Year Annual mean streamflow in ft3/s 1993 2,248 1994 2,461 1995 2,024 1996 3,441 1997 2,158 1998 2,528 1999 2,408 2000 2,564 -

scoured bottoms were generally found at these sites as well as relatively prolific growths of marine organisms.

Figure 5.9 Current observations in the St. Croix Estuary. Based on MacKay (1978) and St. Croix Estuary (1997). 5.6

In 1997, the St. Croix Estuary Project Inc. carried out a study to determine how waters from the Upper Estuary are distributed in the Lower Estuary. It was felt that water from upstream wastewater treatment plants might reach clam flats in Oak Bay, resulting in elevated coliform levels. The inset (Figure 5.9) shows the general pattern for drogues released on the ebb tide, a short time before the beginning of the flood. As can be seen, surface waters reverse with the flooding tide and move back upstream and into Oak Bay.


5.7 Light and Water Clarity Waters in the study area are characterized by high loads of suspended matter which restrict light penetration. Diver visibility is usually under ten feet and “blackouts” at 30 feet have been encountered. In part, this characteristic of the study area may explain the absence of major kelp beds. The percentage of illumination reaching various depths at Stations between McKnight Point and Navy Island in July 1976 are shown in Figure 5.10 5.8 Temperature Figure 5.11 shows comparative seawater temperatures for Passamaquoddy Bay, Cobscook Bay, Letite Passage, Western Passage and “Outside” in the open Bay of Fundy. As can be seen, compared to the open Bay of Fundy, temperatures are higher in Passamaquoddy Bay and the St. Croix Estuary during the summer and colder in the winter. Temperature stratification is typical for an estuary with cool seawater underlying warmer, less saline surface waters. During the winter, freezing of surface freshwater is common where rivers and streams flow into the Bay. While there is a local tradition that the entire study area, including Passamaquoddy Bay, has frozen over in the past, we have not located any record of this occurrence and the area is generally ice free. 5.9 Salinity Figure 5.12 shows salinity porfiles in the St. Croix River Estuary. these are typical estuary profiles with highly saline seawater being overlain by fresher water on the surface. The wide range of salinity in the area is reflected in the presence of many estuarine species, some of which are unique to the area as a whole.

Figure 5.10 Percentage of surface illumination reaching a given depth in the St. Croix Estuary in July 1976, for various stations from Knight’s Point to Navy Island. Adapted from Thomas, 1983

5.10 Waves and Erosion The study area is surrounded by land and, as a result, it rarely receives the full force of storms. This is not to say that the area is a “mill pond”. Indeed, southerly winds create waves of considerable force as they build along the long fetch of the Bay and up the St. Croix River. Two types of waves occur in the Bay of Fundy: the North Atlantic swell which propagates into the Bay from the open Atlantic Ocean, and locally wind-generated waves. In all cases, the waves are deep water types. These two wave types superimpose on each other. Winds in the Bay blow mainly from the south and southwest during summer, but during the remainder of the year are from the west and northwest. As the Bay of Fundy is oriented approximately east-west, the coasts are generally exposed. In winter, waves over 0.3 m high occur 90% of the time and over 1 m high 50% of the time. Waves of 5.7


all heights are 5 to 10% less frequent in the summer. (Swift, et. al., 1973) The mean wave height (averaged over one month) increases from a minimum of 0.15 m during the summer to a maximum of 0.6m during December. (Amos, et.al., 1980) In their map, Sensitivity of the Coasts of New Brunswick to Storm Waves, Stephanie O’Carroll and Dominique Berube (1999) classified the Lower St. Croix River Estuary as having moderate to high risk from wind generated waves (Figure 5.13). This the result of the long “fetch” from the south. The height of wind-generated waves is determined, up to a maximum of about 30 m, by the velocity of the wind and the distance the wind has to travel over the sea. Bigelow and Edmondson (1947) established theoretical wave height generation for a fetch of various lengths. Figure 5.14 shows wave heights for various wind speeds for a fetch of 10 nautical miles, the maximum distance to the entrance of the Estuary from the south quarter. The site is protected from all other wind directions. As can be seen the maximum wave height at a windspeed of 70 knots is approximately 4 meters. Erosion is occurring in the Outer Estuary at several sites, the most severe being Dochets (St. Croix Island), the site of the first attempt, by DeMonts and Champlain, at establishing a permanent settlement in 1604. Eosion generated by commercial activities can be seen at Sand Point and the Bayside Port quarry operation (Figure 5.15).

Figure 5.11 Summer and winter surface sea water temperatures in the Passamaquoddy-West Isles Region. Adapted from Thomas, 1983.

5.8


Figure 5.12 Salnity profiles at various stations in the St. Croix River Estuary. Adapted from MacKay, 1978 with data from Fink, 1976. 5.9


St. Croix Estuary

Figure 5.13 Sensitivity of the Coasts of New Brunswick to Storm Waves, Stephanie O’Carroll and Dominique Berube (1999).

5.10


Figure 5.14 Wave heights generated by various wind speeds over a fetch of 10 kilometers.

Figure 5.15 Erosion in the Outer St. Croix River Estuary. Top photo shows natural erosion of Dochets or St. Croix Island. Lower photo shows erosion initiated by a sand mining operation at Sand Point, Bayside. 5.11


5.12


6.1 PORIFERA SPONGES

6.1.1 Introduction. Sponges are widely distributed in the Bay of Fundy, occurring from shallow waters to the greatest depths. They are always sessile and incapable of moving from their point of attachment. The walls of sponges are perforated with numerous openings or pores that open directly into a hollow interior, the paragastric or atrial cavity. The walls are made up of three layers: the ectoderm, or outer layer; the endoderm, or inner layer; and the mesoderm, or middle layer. Water flows through channels directly to the cells that make up the organism. Hence, minor variation in water quality can impact the colony. Because of the sensitivity of sponges, their absence from an area may suggest some deleterious change in the environment. 6.1.2 Regional Distribution. Miner (1950) lists approximately 50 species of sponges that may occur in Bay of Fundy waters. Unfortunately, explorations for these species has been limited and we have found records for only 12 species in Passamaquoddy Bay (Brinkhurst and Linkletter (circa 1975), Thomas (1977), and Mackay (1978)). 6.1.3 Sponges of Passamaquoddy Bay and the St. Croix River Estuary. Comparative Esturary records are limited to studies by MacKay (1978) and the current surveys carried out in 2001-2002 by the St. Croix Estuary Project Inc. The sponges recorded for these studies are listed in Table 6.1.1 for 1978 and Table 6.1.2 for 2001-2002 compared with all available records for Passamaquoddy Bay. In all, 9 species have been recorded

Crumb-of-bread Sponge (Halichondria panacea) occurs subtidally and in tide pools along the under margins of rocks.

in the St. Croix River Estuary. The sponge assemblage may be useful as an “indicator group� since the presence of any of these species suggests good quality water and their appearance upstream in the Estuary would be considered as a sign of improving water quality. Maps are provided for all species recorded in 2001-2002 (Figures 6.1.1 to 6.1.6). Additional maps and field data for all species are included in the attached CD located in the Appendix of this report. 6.14 Status of Sponges in the St. Croix Estuary. Figure 6.1.7 shows the rated distribution of sponge assemblages over time. The theoretical model is our best estimate of the probable distribution within an unpolluted Estuary based on our knowledge of the distribution of these species relative to salinity and bottom type. 6.1


Table 6.1.1 Species of Porifera recorded in the St. Croix River Estuary in 1978 compared to total species recorded for Passamaquoddy Bay.( MacKay, 1978, Thomas, 1983, Brinkhurst and Linkletter, and others) ZONE SPECIES Cliona cilata Halichondria panacea Haliclona (chalina) oculata Iophon pattersoni Isodictya deichmannae Leucosolenia botryoides Melanochora sp Microciona prolifera Myxilla sp Polymastia robusta Scypha ciliata Suberites sp. TOTAL SPECIES RATING

PASS.BAY

A

B

C

D

E

F

G

H

I

J

C A C-A C P C P P P P C P

C-A C-A P-C P -

P-C P-C P P P P

-

P P P

C-A P-C -

P -

-

-

-

-

12 19

4 9

6 8

0 0

2 2

2 5

1 1

0 0

0 0

0 0

0 0

In order to perform this analysis, a numerical rating system was applied: Present (P) = 1, Common (C) = 2, Abundant (A) = 3. A rating figure for a particular zone was determined by adding values together for all species occurring in a zone. The total maximum value range for Passamaquoddy Bay was divided into thirds to produce Ratings of “Low”, “Moderate” and “High”. For Porifera, these ratings are as follows: 6.2

Maximum Rating = 15-18-21 Moderate Rating = 8-11-14 Low Rating = 1-3-7

As can be seen from these maps, the distribution and numbers of species of sponges in the extreme Outer Estuary was greater in 1977-78 than was found during the 2001-2002 survey. Whether this represents a true reduction in distribution and species numbers or is a reflection of different sampling techniques is unknown.


Table 6.1.2 Species of Porifera recorded in the St. Croix River Estuary in 2001-2002 compared to total species recorded for Passamaquoddy Bay.( MacKay, 1978, Thomas, 1983, Brinkhurst and Linkletter, and others) ZONE SPECIES Cliona cilata Halichondria panacea Haliclona (Chalina) oculata Iophon pattersoni Isodictya deichmannae Leucosolenia botryoides Melanochora sp Microciona prolifera Myxilla sp Polymastia robusta Scypha ciliata Suberites sp. TOTAL SPECIES RATING

PASS.BAY

A

B

C

D

E

F

G

H

I

J

C A C-A C P C P P P P C P

P P -

P C P -

-

P -

C C -

-

C P P -

-

-

C C P C -

-

-

12 19

2 2

4 4

7 7

0 0

1 1

2 2

0 0

4 4

0 0

0 0

6.3


Figure 6.1.2 Haliclona (Chalina) oculata Dead Man’s Fingers

Figure 6.1.1 Cliona ciliata Sulphur Boring Sponge

Apparent Limit of Occurrence

Apparent Limit of Occurrence

Figure 6.1.3 Halichondria panacea Crumb-of-bread Sponge

Figure 6.1.4 Isodictya deichmannae

Apparent Limit of Occurrence Apparent Limit of Occurrence

6.4


Figure 6.1.5 Leucosolenia botryoides Organ-pipe Sponge

Figure 6.1.6 Polymastia robusta

Apparent Limit of Occurrence Apparent Limit of Occurrence

Figure 6.2.1 Distribution of Porifera over time based on the number and abundance of species. Existing data suggests a decline in species in the St. Croix Estuary. 6.5


6.6


6.2 CNIDARIA

Hydroids, Anemones, and Jellyfish 6.2.1 Introduction. This large group includes hydroids, anemones, jellyfish, soft corals, and other related species. They are widely distributed in the Bay of Fundy from shallow waters to the greatest depths. Many species in this group are sessile and incapable of moving from their point of attachment, many have both free-swimming and sessile stages, while others are totally free-swimming pelagics. 6.2.2 Regional Distribution. Miner (1950) lists approximately 100 species of Cnidaria that occur in Bay of Fundy waters. Of these, approximately 42 species have been recorded in Passamaquoddy Bay (Brinkhurst and Linkletter (circa 1975),Thomas (1977), and Mackay (1978)). 6.2.3 Cnidaria of Passamaquoddy Bay and the St. Croix River Estuary. 12 species of Cnidaria were recorded in Passamaquoddy Bay by MacKay (1978) while only 9 species were recorded during the surveys carried out in 2001-2002 by the St. Croix Estuary Project Inc. All species recorded in these studies are listed in Tables 6.2.1 and 6.2.2. Distribution and abundance is illustrated in Figures 6.2.1 to 6.2.9 for those species recorded during this study. Additional maps and field data for all species are included in the attached CD located in the Appendix of this report. None of these species is considered to be useful as an “indicator species” for long term assessments.

Sloppy Guts (Cerianthus borealis) A deep water anemone that constructs and lives in a massive gelatinous tube.

6.14 Status of Cnidaria in the St. Croix Estuary. Figure 6.2.10 shows the relative distribution of Cnidarian groups over time. The theoretical model is our best estimate of the probable distribution within an unpolluted estuary based on our knowledge of the distribution of these species and their relationship to salinity and bottom type. As can be seen from these maps, the distribution and numbers of species of Cnidarians was greater in 1977-78 than was found during the 2001-2002 survey. Whether this represents a true reduction in distribution and species numbers or is a reflection of different sampling techniques, is unknown. This result does, however, support, similar patterns for other marine groups and suggests a general decline in biodiversity. In order to perform this analysis, a numerical rating system was applied. Abundance was assessed in the field as previously described. A rating figure for a particular zone was determined by adding values as follows: Present = 1, Common = 2, Adundant = 3 . The total 6.7


Table 6.2.1 Species of Cnidaria recorded in the St. Croix River Estuary in 1978 compared to total species recorded for Passamaquoddy Bay. (MacKay, 1978, Thomas, 1983, Brinkhurst and Linkletter, and others). * Rare and free-swimming species not included in rating system. PASS.BAY

A

B

C

D

ZONE E

Antennularia sp. Bougainvillia carolinensis Clava ledptostyla Corymorpha pendula Hydractinia sp. Hydrallmania falcata Lafoea fruticosa Obelia sp. Rathkea octopunctata Sertularia pumila

P C C C C P P C-A P C-A

p C-A A

A

A

C

P-C

P

-

-

-

-

P-C

P-C

P

A

C-A

-

-

-

-

-

Sertularella polyzonias Tubularia sp. JELLYFISH Aurelia aurita

C-A C

A

A

-

P

P-A

-

-

-

-

-

C-A*

A

A

A

P

A

-

A

P

P

-

P* P*

P-C P

? -

? -

? -

? -

? -

? -

? -

? -

? -

C P P P C-A C

P-C P-C C-A C

P-C A P

P-C -

P-C P

A P-C

A P

P-C C -

-

-

-

C-A* C-A*

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

23

12

7

4

6

6

3

3

1

1

0

32(44*)

27

17

9

10

16

5

7

1

1

0

SPECIES

F

G

H

I

J

HYDROIDS

Cyanea capillata Pelagica noctiluca ANEMONES & SOFT CORALS Bunodactis stella Cerianthus borealis Gersemia rubiformis Edwardsia elegans Metridium senile Tealia felina COMB JELLIES Pleurobrachia pileus BeroĂŤ cucumis TOTAL SPECIES RATING

6.8


Table 6.1.1 Species of Cnidaria recorded in the St. Croix River Estuary in 2001-2002 compared to total species recorded for Passamaquoddy Bay. (MacKay, 1978, Thomas, 1983, Brinkhurst and Linkletter, and others). * Rare and free-swimming species not included in rating system. PASS.BAY

A

B

C

D

ZONE E

Antennularia sp. Bougainvillia carolinensis Clava ledptostyla Corymorpha pendula Hydractinia sp. Hydrallmania falcata Lafoea fruticosa Obelia sp. Rathkea octopunctata Sertularia pumila

P C C C C P P C-A P C-A

-

C -

-

-

P P

P-A -

-

C

-

-

Sertularella polyzonias Tubularia sp. JELLYFISH Aurelia aurita

C-A C

-

P

C

-

-

-

-

A

-

-

C-A*

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

P* P*

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

C P P P C-A C

P P P-A P P

P P-A P-C

P P

C A C

P-C P

-

-

P

-

-

C-A* C-A*

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

23

5

5

3

3

4

1

0

3

0

0

34(44*)

7

9

4

7

5

3

0

6

0

0

SPECIES

F

G

H

I

J

HYDROIDS

Cyanea capillata Pelagica noctiluca ANEMONES & SOFT CORALS Bunodactis stella Cerianthus borealis Edwardsia elegans Gersemia rubiformis Metridium senile Tealia felina COMB JELLIES Pleurobrachia pileus BeroĂŤ cucumis TOTAL SPECIES RATING

6.9


rating thus calculated for Passamaquoddy Bay from the literature was considered to be the maximum rating and moderate and low ratings were calculated from this value, each being approximately 1/3 of the total range. These values for Cnidaria are:

Figure 6.2.1 Bunodactis stella Green Anemone

Maximum Rating = 26-29-32 Moderate Rating = 16-20-25 Low Rating = 1-7-15 6.1.4 Recommended Action. The data presented here shows that, in 1977-78, the Estuary population of Cnidarians was depressed from the historical model and that a further decline of sponges has occurred over the last 25 years or so. This supports the need to further improve the water quality of the Estuary.

