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HOT TOPIC 015

011 007 Cézanne and the Modern 塞尚與現代繪畫

009 David Hockney, Printmaker 大衛·霍克尼版畫展

011 Martin Creed: What’s the Point of It? 馬丁·克里德:這都有什麼意義?

013 Strange Beauty

015 Sensing Spaces:

Architecture Reimagined

建築在望

021 Richard Hamilton 理查德·漢密爾頓

023 Your Ad Here

017 Momentum

你的廣告看過來

動量

019 Masterpiece Tour 大師作品之旅

025 Gems of Chinese Painting 中國畫瑰寶

027 More

奇異之美

更多熱點

固定專欄

EXCLUSIVE COLUMN 117

117

Interview with Philip-Lorca diCorcia

127

11 Course Leaders: 20 Questions

專訪菲利普-洛卡·迪科西亞

《倫敦藝術課程主任二十問》

133 133

From Foundation to Future Artists: an Introduction to Foundation Courses in British Art Education

從“基礎課程”到“未來藝術家”

── 一個關於英國藝術教育基礎課程的簡要介紹

137

Wang Yabin: Reflections in Time

143

Drama and Theatre Education

王亞彬,時間裡的映像

教育戲劇和劇場


每期專題

SPECIAL FEATURE 091 029

Art Education in the UK

073 Interview with Neil Mulholland

031

Small College, Huge Influence

079 Interview with David Bate

039

Design with Global Vision

085 The Position of Language

047

Let the Curiosity Lead Your Way

091 Dance without Fear

053

Graduate Said

097 Contemporary Circus Education

057

The Importance of Transcultural Studies

103 Everything about Quality

063

Case Study: Goldsmiths

109 Knowledge Should Be Priceless

067

Interview with Lesley Punton

英國藝術教育

小中見大

全球化視野的設計

讓好奇心引路

畢業生如是說

跨文化學習的重要性

個案研究: 金史密斯學院

專訪萊斯利·蓬托

專訪尼爾·穆赫蘭道教授

專訪大衛·貝特教授

至關重要的語言

舞者無懼

當代馬戲教育

以質為本

知識無價


ISSUE 10 2014

ART.ZIP

ISSN 2050-4152

Publisher 出版人

Liu Chunfen 劉春芬 Editor-in-chief 主編 Harry Liu 劉競晨

Executive Editor 執行編輯 Michelle Yu 余小悅 Editor 編輯

Ke Qiwen 柯淇雯 Li Bowen 李博文 Sarah Pettitt

Contributor 撰稿人 Monica Chung

Funky He 何伊寧

Peng Zuqiang 彭祖強 Penny Peng 彭一歐 Fresco Su 蘇毅

Translator 翻譯

Shoran Jiang 姜嘯然, Iris Shih 施孟慧 Yu Chang 于暢

IT Project Manager IT主管 Ace Xie 謝達明

Media Officer 媒體主管 Iris Shih 施孟慧

Advertising Manager 廣告客戶經理

Liu Tingting 劉婷婷, Wang Jiejing 王潔凈 Creative Director 創意總監

Li Ye 李燁, Ye Xianghui 葉向輝 Art Director 藝術指導

Gao Xiaodan 高曉丹, Wu Nan 武楠 Managing Director 運營總監 Shi Yuese 石約瑟

Visual Design 視覺設計 Bulletpin Studio


Thanks to 鳴謝

Alternative Art College 另類藝術學院 Ashmolean Museum 阿什莫林博物館 Barbican Centre 巴比肯藝術中心 British Museum 大英博物館

Christie’s Education 佳士得美術學院 CRKO

Design Museum 設計博物館

Dulwich Picture Gallery 達利奇畫廊

Edinburgh College of Art 愛丁堡藝術學院 Glasgow School of Art 格拉斯哥藝術學院

Goldsmiths, University of London 金史密斯學院 Hagit Yakira Company 海吉特·雅琪拉舞團 Hayward Gallery 海沃德画廊

Hepworth Wakefield Gallery 赫普沃·斯維克菲爾德畫廊 National Gallery 英國國家畫廊 NUO Gallery NUO畫廊 Q-Art Q-藝術組織

Royal Academy of Arts 皇家藝術學會

Royal Central School of Speech and Drama 皇家中央演講與戲劇學院 Royal College of Art 皇家藝術學院

Slade School of Fine Art 斯萊德藝術學院 Serpentine Gallery 蛇形畫廊 Tate 泰特美術館

Whitechapel Gallery 白教堂畫廊 University of Warwick 華威大學

University of Westminster 威斯敏斯特大學

Victoria & Albert Museum 維多利亞與阿爾伯特博物館 Address 雜誌社地址 GCCD Ltd.

Elizabeth House, 39 York Road, SE1 7NQ, London, UK

Website:www.artzip.org


A TEA IN THREE CITIES 仨城茶敘 12 - 25. 5. 2014 Konstantin Bessmertny Bertozzi & Casoni Ivan Seal Wang Yabin 君士坦丁 貝爾托玆 & 卡索尼 伊萬‧斯爾 王亞彬 Curated by Monica Chung ArtOne M/F, Convention Plaza 1 Harbour Road Wanchai, Hong Kong 香港灣仔港灣道1號 會展廣場閣樓

G/F, No. 8 St. Francis Street, Wanchai, Hong Kong 香港聖佛蘭士街8號地下 852 2520 0281 | rsvp@galeriehuit.com.hk www.galeriehuit.com.hk


EDITOR’S NOTE 主編寄語

In the art industry, both the theoretical and practical aspects of education are necessary. China and

the UK have different approaches when it comes to education both in the structure of learning and its

fundamental purpose. As more and more Chinese students study art and art-related subjects in the UK, it is necessary to review art education comprehensively.

As part of the special feature in this issue, we interviewed various art schools, institutes, organisations

and individuals. We discussed the differences between the current educational system in art and other

subjects, to provide our readers with a broader perspective of the present state of art education and the

direction of its development in the UK. Different methods of teaching will influence the way art develops in British and Chinese culture.

We hope this issue can stir up conversation in the British art industry and educational sectors in both China and the UK.

在整個藝術環境當中,學術體系和藝術教育是不可或缺的一環。中英兩國不論是在學術體系還是在教育理念方面都 存在很多差異,隨著越來越多的中國學生來到英國學習藝術和相關學科,我們覺得應該針對藝術教育問題進行一次 儘量廣泛的探討。此次專題我們採訪了英國各類藝術教育機構、組織和個人,嘗試從一個立體的視角來考察英國藝 術教育的現狀和不同類別教育系統和組織之間的異同,希望給廣大讀者了解英國當下藝術教育現狀、特色及發展方 向提供一個線索。 同時,不同的學術教育體系也會深刻影響到中英兩國文化藝術領域的實踐和發展,我們也希望通過此次的專題能夠 啓發中英藝術界及教育界人士的思考,互鑑短長。

HARRY LIU 劉競晨

Editor-in-chief 主編


Cézanne and the Modern 塞尚與現代繪畫 TEXT BY 文字提供 x ART.ZIP

IMAGES COURTESY OF 圖片提供 x

ASHMOLEAN MUSEUM 阿什莫林博物館

Paul Cézanne (1839–1906) Mont Sainte-Victoire, c.1902 Oil on canvas, 83.8 x 65.1 cm © The Henry and Rose Pearlman Collection. Photography by Bruce M. White

The Ashmolean opens its 2014 exhibitions programme with

Cézanne and the Modern, the first European display of the Henry

and Rose Pearlman Collection of Impressionist and Post-Impressionist art. It features fifty works by nineteen artists from Gustave Courbet

to Jacques Lipchitz. The heart of the collection is twenty-four works by Cézanne: six oils; two drawings; and sixteen watercolours which constitute one of the finest and best-preserved groups of Cézanne

watercolours in the world. They span the whole of the artist’s career

from the 1870s up to the monumental Still Life with Carafe, Bottle,

and Fruit made shortly before his death in 1906.

