and pagination of the citation are inside of the parentheses rather than just a number (Ex: (Bentley, p. 1-3). [Bentley, p. 1-3]). Other common styles of internal citations may be used, but that is to the discretion of the editor, and it is best to check beforehand. External citations are equally, if not more, important than internal citations. Some journals have more strict guidelines for citing references, therefore it is important to check in the “Instructions to Authors” section or with the editor of the journal/magazine for any specific requirements. Commonly, external citations are listed at the end of a manuscript in either alphabetical or sequential order. Alphabetical ordering seems to be the most commonly used among brewing magazines, with articles by the same author being listed from earliest publication to most recent. If multiple methods by the same source are used (such as the American Society of Brewing Chemists Methods of Analysis, ASBC MOAs), they should be listed in the paper under one reference (1,3). There are an extensive number of ways to cite literature and other sources used. In most cases, if the formatting of citations is consistent throughout the paper and contains all pertinent information, they will be accepted during editing. Typical styles of citing references include Modern Language Association (MLA), American Psychological Association (APA), and Chicago style formatting. A good, free source of information regarding these common formats is the Purdue University’s Online Writing Labs (OWL) website (4). There are also several online reference list generators which will automatically create citations based on information given, and even Microsoft Word has a built-in reference list generator that can be utilized for different styles of citations. Citations vary slightly not only based on style choices, but also based on the source itself. The information included in a citation may vary slightly depending on if the source is another journal article, a book, an online source, a PDF/ word document, etc. Even if the arrangement and style is different, the same basic information regarding the reference should be included. This information generally begins with the author’s last name, first name followed by the full article title. The journal or book name should also be present, and is generally italicized. If a volume/edition and page number are relevant, they too should be included in the citation. A date of publication, or at least the year, is also typically included. The placement of the date can vary, based on the request of the journal as seen below. Enough information should be provided in the citation for someone to find the exact same source used as easily as possible. Below are two examples of basic citations of the same ASBC methods; one from the Journal of the ASBC and the other from Technical Quarterly (TQ, the official journal of the Master Brewers Association of the Americas [MBAA]). The examples are to illustrate how two prominent journals in the brewing industry cite the same source.
ASBC example (1): American Society of Brewing Chemists. Methods of Analysis, 8th ed. Beer-10A Spectrophotometric color method, -14 Ash; Yeast-3A Methylene blue dead yeast cell strain. ASBC, St. Paul, MN, 1992.
TQ example (3): American Society of Brewing Chemists. (1992). Methods of Analysis, 8th ed. Beer-10A Spectrophotometric color method, -14 Ash; Yeast-3A Methylene blue dead yeast cell stain. ASBC, St. Paul, MN.
Jessi Bentley is a recent graduate of Eastern Kentucky University. She works as an HPLC and general alcohol beverage chemist at Brewing & Distilling Analytical services in Lexington, KY. Email firstname.lastname@example.org for more info. 126
TOPICS TO CONSIDER:
Aside from the main body of work and reference list, there are other topics to consider before sending the final copy of a manuscript to an editor. It is important to be aware of any abbreviations and acronyms used throughout the body of work. These should be completely spelled out upon first use in the paper to avoid confusion on part of the reader. With regards to abbreviations in the brewing and distilling industry, there are a list of acceptable abbreviations noted by the American Chemical Society available for reference (2). Any measurements stated in the paper should conform to standard metric units. Figures and tables included in the manuscript should follow a consistent styling and resolution set forth by the magazine/ journal. Any figures, tables, pictures, illustrations, etc. that are not original work should also contain adequate citation and relevant permissions to use as with any other type of information presented. Even using figures stated to be “Public Commons/Domain” may still need permissions from the artist or photographer to be used. It is important to note that revisions will most likely be needed based on feedback from the editor. Some purely technical revisions may be requested, such as formatting or source editing, even if the paper is otherwise acceptable. Brushing up on the requirements for the specific magazine/journal before submission of a manuscript may save time and effort on both the part of the editor and author later in the process. It is equally as important for a magazine/journal to set forth guidelines for potential authors to follow for the same reason. If invited to contribute an article, or if offering to write a paper for a journal or magazine be sure that both parties are on the same page to ensure as smooth a publishing experience as possible. If done right it is a rewarding experience to contribute to the literature in a field that is of interest to you and to enhance the knowledge of others.
REFERENCES (1) American Society of Brewing Chemists. Instructions to Authors. Journal of the American Society of Brewing Chemists. (online). 2016. Accessed Oct. 2017. (2) Godhill, A.M., Garson, L.R., Eds. The ACS Style Guide. American Chemical Society. Washington, DC, 2006. (3) Master Brewers Association of the Americas. Abbreviated Guidelines for Authors of TQ Papers. Technical Quarterly (TQ). (online). 2015. Accessed Oct. 2017. (4) The Purdue OWL Family of Sites. The Writing Lab and OWL at Purdue, 2008. Owl.english.purdue.edu/owl. Accessed Oct. 2017. (5) San Francisco Edit. Fourteen Steps to Writing an Effective Discussion Section. Scientific, Medical and General Proofreading and Editing. www.sfedit.net WWW.ARTISANSPIRITMAG.COM
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