Figure 6.2.2 Cerianthus borealis Sloppy Guts

6.10

Figure 6.2.3 Corymorpha pendula Pink Hydroid


Figure 6.2.4 Edwardsia elegans Burrowing Anemone

Figure 6.2.5 Obelia sp. Obelia Hydroid

Figure 6.2.6 Metridium senile Common Anemone

Figure 6.2.7 Sertularia sp. Garland Hydroid

6.11


Figure 6.2.8 Tealia felina Northern Red anemone

Figure 6.2.9 Tubularia crocea Tubularian Hydroid

Figure 6.2.1 Distribution of Cnidaria over time based on the number and abundance of species. Existing data suggests a decline in species in the St. Croix Estuary. 6.12


6.3 MOLLUSCA

Chitons, Gastropods, and Bivalves 6.3.1 Introduction. This is the second largest group of marine invertebrates. Chitons, gastropods, bivalves, squid, and octopus are widely distributed in the Bay of Fundy from shallow waters to the greatest depths. 6.3.2 Regional Distribution. Miner (1950) lists over 140 species of Molluscs that occur in Bay of Fundy waters. Of these, approximately 72 species have been recorded in Passamaquoddy Bay ( Brinkhurst and Linkletter (circa 1975), Thomas (1977), and Mackay (1978)). 6.3.3 Mollusca of Passamaquoddy Bay and the St. Croix River Estuary. 35 species of Mollusca were recorded in Passamaquoddy Bay and the St. Croix Estuary by MacKay (1978) while only 15 species were recorded during the surveys carried out in 2001-2002 by the St. Croix Estuary Project Inc. All species recorded in these studies is listed in Tables 6.3.1 and 6.3.2. Distribution and abundance are illustrated in Figures 6.3.1 to 6.3.15 for those species recorded during this study. Additional maps and field data for all species are included in the attached CD located in the Appendix of this report. Some Molluscan species may be useful as “Indicator Species”. 6.3.4 Status of Mollusca in the St. Croix Estuary. Figure 6.3.16 shows the relative distribution of Cnidarian groups over time. The theoretical model is our best estimate of the probable distribution within an unpolluted estuary based on our knowledge of the distribution of these species and their relationship to salinity

The Moon Snail (Lunatia sp.) is a common resident in mud flats of the lower St. Croix Estuary.

and bottom type. As can be seen from these maps, the distribution and numbers of species of Molluscans was greater in 1977-78 than was found during the 2001-2002 survey. Whether this represents a true reduction in distribution and species numbers or is a reflection of different sampling techniques, is unknown. This result does, however, support similar patterns for other marine groups and suggests a general decline in biodiversity. In order to perform this analysis, a numerical rating system was applied. Abundance was assessed in the field as previously described. A rating figure for a particular zone was determined by adding values as follows: Present = 1, Common = 2, Adundant = 3 . The total rating thus calculated for Passamaquoddy Bay from the literature was considered to be the maximum rating and moderate and low ratings were calculated from this value, each being approximately 1/3 of the total range. These values for Cnidaria are:

6.13


Table 6.3.1 Species of Mollusca recorded in the St. Croix River Estuary in 1978 compared to total species recorded for Passamaquoddy Bay. (MacKay, 1978, Thomas, 1983, Brinkhurst and Linkletter, and others). * Species that require special equipment to collect, rare, and freeswimming species not included in rating system. SPECIES

PASS.BAY

A

B

C

D

ZONE E

F

G

H

I

J

P-C*

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

P C-A P

P C-A P

C P

-

C-A -

A -

-

P -

-

-

-

P C-A P P C P* P* P C C-A P C-A P* P* C-A C-A C-A C P* P P* P*

P-C P-A P-C P-C P C C-A C-A C-A C-A P -

P-C C P P-C P-C C C C C-A C C -

C P C -

C P C A A -

C P-C C-A P-C A A -

C C-A C -

C A A A A -

C -

-

-

PASS.BAY

A

B

C

D

E

F

G

H

I

J

TUSK SHELLS Dentalium entale CHITONS Tonicella marmorea Ischnochiton ruber Ischnochiton alba GASTROPODA Acanthodoris pilosa Acmaea testudinalis Aeolidia papillosa Aporrhais occidentalis Buccinum undatum Calliostoma occidentalis Colus pygmaeus Colus stimpsoni Coryphella rubibranchialis Crepidula fornicata Crucibulum striatum Dendronotus frondosus Hydrobia minuta Lacuna vincta Littorina littorea Littorina obtusata Littorina saxatilis Lunatia heros Lunatia triseriata Margarites costalis Margarites groenlandicus Mitrella lunata SPECIES

6.14


Table 6.3.1 (Continued) Species of Mollusca recorded in the St. Croix River Estuary in 1978 compared to total species recorded for Passamaquoddy Bay. (MacKay, 1978, Thomas, 1983, Brinkhurst and Linkletter, and others). * * Species that require special equipment to collect, rare, and free-swimming species not included in rating system. Nassarius obsoletus Nassarius trivittatus Neptunea decemcostata Onoba aculeus Oenopota elegans Puncturella noachina Skeneopsis planorbis Thais lapillus Velutina laevigata Velutina undata BIVALVES Anomia aculeata Anomia simplex Arctica islandica Astarte subaequilatera Astarte undata Cerastoderma pinnulatum Chlamys islandicus Clinocardium ciliatum Crenella glandula Ensis directus Gemma gemma Hiatella arctica Lyonsia hyalina Macoma balthica Mercenaria mercenaria Mesodesma articatum Modiolus modiolus Musculus discors Musculus niger SPECIES Mya arenaria

P P C P* P* P P* C P* P

P P C-A P

P-C C -

C-A P -

P P -

P C-A -

C-A -

A C -

-

-

-

P C-A P P* C P* P C* P* C C C-A P* C-A P P* C C C*

P P P-C P-C -

P P C C P -

-

P -

P-A -

-

P P P-C -

-

P-C -

-

PASS.BAY C-A

A C-A

B P

C P

D -

E P-C

F P-A

G A

H P

I -

J -

6.15


Table 6.3.1 (Continued) Species of Mollusca recorded in the St. Croix River Estuary in 1978 compared to total species recorded for Passamaquoddy Bay. (MacKay, 1978, Thomas, 1983, Brinkhurst and Linkletter, and others). * Species that require special equipment to collect, rare, and free-swimming species not included in rating system. Mya truncata Mytilus edulis Nucula proxima Nuculana tenuisulcata Pitar morrhuana Placopecten magellanicus Spisula solidissima Teredo navalis Thyasira gouldii Venericardia borealis Yoldia myalis Yoldia sapotilla Zirfaea crispata CEPHALOPODS Bathypolypus arcticus Illex illecebrosus Loligo pealei TOTAL SPECIES RATING

6.16

P* C-A P* P* P C-A P P* P* C C* C* P

A C C P

C P-C -

-

C P-C C -

A A -

C C-A -

P-C P -

-

P -

-

P* P-A*

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

P*

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

72 79(116*)

27 53

23 41

6 10

12 23

13 33

7 18

14 30

2 3

2 3

0 0


Table 6.3.2 Species of Mollusca recorded in the St. Croix River Estuary in 2001-2002 compared to total species recorded for Passamaquoddy Bay. (MacKay, 1978, Thomas, 1983, Brinkhurst and Linkletter, and others). * Species that require special equipment to collect, rare, and freeswimming species not included in rating system. SPECIES

PASS.BAY

A

B

C

D

ZONE E

P-C*

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

P C-A P

P -

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

P C-A P P C P* P* P C C-A P C-A P* P* C-A C-A C-A C P* P P* P*

P P-C P A A A P -

P P A A A A -

P A P P -

P P-C A P P-C -

P P-C A P A -

P P P A P C P -

P P A C C -

A -

C -

C -

PASS.BAY

A

B

C

D

E

F

G

H

I

J

F

G

H

I

J

TUSK SHELLS Dentalium entale CHITONS Tonicella marmorea Ischnochiton ruber Ischnochiton alba GASTROPODA Acanthodoris pilosa Acmaea testudinalis Aeolidia papillosa Aporrhais occidentalis Buccinum undatum Calliostoma occidentalis Colus pygmaeus Colus stimpsoni Coryphella rubibranchialis Crepidula fornicata Crucibulum striatum Dendronotus frondosus Hydrobia minuta Lacuna vincta Littorina littorea Littorina obtusata Littorina saxatilis Lunatia heros Lunatia triseriata Margarites costalis Margarites groenlandicus Mitrella lunata SPECIES

6.17


Table 6.3.2 (Continued) Species of Mollusca recorded in the St. Croix River Estuary in 2001-2002 compared to total species recorded for Passamaquoddy Bay. (MacKay, 1978, Thomas, 1983, Brinkhurst and Linkletter, and others). * Species that require special equipment to collect, rare, and free-swimming species not included in rating system. Nassarius obsoletus Nassarius trivittatus Neptunea decemcostata Onoba aculeus Oenopota elegans Puncturella noachina Skeneopsis planorbis Thais lapillus Velutina laevigata Velutina undata BIVALVES Anomia aculeata Anomia simplex Arctica islandica Astarte subaequilatera Astarte undata Cerastoderma pinnulatum Chlamys islandicus Clinocardium ciliatum Crassostrea virginica Crenella glandula Ensis directus Gemma gemma Hiatella arctica Lyonsia hyalina Macoma balthica Mercenaria mercenaria Mesodesma articatum Modiolus modiolus Musculus discors Musculus niger SPECIES Mya arenaria

6.18

P P C P* P* P P* C P* P

P-C -

P -

-

-

P -

-

-

-

-

-

P C-A P P* C P* P C* P* C C C-A P* C-A P P* C C C*

-

-

-

P -

A -

P -

A -

-

-

-

PASS.BAY C-A

A C-A

B C

C C

D P

E P

F A

G A

H C

I C

J C


Table 6.3.2 (Continued) Species of Mollusca recorded in the St. Croix River Estuary in 2001-2002 compared to total species recorded for Passamaquoddy Bay. (MacKay, 1978, Thomas, 1983, Brinkhurst and Linkletter, and others). * Species that require special equipment to collect, rare, and free-swimming species not included in rating system. Mya truncata Mytilus edulis Nucula proxima

P* C-A P*

A -

A -

A -

A -

A -

A -

A -

C -

C -

-

Nuculana tenuisulcata Pitar morrhuana Placopecten magellanicus Spisula solidissima Teredo navalis Thyasira gouldii Venericardia borealis Yoldia myalis Yoldia sapotilla Zirfaea crispata CEPHALOPODS Bathypolypus arcticus Illex illecebrosus

P* P C-A P P* P* C C* C* P

P -

C -

C -

C -

C -

C -

-

-

-

-

P* P-A*

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

P*

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

72 79(116*)

12 23

10 22

7 13

9 16

10 20

11 19

8 18

3 7

3 6

1 2

Loligo pealei TOTAL SPECIES RATING

6.19


Orser, Jamie. MAIRNE ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY: RECOMMENDATIONS FOR NEW BRUNSWICK. New Brunswick Department of the Environment; Environmental Planning Division. 1998. Parks Canada. BAY OF FUNDY, AREAS OF MARINE PARK INTEREST. Marine Themes Section. Parks Canada. Doc. No. IC0041, 1975. Pearce. P.A., and Smith, A.D. 1973. PORT AND TIDAL POWER DEVELOPMENT IN THE BAY OF FUNDY AND AN ASSESSMENT OF THEIR POTENTIAL INFLUENCE ON WATERFOWL. MS Report to CWS, May 1973. Pearson, T.H. & R. Rosenberg. MACROBENTHIC SUCCESSION IN RELATION TO ORGANIC ENRICHMENT AND POLLUTION OF THE MARINE ENVIRONMENT. Oceanogr. Mar. Biol. Ann. Rev., vol 16, 229-311. 1978. Percy, John & Janice Harvey ed. TIDAL BARRIERS IN THE INNER BAY OF FUNDY: ECOSYTEM IMPACTS AND RESTORATION OPPORTUNITIES. Conservation Council of New Brunswick, Marine Conservation Program. May, 2000. Percy, J.A. & P.G. Wells. TAKING FUNDY'S PULSE: MONITORING THE HEALTH OF THE BAY OF FUNDY. Fundy Issues No. 22. Autum, 2002. Pettingill, O.S. THE BIRD LIFE OF THE GRAND MANAN ARCHIPELAGO. Proc. N.S. Inst. Sci. Vol 19, Pt. 4,1939. Pohole, Gerhard. BENTHOS ASSESSMENT AT FALLOW SITES. New Brunswick Department of Fisheries and Agriculture. Atlantic Reference Centre. Hunstman Marine Science Centre. St. Andrews, NB. April 1999. Pohle, Gerhard. TRACKING REGIONAL ENRICHMENT IN LIME KILN BAY, BLISS HARBOUR AND DEADMANS HARBOUR. Atlantic Reference Center. Huntsman Marine Science Centre. St. Andrews, NB. February 2000. Pohle, Gerhard & Brian Frost. ESTABLISHEMENT OF STANDARD BENTHIC MONITORING SITES TO ASSES LONG-TERM ECOLOGICAL MODIFICATION AND PROVIDE A PREDICTIVE SEQUENCE OF BENTHIC COMMUNITY SUCCESSSION IN THE INNER BAY OF FUNDY, NEW BRUNSWICK. Atlantic Reference Center, St. Andrews, NB. April 1997. Pohle, Gerhard & Brian Frost. MONITORING AND ANALYSIS OF RECOVERY OF BENTHOS FROM A HEAVILY IMPACTED SALMON FARMING SITE: TOWARDS A PREDICTIVE TOOL FOR THE PRACTICE OF CAGE FALLOWING. Atlantic Reference Centre. St. Andrews, NB. March, 1998. Prakash, A. and J.C. Medcof. HYDROGRAPHIC AND METEOROLOGICAL FACTORS AFFECTING SHELLFISH TOXICITY AT HEAD HARBOUR, N.B. J. Fish. Res. Bb. Can. l9(1): 101-112, 1962. Prakash, A. SOURCE OF PARALYTIC SHELLFISH TOXIN IN THE BAY OF FUNDY. J. Fish. Res. Bd. Can. 20(4): 983-996, 1963.

11-14


Figure 6.3.4 Crassostrea virginica Common Oyster

Figure 6.3.5 Crepidula fornicata Slipper Shell

Figure 6.3.6 Ensis directus Razor Clam

Figure 6.3.7 Ischnochiton ruber Red Chiton

6.21


6.22

Figure 6.3.8 Littorina littorea Common Periwinkle

Figure 6.3.9 Littorina obtusata Smooth Periwinkle

Figure 6.3.10 Littorina saxatilis Rough Periwinkle

Figure 6.3.11 Lunatia heros Moon Snail


Figure 6.3.12 Mya arenaria Soft-shelled Clam

Figure 6.3.14 Placopecten magellanicus Giant Sea Scallop

Figure 6.3.13 Mytilus edulis Blue Mussel

Figure 6.3.15 Thais lapillus Dog Whelk

6.23


Figure 6.3.16 Distribution of Mollusca over time based on the number and abundance of species. Existing data suggests a decline in species diversity and abundance in the St. Croix Estuary.

6.24


6.4 ANNELIDA Segmented Worms

6.4.1 Introduction. The Phylum Annelida includes the true segmented worms. They are characterized by their typical “worm-like” bodies and regular segmentation. The segments are usually more or less similar, but they may also be fused or modified to perform specialized functions. Typically each segment has a pair of unjointed appendages called parapodia and the anterior segment is modified to form a distinct head.They are widely distributed in the Bay of Fundy from shallow waters to the greatest depths. 6.4.2 Regional Distribution. Miner (1950) lists approximately 80 species of Annelida that occur in Bay of Fundy waters. Brinkhurst and Linkletter (circa 1975) list a total of 79 Annelids (76 Polychaetes and 3 Oligochaetes) that occur in Passamaquoddy Bay. Most of these occur in bottom substrates, under rocks, and in masses of other invertebrates such as Blue Mussels. Many are not encountered during standard macrofaunal surveys. Some, however, are very common and may be used to indicate the health of a body of water. 6.4.3 Annelida of Passamaquoddy Bay and the St. Croix River Estuary. 11 species of Annelida were recorded in Passamaquoddy Bay and the St. Croix Estuary by MacKay (1978). Only 7 species were recorded during the surveys carried out in 2001-2002 by the St. Croix Estuary Project Inc. All species recorded in these studies are listed in Tables 6.4.1 and 6.4.2. Distribution and abundance are illustrated in Figures 6.4.1 to 6.4.7 for those species recorded during this study. Additional maps and field data for all species are included in the attached CD located in the Appendix of this report.

The Sea Mouse (Aphrodite aculeata) is relatively uncommon in the St. Croix Estuary. This one was found on St. Croix Island.

As discussed later, some Annelid species may be useful as “Indicator Species” 6.4.4 Status of Annelida in the St. Croix Estuary. Figure 6.4.8 shows the relative distribution of Annelid groups over time. The theoretical model is our best estimate of the probable distribution within an unpolluted estuary based on our knowledge of the distribution of these species and their relationship to salinity and bottom type. As can be seen from these maps, the distribution and numbers of species of Annelida was sightly greater in 1977-78 than was found during the 2001-2002 survey. This difference is not considered to 6.25


be significant. Some incursions into the extreme Upper Estuary are, however, considered to be important. In order to perform this analysis, a numerical rating system was applied. Abundance was assessed in the field as previously described. A rating figure for a particular zone was determined by adding values as follows: Present = 1, Common = 2, Adundant = 3 . The total rating thus calculated for Passamaquoddy Bay from the literature was considered to be the maximum rating and moderate and low ratings were calculated from this value, each being approximately 1/3 of the total range. These values for Annelida are: Maximum Rating = 21-25-30 Moderate Rating = 11-15-20 Low Rating = 1-5-10 6.4.5 Recommended Action. The data presented here shows that, in 1977-78 and 2001-2002, the Estuary population of Annelida was depressed from the historical model. However, Annelids are notoriously difficult to collect and identify and this difference may be related to these factors. Nereis sp. has excellent potential as an “Indicator Species”. It is one of the last species to vacate a severely polluted estuary and is one of the first colonizers. It can also be used to analyze the level of petroleum and other pollutants in estuarine sediments. It is successfully colonizing the upper St. Croix Estuary as shown on the accompanying map. Suitable habitat is found from the mouth of the St. Croix Estuary north to Oak Bay. N. virens was in some areas, common in the “sawdust” flats of the Upper Estuary.

6.26


Table 6.4.1 Species of Annelida recorded in the St. Croix River Estuary in 1978 compared to total species recorded for Passamaquoddy Bay. (MacKay, 1978, Thomas, 1983, Brinkhurst and Linkletter, and others). * Species that require special equipment to collect, rare, and freeswimming species not included in rating system. PASS.BAY

A

B

C

D

ZONE E

Ammotrypane aulogaster

P*

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Ampharete sp.

P*

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Amphitrite johnstoni

C-A

P-C

C

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Aphrodite hastata

P*

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Arabella iriscolor

P*

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Arenicola marina

P-C*

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Aricidea quadrilobata

P*

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Asabellides oculata

P*

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Autolytus sp.