Cézanne and the Modern also explores the history of twentieth-

century private collections of this type. Key to the Pearlman Collection is Henry Pearlman’s own tastes. He collected pictures and sculptures that he liked and his thrill at discovering unknown masterpieces is evident throughout. Star pictures include a colourful and unusual composition by Vincent Van Gogh, Tarascon Diligence (1888);

Amedeo Modigliani’s celebrated portrait of Jean Cocteau (1916–17);

and among the sculptures are three bronzes by Jacques Lipchitz and one by Wilhelm Lehmbruck; and an extraordinary painted relief, Te

Fare Amu (1901-2) by Paul Gauguin.

Henry Pearlman (1895–1974) was a New York City businessman Tips

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who founded his company, Eastern Cold Storage, in 1919. He began collecting European avant-garde art in 1945 when he bought a

landscape by Chaïm Soutine. In the following thirty years, until the 展覽場地:ASHMOLEAN MUSEUM 阿什莫林博物館 展覽時間:13.3.2014 – 22.6.2014 更多信息:www.ashmolean.org

end of his life, Pearlman was a passionate collector, acquiring further

works by Soutine and hunting down rare pieces by Impressionist and Post-Impressionist masters.


2014年3月阿什莫林博物館揭幕了新的展覽項目《塞尚與現代繪畫》, 展覽第一次在歐洲展示了帕爾曼夫婦(Henry and Rose Pearlman)收 藏的印象派和後印象派繪畫,這50件作品分別來自19位藝術家,其中 包括了古斯塔夫·庫爾貝(Gustave Courbet)和雅克·里普希茨(Jacques Lipchitz)等人的作品。此次展覽的核心是保羅·塞尚(Paul Cézanne) 的24件作品,其中16件水彩畫作品被認為是塞尚存世水彩畫中保存最 為完好的一套,這套水彩畫見證了塞尚整個藝術生涯,包括了從19世紀 70年代開始一直到他去世前不久創作的那些靜物繪畫。 《塞尚與現代繪畫》探討了二十世紀私人藝術收藏的歷史,亨利·帕爾 曼(Henry

Vincent van Gogh (1853–1890) Tarascon Stage Coach, 1888 Oil on canvas 71.4 x 92.5 cm © The Henry and Rose Pearlman Collection. Photography by Bruce M. White.

Pearlman)的個人喜惡和審美品位是構成他收藏的關鍵,

從他收藏的作品中我們不難看出發掘未知藝術傑作的整個過程都給予 了他極大的滿足感,其中包括了梵高(Vincent Van Gogh),莫迪里阿尼 (Amedeo Modigliani)和高更(Paul Gauguin)等人的作品。 亨利·帕爾曼(1895﹣1974年)是一位美國商人,於1919年創立了自己的公 司。1945年他開始收藏歐洲的前衛藝術作品,在此後三十年的時間裡, 直到他生命的盡頭,帕爾曼先生始終是一位充滿激情的收藏家并一直 致力於收藏和挖掘印象派和後印象派大師的作品。

Amedeo Modigliani (1884–1920) Jean Cocteau, 1916–17 Oil on canvas 100.4 x 81.3 cm © The Henry and Rose Pearlman Collection. Photography by Bruce M. White.


David Hockney, Printmaker 大衛·霍克尼版畫展

TEXT BY 文字提供 x ART.ZIP

IMAGES COURTESY OF 圖片提供 x

DULWICH PICTURE GALLERY 達利奇畫廊

Timed to coincide with the 60th anniversary of David Hockney’s first print, Dulwich Picture Gallery presents a major exhibition celebrating the artist’s long and diverse career as printmaker.

在大衛·霍克尼第一張版畫作品誕生60週年之際,達利奇畫廊舉辦了霍克尼版畫作品的專題展 覽,來慶祝這位藝術家在版畫藝術方面不懈的創作和豐富的藝術生涯。

David Hockney, Henry At Table, 1976, Lithograph, 29 3/4 x 41 3/4”, ED: 96, © David Hockney / Gemini G.E.L.


David Hockney, Britain’s best known and arguably best loved

artists, is also one of our most talented printmakers. Showcasing over 100 works between 1954 and his more recent work with

computers in 2009. Hockney, Printmaker is looking beneath the

highly engaging surface of his graphic work to reveal the thought and expertise that underlies it. Grouped by theme and technique in a series of displays, the exhibition will give an instructive and entertaining overview of the artist’s career and reveal aspects that some observers might not be familiar with, such as the

importance of poetry and classical literary sources as a basis of

many of his projects, and his extensive knowledge of the work of fellow printmakers throughout the ages. Tips

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Hockney’s dislike of repetition and routine explains the enormous diversity of his output as a printmaker. However, throughout

展覽場地:DULWICH PIC TURE GALLERY 達利奇畫廊 展覽時間:5.2.2014 – 11.5.2014 更多信息:www.dulwichpicturegaller y.org.uk

his career he remained faithful to the two main printmaking

techniques of etching and lithography. In retrospect we can see that the 60s and 90s were dominated by his work in etching,

whilst the 70s and 80s were largely given over to lithography. Working closely with master printers such as Maurice Payne,

Aldo Crommelynck and Kenneth Tyler he learned an enormous

amount about the craft of printmaking. These skills he put to use

constantly striving for new effects and new modes of expression.

David Hockney, Lithographic Water Made Of Lines And Crayon (Pool II-B) 1978-80, Lithograph, 29 1/4” x 34”, Edition: 42 © David Hockney / Tyler Graphics Ltd.

David Hockney, Two Boys Aged 23 or 24 from Illustrations For Fourteen Poems from C.P. Cavafy, 1966-67, Etching, 31 1/2 x 22

大衛·霍克尼是英國最為知名且最受喜愛的藝術家,同時也是公認的最有才華 的版畫家之一。此次展覽精選了從1954到2009年以來藝術家創作的超過100 件版畫作品。 《大衛·霍克尼版畫展》揭示了在其充滿魅力和引人入勝的平面 作品表像之下所蘊藏的思考和版畫技巧。整個展覽按照不同的創作主題和 不同的製作方法來劃分,而且此展給了霍克尼藝術生涯以更具啓發性和娛樂 性的闡釋,這樣的策展角度也是與以往對霍克尼的解讀有很大的不同,比如 展覽展示了詩歌和古典文學對他創作的影響,以及多年來他與其他版畫家之 間的互動交流。 霍克尼極為痛恨重複和墨守陳規,所以他的版畫作品具有極其豐富的多樣 性。然而,貫穿他整個藝術生涯,他一直鍾情于使用蝕刻和膠印這兩種版 畫技巧,上世紀60年代和90年代,霍克尼以蝕刻版畫作品為主,而70、80年 代他開始大範圍的使用膠印技術。霍克尼與其他版畫大師比如莫里斯·佩恩 (Maurice Payne)、奧爾多·科目里尼克(Aldo Crommelynck)和肯尼斯·泰 勒(Kenneth Tyler)等人進行密切的合作,并學習到了大量的版畫製作工藝, 他將所學到的技巧都投入到對新的藝術效果和表達方式的不斷的探索中。


Martin Creed: What’s the Point of It? 馬丁·克里德:這都有什麼意義? TEXT BY 文字提供 x ART.ZIP

IMAGES COURTESY OF 圖片提供 x HAYWARD GALLERY 海沃德畫廊

Tips

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展覽場地:Hay ward Galler y 海沃德畫廊 展覽時間:29.1.2014 – 5.5.2014 更多信息:www.southbankcentre.co.uk

Work no. 200, Martin Creed, What’s the Point of it, Hayward Gallery, 2014 Installation view, Photo Linda Nylind


This spring Hayward Gallery at Southbank Centre is set to show the first major survey of work by internationally-

acclaimed artist Martin Creed. Opening on 29 January 2014, the exhibition Martin Creed:What’s the Point of It? will

bring together the full range and scale of Creed’s work,

spanning its most minimal moments – a spot of blu-tack – to extravagant room-sized installations, neons, sequential

sculptures, kinetic installations, films, and vibrant paintings. British artist Martin Creed (b.1968) is best known for his

