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aldehydes and alcohols present in the botanicals will add even more subtle flavor nuances to the gins made with their use. Of course, as noted in Part 1, juniper is the most important botanical lending to the actual official and legal definition of gin. In summarizing, ten of the terpenic flavors, extracted from Juniper berries along with the molecular details and common descriptors, are shown in Figure 2 (11), those extracted from coriander seeds are shown in Figure 3 (11) and those as identified in gins are shown in Figure 4 (11). Descriptors for other common flavors derived from various botanicals are seen in Table 1. Moreover, the other 276+ botanicals to be experimented with may provide distinguishing nuances, and a different spectrum of compounds, to each gin, but the core set will need to be understood and evaluated organoleptically by anyone professing to be a gin “expert” or acclaimed aficionado. Then the layers of flavor added via the use of lesser known or unique botanicals can start to be addressed. For coriander the main component is the tertiary alcohol terpene called linalool which adds the citrus, fruity and floral notes (see its importance in gin in Table 2). Coriander is classed into two varieties — Coriandrum sativum var. vulgare (large fruit) and C. sativum var. microcarpa (small fruit). The smaller fruit (seeds) has the higher percentage of essential oil than the large fruit variety. In addition to the linalool (60-70% of the oil) many other key flavor volatiles are also present — some noted in Figure 3 and Table 2. Angelica root is the third in the triumvirate of the most important gin botanicals. Its use is said to convey a green-spicy “top note” and a pleasing musky dry finish to gins,

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and its oil is composed of similar and some different and unique compounds to those in juniper and coriander (5). Flavor/organoleptic descriptor terms for many chemicals listed in the references cited may be found from the website of the Good Scents Company (21). Experiments such as those described in the first part of this article might assist in designing unique flavor profiles for the distillers’ own new gin adventures. Simply stated there is much in the literature and in gin formulations/ botanicals for the distiller to better understand, dissect, and distill in learning about the key flavors in each botanical. Starting with basic extractions and expressions in grain neutral spirit then on to small-scale experiments described earlier in the article, and basic sensory evaluations of the products of such tests. Initially understanding a dozen or so components, their aromatic properties and how they taste (meaning how they add flavor), and how best to obtain them from key botanicals will go a long way in creating or recreating some classic gins and then lead to even more creative contemporary expressions of gin in all its glorious forms.

Molly Troupe is currently the Master Distiller of Freeland Spirits, based in Portland, Oregon. She has a Bachelors of Chemistry and a Masters of Brewing and Distilling from Heriot-Watt University and is currently serving on the Board of Directors of the American Craft Spirits Association.  Gary Spedding, Ph.D. is a brewing and distilling analytical chemist with special interest in the origins and development of beverage flavor and in the sensory evaluation of beer and distilled spirits. He owns and operates Brewing and Distilling Analytical Services, LLC and the new division — Brewing and Distilling Educational Services in Lexington, KY.

REFERENCES

After preparing this article we became aware of another new paper on the rediscovery of gin by Putman (2018) See reference 22 for another important modern review on this topic. 1) Notman, N. (2017). The science of distilling gin. Chemistry World. pp. 1-14. https://www.chemistryworld.com/feature/thescience-of-distilling-gin/3007637.article 2) Greer, D., Pfahl, L., Rieck, J., Daniels, T., Garxa, O. (2008). Comparison of a Novel Distillation Method versus a Traditional Distillation Method in a Model Gin System Using Liquid/Liquid Extraction. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. (56). pp. 9030-9036. 3) Riu-Aumatell, M. (2016). Gin. In Encyclopedia of Food and Health. B Caballero, P.M. Finglas and Fidel Toldra (Eds.). Elsevier Ltd. pp. 222-226. 4) Gin Foundry. (2018). http://ginfoundry.com 5) Riu-Aumatell, M. (2012). Gin production and sensory properties. In Alcoholic Beverages: Sensory Evaluation and Consumer Research. John Piggott (Ed.). Woodhead Publishing Ltd. pp. 267-280. 6) The gin is in. (2018). https://theginisin.com/botanicals/ 7) Pauley, M. and Maskell, D. (2017). Mini-Review: The Role of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in the Production of Gin and Vodka. Beverages. 3 (13); 1-11 8) Piggott, R. (2009). Vodka, gin and liqueurs. The Alcohol Textbook (Fifth Ed.). W.M. Ingledew, D.R. Kelsall, G.D. Austin and C. Kluhspies (Eds.) Nottingham University Press. pp. 465-471. 9) Roskrow, D. (2017). Gin: A guide to the world’s greatest gins. Collins Little Books. Harper Collins Publishers. 10) Breitmaier, E. (2006). Terpenes: Flavors, Fragrances, Pharmaca, Pheromones. Wiley VCH. 11) Guerra-Hernández, E. (2003). Gin/Composition and Analysis. Encyclopedia of Food Sciences and Nutrition. B. Caballero, L. Trugo and P.M. Finglas (Eds.). Academic Press. pp. 2894-2898. 12) The Aroma Academy and Dodd, G. (2011). Aroma Academy Gin Aroma Kit Guide Book. 13) http://www.compoundchem.com/wp-content/ uploads/2016/05/The-Chemistry-of-Elderflower-Elderberries.pdf 14) http://www.compoundchem.com/wp-content/ uploads/2015/04/The-Chemistry-of-Gin.pdf 15) Jack, F. (2011). Reinventing the wheel. A new flavour wheel for gin. Brewer & Distiller International. Sept 2011: 32-33. 16) Phelan, A.D., Jack, F.R., Conner, J.M., Reid, K.J.C. and Priest, F.G. (2004). Sensory assessment of gin flavour. In Distilled Spirits Tradition and Innovation. J.H. Bryce and G.G. Stewart (Eds.). Nottingham University Press. pp. 53-58. 17) Dussort, P., Depretre, N., Bou-Maroun, E., Brunerie, P., Guichard, E., Fant, C., Le Fur, Y. and Le Quere, J-L. (2012). Understanding the aroma of gin: A Gas ChromatographyOlfactometry approach. In Distilled Spirits Science and Sustainability. G. Walker, R. Fotheringham, I. Goodall and D. Murray (Eds.). pp. 175-183 18) Clutton, D. W. and Evans, M.B. (1978). The Flavour Constituents of Gin. Journal of Chromatography. 167: 409-419. 19) Vichi, S., Riu-Aumatell, M., Mora-Pons, M., Buxaderas, S. and Lopez-Tamames, E. (2005). Characterization of Volatiles in Different Dry Gins. J. Agric. Food Chem. 53: 10154-10160. 20) Vichi, S., Riu-Aumatell, M., Mora-Pons, M., Guadayol, J.M., Buxaderas, S. and Lopez-Tamames, E. (2007). HS-SPME coupled to GC/MS for quality control of Juniperus communis L. berries used for gin aromatization. Food Chemistry. 105: 1748-1754. 21) The Good Scents Company. http://www. thegoodscentscompany.com/ For a source of flavor — organoleptic descriptors associated with flavor chemicals. 22) Putman. R. (2018). Gin makes a comeback. Brewer and Distiller International. April 2018. pp. 18-26.

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Artisan Spirit: Summer 2018  

The magazine for craft distillers and their fans.

Artisan Spirit: Summer 2018  

The magazine for craft distillers and their fans.