P*

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Capitella capitata

C-A

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Chaetozone setosa

P*

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Clitello arenarius

P*

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Clymenella sp.

C-A

P-C

C

-

-

C

-

-

-

-

-

Diplocirrus jirsutus

P*

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Dodecaceria concharum

P*

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Enchytraeus albides

P*

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Eteone longa

P*

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Eulalia sp.

P*

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Eusyllis blomstrandi

P*

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Exogone sp.

P*

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Fabricia sabella

P*

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Flabelligera affinis

P*

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Glycera sp.

C-A

C

-

-

-

-

-

C

-

-

-

Goniada maculata

P*

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Harmothoe sp.

P*

P

P

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Lepidonotus squamatus

C-A

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Lumbrinereis fragilis

P*

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

SPECIES

F

G

H

I

J

6.27


SPECIES

PASS.BAY

A

B

C

D

E

F

G

H

I

J

Myxicola infundibulum

C-A

P-C

C-A

-

-

P

-

-

-

-

-

Naineris quadricuspida

P*

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Nephtys sp

C-A

P-C

P

-

-

-

-

C

-

-

-

Nereis pelagica

P-C*

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Nereis virens

C-A

P-C

A

-

-

-

-

P-C

-

P-C

-

Ninoe nigripes

P*

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Ophioglycera gigantea

P*

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Paranaites speciosa

P*

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

P-C*

P

-

-

-

P

-

-

-

-

-

Peloscolex benedeni

P*

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Pherusa plumosa

C

-

P

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Phyllodoce sp.

P*

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Pholoe minuta

P*

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Pista maculata

P*

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Polycirrus sp.

P*

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Polydora sp.

P*

-

-

-

-

-

-

--

-

-

-

Polyphysia crassa

P*

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

C-A*

-

-

-

P

-

-

-

-

-

-

Praxillella praetermissa

P*

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Prionospio steenstrupi

P*

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Scalibregma inflatum

P*

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Spio filicornis

P*

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Spirorbis sp.

A

C-A

C

-

-

A

A

P-A

P

-

-

Sternaspis acutata

P*

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Syllis cornuta

P*

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Thelepus cincinnatus

P*

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Terebellides stroemi

P*

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Tharyx acutus

P*

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

55 29/79*

9 17

8 15

0 0

1 1

6 7

1 3

4 9

1 1

1 2

0 0

Pectinaria granularia

Potamilla reniformis

TOTAL SPECIES RATING

6.28


Table 6.4.1 Species of Annelida recorded in the St. Croix River Estuary in 2001-2002 compared to total species recorded for Passamaquoddy Bay. (MacKay, 1978, Thomas, 1983, Brinkhurst and Linkletter, and others). * Species that require special equipment to collect, rare, and freeswimming species not included in rating system. PASS.BAY

A

B

C

D

ZONE E

Ammotrypane aulogaster

P*

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Ampharete sp.

P*

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Amphitrite johnstoni

C-A

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Aphrodite hastata

P*

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Arabella iriscolor

P*

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Arenicola marina

P-C*

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Aricidea quadrilobata

P*

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Asabellides oculata

P*

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Autolytus sp.

P*

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Capitella capitata

C-A

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Chaetozone setosa

P*

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Clitello arenarius

P*

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Clymenella sp.

C-A

A

C

C

C-A

P

-

-

-

-

-

Diplocirrus jirsutus

P*

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Dodecaceria concharum

P*

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Enchytraeus albides

P*

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Eteone longa

P*

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Eulalia sp.

P*

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Eusyllis blomstrandi

P*

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Exogone sp.

P*

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Fabricia sabella

P*

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Flabelligera affinis

P*

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Glycera sp.

C-A

-

-

-

P-A

-

P

-

-

-

-

Goniada maculata

P*

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Harmothoe sp.

P*

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Lepidonotus squamatus

C-A

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Lumbrinereis fragilis

P*

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

SPECIES

F

G

H

I

J

6.29


SPECIES

PASS.BAY

A

B

C

D

E

F

G

H

I

J

Myxicola infundibulum

C-A

A

P-C

A

P

-

-

-

-

-

-

Naineris quadricuspida

P*

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Nephtys sp

C-A

A

C

-

-

-

P

P

-

-

-

Nereis pelagica

P-C*

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Nereis virens

C-A

P

A

-

-

P

-

-

P

A

A

Ninoe nigripes

P*

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Ophioglycera gigantea

P*

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Paranaites speciosa

P*

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

P-C*

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Peloscolex benedeni

P*

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Pherusa plumosa

C

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Phyllodoce sp.

P*

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Pholoe minuta

P*

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Pista maculata

P*

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Polycirrus sp.

P*

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Polydora sp.

P*

-

-

-

-

-

-

--

-

-

-

Polyphysia crassa

P*

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

C-A*

-

-

-

-

P

-

-

-

-

-

Praxillella praetermissa

P*

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Prionospio steenstrupi

P*

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Scalibregma inflatum

P*

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Spio filicornis

P*

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Spirorbis sp.

A

-

-

-

-

-

A

-

-

-

-

Sternaspis acutata

P*

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Syllis cornuta

P*

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Thelepus cincinnatus

P*

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Terebellides stroemi

P*

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Tharyx acutus

P*

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

55 29/79*

4 10

4 9

2 5

3 7

3 3

3 5

1 1

1 1

1 3

1 3

Pectinaria granularia

Potamilla reniformis

TOTAL SPECIES RATING

6.30


Figure 6.4.1 Clymenella sp. Bamboo Worm

Figure 6.4.3 Glycera dibranchiata Blood Worm

Figure 6.4.2 Myxicola infundibulum Feathered Fan Worm

Figure 6.4.4 Nereis sp. Clam Worm

6.31


Figure 6.4.5 Nephthys (Nephtys) sp. Red-lined worm

Figure 6.4.7 Potamilla reniformis Fan worm

6.32

Figure 6.4.6 Spirorbis sp. Coil worm


Figure 6.4.8 Distribution of Annelida over time based on the number and abundance of species. Existing data suggests a decline in species diversity and abundance in the St. Croix Estuary.

6.33


6.5 ARTHROPODA

Sea Spiders, Crustaceans, and Insects 6.5.1 Introduction. This large and diverse group of invertebrates includes spiders, crustaceans, and insects. They occurs throughout the Bay of Fundy from the high tide mark to the great depths. 6.5.2 Regional Distribution. Miner (1950) lists over 90 species of Arthropods that occur in Bay of Fundy waters. Of these, approximately 76 species have been recorded in Passamaquoddy Bay (Brinkhurst and Linkletter (circa 1975), Thomas (1977), and Mackay (1978)). 6.5.3 Arthropoda of Passamaquoddy Bay and the St. Croix River Estuary.

The Toad Crab (Hyas araneus) is found on rock ledges and pilings in Passamaquoddy Bay.

18 species of Mollusca were recorded in Passamaquoddy Bay and the St. Croix Estuary by MacKay (1978) while only 11 species were recorded during the surveys carried out in 2001-2002 by the St. Croix Estuary Project Inc.

distribution and species numbers or is a reflection of different sampling techniques, is unknown. This result does, however, support, similar patterns for other marine groups.

All species recorded in these studies are listed in Tables 6.5.1 and 6.5.2. Distribution and abundance are illustrated in Figures 6.5.1 to 6.5.13 for those species recorded during this study. Additional maps and field data for all species are included in the attached CD located in the Appendix of this report. Some Arthropod species may be useful as “Indicator Species� 6.5.4 Status of Arthropoda in the St. Croix Estuary. Figure 6.5.14 shows the relative distribution of Cnidarian groups over time. The theoretical model is our best estimate of the probable distribution within an unpolluted estuary based on our knowledge of the distribution of these species and their relationship to salinity and bottom type. As can be seen from these maps, the distribution and numbers of species of Arthropods was greater in 1977-78 than was found during the 2001-2002 survey. Whether this represents a true reduction in

In order to perform this analysis, a numerical rating system was applied. Abundance was assessed in the field as previously described. A rating figure for a particular zone was determined by adding values as follows: Present = 1, Common = 2, Adundant = 3 . The total rating thus calculated for Passamaquoddy Bay from the literature was considered to be the maximum rating and moderate and low ratings were calculated from this value, each being approximately 1/3 of the total range. These values for Cnidaria are: Maximum Rating = 38-47-56 Moderate Rating = 19-28-37 Low Rating = 1-9-18 6.5.5 Recommended Action. The data presented here show that, in 1977-78, the Estuary population of Arthropods was depressed from the historical model and that a further decline has occurred over the last 25 years or so. This supports the need to further improve the water quality of the Estuary. 6.35


Table 6.5.1 Species of Arthropoda recorded in the St. Croix River Estuary in 1978 compared to total species recorded for Passamaquoddy Bay. (MacKay, 1978, Thomas, 1983, Brinkhurst and Linkletter, and others). * Species that require special equipment to collect, rare, and freeswimming species not included in rating system. PASS.BAY

A

B

C

D

ZONE E

F

G

H

I

J

Phoxichilidium femoratum

P*

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Pycnogonum littorale

P

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Nymphon stromi

P

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

A C P P-C*

A A -

C -

A -

C -

A P-C -

C -

C -

A -

C -

-

P* P* P* P*

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

P*

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Cirolana polita

P*

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Edotea sp

P*

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Idotea sp.

P-A

C

-

-

-

-

-

C

-

-

-

Jaera marina

P*

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Limnoria lignorum BEACH FLEAS & CAPRELLIDS Aeginina longicornis Ampelisca sp. Amphithoe rubricata Caprella sp. Casco bigelowi Corophium volutator

P-C

-

-

-

-

-

-

P

-

-

-

P* P* P* A P* P-C

C -

C -

-

C -

-

-

-

-

-

-

SPECIES SEA SPIDERS

BARNACLES Balanus balanoides Balanus balanus Balanus crenatus Lepas fasicularis CUMACEAN SHRIMP Diastylis sp Eudorella truncatula Lamprops quadriplicata Oxyurostylis emithi ISOPODS Chiridotea coeca

6.36

-


Table 6.5.1 (Continued) Species of Arthropoda recorded in the St. Croix River Estuary in 1978 compared to total species recorded for Passamaquoddy Bay. (MacKay, 1978, Thomas, 1983, Brinkhurst and Linkletter, and others). * * Species that require special equipment to collect, rare, and free-swimming species not included in rating system. SPECIES Gammarus sp. Leptocheirus pinguis Maera sp. Marinogammarus sp. Orchestia sp. Pontogeneia inermis Unciola irrorata MYSID SHRIMP & KRILL Neomysis americanus Mysis stenolepis Praunus flexuosus Meganyctiphanes norvegica Thysanoessa inermis SHRIMP & LOBSTER Crangon septemspinosus Eualus sp. Homarus americanus Lebbeus sp. Pandalus montagui Spirontocaris spinus CRABS Cancer sp. Carcinus maenas Hyas sp. Pagurus sp. TOTAL SPECIES RATING

PASS.BAY C-A P* P* P* C-A P* P

A A -

B C -

C P -

D C -

E C -

F P

G A -

H -

I C P

J -

C-A C-A P* C P*

P C C -

C -

C C -

-

C A -

A -

C-A A C -

A -

-

-

A P* C-A P* P-C C

P-C A C

C C

C -

-

A -

A P -

A -

C -

-

-

C-A P-C P-C C-A

P-C A C A

P-C P C

C A P

A P

A A P

P P -

C -

C -

C -

-

45 53/76*

15 35

9 17

8 16

5 10

9 22

7 12

9 21

4 10

4 7

0 0

6.37


Table 6.5.2 Species of Arthropods recorded in the St. Croix River Estuary in 2001-2002 compared to total species recorded for Passamaquoddy Bay. (MacKay, 1978, Thomas, 1983, Brinkhurst and Linkletter, and others). * Species that require special equipment to collect, rare, and free-swimming species not included in rating system. PASS.BAY

A

B

C

D

ZONE E

F

G

H

I

J

Phoxichilidium femoratum

P*

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Pycnogonum littorale

P

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Nymphon stromi

P

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

A C P P-C*

A -

A -

A -

A -

A -

A -

C -

C -

C -

C -

P* P* P* P*

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

P*

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Cirolana polita

P*

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Edotea sp

P*

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Idotea sp.

P-A

-

P

P

P

-

A

-

-

-

-

Jaera marina

P*

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Limnoria lignorum BEACH FLEAS & CAPRELLIDS Aeginina longicornis Ampelisca sp. Amphithoe rubricata Caprella sp. Casco bigelowi Corophium volutator

P-C

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

P* P* P* A P* P-C

-

-

-

-

C

-

-

-

P

SPECIES SEA SPIDERS

BARNACLES Balanus balanoides Balanus balanus Balanus crenatus Lepas fasicularis CUMACEAN SHRIMP Diastylis sp Eudorella truncatula Lamprops quadriplicata Oxyurostylis emithi ISOPODS Chiridotea coeca

6.38

-


Table 6.5.2 (Continued) Species of Arthropods recorded in the St. Croix River Estuary in 2001-2002 compared to total species recorded for Passamaquoddy Bay. (MacKay, 1978, Thomas, 1983, Brinkhurst and Linkletter, and others). * Species that require special equipment to collect, rare. and free-swimming species not included in rating system. SPECIES Gammarus sp. Leptocheirus pinguis Maera sp. Marinogammarus sp. Orchestia sp. Pontogeneia inermis Unciola irrorata MYSID SHRIMP & KRILL Neomysis americanus Mysis stenolepis Praunus flexuosus Meganyctiphanes norvegica Thysanoessa inermis SHRIMP & LOBSTER Crangon septemspinosus Eualus sp. Homarus americanus Lebbeus sp. Pandalus montagui Spirontocaris spinus CRABS Cancer sp. Carcinus maenas Hyas sp. Pagurus sp. TOTAL SPECIES RATING

PASS.BAY C-A P* P* P* C-A P* P

A A -

B A -

C A -

D A -

E A -

F A -

G A -

H A -

I C -

J C -

C-A C-A P*

C -

P -

C -

A -

C -

P-A -

-

-

-

-

C P*

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

A P* C-A P* P-C C

A -

A P -

A -

A -

A -

C

-

-

A -

-

C -

C -

C-A P-C P-C C-A

P-C C P -

P-C A -

P-C A -

P C -

P A -

P C -

C -

P A -

A -

C -

45 53/76*

8 18

6 13

8 18

7 16

7 17

7 18

4 10

4 9

4 9

5 9

6.39


Figure 6.5.1 Balanus balanoides Common Barnacles

Figure 6.5.3 Carcinus maenus Green Crab

6.40

Figure 6.5.2 Cancer sp. Rock Crab

Figure 6.5.4 Corophium volutator


Figure 6.5.5 Crangon septemspinosus Sand Shrimp

Figure 6.5.6 Gammarus sp. Beach Flea

Figure 6.5.7 Homarus americanus American Lobster

Figure 6.5.8 Hyas araneus Toad Crab

6.41


Figure 6.5.9 Idotea sp. Isopod

Figure 6.5.11 Pagurus sp. Hermit Crab

6.42

Figure 6.5.10 Mysis sp. Mysid Shrimp

Figure 6.5.12 Orchestia pinguis Beach Hopper


Figure 6.5.13 Spirontocaris sp. Shrimp

Figure 6.5.14 Distribution of Arthropoda over time based on the number and abundance of species. Existing data suggests a decline in species diversity and abundance in the St. Croix Estuary.

6.43


6.44


6.6 ECHINODERMATA

Sea Cucumbers, Urchins, Sand Dollar, Starfish, Brittle Stars 6.6.1 Introduction. Echinoderms are widely distributed in the Bay of Fundy from shallow waters to the greatest depths. 6.6.2 Regional Distribution. Miner (1950) lists approximately 50 species of Echinoderms that occur in Bay of Fundy waters. Of these, approximately 35 species have been recorded in Passamaquoddy Bay (Brinkhurst and Linkletter (circa 1975), Thomas (1977), and Mackay (1978)). 6.6.3 Echinoderms of Passamaquoddy Bay and the St. Croix River Estuary. 11 species of Echinoderms were recorded in Passamaquoddy Bay and the St. Croix Estuary by MacKay (1978) while only 8 species were recorded during the surveys carried out in 2001-2002 by the St. Croix Estuary Project Inc. All species recorded in these studies are listed in Tables 6.6.1 and 6.6.2. Distribution and abundance are illustrated in Figures 6.6.1 to 6.6.8. for those species recorded during this study. Additional maps and field data for all species are included in the attached CD located in the Appendix of this report. Most species of echinoderms react negatively to water of poor quality. Consequently, some Echinoderms may be useful as “Indicator Species” 6.6.4 Status of Echinoderms in the St. Croix Estuary. Figure 6.3.9 shows the relative distribution of Echinoderms over time. The theoretical model is our best estimate of the probable distribution within an unpolluted estuary based on our knowledge of the distribution of these species and their relationship to salinity and bottom type. As can be seen from these maps, the distribution and numbers of species of Echinoderms was greater in 1977-78 than was found during the 2001-2002 survey. Whether this represents a true reduction in distribution and species numbers or is a reflection of different

The Blood Star (Henricia sanguinolenta) is a common subtidalresident found on rock bottom in Passamaquoddy Bay. sampling techniques, is unknown. This result does, however, support similar patterns for other marine groups. In order to perform this analysis, a numerical rating system was applied. Abundance was assessed in the field as previously described. A rating figure for a particular zone was determined by adding values as follows: Present = 1, Common = 2, Adundant = 3 . The total rating thus calculated for Passamaquoddy Bay from the literature was considered to be the maximum rating and moderate and low ratings were calculated from this value, each being approximately 1/3 of the total range. These values for Echinodermata are: Maximum Rating = 21-25-30 Moderate Rating = 11-15-20 Low Rating = 1-5-10 6.6.5 Recommended Action. The data presented here shows that, in 1977-78, the Estuary population of Echinoderms was depressed from the historical model and that a further decline has occurred over the last 25 years or so. This supports the need to further improve the water quality of the Estuary. 6.45


Table 6.6.1 Species of Echinodermata recorded in the St. Croix River Estuary in 1978 compared to total species recorded for Passamaquoddy Bay. (MacKay, 1978, Thomas, 1983, Brinkhurst and Linkletter, and others). * Species that require special equipment to collect, rare, and freeswimming species not included in rating system. PASS.BAY

A

B

C

D

ZONE E

F

G

H

I

J

Chiridota laevis

P*

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Cucumaria frondosa

C-A

A

A

C

A

-

P

P

-

-

-

Leptosynapta

C

C

P

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Molpadia oolitica

P*

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Psolus sp.