Turner-prize winning installation The Lights Going On

and Off (2000). Since the beginning of his career, when

Martin Creed, Work No. 88 A sheet of paper crumpled into a ball, 1995 © the artist, Image courtesy the artist

he started sequentially numbering his works, Creed has

developed a minimalistic approach that strips away the

unnecessary, but manages to preserve an abundance of wit, humour and surprise. Work No. 319 (2004), a room

half-filled with balloons, is a joyous and chaotic social

馬丁·克里德,國際知名的英國藝術���,其憑藉作品《開燈關燈

shuts automatically; 39 metronomes simultaneously tick

納獎(Turner-prize,英國最著名的年度藝術大獎)。今年年初,

experience. In other works, a piano lid or door opens and at different speeds; giant paintings fill entire walls; and

everyday objects are collected into sequences and series. Cliff Lauson, Hayward Gallery Curator, said: “Martin Creed has been recognised around the world for his art that is

both playful and thought-provoking. Crossing all artistic

media and including musical and performative elements, his works transform common materials and actions into

(The Lights Going On and Off)》 (2000)獲得了2001年度特 克里德的首個回顧展《馬丁·克里德:這都有什麼用?(Martin Creed: What’s the Point of It? )》在倫敦海沃德畫廊開幕。連日 來隨著展覽的持續升溫,日訪客量遠遠超過了預期,所以主辦方 決定將展覽延續到5月5日。此次展覽幾乎囊括了克里德全部的 作品,有微小到不易察覺的藍丁膠作品《Work No. 79(1993)》, 也有誇張到房間大小的裝置作品,當然還有其他的系列,例如霓 虹燈、連貫的雕塑和動力裝置等。

surprising meditations on existence, choice, and the

在創作早期,從克里德開始為其作品起編號,他就一直秉持著極

We are very excited to be the first gallery to take a

年的《Work No. 319》,用氣球佈滿半個房間,就是一場既愉快又

invisible structures that shape our everyday experiences. comprehensive look at the past 25 years of his work.”

簡主義的理念:除了智慧、詼諧、驚喜外什麼都不剩。比如他2004 混亂的經歷,再說說別的作品:自動開合的鋼琴蓋或門;39個節 拍器以不同速度地滴答作響;整面墻的巨型畫作;按順序和系列 歸整的日常用品…… 克里夫·勞遜(Cliff Lauson),海沃德畫廊策展人表示:“馬丁·克里 德的作品總是那麼的充滿玩味又引人深思。他的創作在各種藝 術媒介包括音樂和表演元素的裝點下,即便再普通不過的素材 和行為也能令人迸發出驚人的思考,思考存在、選擇、還有那些 塑造了我們生活卻被我們忽略的事物。作為第一家承辦克里德 回顧展的機構,我們深感榮幸。”

Work no. 1092, Martin Creed, What’s the Point of it, Hayward Gallery, 2014 Installation view, Photo Linda Nylind


Strange Beauty 奇異之美

TEXT BY 文字提供 x ART.ZIP

IMAGES COURTESY OF 圖片提供 x NATIONAL GALLERY 英國國家畫廊

The German Renaissance was part of the cultural and artistic awakening that spread across Northern Europe in the 15th

and 16th centuries. German artists such as Dürer developed an

international reputation, their fame reaching all parts of Europe,

while renowned humanist scholars such as Erasmus of Rotterdam, the patron of Hans Holbein the Younger, played a leading role in reviving the study of classical texts in the service of Christianity. What exactly makes a work of art beautiful? And how can this

perception radically alter due to the changing world its viewer is living in? These are the intriguing questions being posed by

Hans Holbein the Younger (1497/8-1543) Anne of Cleves, 1539-40 Watercolour on vellum put down on a playing card Victoria and Albert Museum, © V&A Images / Victoria and Albert Museum, London

‘Strange Beauty: Masters of the German Renaissance’ at the National Gallery.

This collection-focused exhibition takes a fresh look at paintings, drawings and prints by well-known artists such as Hans Holbein the Younger, Albrecht Dürer and Lucas Cranach the Elder –

examining the striking changes in the ways these works were perceived in their time, in the recent past, and how they are

德國的文藝復興運動是15、16世紀整個歐洲北部文化和藝術覺醒的重 要組成部份。德國的藝術家如丟勒(Dürer)在當時已經在全歐洲享有 盛名,同時期的著名人文主義學者,漢斯·荷爾拜因的贊助人伊拉斯謨 (Rotterdam)則在以復興古典文本研究并為基督教服務方面扮演了 重要的角色。

viewed today.

如何定義一件藝術品是否美麗?這種審美標準又是怎麼樣隨著觀者

Paintings such as ‘The Ambassadors’ by Holbein, ‘Christ taking

《奇異之美:德國文藝復興時期大師作品展》將和大家一起來探討這

Leave of his Mother’ by Albrecht Altdorfer, ‘Cupid complaining to Venus’ by Lucas Cranach the Elder, ‘Portrait of a Man’ by Hans Baldung Grien and ‘Saint Jerome’ by Albrecht Dürer were highly valued in the 16th century for qualities such as expression and inventiveness. However, by the 19th and early 20th centuries

German Renaissance art was receiving a very mixed reception. Some viewers admired the artists’ technical mastery and their embodiment of a perceived German national identity; others

perceived these works of art as excessive or even ugly, particularly when compared to works of the Italian Renaissance. Tips

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展覽場地:NATIONAL GALLERY 英國國家畫廊 展覽時間:19.2.2014 – 11.5.2014 更多信息:www.nationalgaller y.org.uk

所處在的時代而不斷變化的?在2014年的開端,英國國家畫廊舉辦的 些有趣的問題。 此次展覽通過一種新的視角來審視那些文藝復興時期大師如荷爾拜 因(Hans Holbein the Younger)、丟勒(Albrecht Dürer)和盧卡斯·克 拉納赫(Lucas Cranach the Elder)等人的作品,從而探討這些作品在 當時、在不久的過去以及在當下是如何出現在解讀和審美上的巨大差 異的。 荷爾拜因的《大使(The Ambassadors)》、阿爾布雷希特·阿爾特多費 爾的《基督出走(Christ taking Leave of his Mother)》、盧卡斯·克拉納 赫的《丘比特對維納斯的吐槽(Cupid complaining to Venus)》、漢斯· 巴爾東·格里恩的《男子肖像(Portrait of a Man)》以及丟勒的《圣杰羅 姆(Saint Jerome)》這些作品的表現力和創造力在16世紀已經得到了 高度的認可,儘管如此,在19世紀末20世紀初,對德國文藝復興時期藝 術的評判卻是褒貶不一的,有的人欽佩于這些藝術家精湛的繪畫技藝 和對於德國藝術家身份認同的共識;而另外一些人則認為與意大利文 藝復興時期的藝術相比較,德國人的藝術口味太重,或者說是醜陋的。


Lucas Cranach the Elder (1472-1553) Cupid complaining to Venus, about 1525 Oil on wood The National Gallery, London © The National Gallery, London

Swabian Portrait of a Woman of the Hofer Family, about 1470 Oil on Silver Fir The National Gallery, London © The National Gallery, London

Hans Holbein the Younger (1497/8-1543) Jean de Dinteville and Georges de Selve (‘The Ambassadors’), 1533 Oil on oak The National Gallery, London © The National Gallery, London


Sensing Spaces: Architecture Reimagined 建築在望 TEXT BY 文字提供 x ART.ZIP

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ROYAL ACADEMY OF ARTS 皇家藝術學會

In January 2014, Sensing Spaces: Architecture

Reimagined will see the Main Galleries of

Royal Academy of Arts transformed by seven

architectural practices from around the world. The

RA has commissioned the architects to create sitespecific installations: the shared brief is to explore the essential elements of architecture. Instead of

representation of buildings in the form of models, plans or photographs, the RA is re-defining the traditional architectural exhibition to immerse

visitors in a multi-sensory experience. Sensing

Spaces: Architecture Reimagined considers

architecture from the angle of the human

encounter: how vision, touch, sound and memory

play a role in our perceptions of space, proportion, materials and light.