C

-

P

P

P

P-C

P

-

-

-

-

C-A A

A A

A A

P A

C C

A

A

-

P

-

-

A P-C C C-A C C

A P-C P-C P-C

A C C P

P-C -

P-C P P

P-A P -

P C -

C -

C -

-

-

P

P

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

P

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Ophiopholis aculeatus

A

A

P

-

-

P

-

-

-

-

-

Ophiura sp.

P*

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

17 32/35*

10 24

10 20

5 9

7 12

5 10

5 8

2 3

2 3

0 0

0 0

SPECIES SEA CUCUMBERS

SEA URCHIN & SAND DOLLAR Echinarachnius parma Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis STAR FISH Asterias sp. Crossaster papposus Ctenodiscus crispatus Henricia sanguinolenta Leptasterias sp. Solaster endeca BRITTLE STARS Amphiopholis squamata Gorgonocephalus arcticus

TOTAL SPECIES RATING

6.46


Table 6.6.2 Species of Mollusca recorded in the St. Croix River Estuary in 2001-2002 compared to total species recorded for Passamaquoddy Bay. (MacKay, 1978, Thomas, 1983, Brinkhurst and Linkletter, and others). * Species that require special equipment to collect, rare, and freeswimming species not included in rating system. PASS.BAY

A

B

C

D

ZONE E

F

G

H

I

J

Chiridota laevis

P*

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Cucumaria frondosa

C-A

A

A

C

C

-

-

-

-

-

-

Leptosynapta

C

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Molpadia oolitica

P*

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Psolus sp.

C

-

-

-

P

-

-

-

-

-

-

C-A A

A A

A

A

A

P A

-

-

C

-

-

A P-C C C-A C C

A P -

A P C P

A P A -

A -

C -

C -

-

A -

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

SPECIES SEA CUCUMBERS

SEA URCHIN & SAND DOLLAR Echinarachnius parma Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis STAR FISH Asterias sp. Crossaster papposus Ctenodiscus crispatus Henricia sanguinolenta Leptasterias sp. Solaster endeca BRITTLE STARS Amphiopholis squamata Gorgonocephalus arcticus

P P

-

Ophiopholis aculeatus

A

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Ophiura sp.

P*

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

17 32/35*

5 13

6 13

5 12

4 9

3 6

1 2

0 0

2 4

0 0

0 0

TOTAL SPECIES RATING

6.47


Figure 6.6.1 Asterias sp. Common StarďŹ sh

Figure 6.6.3 Cucumaria frondosus Sea Cucumber

6.48

Figure 6.6.2 Crossaster papposus Sunstar

Figure 6.6.4 Echinarachnius parma Sand Dollar


Figure 6.6.5 Henricia sanguinolenta Blood Star

Figure 6.6.6 Psolus sp. Scarlet Psolus

Figure 6.6.7 Solaster endeca Purple Sunstar

Figure 6.6.8 Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis Green Sea Urchin

6.49


Figure 6.6.9 Distribution of Echinodermata over time based on the number and abundance of species. Existing data suggests a decline in species diversity and abundance in the St. Croix Estuary.

6.50


6.7 MISCELLANEOUS PHYLA

Bryozoans, Ribbon Worms, Flatworms, Brachiopods,Protochordates 6.7.1 Introduction. Several unrelated Phyla are combined in this section. Although relatively few species are included here, two of these groups include numerous species. However, they require detailed and expert identification that is well beyond the scope of this work. Nevertheless, many of the common species or genera are important in the local ecosystem and some will form part of any macrofaunal monitoring regime. 6.7.2 Miscellaneous Phyla of Passamaquoddy Bay and the St. Croix River Estuary. Brinkhurst and Linkletter (circa 1975), Thomas (1977), and Mackay (1978) list the following numbers of species for Passamaquoddy Bay: Bryozoans - 32 species Nemerteans - 5 species Brachiopoda - 1 species Protochordates - 13 species

The Sea Peach (Halocynthia pyriformis) is a common subtidal resident found on rock bottom in Passamaquoddy Bay. other marine groups.

All species recorded in these studies are listed in Tables 6.7.1 and 6.7.2. Distribution and abundance are illustrated in Figures 6.7.1 to 6.7.4 for those species recorded during this study. Additional maps and field data for all species are included in the attached CD located in the Appendix of this report.

In order to perform this analysis, a numerical rating system was applied. Abundance was assessed in the field as previously described. A rating figure for a particular zone was determined by adding values as follows: Present = 1, Common = 2, Adundant = 3 . The total rating thus calculated for Passamaquoddy Bay from the literature was considered to be the maximum rating and moderate and low ratings were calculated from this value, each being approximately 1/3 of the total range. Bryozoans have been excluded from this analysis. Rating values for the other groups are:

Some species may be useful as “Indicator Species�.

Worms - Maximum = 6-9, Moderate = 3-5,Low = 1-2

6.7.3 Status of Miscellaneous Groups in the St. Croix Estuary.

Brachiopoda - Only a single species, the Lampshell, Terebratulina sptentrionalis, occurs locally as shown in Figure 6.7.7

Figures 6.7.5 to 6.7.7 show the relative distribution of Nemerteans, Brachipods, and Protochordates over time. The theoretical model is our best estimate of the probable distribution within an unpolluted estuary based on our knowledge of the distribution of these species and their relationship to salinity and bottom type. As can be seen from these maps, the distribution and numbers of species was greater in 1977-78 than was found during the 2001-2002 survey. Whether this represents a true reduction in distribution and species numbers or is a reflection of different sampling techniques, is unknown. This result does, however, support, similar patterns for

Protochordata - Maximum = 1-4, Moderate = 5-9, Low = 10-15 6.7.4 Recommended Action. The data presented here shows that, in 1977-78, the Estuary population of Miscellaneous Phyla was depressed from the historical model and that a further decline has occurred over the last 25 years or so. This supports the need to further improve the water quality of the Estuary. 6.51


Table 6.7.1 Species ffrom Miscellaneous Phyla recorded in the St. Croix River Estuary in 1978 compared to total species recorded for Passamaquoddy Bay. (MacKay, 1978, Thomas, 1983, Brinkhurst and Linkletter, and others). * Species that require special equipment to collect, rare, and free-swimming species not included in rating system. PASS.BAY

A

B

C

D

ZONE E

F

G

H

I

J

Amphiporus sp.

P*

C

P

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Cerebratulus lacteus

P-C

P

-

-

-

-

P

P

-

-

-

Foviella affinis

P*

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Lineus sp.

P-C

P-C

P-C

-

-

-

-

P-C

-

P

-

Monocelis sp.

P*

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Notoplana atomata

P-C

A

C

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Plagiostomum album

P*

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Procerodes littoralis

P-C

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Uteriporus vulgaris

P*

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

TOTAL SPECIES

9

4

3

0

0

0

1

2

0

1

0

8/138

8

5

0

0

0

1

3

0

1

0

P* P*

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

C-A

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

C-A

C-A

A

-

P

C-A

-

C

-

-

-

P-C P* P* P* P* P* C-A

P P

P P

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

SPECIES FLATWORMS & RIBBONWORMS

RATING PRIAPULIDS, & SIPUNCULIDS Phascolosoma gouldii Priapulida caudatus BRACHIOPODS Terebratulina septentrionalis BRYOZOA Bryozoan (all species) PROTOCHORDATES Saccoglossus kowalewskyi Distaplia clavata Amaroucium glabrum Ascidia callosa Dendrodoa carnea Botryllus schlosseri Boltenia ovifera

6.52


Table 6.7.1 (Continued) Species from Miscellaneous Phyla recorded in the St. Croix River Estuary in 1978 compared to total species recorded for Passamaquoddy Bay. (MacKay, 1978, Thomas, 1983, Brinkhurst and Linkletter, and others). * Species that require special equipment to collect, rare, and free-swimming species not included in rating system. Boltenia echinata Ciona intestinalis Halocynthia pyriformis Molgula sp. Salpa fusiformis Fritillaria borealis TOTAL SPECIES RATING

C P C-A C P* P*

P P-C C -

P C C -

C -

P -

-

P -

-

-

-

-

13 15/20*

5 7

5 7

1 2

2 1

1 0

2 1

3 0

0 0

1 0

0 0

Table 6.7.2 Species from Miscellaneous Phyla recorded in the St. Croix River Estuary in 2001-2002 compared to total species recorded for Passamaquoddy Bay. (MacKay, 1978, Thomas, 1983, Brinkhurst and Linkletter, and others). * Species that require special equipment to collect, rare, and free-swimming species not included in rating system. PASS.BAY

A

B

C

D

ZONE E

Amphiporus sp.

P*

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Cerebratulus lacteus

P-C

-

-

-

-

A

-

-

-

-

-

Foviella affinis

P*

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Lineus sp.

P-C

-

C

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Monocelis sp.

P*

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Notoplana atomata

P-C

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Plagiostomum album

P*

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Procerodes littoralis

P-C

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Uteriporus vulgaris

P*

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

TOTAL SPECIES

9

0

1

0

0

1

0

0

0

0

0

8/13*

0

2

0

0

3

0

0

0

0

0

SPECIES

F

G

H

I

J

FLATWORMS & RIBBONWORMS

RATING

6.53


Table 6.7.2 (Continued) Species from Miscellaneous Phyla recorded in the St. Croix River Estuary in 2001-2002 compared to total species recorded for Passamaquoddy Bay. (MacKay, 1978, Thomas, 1983, Brinkhurst and Linkletter, and others). * Species that require special equipment to collect, rare, and free-swimming species not included in rating system. PRIAPULIDS, & SIPUNCULIDS Phascolosoma gouldii PrIapulida caudatus BRACHIOPODS Terebratulina septentrionalis BRYOZOA Bryozoan (all species) PROTOCHORDATES Saccoglossus kowalewskyi Distaplia clavata Amaroucium glabrum Ascidia callosa Dendrodoa carnea Botryllus schlosseri Boltenia ovifera Boltenia echinata Ciona intestinalis Halocynthia pyriformis Molgula sp. Salpa fusiformis Fritillaria borealis TOTAL SPECIES RATING

6.54

P* P*

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

C-A

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

C-A

-

C

-

-

-

-

-

C

-

-

P-C P* P* P* P* P* C-A C P C-A C P* P*

-

-

-

-

P -

-

-

-

-

-

C -

C -

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

13 15/20*

1 0

1 2

0 0

1 0

0 0

0 0

0 0

0 0

0 0

0 0


Figure 6.7.1 Bryozoa

Figure 6.7.3 Lineus sp. Ribbon Worm

Figure 6.7.2 Cerebratulus lacteus Ribbon Worm

Figure 6.7.4 Boltenia ovifera Sea Potato

6.55


Figure 6.7.5 Rated distribution and abundance of Flatworms and Ribbon Worms over time based on the number and abundance of species. Existing data suggests a decline in species diversity and abundance in the St. Croix Estuary.

6.56


Figure 6.7.6 Rated distribution and abundance of the Brachiopod (Terebratulina septentrionalis) over time.

6.57


Figure 6.7.7 Rated distribution and abundance of Protochordates over time based on the number and abundance of species. Existing data suggests a decline in species diversity and abundance in the St. Croix Estuary.

6.58


6.8 PISCES

Marine Resident and Migrant Fishes 6.8.1 Introduction. Recorded descriptions of the fishes of Passamaquoddy Bay and the St. Croix River Estuary date back to Champlain’s Narratives published in 1613 and the richness of the St. Croix Estuary is clearly evident in many early publicatios : This place was named by Sieur de Monts, Saint Croix Island. Farther on there is a great bay (Oak Bay) in which are two islands, one high and the other flat; also three rivers, two of moderate size, one extending towards the east (Waweig), the other towards the north (Oak Bay), and the third of large size, towards the west (the St. Croix). The latter is that of the Etechemins, of which we spoke before. Two leagues up this river is a waterfall, where the Indians carry their canoes over land some 500 paces; then re-embarking, they can, after traversing a short piece of land, enter the River of Norumbega (Penobscot) and the St. John. Vessels cannot pass this fall, because there is nothing there but rocks and only four or five feet of water. In May and June there is taken there so great an abundance of herring (alewives) and bass that vessels could be loaded with them. The land there is of the best, and there are fifteen or twenty acres cleared, where the Sieur de Monts had wheat sown which flourished well. The Indians come there sometimes five or six weeks during the fishing season. All the rest of the country is very dense forest. (Champlain, 1613). Subsequent to the war between England and the New England Colonies, other references to the richness of the area appear in testimony before the boundary commission that was assigned to determine the location of the “St. Croix” River. Kilby (1888) records the following testimony: This deposition is signed by John Frost and sworn to at Pleasant

The Striped Bass (Roccus saxatilis) is an important recreational species that once migrated to the St. Croix in large numbers. Point Nov. 9, I797, before Jno. Brewer, Justice of the Peace. Another deposition in the same line, that of William Ricker, is here given, as it furnishes other items of local interest:— ...7th. When did you first come to this part of the country and where did you begin your first settlement? Answer. I came into this part of the country twenty six years ago (1771) last April, and began my first settlement the next June at Scoodiac Falls where Jacob Libbie now lives. 8th. Were fish plenty there at that time ? Answer. Yes very plenty. 9th. Of what kinds? Answer. Salmon, shad, alewives, and bass. I0th. Did grampuses or whales resort there ? 6.59


Answer. I saw no such thing there. 11th. Were fish plenty at Magaguadavic at that time ? Answer. I cannot tell for I don’t know that anybody went there at that time after any as they all went up Scoodiac after them. 12th. Where is Passamaquoddy Harbour? Answer. I do not know any place particularly called so. I3th. Where is Passamaquoddy River? Answer. I have heard of such a river lately but cannot describe it. 14th. Do the inhabitants of Passamaquoddy and its neighborhood continue annually to resort to Scoodiac to take salmon, shad, and alewives ? Answer. Yes. I5th. Is there any other river in or about the Passamaquoddy settlement, to which they also annually resort for the same purpose ? Answer. I don’t know any other. The abundance of fish continued well into the next century when Perley (1852) reported: About thirty years since, salmon, shad, and gaspereau, were exceedingly abundant in the St. Croix: the average catch for the Salmon Falls was 200 salmon per day, for three months in each season. The gaspereau came in such quantities, that it was supposed they never could be destroyed; and the numbers of shad were almost incredible. The runs continued until the Union Dam, just upstream from St. 6.60

Stephen, was built in 1825. With no fishway to allow passage, runs dropped instantly and, together with the cumulative effects of declining water quality, Atlantic salmon were nearing extinction by 1909 (Marshall, 1976). A fishway was provided for the Union Dam in 1869, allowing re-establishment of maintenance runs, but major pollution and blockages by dams continued to depressed runs over the following decades. While salmon and shad runs remained depressed, large runs of alewives, smelt, and stripped bass were observed during the 1950s and were the foundation of a local recreational fishery in the Estuary up to Salmon Falls. Changes to fish populations in the lower Estuary are equally dramatic. Up until about 1964, the lower Estuary, an arm of Passamaquoddy Bay, supported groundfish, herring, mackerel, flounder, sculpins, dogfish, tomcod, striped bass, and many other species. Occasionally, schools of herring would actually be seen as far upstream as St. Stephen. In the early 1960s heavy industrial pollution degraded the Estuary to the point where the Upper Estuary became largely anoxic. By 1964, the impacts of these toxic conditions led to the virtual elimination of the fishery in the Estuary. The river eel fishery closed, the many herring weirs that existed there were abandoned, the handline fleet moved elsewhere, fewer fishermen bothered with the estuary as a fishing area, and the northwestern portion of Passamaquoddy Bay became less and less attractive to the dragger fleet. Even recreational flounder anglers were astounded to realize this once abundant species was now greatly reduced in numbers and residents of the Oak Bay area continue to comment on the disappearance of the flounder. In the fifties young flounder were abundant in all shallow, muddy embayments. Today they are absent or greatly reduced in numbers and our divers recorded very few during this survey. It seems that habitat degradation has seriously damaged this once important nursery.