Global in scope, the architects include Pritzkerprize winners to emerging practices: Grafton Architects (Ireland); Diébédo Francis Kéré

(Germany/Burkina Faso); Kengo Kuma (Japan); Li Xiaodong (China); Pezo von Ellrichshausen

(Chile); Álvaro Siza and Eduardo Souto de Moura

(Portugal). They were carefully selected to form a

group whose distinct approaches share similarities and offer contrasts. Their different cultural,

geographical and generational sensibilities bring a

rich array of perspectives that encourage a broader understanding of architecture and what it can offer us.

Installation (Blue Pavilion) by Pezo von Ellrichshausen. Photo © Royal Academy of Arts, London, 2014. Photography: James Harris. © Pezo von Ellrichshausen


A specially made film will provide visitors with the opportunity to ‘meet’ the

architects. The footage will present a range of their previous building projects, and also the architects will provide further insights about their work and inspirations.

Kate Goodwin, Drue Heinz Curator of Architecture at the RA said ‘Architecture is the ever-present background to our lives and we often don’t recognise the

impact it has. We have challenged the architects to create an experience which excites the senses and sparks the imagination. We hope to transform the way you think about the spaces around you and how they make you feel.’

2014年1月, 《建築在望》主題展將在皇家藝術學會(Royal Academy of Arts)與大眾見面。 Installation by Diébédo Francis Kéré. Photo © Royal Academy of Arts, London, 2014. Photography: James Harris / © Kéré Architecture

Installation by Kengo Kuma. Photo © Royal Academy of Arts, London, 2014. Photography: James Harris. © Kengo Kuma.& Associates

此次展覽中我們能通過七件建築作品了解知名建築設計師們對建築本質的闡釋和認知。不同 於往常的呈現模式,此次展覽打破了傳統規條,沒有用例如建築模型,藍圖或者攝影等常規方 式來展示建築方案,而是主張以一種浸入式的多感官體驗——視覺、觸覺、聽覺和記憶來體 驗建築設計的魅力。 《建築在望》從全球範圍內着眼,精選了來自世界各地的優秀設計師,在這樣一支建築設計 師精英團隊中,不僅有普利茲克建築獎的獲獎者,也有新銳建築師,其中包括愛爾蘭格拉夫頓 建築事務所(Grafton Architects);布吉納法索建築師迪耶貝多·方濟·凱雷(Diébédo Francis Kéré);日本建築師隈研吾(Kengo Kuma);中國建築師李曉東(Li Xiaodong)等人。在不同的 文化背景下,他們的作品均被賦予了濃烈的個人色彩,七件各具特色的佳作同時聚集在一個展 廳中將會是怎樣一饕餮盛宴! 此外,觀者還可以欣賞到一部獨家影片,近距離接觸建築師們以及他們背後的故事。其中包

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括他們之前的許多建設項目,當然也有一對一的訪談,談及他們的理念和此次作品的靈感。 策展人凱特·古溫(Kate Goodwin)說道:“建築始終存在于我們的生活中,但我們卻常常忽視

展覽場地:Royal Academy of Ar ts 倫敦皇家美術學院 展覽時間:25.1.2014 – 6.4.2014 更多信息:www.royalacademy.org.uk

它的影響。所以我們向建築師們發起了挑戰,​​​​讓他們去創建一種體驗,既可以刺激大眾的感 官,又可以鼓動他們的想像力。同時我們也希望能改變大眾對於空間的思考方式以及它們創 造的感受。”


Momentum 動量

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Barbican has commissioned the multi-disciplinary art and design studio United Visual Artists (UVA) to create a new work for the Curve. Coinciding with their 10th anniversary, UVA

present Momentum, an immersive installation that combines light, sound and movement.

Drawing on physics and digital technology, UVA are turning the Curve into a spatial

instrument, installing a sequence of pendulum-like elements throughout the 90metre long gallery to create an evolving composition of light and sound. The pendulums – sometimes moving in unexpected ways – project shadows and planes of light across the 6metre-high walls and curved floor of the space. Visitors are invited to explore the room at their own pace, and their movement through the gallery shapes their individual experience.

Always/Never London, 2012 © United Visual Artists


United Visual Artists is an art practice that use design processes to combine a wide range of disciplines

including sculpture, installation, live performance,

and architecture. The studio has an open approach

to collaboration, uniting diverse skills to continuously

evolve new technologies and materials, which in turn suggest new artistic directions. UVA’s lines of enquiry include the tension between real and synthesised experiences - the questioning of our relationship

with technology, and the creation of phenomena

that transcend the purely physical. In all their work, they aim to distill complexity down to its essence.

UVA’s installations consider each space an immersive

environment where the visitor’s point of view plays an important role in the outcome.

Momentum by United Visual Artists. Installation View. Photographed by Harry Liu.

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展覽場地:BARBICAN CENTRE 巴比肯藝術中心 展覽時間:13.2.2014 – 1.6.2014 更多信息:www.barbican.org.uk

跨學科藝術與設計工作室“聯合視覺藝術家UVA(United Visual Artists)”為巴比肯中心 曲型空間(The Curve)定製的新空間裝置作品展《動量》于2014年2月13日正式與大家 見面。此次《動量》展覽適逢UVA成立10週年,藝術家們運用物理學和數字技術將整 個90米長的曲型空間打造成了一個用燈光、聲音和移動效果組成的空間裝置作品。帶 有燈光的鐘擺會以不可預知的方式進行運動,在6米高的圍牆和曲線形的空間內側上 投射出各種陰影和燈光效果。置身整件作品之中,觀眾可以按照自己的節奏來欣賞作 品或者探索整個空間。因為每位觀眾與空間和燈光互動產生的效果都是隨機的,因此 所有參觀者都可以獲得與衆不同且唯一的觀展體驗。 “聯合視覺藝術家UVA”是一個藝術實踐項目,藝術家們用設計的手段將雕塑、裝置、行 為藝術和建築等各種不同的藝術形式相結合。UVA工作室一直保持開放積極的合作態 度,嘗試使用各種新科技和新材料來推進和探索新的藝術方向。UVA致力於探討真實 Volume London, 2006 © United Visual Artists

世界與人工合成的體驗之間的微妙關係,并創造和呈現超越物理法則的現象及景觀, 他們所有作品的目標都是試圖通過提煉將事物的複雜性剝離,使其返璞歸真。對於 UVA來說,在不同空間營造的這些讓人身臨其境的裝置作品中,觀眾視角帶來的體驗 和經歷對作品的成敗具有舉足輕重的地位。


Masterpiece Tour 大師作品之旅

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Edouard Manet (1832–1883) The Execution of Maximilian about 1867–8,Oil on canvas,193 x 284 cm The National Gallery, London © The National Gallery, London

In January 2012, a much-­loved work from the National Gallery Collection -­Manet’s ‘The

Execution of Maximilian’ -­is going on the road and travelling the UK as the first painting

in the three-­year Masterpiece Tour. The three host venues for 2014 are the Beaney House of Art & Knowledge, Canterbury Museums and Galleries; The Bowes Museum, Barnard

Castle; and Mead Gallery, University of Warwick. The Masterpiece Tour is part of the National Gallery’s commitment to promote the understanding, knowledge and appreciation of Old Master paintings to as wide an audience as possible.


The second stop on the tour is The Bowes Museum. Opened in 1892, the purpose-­built

museum, which has recently undergone a £12 million transformation, houses an amazing collection of European fine and decorative arts. ‘The Execution of Maximilian’ will be

displayed alongside Jules de Vignon’s portrait of ‘The Emperor Napoleon III’ (1867, after Franz Xaver Winterhalter); ‘The Emperor Napoleon III Reviewing Troops on the

Champs Elysées, Paris’ (about 1852–70) by H.J.C; a strip of furnishing brocade with

the devices of Napoleon III; and clothes that belonged to the Empress Eugenie, consort

Canaletto (1697–1768) A Regatta on the Grand Canal about 1740 Oil on canvas,122.1 x 182.8 cm The National Gallery, London © The National Gallery, London

of Napoleon III. Together with contemporary magazines and journals, these works will

introduce visitors to the Second Empire and the political developments that preceded Maximilian’s execution.