There are many other references to the fishes of Passamaquoddy Bay and the St. Croix River (Perley, 1852; Adams, 1873; Cox, 1896; Boardman, 1903, and numerous works by Scott and his colleagues). Generally, however, these are regional faunal lists and do not necessarily provide the level of detail required to assess diversity and abundance. Scott (1983), however, does provide a comprehensive list of Passamaquoddy Bay fishes including their occurrence and abundance. This list is used as the model on which our abundancediversity rating is based. 6.8.2 Fishes of Passamaquoddy Bay and the St. Croix River Estuary. Scott (1983) lists 105 species of fish for Passamaquoddy Bay. 51 species can be considered as “resident” (Table 6.8.1). Distribution and abundance are illustrated in Figures 6.8.1 to 6.8.15 for those species recorded by MacKay (1978) compared to records from this study during the period 2001-2003. Additional maps and field data for all species are included in the attached CD located in the Appendix of this report. The presence or absence of certain fish species, particularly non-migratory species, has become a clear indicator of problems within the Estuary ecosystem and several species may be useful as “Indicator Species”. 6.8.3 Status of Fishes in the St. Croix Estuary. Figure 6.8.16 shows the distribution abundance rating of Estuary fishes over time. The theoretical model is our best estimate of the probable distribution and abundance within an unpolluted estuary based on our knowledge of the distribution of these species and their relationship to salinity and bottom type.

cies was greater in 1977-78 than was found during the 2001 - 2003 survey. In order to perform this analysis, a numerical rating system was applied. Abundance was assessed in the field as previously described. A rating figure for a particular zone was determined by adding values as follows: Present = 1, Common = 2, Adundant = 3 . The total rating thus calculated for Passamaquoddy Bay from the literature was considered to be the maximum rating and moderate and low ratings were calculated from this value, each being approximately 1/3 of the total range. Rating values for the other groups are: Maximum = 0-14-17, Moderate = 15-32-69, Low = 70-87-104 6.8.4 Recommended Action. The data presented here shows that, in 1977-78, the Estuary fishes was depressed from the historical model and that a further decline has occurred over the last 25 years or so. Eel, Mummichog, Sticklebacks have, in the past, been abundant throughout the Estuary and their absence from the field survey data was troubling. Consequently, a followup survey was conducted at various sites between Waweig and St. Stephen on June 9, 2003. Only Sticklebacks were encountered and these were present in small numbers. The Lamprey is a common migrant to Dennis Stream. Various sites between Gore Bridge and Maxwell Crossing were visited. Only 2 nests were discovered, one with a mating pair. Additional study that focuses on the Estuary and Bay fish populations is required to determine causal factors in the decline and possible remediation.

As can be seen from this map, the distribution and numbers of spe6.61


Table 6.8.1 Species of Fishes recorded in the St. Croix River Estuary by Scott (1983) compared to total species recorded by MacKay (1978) and SCEP during this survey (2001-2003) * Rare species not included in rating system. SPECIES

SCOTT

MACKAY

SCEP

C-A

-

-

C

C

C

Sand Tiger Shark

P*

-

-

Threasher Shark

P*

-

-

White Shark

P*

-

-

Basking Shark

P*

-

-

Porbeagle Shark

C

-

-

Smooth Dogfish

P*

-

-

Atlantic Sharpnose Shark

P*

-

-

Greenland Shark

P*

-

-

Spiny Dogfish

C-A

-

-

Little Skate

C

-

-

Barndoor Skate Winter Skate Thorny Skate Smooth Skate Atlantic Torpedo Sturgeon & Bonefish Atlantic Sturgeon Bonefish Eels American Eel Herrings Blueback Herring Alewife American Shad

P P* C P* P*

-

-

P* P*

-

-

A

P-C

-

P A P

C -

C -

Hagfish & Lampreys Hagfish (Myxine glutinosa ) Lamprey (Petromyzon marinus ) Sharks

Skates & Rays

6.62

SPECIES Atlantic Menhaden Atlantic Herring Round Herring Salmonids Pink Salmon Coho Salmon Rainbow Trout Atlantic Salmon Brown Trout Brook Trout Smelts, Lightfishes & Goosefish Capelin Rainbow Smelt Müller’s Pearlsides Monkfish Codfishes Cusk Fourbeard Rockling Atlantic Cod Haddock Silver Hake Atlantic Tomcod Pollock Red Hake White Hake Grenadiers, Eelpouts, Flyingfish Marlin-spike Wolf Eelpout Ocean Pout Halfbeak

SCOTT P* A P*

MACKAY C -

SCEP -

P* P* P* C-A P* C

-

-

P* C-A P* P

A -

-

P* P* C C P* C C C C

P P -

-

P* P* C P*

C -

-


SPECIES Killifish, Silversides, Dories Mummichog

SCOTT

MACKAY

SCEP

C

P-C

-

Atlantic Silversides Buckler Dory Sticklebacks & Pipefish Fourspine Stickleback Threespine Stickleback Blackspotted Stickleback Ninespine Stickleback Northern Pipefish Basses, Wrasses, Pricklebacks & Gunnels White Perch

C P*

-

-

C C C C P*

P C -

C -

C

-

-

Striped Bass Black Sea Bass Scup Tautog Cunner Snakeblenny Daubed Shanney Radiated Shanney Rock Gunnel Wolffish, Wrymouths, Sand Lances Atlantic Wolffish Spotted Wolffish Wrymouth Sand Lance Mackerels & Butterfishes Atlantic Bonito Atlantic Mackerel Bluefin Tuna Butterfish Scorpionfishes, Searobins & Sculpins Redfish Northern Searobin

P P* P* P* P* C C P* C

P C

C

C P* P* P*

-

-

P* C P* P*

-

-

C P*

-

-

SPECIES Striped Searobin Arctic Hookear Sculpin Atlantic Staghorn Sculpin Sea Raven Spatulate Sculpin Grubby Longhorn Sculpin Shorthorn Sculpin Mustache Sculpin Poachers & Snailfishes Alligatorfish Lumpfish Atlantic Spiny Lumpsucker Seasnail Inguiline Seasnail Flounders & Halibut Summer Flounder Fourspot Flounder Windowpane Witch Flounder American Plaice Atlantic Halibut Yellowtail Flounder Smooth Flounder Winter Flounder Greenland Halibut Leatherjackets, Puffers & Molas Planehead Filefish Northern Puffer Ocean Sunfish TOTAL SPECIES RATING

SCOTT P* P* P* C P* C C C C

MACKAY C-A -

SCEP P -

C C P* P* P*

-

-

P* P* C C C C C P* C P*

C-A -

P -

P* P* P*

-

-

51/105*

16

6

103

35

11

6.63


Figure 6.8.1 Alosa pseudoharengus Alewife, Gapereau

Figure 6.8.3 Tautogolabrus adspersus Cunner

6.64

Figure 6.8.2 Anguilla rostrata American Eel

Figure 6.8.4 Psuedopleuronectes americanus Winter Flounder


Figure 6.8.5 Fundulus heterclitus Mummichog, Killifish

Figure 6.8.7 Petromyzon marinus Lamprey

Figure 6.8.6 Clupea harengus Herring

Figure 6.8.8 Macrozoarces americanus Ocean Pout

6.65


Figure 6.8.9 Pholis sp. Blenny

Figure 6.8.11 Myoxocephalus sp. Sculpin

666

Figure 6.8.10 Pollachius virens Pollock

Figure 6.8.12 Osmerus mordax Rainbow Smelt


Figure 6.8.13 Apeltes quadracus Four-spined Stckleback

Figure 6.8.14 Gasterosteus aculeatus Three-spined Stckleback

Figure 6.8.15 Microgadus tomcod Tomcod

6.67


Figure 6.8.15 Rated distribution and abundance of fishes over time based on the number and abundance of species. Existing data suggests a decline in species diversity and abundance in the St. Croix Estuary.

6.68


7. PLANTS 7.1 Introduction. Algae are vital to a healthy marine environment. In essence, they form the equivalent of the terrestrial forest, providing shelter and food to the animal inhabitants. They occur in their appropriate habitat from high water to the depth of light penetration, generally 60 to 100 feet in Passamaquoddy Bay. Marine plants are well known indicators of the health of a marine environment. Since they respond to varying levels of nutrients and pollutants, certain changes in algae assemblages can be used as an indicator of water quality. Enteromorpha intestinalis and Ulva lactuca, for example are known to respond to rising nutrient levels by growing profusely, sometimes crowding out other species on the beach and creating a threat to resident invertebrates. As pollution levels rise, many normally present species die and are replaced by blue-green and brown algae, as well as fungal species and bacterial mats. 7.2 Regional Distribution. Over 130 species of marine plants have been recorded in the Bay of Fundy Area including: 26 green algae, 29 brown algae, 47 red algae and 27 Angiosperms (Bromley and Bleakney, 1984; South, 1981). 7.3 Plants of Passamaquoddy Bay and the St. Croix River Estuary. Thomas, Arnold, and Taylor (1983) and MacKay (1978) list 39 marine plant species (35 algae, 4 lichen) that occur commonly in Passamaquoddy Bay waters. 17 species of intertidal algae and lichens were recorded in Passamaquoddy Bay and the St. Croix Estuary by MacKay (1978) while 12 species were recorded during the surveys carried out in 2001-2202 by the St. Croix Estuary Project Inc. (Tables 7.1 and 7.2). Distribution and abundance are illustrated in Figures 7.1 to 7.18. for those species recorded during this study. Additional maps and field data for all species are included in the attached CD located in the Appendix of this report.

The rockweed Fucus species are abundant throughout the Estuary area.

7.4 Status of Marine Plants in the St. Croix Estuary. Figure 7.19 shows the relative distribution of intertidal marine algae and lichens over time. The theoretical model is our best estimate of the probable distribution within an unpolluted estuary based on our knowledge of the distribution of these species and their relationship to salinity and bottom type. As can be seen from these maps, the rated distribution and abundance of species of intertidal algae has remained essentially the same over the last 25 years. There has been some improvement in the extreme Upper Estuary at St. Stephen/Calais. In order to perform this analysis, a numerical rating system was applied. Abundance was assessed in the field as previously described. A rating figure for a particular zone was determined by adding values as follows: Present = 1, Common = 2, Adundant = 3 . The total rating thus calculated for Passamaquoddy Bay from the literature was considered to be the maximum rating and moderate and low ratings were calculated from this value, each being approximately 1/3 of the total range. These values for Marine Plants are:

7.1


Maximum Rating = 32-40-47 Moderate Rating = 16-24-31 Low Rating = 1-8-15

Large areas of mud bottom are covered with an extensive mat of brown algae (Figure 7.6). Very few invertebrates and other algae were observed in these areas. Additional work is required in order to determine the composition of this mat and the ecological implications.

7.5 Recommended Action.

While Enteromorpha sp. was at a population low in the Estuary during the 2001-2002 field season, existing beds appeared to be associated with elevated nutrient input.

While some marine plants are recolonizing the Upper Estuary, the data presented here shows that, in 1977-78, the marine plant diversity was depressed from the historical model and that a further decline in species number has occurred over the last 25 years or so.

Table 7.1 Species of Marine Plants recorded in the St. Croix River Estuary in 1978 compared to total species recorded for Passamaquoddy Bay. (MacKay, 1978;Thomas, Arnold, and Taylor, 1983; and others). * Species that are rare or require special equipment to collect are not included in rating system.

ZONE SPECIES

PASS.BAY

A

B

C

D

E

F

G

H

I

J

Spongomorpha arcta

P

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Cladophora sp.

P

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

C-A

C

C

P

-

A

C

A

-

C

-

C

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

C-A

C

C

-

-

C

C

C

C

P

-

C P A P P P C P C P C

A A P P P P -

A -

C A -

A -

A -

A -

A P

A -

A -

-

Chlorophyta (Green Algae)

Enteromorpha sp. Monostroma sp. Ulva sp.

-

Phaeophyta (Brown Algae) Agarum cribrosum Alaria esculenta Ascophyllum nodosum Chorda sp. Chordaria sp. Desmerestia sp. Ectocarpus sp. Elachista sp. Fucus edentatus Fucus evanescens Fucus spiralis

7.2


Table 7.1 (continued) Species of Marine Plants recorded in the St. Croix River Estuary in 1978 compared to total species recorded for Passamaquoddy Bay. (MacKay, 1978;Thomas, Arnold, and Taylor, 1983; and others). * Species that are rare or require special equipment to collect are not included in rating system.

SPECIES Fucus vesiculosus Laminaria sp. Pylaiella littoralis Scytosiphon lomentarias Rhodophyta (Red Algae) Chondrus crispus Dumontia incrassata Gigartina stellata Halosaccion ramentaceum Hildenbrandia prototypus Lithothamnion sp. Palmaria palmata Phycodrys sp. Polysiphonia lanosa Porphyra sp. Rhodochorton purpureum Lichens Caloplaca elegans

PASS.BAY A P-C P P*

A A C -

B A C -

C A -

D A -

E A C -

F C C -

G A C -

H A -

I A -

J -

P-C P* P-C P P P-C P P C P-C P*

P-C P A P p C P -

P-C C C -

P C -

C A C -

C A P p P -

C P -

A P C -

-

-

-

P*

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Parmelia saxatilis

P*

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Verrucaria sp.

P-C

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Xanthoria parietina

P*

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

39 47/53*

17 30

8 18

6 12

5 13

10 21

7 14

9 20

3 8

4 9

0 0

TOTAL SPECIES RATING

7.3


Table 7.2 Species of Marine Plants recorded in the St. Croix River Estuary in 2001-2002 compared to total species recorded for Passamaquoddy Bay. (MacKay, 1978; Thomas, 1983; Brinkhurst and Linkletter, and others). * Species that are rare or require special equipment to collect are not included in rating system. PASS.BAY

A

B

C

D

ZONE E

Spongomorpha arcta

P

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Cladophora sp.

P

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

C-A

P

P

-

-

-

A

-

-

-

C

C

-

P

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

C-A

C

C

-

-

-

A

-

P

-

-

Agarum cribrosum Alaria esculenta Ascophyllum nodosum Chorda sp. Chordaria sp. Desmerestia sp. Ectocarpus sp. Elachista sp. Fucus edentatus Fucus evanescens Fucus spiralis Fucus vesiculosus Laminaria sp. Pylaiella littoralis Scytosiphon lomentarias Rhodophyta (Red Algae) Chondrus crispus Dumontia incrassata Gigartina stellata Halosaccion ramentaceum

C P A P P P C P C P C A P-C P P*

A C C P A P C

P A P P-C A P -

A A -

A P A -

A P A P P -

A A A -

A A P A -

A P C P -

A C -

P C -

P-C P* P-C P

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Hildenbrandia prototypus Lithothamnion sp.

P P-C

P P

P A

A

P P

C C

-

P P

P -

-

-

SPECIES

F

G

H

I

J

Chlorophyta (Green Algae)

Enteromorpha sp. Monostroma sp. Ulva sp. Phaeophyta (Brown Algae)

7.4


Table 7.2 (c0ntinued) Species of Marine Plants recorded in the St. Croix River Estuary in 2001-2002 compared to total species recorded for Passamaquoddy Bay. (MacKay, 1978; Thomas, 1983; Brinkhurst and Linkletter, and others). * Species that are rare or require special equipment to collect are not included in rating system. SPECIES Palmaria palmata Phycodrys sp. Polysiphonia lanosa Porphyra sp. Rhodochorton purpureum Lichens Caloplaca elegans

PASS.BAY P P C P-C P*

A P -

B P C -

C -

D -

E -

F P -

G -

H -

I -

J -

P*

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Parmelia saxatilis

P*

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Verrucaria sp.

P-C

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Xanthoria parietina

P*

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

34 48/52*

12 21

14 24

3 9

5 9

8 16

6 16

7 12

7 10

2 5

3 5

TOTAL SPECIES RATING

7.5


Figure 7.1 Alaria esculenta Winged Kelp

Figure 7.3 Chondrus crispus Irish Moss

7.6

Figure 7.2 Ascophyllum nodosum Rockweed, Knotted Wrack

Figure 7.4 Ectocarpus Filamentous Brown alga


Figure 7.5 Elachista sp. Brown Epiphyte on Rockweed

Figure 7.7 Enteromorpha sp. Tubular Green Alga

Figure 7.6 Brown “Algal” Mat

Figure 7.8 Fucus spiralis Rockweed

7.7


Figure 7.9 Fucus vesiculosus Rockweed

Figure 7.11 Laminaria sp. Kelp

7.8

Figure 7.10 Hildenbrandia rubra. Encrusting Red Alga

Figure 7.12 Lithothamnion sp. Encrusting Red Alga


Figure 7.13 Monostroma sp. Green alga

Figure 7.15 Ploysiphonia lanosa Red Alga - Epiphyte on Ascophyllum

Figure 7.14 Pilayella littoralis Filamentous Brown Alga

Figure 7.16 Porphyra sp. Leafy Red Alga

7.9


Figure 7.17 Ulva sp. Leafy Green Alga

7.10

Figure 7.18 Verrucaria sp. Encrusting Lichen


Figure 6.6.9 Biodiversity ratings for Marine Plants over time based on the number and abundance of species.

7.11


8. WATER QUALITY 8.1 Status of Water Quality in the St. Croix Estuary. As reported elsewhere, the St. Croix Estuary and Passamaquoddy Bay supported a rich assemblage of fishes and marine invertebrates that was the foundation of a valuable fishery (MacKay, 1977, Lotze and Milewski, 2002). During the 1960s, black liquor and other wastes from the GeorgiaPacific Pulp Mill in Woodland, Maine were dumped directly into the St. Croix River. The health of the Estuary declined dramatically and the commercial fishery of the Lower Estuary all but disappeared. This extreme level of pollution continued into the early 1970s until the waste treatment facility at the mill in woodland was upgraded. Studies in 1977 showed the beginning of improvement in the state of the Estuary (See Cote, 1973 and Nolan and Johnson, 1977). While it is clear that the St. Croix River Estuary has improved, inputs from industrial, domestic, and air-borne sources remain at levels that are

Raw sewage still enters the Estuary through pipes such as this one at The Cove in St. Stephen dangerous to both desirable marine species as well as the human residents of the lower St. Croix River Valley. As can be seen in Figure 8.1, the entire Estuary has ratings ranging from “Of Concern” to “Elevated” and the continued input of highly toxic chemicals and pathogenic bacteria represents a real risk. Until these conditions are changed, it is unlikely that any significant restoration can be accomplished and the economic benefits of tourism, recreational angling, and the commercial fishery will not be realized. 8.2 Sources of Industrial Pollution in the St. Croix Estuary As shown in Figure 8.2, industries that release materials to water include: 1. Domtar (Georgia-Pacific) Pulp and Bleached Board Mill, Woodland / Baileyville, ME 2. Domtar (Georgia Pacific) OSB & Chip’n Saw Complex, Woodland / Baileyville, ME 3. Flakeboard Co. Ltd Chip Board Plant, Milltown, N.B. 4. Woodchem Ltd, Milltown, N.B. 5. Ganong Plant, St. Stephen, N.B. 6. Bayside Quarry, Bayside, N.B.