2012年一月,由英國國家畫廊收藏的深受人們喜愛的馬奈(Manet)經典畫作《馬克西米利安的行刑 (The Execution of Maximilian)》開始在全英巡展。作為第一件參加“大師作品之旅”項目的藝術品,這件 作品於2014年在坎特伯雷博物館畫廊,巴納德城堡堡斯博物館及華威大學米德畫廊進行巡展。“大師作品 之旅”是英國國家畫廊為了讓儘可能多的觀眾來欣賞和了解古典大師繪畫而推出的藝術項目。 今年巡展的第二站是在堡斯博物館(The Bowes Museum),這座建於1892年的博物館剛剛完成了耗資 1200萬英鎊的整修,在這裡彙集和收藏了大量的歐洲藝術精品。 《馬克西米利安的行刑》將與儒勒·德儂 (Jules de Vignon)的肖像畫《皇帝拿破崙三世(The Emperor Napoleon III)》等其他與拿破崙相關的 展品一同展出。為了讓觀眾更好地理解《馬克西米利安的行刑》這幅畫作背後的政治背景和時代特徵,展 覽還展出了各種文獻來對當時第二帝國的情況加以說明。

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展覽場地:The Bowes Museum, Barnard Castle 巴納德城堡堡斯博物館 展覽時間:22.3.2014 – 18.5.2014 更多信息:www.nationalgaller y.org.uk


Richard Hamilton 理查德·漢密爾頓

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TATE MODERN 泰特現代美術館

One of the most influential British artists of the 20th century, Richard

Hamilton (1922–2011) is widely regarded as a founding figure of pop art, who continued to experiment and innovate over a career of 60 years.

Tate Modern presents the first retrospective to encompass the full scope of Hamilton’s work, from his early exhibition designs of the 1950s to his final paintings of 2011. This new exhibition explores his relationship to design, painting, photography and television, as well his engagement and collaborations with other artists.

This is the first Hamilton retrospective to fully reflect the importance of his exhibition designs and installations. In collaboration with Tate, two

of Hamilton’s other installations are being shown at the ICA to coincide with this retrospective. Almost six decades after the artist presented

these works at the Institute’s original location in Dover Street, they will be restaged to reflect the artist’s close relationship with the ICA throughout his career. 

Richard Hamilton was born in London in 1922. He studied at the Royal

Academy Schools and Slade School of Art, and went on to teach at the

London Central School of Arts and Crafts and the University of Newcastle upon Tyne. Hamilton was also a key member of the Independent Group.

He represented Britain in the 1993 Venice Biennale and his work is held in major public and private collections around the world.

理 查 德·漢密爾頓是英國二十世紀最有影響力的藝術家之一,他被廣泛認為是波普藝 術運動的開山鼻祖,他充滿實驗性和創造性的藝術生涯持續了60年。當下泰特美術館 舉辦的《理 查 德·漢密爾頓》大展是第一次對他各類藝術作品綜合呈現的大型回顧展 覽,涵蓋了從上世紀50年代其早期的展覽設計到他2011年去世前的最新作品。此次展 覽展示了他與設計、繪畫、攝影及電視之間的關係,同時也著重展示了他與其他藝術 家之間的互動與合作。 此次展覽也是首次突出呈現了漢姆爾頓展覽設計和裝置作品的重要性。與泰特現代 美術館合作,英國當代藝術研究所(ICA)也同時展出了漢密爾頓的兩件裝置作品,這 兩件作品曾在近60年前在ICA進行展出,此次重新呈現的作品展示了藝術家與ICA之 間貫穿其藝術生涯始終的緊密聯繫。

Richard Hamilton, The Citizen 1981-3 Tate © The estate of Richard Hamilton


Richard Hamilton, Just what was it that made yesterday’s homes so different, so appealing? 1992 Tate © Richard Hamilton 2005. All rights reserved, DACS

Richard Hamilton, Swingeing London 67 (f) 1968–9,Tate © The estate of Richard Hamilton

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展覽場地:TATE MODERN 泰特現代美術館 展覽時間:13.2.2014 – 26.5.2014 更多信息:www.tate.org.uk

1922年,理 查 德·漢密爾頓生於 英國倫敦,畢業 於皇家美術學 院和斯雷德藝 術學校,曾任教 于倫敦中央工藝美術學院和紐 卡斯爾大學。漢密爾頓 是英國 文化團體“獨立小組”的重要成 員。他曾經代表英國參加1993 年的威尼斯藝術雙年展,其作品

Richard Hamilton, Interior II 1964 Tate © The estate of Richard Hamilton

在全世界範圍內被公共機構和 個人廣泛收藏。


Your Ad Here 你的廣告看過來

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IMAGES COURTESY OF 圖片提供 x YOUR AD HERE YAH廣告項目


Your Ad Here is a new project for east

“你的廣告看過來(YAH)”項目是東倫敦的

adverts will be displayed on more than

合的藝術將在伊利莎白女王奧林匹克公園

London and the large-scale artwork-cometwo kilometres of hoardings in and around

Queen Elizabeth Olympic Park for up to five years. The creative ads will target passing traffic and local shoppers. The project is a celebration of the small independent Marie-Louise Jones for Mother Studios in Hackney Wick © Marie-Louise Jones

businesses that are such an important part

of life in the city; businesses that would not normally have the resources for large-scale

advertising. It also sets out to connect them

一個大型藝術項目,以藝術作品和廣告結 周圍近2公里範圍內持續展示5年時間,這 些創意廣告主要是針對來往的交通車輛和 當地消費者。項目的目的是支持那些獨立的 小企業,他們是城市必不可少的組成部份卻 很少有能力負擔大幅廣告的開銷,此項目將 小商業者與東倫敦豐富多彩的創意人群相 銜接,并建立了小型企業和創意產業之間的 夥伴關係。

with the large and diverse community

傑里米·戴勒(Jeremy

partnerships between the business and

Ewan)將作為第一批參與YAH的藝術家,他

of artists in east London and to create creative sectors.

Jeremy Deller, David Batchelor and Ruth Ewan will be among the first artists to

reveal their billboard artworks promoting

independent, local businesses for Your Ad Here. Batchelor has produced an energetic

and colourful artwork for Choosing Keeping stationers on Columbia Road, Bethnal

Green. Ewan has worked closely with the

family that own children’s clothing and toy store Mother’s Hub in Stoke Newington on an ad which includes a nod to the

Socialist Sunday School movement set up in the area and also has a drawing from

the owners’ daughter. Deller has produced an advert for Walthamstow’s William

Morris Gallery where he currently has an exhibition.

Uddin and Elsey for Rinkoff’s Bakery in Stepney and Whitechapel © Uddin and Elsey

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展覽場地:Queen Elizabeth Olympic Park 伊莉莎白女皇奧林匹亞公園 展覽時間:5.4.2014 – 5.4.2019 更多信息:www.your-ad-here.co.uk

勒(David

Deller)、大衛·巴徹

Batchelor)和露絲·伊万(Ruth

們的廣告牌藝術品將用來推廣和宣傳當地 的獨立小企業。巴徹勒為比斯諾格林附近哥 倫比亞路上的一家文具店創作了一個充滿 活力并色彩豔麗的藝術作品;伊万與一家擁 有兒童服飾和玩具店的家庭緊密合作;戴 勒為展示他作品的畫廊創作了一張詼諧幽 默的廣告。


Gems of Chinese Painting 中國畫瑰寶 TEXT BY 文字提供 x ART.ZIP

IMAGES COURTESY OF 圖片提供 x BRITISH MUSEUM 大英博物館

The Yangzi River runs through an area of south-east China known as Jiangnan (literally ‘south of the river’) that has been one of the country’s most prosperous and culturally productive regions. The paintings and ceramics in the exhibition Gems of Chinese Painting reflect

the diverse life of its inhabitants, such as the elegant literati scholars and wealthy merchants,

The Ancient Pine of Dongmou, Qing dynasty, dated 1727, Gao Fenghan (1683-1749), Ink on Paper, © The Trustees of the British Museum

as well as fishermen and farmers. Landscape paintings from along the Yangzi River show

lush, fertile fields and rolling hills and highlight the region’s famous gardens. Paintings and ceramics from Jiangnan have shaped in great part our image of traditional China.

Jiangnan is also a region where some of the finest examples of the Chinese concept of the three arts – poetry, calligraphy and painting – were produced. It is the home of China’s patriarchs of calligraphy and painting, including Gu Kaizhi (c. 344–406).

The famous Admonitions Scroll, traditionally attributed to Gu Kaizhi, is an early example

for the combination of the three arts. It is one of the most important Chinese paintings to survive anywhere in the world. Due to its fragility and for conservation reasons, it is rarely

shown and will now be on display in the exhibition between 5 June and 16 July. After this there will be a digital version of the scroll on an interactive touchscreen.

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展覽場地:BRITISH MUSEUM 大英博物館 展覽時間:3.4.2014 – 31.8.2014 更多信息:www.britishmuseum.org


The Admonitions of the Instructress to the Court Ladies, Six Dynasties, circa 5th to 6th century, Ink and colours on silk © The Trustees of the British Museum

Beauty in Garden, Qing dynasty, dated 1745, Yin Shi (active c.1745), Ink and colours on silk © The Trustees of the British Museum

長江(揚子江)貫穿中國東南部,這一地區也 被叫做“江南”,一直以來是中國最為繁榮也是 文化生產力最強的地區之一。大英博物館的 《中國畫瑰寶》展覽展出的繪畫和陶瓷製品 反映出當地居民多元化的生活,如優雅的文 人階層和富有的商人階層,以及漁民和農民 日常生活。山水畫中展示了長江沿岸鬱鬱蔥 蔥的田野和連綿起伏的丘陵,著重展示了極 富特色的江南園林景觀。來自江南地區的繪 畫和瓷器在很大一個程度上塑造了人們對傳 統中國的印象。 江南地區也是中國最高水準詩、書、畫藝術的 產出重鎮,出現了很多著名的極具藝術造詣 的中國書畫大家,東晉畫家顧愷之便是其中 一位。 著名的《女史箴圖》據信為顧愷之所畫,是 中國詩書畫藝術三合一的一個早期印證。這 幅作品也是全世界範圍內存世作品中最為重 要的一件中國畫作品。由於這幅畫作極為珍 貴,而且鑒於中國古畫的材質不易保存和維 護,因此極少有機會公開展示,此次展覽將 在6月5日到7月16日期間對公眾展示《女史箴 圖》的原本,此後該畫卷的數碼版本將通過 互動觸屏來展示。


Paul Klee 保羅·克利

16 October 2013 – 9 March 2014 Tate Modern

Paul Klee, Redgreen and Violet-Yellow Rhythms,1920 © The Metropolitan Museum of Art

William Kent: Designing Georgian Britain

威廉·肯特: 塑造英國喬治時期的 設計 22 March – 13 July 2014 V&A Museum

Floor plan and elevations for the interior of the House of Lords London,1735-36. Pen and ink wash. RIBA Library Drawings Archives Collections.

Hannah Höch 漢娜·霍克

15 January – 23 March 2014 Whitechaple Gallery

Veronese: Magnificence in Renaissance Venice

Paolo Roversi, Tanel Bedrossiantz. Barbes collection. The Fashion World of Jean Paul Gaultier

The Fashion World of Jean Paul Gaultier 保羅·高緹耶的時尚世界 9 April – 25 August 2014

Barbican Art Gallery, London

英國國家畫廊: 《韋羅內塞:文藝復興 時期維也納的繁華》 19 March – 15 June 2014 National Gallery

Paolo Veronese (1528-1588) The Temptation of Saint Anthony, 1552 Oil on canvas,198 × 151 cm Musée des Beaux Arts de Caen (6) © Musée des Beaux Arts de Caen, Martine Seyve Photographe


Evening dress of silk Roberto Capucci, 1987-1988 Courtesy Roberto Capucci Foundation, Photo © Victoria and Albert Museum, London

Martino Gamper:design is a state of mind 蒂諾·甘珀:設計是一種心態 5 March 2014 – 21 April 2014 Serpentine Sackler Gallery

Martino Gamper Installation view, design is a state of mind Andrea Branzi Wall bookshelf 2011 Toulipiè, crystal Courtesy of Nilufar Gallery Objects courtesy of Daniel Eatock Photograph: © 2014 Hugo Glendinning

The Glamour of Italian Fashion 1945 - 2014 意大利時裝的魅力 1945 - 2014 5 April - 27 July 2014 V&A Museum

The Sunflowers 向日葵

25 January –

27 April 2014

My Name is Paul Smith

National Gallery

哈嘍,我是保羅·史密斯

15 November 2013 – 22 June 2014 Design Museum

Binbin Hong - Memories 洪彬彬-記憶

6 March 2014 – 10 March 2014 The Crepe Shop & Art Cafe


ART EDUCATIO IN THE UK 英國藝術教育


ON K

There are immense differences between Chinese and UK education systems and

ideas. Art education, as specific as it is, is no exception. United Kingdom has long

been proud of its education systems, and has attracted thousands of international

students every year. This reality makes education one major source of income for UK, and the complete, healthy industry of quality education in turn promises prosperity

and further development, raising for the world a great number of future professionals. In recent years, there is a steady growth of Chinese students studying in the UK – for

the Chinese, UK has in reality become the new Mecca, in terms of overseas education. Naturally, China in turn becomes an important market for British institutions.

Specifically, because of UK’s pioneering role in the study and practice of creative

industry, more and more Chinese students come to UK to study fine art, photography, design, film, drama and other disciplines that are related to the creative industry.

Aiming at providing a general introduction to the UK art education system, and at

providing a comparison between the system in the UK and that in China, we have featured in this issue numerous interviews with prestigious British art institutions. The interview with Royal College of Art focuses on the differences between

programmes in one single institution; the interviews with Glasgow School of Art,

Edinburg College of Art, University of Westminster examine the differences between same programme–photography, to be precise–in different institutions; we have

also covered multi-disciplinary programmes and art schools that offer a wide range of programmes, from design, fine art, theatre, to photography and dance and etc.

Alternative art education systems such as that found in the Christie’s Education and in the Alternative Art College as a relatively young phenomenon are also examined. In short, through a large number of interviews and through multi-dimension

comparisons, we try to present to you the historical development and general condition of art education in the UK today.

中英兩國的教育系統和教育理念有著很大的不同,在藝術教育方面也是如此。英國一直以自己的 教育體系而自豪,每年來自全世界的學生們都慕名來此求學,這也讓教育成為了英國的一大收入 來源,完備的教育產業鏈條和高質量的教育水平保證了英國教育的長盛不衰,為全世界培養的大 量的優秀人才。 近些年來,從中國來英求學的留學生數量逐年增加,英國已經成為中國最受追捧的留學聖地,而 且中���也已經成為了英國海外教育市場的第一大陣地。因為英國在創意產業研究和實踐中的領 先地位,越來越多的學生來到英國學習與創意產業文化相關的課程,純藝術、攝影、設計、電影、 戲劇等專業也越來越受到中國學生的青睞。為了讓大家更好地了解英國藝術教育的情況和中英 兩地藝術教育的異同,我們特地訪問了英國很多的藝術院校和課程,有一個院校內不同學科的對 比,如皇家藝術學院;也有同一專業在不同院校的橫向對比,比如格拉斯哥藝術學院、愛丁堡藝 術學院和威斯敏斯特大學的攝影專業對比;同時我們覆蓋了設計、純藝術、劇場藝術、攝影及舞 蹈等眾多門類的藝術課程和學校;除此之外,我們也囊括了很多比較“另類”的藝術項目如佳士得 美術學院和“另類”藝術學院項目。 總之,我們試圖通過大量的訪談,通過橫向和縱向的對比,加之對各種不同類別和層級的教育來 為讀者全面展示英國當下藝術教育的現狀和發展趨勢。