Figure 8.1 Rated Status of Water Quality in the St. Croix Estuary, 2002.

8.1


capacity is 390,000 tonnes. Annual cutsize production capacity is 48,000 tons. There is: 1 Paper machine, 1 Pulp dryer, and 1 Converting operation . The Mill produces: northern hardwood market pulp, specialty and fine papers, uncoated freesheet papers, cutsize paper (inkjet, copy paper, opaques, bond, and offset papers). Environmental credits include: elemental chlorine-free status, State of Maine Governor’s Award for Pollution Prevention, State of Maine Department of Environmental Protection Commissioner’s Award for improving water quality in the St. Croix River, and Corporate Environmental Excellence Award for Pollution Prevention. The Company has achieved ISO 9002 and ISO 14001, R Stamp Certification, National Board of Boilers and Pressure Vessels Inspectors, Maine International Trade Center Direct Foreign Investment Award (Source: www.domtar.com).

Figure 8.2 Industrial sources of water pollution in the St. Croix River Valley in 2003.

Data for reported water releases are compiled by EPA and reports have been reviewed for the years 1988 to 2000 as shown in Table 8.1. Additional data have been compiled and reviewed from the www.scorecard.org website. No data were obtained for the years 2001 and 2002, the years during which Domtar operated the mill.

In spite of the environmental awards, the Woodland Mill under the ownership of Georgia Pacific has had a less than satisfactory environmental record. Of these, only the two Domtar (Georgia-Pacific) operations and Flakeboard In fact, Environmental Defense ranked them among the top 10% of the Co. Ltd. have been identified as having significant water quality impacts ”Dirtiest/Worst Facilities” in the United States in the year 2000 based on data within the St. Croix River Estuary. provided by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. 8.2.1 Domtar (Georgia-Pacific) Operations - Georgia-Pacific Corp. had 2 operations at Woodland, ME - the Pulp and Bleached Board Division and the OSB and Chip’n Saw Complex at Woodland. The Company services these operations from Baileyville, ME. In 2001, these operations were sold to Domtar Corporation.

With the establishment of a kraft operation in 1965, the Company began a long assault on the Estuary environment by dumping its black liquor and other wastes directly into the River. This resulted in the virtual “death” of the Estuary. The water was so toxic that migratory fish species could not survive during their upstream migration. Yearling salmon, tested in a 56% effluent concentration survived only 15 hours (Cote,1973). The mudflats of The initial plant was established by the St. Croix Paper Company in 1906 . It the Upper Estuary became anoxic and virtually all of the plants and animals was acquired by Georgia-Pacific in 1963, and sold to Domtar in 2001 died. A commercial eel fishery came to an end and once thriving herring weir, handlining, longlining, and dragger fisheries ended in the Estuary and The kraft mill was built in 1965 and the No. 4 paper machine was converted western Passamaquoddy Bay with an estimated loss of millions of dollars in to uncoated free sheet in 1979. The Company has 550 employees. revenues. Annual paper production capacity is 125,000 tons. Annual pulp production

8.2

As shown in Table 8.1, air releases have steadily declined in total poundage


Table 8.1 Environmental Releases, Transfers, and Production-Related Waste (Pounds from TRI (total Release Inventory) sources) Year

Air Releases

Water Releases

Land Releases

Underground Total EnvironInjection mental Releases 1988 3,352,445 27,195 0 0 3,379,640 1989 2,460,654 33,780 0 0 2,494,434 1990 2,078,702 28,820 0 0 2,107,522 1991 2,091,422 202,060 139 0 2,293,621 1992 1,823,063 141,050 91 0 1,964,204 1993 1,007,585 125,890 5,376 0 1,138,851 1994 816,266 111,850 10,320 0 938,436 1995 935,755 59,890 9,267 0 1,004,912 1996 679,577 122,773 4,148 0 806,498 1997 742,305 276,460 67,994 0 1,086,759 1998 748,905 310,260 128,561 0 1,187,726 1999 547,477 138,239 109,959 0 795,675 2000 591,556 256,110 58,374 0 906,040 “NA” means that no data are available because “Total-Production Related Waste” was not reported until 1991.

Total Off-Site Transfers 58,709 5,150 3,366 5,395 5,988 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

Total ProductionRelated Waste NA NA NA 9,728,550 10,044,000 8,217,700 7,305,950 10,890,305 11,471,420 9,876,711 10,028,371 7,472,075 9,823,681

Foam

Figure 8.3 Foam at Salmon Falls, 2003.

Figure 8.4 Foam at Salmon Falls, aerial photo August, 2002.

8.3


output, but continue to remain significant in real terms in the year 2000. Releases to water have risen during this period and in the year 2000 was only slightly less than the highest recorded year at 256,110 pounds. During 2002, an accidental release of 60,000 gallons of black liquor occurred in August and there have been numerous small reported spills throughout the year. Additionally, the release of foam-producing chemicals (generally believed to come from the Woodland operations) is an ongoing problem in the River and Estuary as shown in Figures 8.2 and 8.3 When analyzed in terms of content, the direct input as well as indirect input from the air, must be considered critical. Table 8.2 shows the chemicals and amounts in pounds reported by the Company to have been released into the

Reconstituted Wood Products. It has Certificates of Approval to Operate for Air Quality and Water Quality. It only reported release since 1999 is formaldehyde. 8.2.3 Woodchem Canada Ltd. Woodchem is located at 155 Church Street in St. Stephen, N.B.. It is a wholly owned subsidiary of A.C.M. Wood Chemicals Ltd of Zurich, Switzerland. It has approvals to operate from NBDOE and NBDOE Hazardous Waste Management Unit. Reported releases include Ammonia, Formaldehyde, and Methanol. 8.3 Domestic Sources of Pollution. Principal sources of domestic pollution are the St. Andrews, St. Stephen and Calais sewage system including the lagoons (Figurer 8.5), leaking or damaged pipes, and inadvertent or intentional dumping into storm drains. Other sources include industrial lagoons, seepages from old dumps, and septic systems located all along the Estuary shore. Domestic pollution is significant. Numerous groups have studied this problem over the years and there are many data available. Table 8.3 shows the results for all stations sampled in the St. Croix Estuary during 2002 including the relationship to maximum standards provided by Environment Canada, Environmental Protection Agency and others. A color code was used to highlight samples of concern. Green indicates a level <50% of the standard. Yellow indicates a level 50 - 100% of standard. Red indicates a level 100 - 200% above standard, purple or pink indicates a level more than 200% above standard.

Figure 8.5 Calais and St. Stephen Sewage Treatment Faciltyies showing outfalls

St. Croix River. We have converted the amount to pounds per day so that the reader will have a way to visualize the extent of this pollution. 8.2.2 Flakeboard Company Limited (Flakeboard). This facility is located at 151 Church Street in St. Stephen. It operates under Standard Industrial Classifications 25 - Wood Industry, 2592 - Particle Board Industry, and 2493

8.4

The total rating for each station within a Zone is expressed as a percentage of the total maximum rating (80) so that the site rating evaluation is 0-24% (Green) = Satisfactory, 25-49% (Yellow) = Of Concern, 50-74% (Red) = Elevated, 75-100% (Purple/Pink) = Extreme. As can be seen on these tables and Figure 8.1, the upper Estuary in the vicinity of St. Stephen and Calais (Zone J) rates from “Of Concern” to “Extreme” for all parameters while the balance of the Estuary is rated in the “Of Concern” category. An examination of the Table 8.3 shows that the parameters that indicate high nutrient loading (Ammonia, Nitrite, Nitrate, Phosphorus, Total Coliforms and Fecal Coliforms) are largely responsible for elevated ratings. Indeed, if these parameters are broken out, each shows ratings that range from “Elevated” to “Extreme” (Figures 8.6 to 8.11). Nutrient loading is clearly a concern throughout the Estuary.


Total Coliforms and Fecal Coliforms are elevated at various sights throughout the Estuary (Figures 8.10 and 8.11) and the high values suggest immediate remedial actions. Since all warm-blooded animals produce fecal coliforms, it is often stated that test results do not necessarily reflect human activities. Many of the sites used in this study had other signs (toilet paper, etc.) indicating a human source. Effluents at other sites issued from pipes and seepages leading from houses, existing sewage systems, and areas with commercial buildings. 8.4 Black Liquor. Both black liquor and other spills from the Woodland Mills occur with considerable regularity. Some of these are large. An August 2000 spill, for example, was estimated to be 60,000 gallons. Often spills that are reported are small and are viewed as “insignificant” because of the dilution that takes place. Unfortunately, many sub-lethal effects occur in humans and animals at very low concentrations. The condition of the Estuary, as is discussed elsewhere, suggests cumulative and sub-lethal factors may be at play in reducing and eliminating certain populations of vital animal species and stages such as Mysis stenolepis and Winter Flounder fry. As a consequence, it is important to understand the chemistry of so-called black liquor.

an indirect-contact concentrator. The strong black liquor is then fired in a recovery furnace. Combustion of the organics dissolved in the black liquor provides heat for generating process steam and for converting sodium sulfate to sodium sulfide. Inorganic chemicals present in the black liquor collect as a molten smelt at the bottom of the furnace. The smelt is dissolved in water to form green liquor, which is transferred to a causticizing tank where quicklime (calcium oxide) is added to convert the solution back to white liquor for return to the digester system. (From: EPA online document. 10.2-18 EMISSION FACTORS (Reformatted 1/95) 9/90). As can be seen, caustic and toxic chemicals are used in this process. Unfortunately, this is a complex topic and is beyond the scope of this work. It is mentioned here as an unresolved water quality issue affecting the health of the St. Croix Estuary.

The kraft pulping process involves the digesting of wood chips at elevated temperature and pressure in “white liquor”, which is a water solution of sodium sulfide and sodium hydroxide. The white liquor chemically dissolves the lignin that binds the cellulose fibers together. There are 2 types of digester systems, batch and continuous. Most kraft pulping is done in batch digesters, although the more recent installations are of continuous digesters. In a batch digester, when cooking is complete, the contents of the digester are transferred to an atmospheric tank usually referred to as a blow tank. The entire contents of the blow tank are sent to pulp washers, where the spent cooking liquor is separated from the pulp. The pulp then proceeds through various stages of washing, and possibly bleaching, after which it is pressed and dried into the finished product. The “blow” of the digester does not apply to continuous digester systems. The balance of the kraft process is designed to recover the cooking chemicals and heat. Spent cooking liquor and the pulp wash water are combined to form a weak black liquor which is concentrated in a multiple-effect evaporator system to about 55 percent solids. The black liquor is then further concentrated to 65 percent solids in a direct-contact evaporator, by bringing the liquor into contact with the flue gases from the recovery furnace, or in

Seepage areas such as this are found along the St. Stephen shoreline. They contain certain toxic chemicals as well as elevated coliform levels.

8.5


Table 8.2 Reported air- and water-borne Releases during the year 2000 for Georgia-Pacific Corp. This does not include â&#x20AC;&#x153;release onsite or disposal offsiteâ&#x20AC;?. The red background represents known carcinogens. Sources: EPA TRI data, www.RTK.org, and www.scorecard.org. Water Chemical

Sawmill Input 0

Pulp Mill Input 1,300

Total Input 1300

Av./day

Sawmill

Pulp Mill

Total

Av/Day

3.56

3,328

70,000

73,328

200.90

Ammonia*

-

18,000

18,000

49.32

0

160,500

160,500

439.73

Benzo(G,H,I)Perylene*

0

0

0

-

-

7.70

7.70

0.021

Catechol*

-

70

70

0.19

-

0

0

0

Chlorine*

-

0

0

0

-

3,305

3,305

9.05

Chlorine Diozide*

-

0

0

0

-

6,014

6,014

16.48

Dioxin & dioxinl-like*

0

1.80

1.80

0.005

0.12

1.10

1.22

0.003

Formaldehyde*

0

3,000

3,000

8.22

18,885

18,200

37,085

101.60

Formic Acid*

-

535

535

1.47

-

0

0

0

Hydrochloric Acid*

0

0

0

0

4.00

60,000

60,004

164.39

Manganese Compounds*

0

700

700

1.92

900

2,100

3,000

8.22

Methanol*

0

4,805

4,805

13.16

95,543

226,100

321,643

881.21

Nitrate Compounds*

-

210,000

210,000

575.34

-

0

0

0

Nitric Acid*

-

0

0

-

?

?

?

Phenol*

0

0

0

8,527

800

9327

25.55

Polycyclic Aromatic Compounds*

0

0

0

0.93

146.3

147.23

0.40

Sulfuric Acid*

0

0

0

-

43,000

43,000

117.81

17,700

17,700

-

1,400

1,400

3.84

Acetaldehyde*

Zinc compounds*

8.6

Standard

Air


Table 8.3. Results of analyses for various parameters sampled in the St. Croix Estuary during 2002 including the relationship to maximum standards provided by Environment Canada, Environmental Protection Agency and others. Green indicates a level <50% of the standard. Yellow indicates a level from 50 to 100% of standard. Red indicates a level 100 to 200% above standard, purple or pink indicates a level more than 200% above standard. To determine the rating, green has a value of 1, yellow a value of 2, red a value of 3, and purple/pink a value of 4. The total rating for each station is expressed as a percentage of the total maximum rating (80) so that the site rating evaluation is 0-24% (Green) = Satisfactory, 25-49% (Yellow) = Of Concern, 50-74% (Red) = Elevated, 75-100% (Purple/Pink) = Extreme. ZONE J - STATION 4 5

Parameter

Standard

1

2

3

6

7

8

9

Aluminum (Al)

100 ug/l*

70

110

76

77

90

61

78

155

107

Ammonia (NH3)

2200 ug/l*

4500

2000

250

250

250

2000

2000

1000

2000

Arsenic (As)

50ug/l*

<30

<30

<30

<30

<30

<30

<30

<30

<30

Barium (Ba)

100 ug/l**

<10

13

33

46

16

13

20

15

12

Beryllium (Be)

100 ug/l**

<5

<5

<5

<5

<5

<5

<5

<5

<5

Cadmium (Cd

10 ug/l*

<10

<10

<10

<10

<10

<10

<10

<10

<10

Calcium (Ca)

100mg/l*

15

38

102

95

19

13

77

24

51

Copper (Cu)

50 ug/l*

123

36

15

13

12

123

79

88

<5

Iron (Fe)

300 ug/l**

205

<50

<50

<50

<50

229

<50

850

<50

Lead (Pb)

5.6 ug/l**

<30

<30

<30

34

<30

<30

30

<30

<30

Magnesium (Mg)

100 mg/l*

4

13

115

126

18

6

161

16

12

Manganese (Mn)

20 ug/l**

75

30

<5

<5

<5

167

1090

112

<5

Nickel (Ni)

75 ug/l**

10

11

<10

<10

<10

<10

<10

<10

<10

Nitrite (NO2)

60 ug/l*

150

500

0

0

0

150

150

3000

500

Nitrate (NO3)

500 ug/l*

0

2000

2000

1000

1000

2000

2000

5000

2000

Phosphorus (P)

25 ug/l*

4420

271

<50

<50

<50

6110

510

2890

<50

Silver (Ag)

2.3 ug/l**

<1

<1

2

<1

<1

<1

<1

<1

3

Zinc (Zn)

86 ug/l**

25

49

19

28

24

24

56

49

14

Total Coliform

100/100ml

TNTC

TNTC

90

300

30

TNTC

TNTC

TNTC

TNTC

Fecal Coliforms

100/100ml

2

TNTC

20

6

6

TNTC

TNTC

2

102

38

42

30

33

24

43

48

42

37

48%

53%

38%

41%

30%

54%

60%

53%

46

RATING (max=80) % Rating

8.7


Table 8.3 Continued.