SMALL COLLEGE, HUGE INFLUENCE

INTERVIEW WITH PROFESSOR NAREN BARFIELD PRO-RECTOR (ACADEMIC) AT THE ROYAL COLLEGE OF ART

小中見大

專訪英國皇家藝術學院學術 院長納仁·巴菲爾德教授

TRANSLATED BY 翻譯 x HARRY LIU 劉競晨

IMAGE COURTESY OF 圖片提供 x ROYAL COLLEGE OF ART 英國皇家藝術學院


NAREN BARFIELD IS AN ARTIST. HE HAS HELD SENIOR ACADEMIC POSITIONS FOR SEVERAL YEARS INCLUDING LEADING RESEARCH IN TWO SPECIALIST ART AND DESIGN INSTITUTIONS. HE IS CURRENTLY PRO-RECTOR (ACADEMIC) AT THE ROYAL COLLEGE OF ART, WHERE HE LEADS THE ACADEMIC DIRECTION OF THE COLLEGE, PARTICULARLY QUALITY AND STANDARDS IN TEACHING AND LEARNING. 納仁 · 巴菲爾德是一位藝術家,同時也曾于兩所專業藝術 和設計學院任職學術主任。現在,他就職于英國皇家藝術 學院,負責學院的學術研究工作,他的主要工作是引領學 院在教師教學和學生學習質量和水平方面的研究。

ART.ZIP: Would you give us a brief introduction of yourself? NB: In my academic career, I taught in the RCA in the 1990s, Slade School of Fine Art,

ART.ZIP: 可不可以請您給我們的讀者做一個簡 略的自我介紹?

University of the Arts, and other art and design schools. I was Director of Research at

NB: 在我的學術生涯中,90年代的時候我曾經

Glasgow School of Art for seven years. I came back to the RCA three years ago. Immersed

School of Fine Ar t)、倫敦藝術大學

Wimbledon School of Art, and then I was Head of Research and Postgraduate Studies at in art and design, I maintain responsibility for academic research, most of the College’s

academics, all of the taught Master’s programmes of the College’s six academic Schools, the research department and technical services, IT, workshops and libraries. I look after everything academic and research-focused. I also continue to work as a site-specific

artist. I work a lot in China actually, with three large exhibitions in China last year, two in Beijing and one in Shenyang.

ART.ZIP: How would you describe RCA’s teaching concepts? NB: The RCA is skills based. We stress three things: The first and most important thing is independent creative thinking. We create students who are going to change the world. That’s why we exist. We are small, only a tiny, tiny

dot on the globe, but the influence we have is huge. And the only way you can have that

任教于皇家藝 術學院、斯萊德藝 術學院(Slade (University of the Arts London)以及其他一 些藝 術和設 計學院,後來我擔 任 過溫布爾頓藝 術學校(Wimbledon School of Art)的研究部 主任,再後來又在格拉斯哥藝術大學(Glasgow School of Art)工作了七年,負責那裡的研究生 課程的學術研究工作。直到3年前,我又回到了 皇家藝術學院 任職 。在這個藝術和設 計的最高 學府,我 主 要 負 責學 術 研 究 ,包括 每 個 學 院 的 研究生課程、研究部門、技術服務、工作室和圖 書館等等內容。我要兼 顧 這裡 所有和學術研究 相關的項目。此外,作為一名藝術家,我自己的 創作也沒有間斷 過。實際上我在中國也做 過很 多 作品,去年 我在中國舉 辦了三次 大 型 展 覽, 兩個在北京,一個在上海。


influence is by having graduates who are going to change the

great emphasis on making. A problem of current art and design

they are creative and they are networked. I think that’s the most

while studio space has become more expensive, we remain

world, because they are independent, they think for themselves, important thing.

Secondly, they have a strong skills base. At the RCA, there is a

education is that the cost of studio space has risen dramatically; committed to doing, making, showing and discussing, so we have invested heavily in workshops and technical facilities.

two-year minimum postgraduate experience. A research degree

We’re also proud of our external programmes, which enable

years. Our students have a very involved and in-depth experience.

setting with a number of different companies, from car

is three to four years, and for research associates four further

By the time they leave us, they have spent seven, eight, or nine years in art and design education. It is a long time. They will

leave with an incredible skills base. But we don’t go from skills to concepts, we develop concepts in harmony with skills. And it’s

not simply a demonstration of skills, it’s about graduates having the skills they need to realise the concepts they are working on. Finally, students work in teams. One student might have great

skills in 3D modelling, another student might have amazing skills

in public space and planning, and another one might have critical thinking skills in theory and history. When we put these people together in teams, or they find their own teams, they create distinctive combinations.

ART.ZIP: Would you explain more about how students

students to have the experience of working in a professional manufacturing to fashion design. Students work internally and externally, professionally, socially and creatively. We recently

sent twelve students from different programmes to work with

Fiat’s designers at their headquarters in Italy. There are multiple opportunities for collaboration, from fashion to ceramics and

glass, to jewellery and metalwork or textiles. Students recognise that these are great opportunities and competition is fierce.

Within two years at the Royal College of Art, you are likely to work with a number of international companies. Students know this and it’s one of the reasons they want to come here.

ART.ZIP: RCA is often described as ‘design in an art environment, and art in a design environment’. How do you deliver this in daily teaching?

work together?

NB: Our course makeup is about 70 per cent design-based and

NB: Students work together in all sorts of different ways. We

an emphasis on cross-disciplinary collaboration, our design

don’t say people studying sculpture have to be sculptors. We have brain surgeons studying sculpture, we have computer

programmers studying design, so we have all sorts of people

from different backgrounds. That each of our students has their

own interests is imperative. Students find their own groups, since the College is small enough and allows social spaces to stimulate opportunities for collaboration. In Vehicle Design, you could get to know a student in Textiles, which could result in a wonderful collaboration to do with the interior of transport, with how you use textiles in a design environment in vehicles, for example.

Our Across RCA programme allows students to study for a short period of time on another course; Graphic Design or Illustration students could spend a week in architecture, for example;

Architecture students could take Fine Art classes or get involved

30 per cent fine art and humanities. Because we place such

students mix with our fine art students, reminding our design

students that they are enrolled in a school with a long tradition of fine art practice. Dissertations are required at the end of our programmes, so all students have some involvement with the

School of Humanities. Our fine art students know that they are

working in a school which is design-focused; we have links with Imperial College London, which excels in engineering. We have an Architecture programme, which is unusual in an art school; architecture is often taught in a more traditional university

environment. We have architecture, fine art, design, textiles,

fashion, all of these coming together and allowing students to study in a really vibrant community, so you have collaboration happening in community ways too.

with Critical Writing. We find this encourages collaboration and

I think CHS, Critical & Historical Studies, which is part of our

students’ viewpoints. Critical Writing students will find practice-

This unit reminds students that art and design is not only

enables students to build their own networks. It also expands based students they want to write about, or practice-based

students might want to work with theorists to expand their

own critical frameworks. This is networking, there are always

opportunities for students to show their work, which is a great opportunity to see what they are doing or making. We place

humanities programme, is very important to emphasise.

about creating something, it’s also about considering the situation in which you work. At the doctoral level, many

students now are doing increasingly interdisciplinary work

across the schools, so fine art with humanities, or fine art with architecture, design with architecture, so that students are


ART.ZIP: 請您為我們介紹一下皇家藝術學院的教學理念?