STATION Zone H

Zone I

Waweig

Parameter

Standard

10

11

12

13

14

16

17

18

Aluminum (Al)

100 ug/l*

92

131

214

120

<50

86

70

<50

Ammonia (NH3)

2200 ug/l*

100

0

0

250

150

150

250

200

Arsenic (As)

50ug/l*

<30

<30

<30

<30

<30

<30

62

<30

Barium (Ba)

100 ug/l**

16

<10

<10

<10

<10

<10

11

<10

Beryllium (Be)

100 ug/l**

<5

<5

<5

<5

<5

<5

<5

<5

Cadmium (Cd

10 ug/l*

<10

<10

<10

<10

<10

<10

<10

<10

Calcium (Ca)

100mg/l*

8

12

1

6

105

13

442

5

Copper (Cu)

50 ug/l*

<5

<5

<5

8

10

<5

19

9

Iron (Fe)

300 ug/l**

<50

79

100

134

<50

<50

<50

<50

Lead (Pb)

5.6 ug/l**

<30

<30

<30

<30

<30

<30

43

<30

Magnesium (Mg)

100 mg/l*

5

3

3

2

272

3

1260

1

Manganese (Mn)

20 ug/l**

23

<5

<5

<5

<5

<5

<5

<5

Nickel (Ni)

75 ug/l**

<10

<10

<10

<10

<10

<10

<10

<10

Nitrite (NO2)

60 ug/l*

150

0

0

0

500

0

500

170

Nitrate (NO3)

500 ug/l*

1000

0

0

0

0

1800

0

0

Phosphorus (P)

25 ug/l*

<50

<50

56

<50

<50

<50

<50

<50

Silver (Ag)

2.3 ug/l**

3

10

3

<1

<1

8

<1

<1

Zinc (Zn)

86 ug/l**

22

61

19

8

33

17

21

14

Total Coliform

100/100ml

26

TNTC

80

40

TNTC

80

0

280

Fecal Coliforms

100/100ml

0

118

16

0

2

44

0

10

30

31

29

23

31

28

31

26

38%

39%

36%

29%

39%

35%

39%

33%

RATING(max=80) %Rating

8.8

Zone F


Table 8.3 Continued. STATION Zone E Parameter

Zone D

Zone C

Zone A

Cham

Units

20

21

22

23

24

25

28

29

30

Aluminum (Al)

100 ug/l*

66

103

56

63

<50

67

96

76

145

Ammonia (NH3)

2200 ug/l*

250

0

0

0

200

250

0

250

500

Arsenic (As)

50ug/l*

<30

<30

<30

<30

<30

<30

<30

<30

<30

Barium (Ba)

100 ug/l**

<10

13

<10

<10

<10

<10

70

53

13

Beryllium (Be)

100 ug/l**

<5

<5

<5

<5

<5

<5

<5

<5

<5

Cadmium (Cd

10 ug/l*

<10

<10

<10

<10

<10

<10

<10

<10

<10

Calcium (Ca)

100mg/l*

20

58

12

7

13

12

36

73

16

Copper (Cu)

50 ug/l*

16

7

16

16

9

<5

<5

9

15

Iron (Fe)

300 ug/l**

53

<50

<50

232

<50

281

<50

<50

<50

Lead (Pb)

5.6 ug/l**

<30

<30

<30

<30

<30

<30

<30

<30

<30

Magnesium (Mg)

100 mg/l*

3

4

2

1

3

5

3

79

30

Manganese (Mn)

20 ug/l**

<5

<5

<5

<5

<5

<5

<5

230

9

Nickel (Ni)

75 ug/l**

<10

<10

<10

<10

<10

<10

<10

13

<10

Nitrite (NO2)

60 ug/l*

0

150

0

0

1500

0

0

0

150

Nitrate (NO3)

500 ug/l*

0

300

0

0

200

0

0

100

0

Phosphorus (P)

25 ug/l*

<50

71

<50

<50

<50

<50

<50

2150

50

Silver (Ag)

2.3 ug/l**

<1

<1

<1

9

7

<1

4

<1

6

Zinc (Zn)

86 ug/l**

9

23

31

17

26

14

12

12

19

Total Coliform

100/100ml

TNTC

280

470

70

230

TNTC

TNTC

TNTC

TNTC

Fecal Coliforms

100/100ml

194

62

140

12

6

TNTC

84

8

16

26

34

26

26

29

28

28

32

34

33%

43%

33%

33%

36%

35%

35%

40%

43%

RATING (max=80) %Rating

8.9


8.10

Figure 8.6 Ammonia sample results, 2002

Figure 8.7 Nitrate sample results, 2002

Figure 8.8 Nitrite sample results, 2002

Figure 8.9 Phosphorus sample results, 2002


Figure 8.10 Total Coliform results, 2002

Figure 8.11 Faecal Coliform results, 2002

Although water quality is unsatisfactory, the presence of Rockweed, Cormorants and other marine species indicates the environment in the Upper Estuary has improved since the sixties.

8.11


9. SEDIMENTS 9.1 Status of Sediments in the St. Croix Estuary. A small, rude sawmill built at the mouth of Porter Stream about 1780 by Daniel Hill, Jeremiah Frost, and Jacob Libby was the beginning of commercial development that, for over 200 years, has revolved around the rich forests of the St. Croix Region. From this modest beginning, industry along the banks of the St. Croix River grew at a phenominal rate as mills, shipyards, rail-lines and supporting businesses filled St. Stephen and Calais and the waterfront (Figure 9.1). Trade was brisk as reported by Knowlton in 1875: The following statement of the shipping interests in Calais, for 1874, does not materially differ from the average annual business of the past five years. One hundred and seventy-six vessels are owned in, or hail from Calais, and some twenty-five, from St. Stephen. During 1874, the river was open for navigation, 300 days. Arrivals in Calais, 1169; clearances, 1177. Vessels built, 12, having a burthen of 2639 tons. Vessels repaired at docks and railways, 222. Exports as follows: long lumber, 78,000,000 feet; laths, 64,000,000; shingles, 35,000,000; pickets, 1,500,000; spool stuff, 143,000; staves, 525,000; clapboards, 135,000; posts and R. R. ties, 41,000; ship knees, 60,000; spruce poles, 1450; cords of wood, 450; stone drags, 101, bedsteads, 790; barrels of plaster, 41,000. Imports as follows: bushels of corn, 150,000; barrels of flour, 28,000; barrels of pork and beef, 3300; tons of coal, 3000; casks of lime, 6,100. Hopes were high for the development of this port and Knowlton wrote: It was long the fond hope and dream of St. Andrews that, aided by railway accommodation, her harbor would eventually become the main sea-port for all British North America; but the thrift and growth of the up-river towns, long ago dissipated that pleasant illusion. Invariably the inward bound ship seeks the head of the tide; and her sails are not furled until shoal water or rapids forbid her progress. The port of Calais and St. Stephen is the natural, maritime outlet and inlet of a large and rich part of Maine and New Brunswick, and through it there must ever flow a large amount of commerce; and when inland, railway communication is perfected, and numerous factories utilize the immense water power of the St. Croix, here will arise the queen city of the East.

Figure 9.1 The waterfront at St. Stephen/Calais about 1850.

The Queen City of the East never materialized and, as the lumbering era drew to an end, forestry practices changed and, for the past 100 years the River has been largely used for dumping wastes and for the generation of power for various operations including a soap factory, an axe factory, a cotton mill, as well as the pulp and chipboard mills that still exist today. Throughout this entire history, the materials that were dumped into the River and Estuary have accumulated in the sediments. The history of the Riverâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s exploitation is exemplified by the huge intertidal sawdust flats that occur in the Upper Estuary and down to the Ledge Loop at Champlain. Vertical samples provide an interesting history of the condition of the estuary over time and samples from St.Stephen/Calais still show the impacts of gross pollution during the sixties.. The sediments themselves have been studied on numerous occasions, the most significant being by Fink, et.al (1977). They are known to be a repository for wide variety of chemicals, many of which are known to be toxic. Indeed the work done in this 2001-2002 study suggests that the sur-

9-1


face of the sediments show marked improvement. However, problems still lie just below the surface. Large scale dredging would, undoubtedly have serious negative impacts on the Estuary and Western Passamaquoddy Bay. Sediment samples were taken at stations in each of the 10 Study Zones and sent for analysis by XRAL Laboratories. The results are shown in Table 9.1 and illustrated in Figure 9.2. As can be seen. areas designated as “Elevated” and “Of Concern”, based on published standards, occur throughout the Estuary with particular concentration in the Upper Estuary above the Ledge.

Figure 9.2 Sediment Sample Sites, 2002.

9-2

No attempt has been made to catalog the many historical sources of sediment pollution. However, contemporary inputs from local sources have been given in the preceeding section on water and it would be expected that contributions are made from these as well as domestic sources. Nevertheless, many heavy metals occur naturally in this area and undoubtedly influence the results obtained at some sites. With the exception of the intertidal sawdust flats, it is impossible to identify the sources of pollution in the sediments of the River Estuary and we have made no attempt to do this. Nevertheless, it is likely that pollutants found in


Table 9.1 Results of Sediment Analyses at various stites along the St. Croix River Estuary, 2002. Standards from Canadian Environmental guideline for Marine Sediment and other sources. Green indicates samples is within standard. Yellow indicates a sample 50-100% of standard. Red indicates sample exceeds standard by more than 100%. Purple/Pink indicates a sample exceeds standard by more than 200% (x2+).To determine the rating, green has a value of 1, yellow a value of 2, red a value of 3, and purple/pink a value of 4. The total rating for each station is expressed as a percentage of the total maximum rating (52) so that the site rating evaluation is 0-24% (Green) = Satisfactory, 25-49% (Yellow) = Of Concern, 50-74% (Red) = Elevated, 75-100% (Purple/ Pink) = Extreme.

Parameter

STATION 4 5

Units

1

2

3

6

7

8

9

1 mg/kg**

1.71

1.29

1.47

1.31

1.53

1.50

1.3

1.52

2.33

Arsenic (As)

7.24 mg/kg*

3

13

14

50

12

11

6

13

96

Barium (Ba)

500 mg/kg**

50

45

94

84

48

41

40

44

60

Beryllium (Be)

4 mg/kg**

<0.5

<0.5

0.7

<0.5

0.8

<0.5

0.7

0.6

0.9

Cadmium (Cd

0.7 mg/kg*

<1

<1

<1

<1

<1

<1

<1

<1

<1

Copper (Cu)

18.7 mg/kg*

61.4

25.3

78.9

32.3

52.6

35.5

16.6

34.3

35.2

Iron (Fe)

10000 mg/kg***

3.18

3.01

3.58

5.81

3.88

3.1

2.54

3.25

6.46

Lead (Pb)

30.2 mg/kg*

17

23

242

109

19

11

24

18

27

Manganese (Mn)

300 mg/kg***

417

506

325

3490

625

460

250

378

1840

Mercury

0.130 mg/kg*

0.151

0.034

0.519

0.318

0.042

0.008

0.043

0.076

0.025

Nickel (Ni)

15.9 mg/kg**

29

29

31

30

33

32

27

32

38

Silver (Ag)

20 mg/kg**

0.3

<0.2

0.4

<0.2

0.2

<0.2

0.2

0.5

<0.2

Zinc (Zn)

124 mg/kg*

69.7

65.7

153

131

84.7

59.7

77.4

76

102

26

25

32

32

28

24

22

27

28

50%

48%

62%

62%

54%

46%

42%

52%

54%

Aluminum (Al)

Rating (Max=52) RATING (%)

9-3


Table 9.1 continued Parameter

STATION 13 14

Units

10

11

12

15

16

17

18

1 mg/kg**

1.99

1.45

1.46

2.00

1.92

1.35

1.46

1.73

1.31

Arsenic (As)

7.24 mg/kg*

11

18

16

24

23

19

14

15

16

Barium (Ba)

500 mg/kg**

54

37

46

90

41

27

46

44

50

Beryllium (Be)

4 mg/kg**

1.1

0.7

0.5

0.8

0.9

0.5

<0.5

0.8

<0.5

Cadmium (Cd

0.7 mg/kg*

<1

<1

<1

<1

<1

<1

<1

<1

<1

Copper (Cu)

18.7 mg/kg*

44.6

33.4

27.5

49.3

22.7

18.5

23

23.4

24.7

Iron (Fe)

10000 mg/kg***

4.41

2.7

3.38

5.65

3.37

2.62

3.25

3.34

3.04

Lead (Pb)

30.2 mg/kg*

58

32

15

50

22

13

23

36

33

Manganese (Mn)

300 mg/kg***

1070

285

724

4620

328

249

579

341

672

Mercury

0.130 mg/kg*

0.038

0.033

0.012

0.061

0.070

0.022

0.006

0.018

0.008

Nickel (Ni)

15.9 mg/kg**

40

30

32

70

33

25

27

30

28

Silver (Ag)

20 mg/kg**

<0.2

<0.2

<0.2

<0.2

<0.2

<0.2

<0.2

<0.2

<0.2

Zinc (Zn)

124 mg/kg*

90.4

122

240

178

101

60.3

58.2

78.6

132

Rating (Max=52)

29

26

27

30

28

23

24

27

29

RATING (%)

56

50

52

58

54

42

45

52

56

Aluminum (Al)

9-4


Table 9.1 continued Parameter

STATION 22 23

Units

19

20

21

24

25

26

28

1 mg/kg**

2.07

1.81

0.9

1.19

0.89

1.61

1.42

0.98

0.96

Arsenic (As)

7.24 mg/kg*

32

30

33

20

11

11

14

9

16

Barium (Ba)

500 mg/kg**

39

45

29

38

21

82

44

36

48

Beryllium (Be)

4 mg/kg**

0.9

1

1

1.3

0.8

0.7

0.7

0.9

0.6

Cadmium (Cd

0.7 mg/kg*

<1

<1

<1

<1

<1

<1

<1

<1

<1

Copper (Cu)

18.7 mg/kg*

16.7

18.7

21.2

15.9

17.4

26.9

16.9

9.1

11.8

Iron (Fe)

10000 mg/kg***

4.18

3.97

3.28

2.91

2.44

2.81

3.18

2.02

2.19

Lead (Pb)

30.2 mg/kg*

12

23

11

19

36

15

16

11

15

Manganese (Mn)

300 mg/kg***

602

604

502

918

426

492

658

353

282

Mercury

0.130 mg/kg*

0.011

0.034

<0.005

0.012

0.024

0.039

0.016

0.010

0.019

Nickel (Ni)

15.9 mg/kg**

32

29

10

23

21

26

28

16

22

Silver (Ag)

20 mg/kg**

<0.2

<0.2

<0.2

<0.2

<0.2

<0.2

<0.2

<0.2

<0.2

Zinc (Zn)

124 mg/kg*

76

99.7

55.5

62.5

67.8

76.1

60.5

46.9

46.8

25

25

22

26

24

24

25

20

21

48%

48%

42

50%

46%

46%

48%

38%

40

Aluminum (Al)

Rating (Max=52) RATING (%)

9-5


Table 9.1 continued

Parameter Aluminum (Al)

Units

STATION 29

30

1 mg/kg**

1.26

1.22

Arsenic (As)

7.24 mg/kg*

16

15

Barium (Ba)

500 mg/kg**

46

53

Beryllium (Be)

4 mg/kg**

0.6

<0.5

Cadmium (Cd

0.7 mg/kg*

1

<1

Copper (Cu)

18.7 mg/kg*

40.1

68.1

Iron (Fe)

10000 mg/kg***

2.75

3.17

Lead (Pb)

30.2 mg/kg*

58

240

Manganese (Mn)

300 mg/kg***

199

393

Mercury

0.130 mg/kg*

0.130

1.360

Nickel (Ni)

15.9 mg/kg**

24

27

Silver (Ag)

20 mg/kg**

0.5

0.3

Zinc (Zn)

124 mg/kg*

349

145

34

33

65%

63%

Rating (52 Max) RATING

quently, they assessed redox potential as a rapid means of determining organic pollution. In New Brunswick, D.J. Wildish and his associates proposed a method for monitoring sediments to detect organic enrichment from Mariculture in the Bay of Fundy (See Wildish, 1990, 1994, 1999). This method was adopted for the industry and with some modifications continues in use today. A description of the technique can be

Figure 9.3 Dominator staff taking redox readings.

found online at: http://www.gnb.ca/0177/01770003-e.asp. Copies are also available at most DAFA offices.

It was felt that this technique might be of value in the environmental monitoring of marine sediments that are totally unassociated with 9.3 Using Redox and Sulphides for Environmental Monitoring. The aquaculture. Bugden and his colleagues (2001) used this technique New Brunswick Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Aquaculture to assess the bottom in Passamaquoddy Bay and Letang Inlet. While has, for some time used the measurement of Redox and Sulphides as a there was no direct association with aquaculture sites, the survey was key componment of their annual environmental review for commercial conducted in the general area where cage sites were located. Neverthesalmon sites in the Bay of Fundy. less, their work showed promising results. The technique arose from the classic work of Pearson and Rosenberg Oxygen Reduction Potential (Redox) is basically a measure of a (1977) where they related macrobenthic succession to organic enrich- systems capacity to oxidize material. Sulphides are produced by orment and pollution of the marine environment (Figure 9.4). Subse- ganisms associated with polluted substrates. Current standards are as follows: 9-6


Figure 9.4 Diagrammatic representation of changes in macrofauna and sediment structure along an organic enrichment gradient in marine/estuarine conditions (Pearson and Rosenberg, 1978)

9-7


Measure Oxic a Normal Redox (Eh) Sulphide

>+100 mV <300 uM

Group Oxic b Hypoxic Transitory Polluted 0-100 mV 1300-300 uM

-100-0 mV 600-1300 uM

Anoxic Grossly polluted <-100 mV >6000 uM

Dominator Environmental Diving Ltd. (Figure 9.3) has been involved with annual assessments since DAFA protocols were instituted. This company was contracted to collect 10 sets of assessment data in each of the 10 Study Zones (Figure 9.4). For each Zone they ran two 150 meter video transects, one on each side of the River. These videos were subsequently viewed to assess biodiversity. Sediments were collected from each transect and from the middle of the River. Readings for Redox and Sulphides were taken for each sample at 2 cm increments to a depth of 8 cm. Samples were retained and frozen for later analysis. The results of this work are shown in Table 9.2.1 to 9.2.8 and Figure 9.5. It is interesting to note that in the Upper Estuary, high readings are obtained in the deeper strata, possibly reflecting the dramatic historical pollution in this area. As can be seen, when converted to a rating, the results are very similar to those obtained by more complicated assessment routines such as heavy metal analyses, biodiversity assessments, etc. and the technique shows promise for subsequent monitoring. Redox in particular, appears to be suitable for a rapid assessment at reasonable cost.

9-8

Figure 9.4 Sampling Stations for Redox and Sulphide, 2002.


Figure 9.5 Condition of the Estuary bottom based on redox and sulphide measurement taken by Dominator Environmental Diving Ltd, 2002.

9-9


Table 9.2.1- Redox and Sulphide readings at Site 1 - Zone J Rating for Zone = 76 (Red).

Table 9.2.3 - Redox and Sulphide readings at Site 4 Zone H Rating for Zone = 67 Red

SITE 1 Depth

SITE 4

0

75

150

0

155.2

150.8

119

2

97.4

-3.5

96.9

4

94.2

-13.2

92.8

6

87.8

-14.4

79.1

8

51.4

8.4

-11.5

155

278

192

10/18

13/18

11/18

56

72

61

Depth

Redox

Total Rating

75

150

0

75

150

0 2 4 6 8 Sulphide

333.2 69.1 41.4 31.9 -15.7

-0.1 -16.2 4.7 -

174.4 69.3 -3.2 -

311.6 369.3 320.1 -

188.2 246.2 233.3 235.7 -

174.4 69.3 -3.2 -

0

97.5

416.0

65.2

0.156

2.3

-

Total

11/18

10/12

7/12

4/12

5/15

6/9

61

83

58

33

33

67

Redox

Sulphide 0

0

Rating Transect

78

Table 9.2.2 - Redox and Sulphide readings at Site 3 - Zone I Rating for Zone = 67 (Red). Depth

SITE 3 150 0

0

75

125.4 87.2 -3.7 -7.0 -21.6

150.5 78.8 -11.5 -40.9 -6.3

272.3 127.3 21.8 -18.6 -39.7

436 14/18 78

232 13/18 72

159 11/18 61

75

150

224.6 228.5 267.1 169.8 158.2

198.4 235.4 122.4 89.3 74.8

283.5 98.4 140.3 83.2 50.1

12.2 6/18 33

34.2 8/18 44

56.8 9/18 50

Redox 0 2 4 6 8 Sulphide 0 Total Rating Transect

9-10

89

44

76

56


Table 9.2.4 - Redox and Sulphide readings at Sites 5 and 9 - Zone E Rating for Zone = 41 Green

SITE 5 Depth

0

75

150

C1

C2

C3

0

75

150

0 2 4 6 8 Sulphide

224,4 221.9 194.9 192.6 178.3

171.1 166.6 160.9 153.8 160.1

168.9 144.0 136.4 134.2 148.8

73.8 69.0 134.2 121.3 97.5

160.5 131.3 199.4 50.9 152.4

284.6 121.4 126.6 -5.7 -10.8

331.4 159.6 121.2 108.8 94.7

291.2 131.2 93.4 86.2 89.0

257.8 204.2 53.2 48.8 69.9

0

14.1

70.2

23.2

12.7

27.2

13.7

68.9

8.95

8.99

Total

6/18

6/18

6/18

9/18

7/18

10/18

7/18

9/18

9/18

33

33

33

50

39

56

39

50

50

Redox

Rating Transect

33

56

56

SITE 9 Depth

0

75

150

C1

C2

C3

0

75

150

373.1 334.9 270.4 260.2

289.8 224.1 194.1 194.5

176.0 192.5 136.5 89.6

373.1 334.9 270.4 260.2

289.8 224.1 194.1 194.5

176.0 192.5 136.5 89.6

324.4 319.5 272.3 -

284.0 299.1 195.2 170.1

298.2 109.9 143.0 56.6

-

211.5

111.1

-

211.5

112.1

-

147.9

40.2

0.52 5/15 33

0.78 6/18 33

1.13 7/18 39

72.3 5/15 33

9.5 6/18 33

15.6 7/18 39

0.50 4/12 33

2.15 6/18 33

1.19 8/18 44

Redox 0 2 4 6 8 Sulphide 0 Total Rating Transect

33

33

33

9-11


Table 9.2.5 - Redox and Sulphide readings at Sites 7 and 8 - Zone F - Rating for Zone = 52 Yellow SITE 7 Depth

0

75

150

C1

C2

C3

0

75

150

0 2 4 6

283.1 234.3 93.9 91.7

275.9 194.4 231.2 138.8

252.3 233.2 88.3 -

232.6 111.7 46.8 -

170.5 176.8 62.1 -3.6

172.5 97.2 126.9 -

116.8 158.1 152.8 97.4

96.4 143.5 200.5 92.8

186.4 219.1 92.1 233.2

8 Sulphide 0 Total Rating

27.1

-

-

-

26.7

-

115.9

104.5

-

29.2 9/18 50

82.6 7/15 47

34.5 5/12 42

37.7 5/12 42

27.1 11/18 61

40.0 5/12 42

98.5 7/18 39

116.2 8/18 44

41.5 6/15 40

Redox

Transect

44

44

33

SITE 8 Depth

0

75

150

C1

C2

C3

0

75

150

196.5 33.9 89.8 103.5

118.8 96.1 77.0 63.8

119.7 130.3 -87.1 -91.4

206.6 95.1 124.3 63.8

29.9 60.2 58.8 78.4

92.5 96.0 19.5 81.83

113.4 120.9 139.5 158.5

117.9 109.1 66.6 53.0

109.4 175.8 88.9 79.1

-

-

-61.2

95.3

50.4

14.2

117.2

65.4

28.9

37.7 7/15 47

77.4 8/15 53

65.1 12/18 67

8.61 9/18 50

240.6 11/18 61

78.2 11/18 61

16.5 6/18 33

8.1 9/18 50

10.9 9/18 50

Redox 0 2 4 6 8 Sulphide 0 Total Rating Transect

9-12

67

67

56


Table 9.2.6 - Redox and Sulphide readings at Site 10 - Zone D. Rating for Zone = 33 Green SITE 10 Depth

0

75

150

C1

C2

C3

0

75

150

0 2 4 6

226.7 200.6 140.2 118.8

188.1 79.3 134.3 143.8

232.6 271.2 287.8 264.2

164.6 115.0 151.2 129.8

152.4 138.8 129.5 137.2

268.5 199.0 138.4 -

253.9 170.7 167.7 93.9

244.2 144.8 122.7 94.2

217.2 148.8 135.9 100.9

8 Sulphide 0 Total Rating

126.9

-

-

118.5

90.9

-

96.3

61.7

91.4

26.7 6/18 33

15.0 6/15 40

4.08 5/15 33

2.61 6/18 33

7.64 7/18 39

0.56 4/12 33

10.2 8/18 44

16.5 8/18 44

3.33 7/18 39

Redox

Transect

33

33

33

Table 9.2.7 - Redox and Sulphide readings at Site 11 - Zone C. Rating for Zone = 41 Green SITE 11 Depth

0

75

150

C1

C2

C3

0

75

150

0 2 4 6

193.9 110.6 34.6 66.1

126.8 116.1 92.8 61.5

104.3 47.5 24.7 57.9

279.1 -

128.5 133.0 209.7 -

162.1 166.7 69.8 65.1

202.7 214.8 -

300.7 291.9 270.6 -

283.1 321.5 357.9 348.7

8 Sulphide

124.4

105.7

96.8

-

-

71.6

-

-

-

0 Total Rating

25.6 8/18 44

16.1 8/18 44

4.61 10/18 56

1.62 2/6 33

3.2 4/12 33

5.8 9/18 50

1.35 3/9 33

0.75 4/12 33

0.52 5/15 33

Redox

Transect

44

44

33

9-13


Table 9.2.7 - Redox and Sulphide readings at Site 12 - Zone B. Rating for Zone = 33 Green SITE 12 Depth

0

75

150

C1

C2

C3

0

75

150

225.2 217.5 -

291.6 220.2 -

261.5 230.2 -

332.2 123.6 150.9 -

327.8 273.9 194.6 183.6

326.7 221.1 -

281.2 189.4 165.0 -

283.5 210.2 -

301.2 214.4 -

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

0.57 3/9 33

1.35 3/9 33

3.22 3/9 33

0.72 4/12 33

2.15 5/15 33

0.89 3/9 33

1.28 4/12 33

0.72 3/9 33

4.83 3/9 33

Redox 0 2 4 6 8 Sulphide 0 Total Rating Transect

33

33

33

Table 9.2.8 - Redox and Sulphide readings at Site 14 - Zone A. Rating for Zone = 33 Green SITE 14 Depth

0

75

150

C1

C2

C3

0

75

150

240.4 202.0 103.0 128.2

282.1 233.2 260.4 165.9

348.4 185.5 164.8 98.5

336.6 304.2 262.6 255.5

402.1 286.9 181.8 215.1

339.0 240.2 226.2 166.9

343.9 279.4 246.2 243.4

346.5 214.6 242.6 206.5

323.0 350.7 240.4 318.5

221.7

108.1

273.7

147.1

143.1

Redox 0 2 4 6 8 Sulphide 0

22.5

0.48

4.6

2.19

0.53

1.66

3.68

1.03

0.76

Total Rating

5/15 33

6/18 33

7/18 39

6/18 33

6/18 33

6/18 33

5/15 33

5/15 33

6/18 33

Transect

9-14

33

33

311.3

33


10. AIR 10.1 Status of Air Quality in the St. Croix River Valley During the process of gathering information for this report, consideration was given to the possibility that air quality would contribute to the health of the St. Croix River Estuary. Clearly chemicals settling over the River will have direct impact and those settling over the land may enter the system through groundwater and runoff. Consequently, information was gathered on emissions from local sources. The primary sources for information were the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency data on their web site, the compiled data from various sources on the Environmental Defence web site (www.scorecard.org), and Environment Canadaâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s NPRI web site. These data show air-borne sources are at a high level that is dangerous to both desireable marine species as well as the residents of the St. Croix River Valley. As stated previously, the continued input of highly toxic chemicals represents a real risk and until these conditions are changes, it is unlikely that any significant restoration can be accomplished and the economic benefits of tourism, recreational angling, and the commercial fishery may not be realized. 1.2 Sources of Air Emissions in the St. Croix River Valley As shown in Figure 10.1, industries that release materials to air include: 1. Domtar (Georgia-Pacific) Pulp and Bleached Board Mill, Woodland / Baileyville, ME 2. Domtar (Georgia Pacific) OSB & Chipâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;n Saw Complex, Woodland / Baileyville, ME 3. Flakeboard Co. Ltd Chip Board Plant, Milltown, N.B. 4. Woodchem Ltd, Milltown, N.B. 5. Ganong Plant, St. Stephen, N.B. 6. Hospital incinerator stack, St. Stephen, N.B. 7. Bayside Quarry, Bayside, N.B. Of these, only the two Domtar (Georgia-Pacific) operations, Flakeboard Co.Ltd., and Bayside Quarry have been identified as having significant impacts within the St. Croix River Estuary. 10.2.1 Domtar (Georgia-Pacific) Operations - Please see section 8.2.1 for a description of this facility. Data for reported air releases are compiled by EPA and reports have been reviewed for the years 1987 to 2000 as shown in Table 10.1. Additional data have been compiled and reviewed

from the www.scorecard.org website. No data were obtained for the years 2001 and 2002, the years during which Domtar operated the mill. As shown in Table 10.1, air releases have steadily declined in total poundage output, but continue to remain significant in real terms in the year 2000. When analysed in terms of content, the input into the air and water must be considered critical. Table 10.2 shows the chemicals and amounts, in pounds, reported by the Company to have been released into the air and the St. Croix River. We have converted the amount to pounds per day so that the reader can have some way of visualizing the extent of this pollution. 10.2.2 Flakeboard Company Limited (Flakeboard) and Woodchem Canada Ltd. Please see sections 8.2.2 and 8.2.3 for descriptions of these facilities.. Flakeboards only reported release since 1999 is formaldehyde. Woodchems reported releases include Ammonia, Formaldehyde, and Methanol. 10.3 Significant Air-borne Emissions - While water-borne inputs are obvious sources of pollution, air-borne pollutants may significantly impact

10-1


Figure 10.1 Sources of air emissions in the St. Croix River Valley

Stack emission from Flakeboard, August, 2002.

the Estuary as they too are deposited unseen directly into the Estuary or enter through streams and groundwater. In particular, as shown in Tables 10.3 and 10.4, these emissions can be highly toxic and include identified carcinogens as well as cardiovascular, developmental, immunological, kidney, gastrointestinal, liver, musculoskeletal, neurological, reproductive, respiratory, skin, and sense organ toxicants. If these effects occur in humans,impacts should also be expected in marine organisms as well. For example, low concentrations of formaldehyde are known to be lethal to most marine invertebrates. During certain conditions, an inversion layer will hold emissions in the Estuary Valley causing smarting of the eyes and difficulty in breathing. This was personally observed on a number of occasions by the senior author during the summer of 2002. As can be seen from this analysis, on the average, more than a ton of chemicals are released into the air each day based on 2000 and 2001 data. The impacts of this on plant, animal, and human life may be extensive and this warrants additional study.

10-2

Quarry dust at the Bayside Port.


Table 10.1 Environmental Releases, Transfers, and Production-Related Waste (Pounds from TRI (total Release Inventory) sources) Year

Air Releases

Water Releases

Land Releases

1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000

3,352,445 2,460,654 2,078,702 2,091,422 1,823,063 1,007,585 816,266 935,755 679,577 742,305 748,905 547,477 591,556

27,195 33,780 28,820 202,060 141,050 125,890 111,850 59,890 122,773 276,460 310,260 138,239 256,110

0 0 0 139 91 5,376 10,320 9,267 4,148 67,994 128,561 109,959 58,374

Underground Injection 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

Total Environmental Releases 3,379,640 2,494,434 2,107,522 2,293,621 1,964,204 1,138,851 938,436 1,004,912 806,498 1,086,759 1,187,726 795,675 906,040

Total Off-Site Transfers 58,709 5,150 3,366 5,395 5,988 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

“NA” means that no data are available because “Total-Production Related Waste” was not reported until 1991.

Total ProductionRelated Waste NA NA NA 9,728,550 10,044,000 8,217,700 7,305,950 10,890,305 11,471,420 9,876,711 10,028,371 7,472,075 9,823,681

10-3


Table 10.2 Reported air-borne Releases during the year 2000 for Georgia Pacific Corp. and 2001 for Flakeboard and Woodchem. This does not include “release onsite or disposal offsite”. Sources: EPA TRI data, www.RTK.org, www.scorecard.org. and Environment Canada atwww.ec.gc.ca. Air Chemical

FlakeBoard Woodchem

Air Sawmill

Pulp Mill

Total

Av/Day

3,328

70,000

73,328

200.90

0

160,500

160,720

440.33

Benzo(G,H,I)Perylene*

-

7.70

7.70

0.021

Catechol*

-

0

0

0

Chlorine*

-

3,305

3,305

9.05

Chlorine Diozide*

-

6,014

6,014

16.48

0.12

1.10

1.22

0.003

18,885

18,200

174,014

476.75

-

0

0

0

Hydrochloric Acid*

4.00

60,000

60,004

164.39

Manganese Compounds*

900

2,100

3,000

8.22

95,543

226,100

322,393

883.27

Nitrate Compounds*

-

0

0

0

Nitric Acid*

-

?

?

?

Phenol*

8,527

800

9327

25.55

Polycyclic Aromatic Compounds*

0.93

146.3

147.23

0.40

Sulfuric Acid*

-

43,000

43,000

117.81

Zinc compounds*

-

1,400

1,400

3.84

856,661 lbs

2347 lbs

Acetaldehyde* Ammonia*

220

Dioxin & dioxinl-like* Formaldehyde*

136,664/265

Formic Acid*

Methanol*

TOTAL INPUT

10-4

750


Figure 10.3 Total releases of chemicals believed to have health effects, 2000.

Recognized Carcinogens Suspected Carcinogens Suspected Cardiovascular or Blood Toxicants Suspected Developmental Toxicants Suspected Immunotoxicants Suspected Kidney Toxicants Suspected Gastrointestinal or Liver Toxicants Suspected Musculoskeletal Toxicants Suspected Neurotoxicants Suspected Reproductive Toxicants Suspected Respiratory Toxicants Suspected Skin or Sense Organ Toxicants

Air Releases (Pounds from TRI sources) 88,200 43,129 4,234 302,914 19,600 74,105 469,034 43,000 481,005 24,214 589,319 539,034

Water Releases (Pounds from TRI sources) 4,300 70 210,535 6,105 20,700 1,835 26,410 28,410 3,000 45,340 27,710

*Note: Some chemicals are associated with more than one health effect, so their release may be counted multiple times in this table. Therefore, it is not appropriate to sum releases sorted by health effect.

10-5


Figure 10.4 Health effects of various chemicals emitted into the air from the Georgia Pacific, Flakeboard, and Woodchem stacks. Compiled from Environmental Defence (www.scorecard.org).

Health Hazard K=known, S=suspected Chemical

Cancer Agent

CardioDevelvascular opmenor Blood tal Toxin Toxin S

Endocrine Toxin

Immunotoxin

Kidney Toxin

-

Gastrintestinal or Liver Toxin -

Neurotoxin

Reproductive Toxin

Respiratory Toxin

S

Musculoskeletal Toxin -

S

-

S

Skin Sense Organ Toxin S

-

-

-

S

S

S

S

S

S

Acetaldehyde

K

Ammonia

-

-

-

-

S

-

Benzo(G,H,I)Perylene

K

-

S

S

S

S

Catechol

S

-

-

-

S

S

-

-

S

-

-

S

Chlorine

-

-

-

-

S

-

S

-

S

-

S

S

Chlorine Diozide

-

-

S

-

-

-

-

-

-

S

S

S

Dioxin & dioxin-like

K

-

S

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Formaldehyde

K

-

-

-

S

S

-

-

S

S

S

S

Formic Acid

-

S

-

-

S

-

S

-

S

-

S

S

Hydrochloric Acid

-

-

-

-

S

-

-

-

-

-

S

S

Manganese Compounds

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

S

-

-

-

Methanol

-

-

S

-

S

-

-

-

S

-

S

S

Nitrate Compounds

-

S

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Nitric Acid

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

S

-

Phenol

-

S

S

-

S

-

S

-

S

S

S

S

Polycyclic Aromatic Comp

S

S

-

-

S

-

-

-

-

S

S

S

Sulfuric Acid

S

-

-

-

-

-

-

S

-

-

S

S

Zinc Compounds

-

-

-

-

-

S

-

-

-

S

-

-

10-6

-


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