候,他們已經擁有了非常卓越的專業技能 。對於這些技能的學習不是 停

NB: 皇家藝術學院是非常注重技術的。我們主要強調三個方面:

技 能 。而且我們的教學並不是單純的對技 術的示 範或 表演,我們的目的

留在理論 和概念階段,我們將理 念和技能相結合,在實踐中發展他們的 是為了讓學生們可以學到相應的能力來實現他們自己創作中的想法。

第一方面,也是最重要的一部份,學生必須擁有獨立的創造性思維。皇家 藝術學院的辦學宗旨是要培養在未來能 夠 改變世界的學生。我們的學院

最後 一方面,學生們必須學會團隊 合作。一 個學生可能 對做三 維模 型很

非常小,但 是我們的影 響力卻是巨大的。如果要在如此 小的一 個地方取

在行,同時另一個學生可能對空間的規劃很有一套,還有的學生也許很擅

得巨大的成就,我們必須培養出在各個領域都能做出翻天覆地事蹟的畢

長理論知識和批評,當我們把這些有不同專長的學生分配到一 個團隊,

業生,也正因如此,我們要求所有的學生必須獨立,必須思考,必須有創

或者他們自發地形成團隊,他們的團隊協作會創造出非常獨特的作品。

造力,同時他們必須 知道如何搭建自己的人 脈 網絡。我覺得這些都是至 關重要的。

ART.ZIP: 您能不能為我們多介紹一些關於學生們團隊協作的情況?

第二方面,我們非常強調技能的培養。在這裡,研究生課程最少需要2年,

NB: 這裡的學生團隊協作有各種各樣的形式。我們不認為一個學雕塑的學

研究項目學位需要3到4年,研究員項目則要再多4年。我們的學生會在學

生就應該成為一 個雕塑家。我們這裡有腦外科醫生在學習雕塑的課程;

習的過程中與整 個體系發生非常緊密的互動,在他們離開學校的時候,

有電腦程序員在學習設計課程,我們這裡的學生來自各種不同的背景。每

他 們 往 往已 經 在 這 里 經 歷了相當長 時 間 的 藝 術 教 育。當他 們 畢業 的 時

個學生都有其各自的興趣點是非常必要的,他們自己會形成團體,因為我

CREDIT © RCA


gaining some expertise in thinking creatively and developing their ideas across disciplines.

Students don’t only have access to internal specialists. If we

haven’t got an in-house expert in a certain discipline, we are

able to connect students with experts from other institutions.

For example, we work very closely with Imperial College, so if we have students working on something employing science and

technology, we’re able to get them the help they need. Again, it’s all about connections.

ART.ZIP: Is it the reason you have only postgraduate courses? NB: We have been running only postgraduate programmes for

50 years. A, because it is going to change the world. B, because practice and thinking are more mature at the postgraduate

level. C, because the programmes are the best, so we are able to choose the best students.

ART.ZIP: Since you’ve been to China many times, how do you see the difference between these two education models?

NB: I think the academy tradition in China is still very strong, as you can see that incredible skill base, which is quite

different to the European models; in the European model,

there is a foundation year in which students learn a little bit of

everything... The Chinese model traditionally produces students with strong technical skills, particularly in drawing and crafting. Changes in China mean that Chinese institutions are now

moving towards a more balanced programme of individual ideas and creative concepts.

Apart from skills, I think there’s also quite a difference in learning styles and learning methodologies. To simplify things way

too much, the Chinese model of higher education sees the

professor as being the expert, very knowledgeable in his field,

and students are expected to learn from the professor. I think at least for the last 70 years in the UK, the model has been based

on student discovery, learning by doing, learning by experiment; this is a guided process. The commonality is the professor, who is expected to engage in practice and research. Academic staff in both places are practitioners and research-active; I think the difference is in the learning models.


我們也對我們的校外項目感到驕傲,這些校外項目讓我們的學生可以和 很多各種 類 型的公司合作,從汽車製 造 到時 裝 設 計行業不一而足,通 過 這種合作學生們會獲得很多專業領域的實戰經驗。皇家藝術學院的學生 的實踐 在學院內和學院外同等重要,他們的作品集專業性、社會性和創 造性為一身。最近,我們派送了12名不同專業的學生到意大利菲亞特公司 (Fiat)總部實習。在這裡我們提供各種各樣的合作可能性,時裝、陶瓷、 玻璃、珠寶、金屬加工、紡織品等等。學生們都認識到在這裡有很多很好 的機會,但同時競爭也是非常激烈的。在皇家藝術學院學習的兩年中,學 生很可能會與很多國際公司或企業進行合作,這也是為什麼很多學生願 意來這裡學習的一個原因。 ART.ZIP: 皇家藝術學院經常被大家描述成“在藝術的環境中做設計,在設

計的環境中做藝術”,您可不可以為我們介紹一下在日常教學中是如何體 現這樣的理念的呢?

NB: 皇家藝術學院的課程中70%是與設計相關的,30%是與純藝術或人文 學科相關的。因為我們非常強調跨學科的合作,我們的藝術類學生和設計 類學生都是混在一起的,這也時刻提醒在此就讀的設計學生們,他們是在 一個擁有悠久美術實踐傳統的學校就學的。另一方面,課程結束時學生要 提交他們的畢業論文,這樣一來,所有的學生都會與人文學院產生互動, 我們的純藝術類學生都很清楚這裡是一個側重於設計的學校;我們與帝 國理工學院(Imperial College)有緊密的聯繫,他們擅長工程技術。我們 還設有建築學課程,這在一般藝���學校是很少見的,通常建築學專業都是 設立在傳統的綜合性大學之中。所以說,我們有建築、美術、設計、紡織、 時裝各種專業,而且我們鼓勵學生在各種不同的團體中學習,從而可以和 不同的人進行合作。 我還要強調在我們人文學科項目中的批評和歷史研究(CHS,Critical

&

們學院地方不大,所以比較緊湊的社交空間也激發了學生們相互認識和

Historical

合作的可能性 。舉 個 例子,汽 車設 計專業的學生很可能 會認識面料設 計

們認識 到藝 術 和設 計並不僅僅 是為了創造一 些東西,而且也是為了考量

Studies)也是非常重要的,這部分的內容讓在此學習的學生

的學生,他們的合作很有可能會創造出非常棒的運輸方面或者室內設計

你的創作在上下文 語境中的位置 。在博士研究生階段,現在 越 來 越多的

方面的作品,例如汽車內飾之類的。我們也設有專門的項目來讓學生可以

學生在嘗試 采用跨學科的研究方向,比如美術和人 文學,或者美術和建

在學院內其他專業進行短期的學習,比如平面設計或者插畫專業的學生

築,設計與建築,通過這些跨界的合作和開創性的思考方式,學生們獲得

可以在建築專業學習一週;建築專業的也可以去純藝術專業或者批評寫

了大量的專業知識。

作 專業去上課 。我們發現 這種做法可以 鼓 勵學生們相互合作,也有利於 他們建立自己的人際網絡,同時也有益於他們打開自己的視野。批評寫作

而且學生們不必限於僅在學校內部進行跨學科的實踐,如果我們學校內

專業的同學可以找到實踐其寫作的對象,同時以實踐為主的同學也可以

沒有學生需要的專業人士,我們會從別的研究機構邀請那些學生需要的

通過與他們合作來完善和拓展自己的理論框架,這就是我所說的人際網

專家 來 授課 。比如,我們與帝國理 工學院 的合作 非常緊密,所以 如果我

絡。學院 經常提 供 展示作品的機會,展 覽上 就可以看到學生們所創作的

們的學生在工作中遇到科技類的問題,我們就請帝國理工學院的專家來

作品 。我們非常強調實際的 “操作”。現在的藝 術 和設 計 教育的一 個巨大

幫助他們解決 難題。所以說,所有這些都是基於各種學科和部門之間的

問題就是工作車間的花費飆升,雖然工作室和車間的花費變 得越來越昂

銜接。

貴,但我們依然是致力於操作、展示以及討論的教育方向,因此,我們在 車間和技術設備上投入了大量的資金。

ART.ZIP: 皇家藝術學院是一個只有研究生課程而沒有本科課程的學院,這 是為什麼呢?

NB: 半個世紀以來,我們都是只設立研究生以上學歷的課程,第一是因為 我們要培養能 夠 改變世界的人才,第二是因為研究生課程的學生在思考

CREDIT © RCA

和實踐兩方面都更為成熟,第三是因為我們的課程 是最好的,我們要 挑 選最好的學生來這裡學習。


ART.ZIP: Some art colleges have set up overseas offices for

ART.ZIP: 您曾經也去過中國很多次,請問您覺得中英兩國在教育模式上

NB: We haven’t done that, because we are not traditionally a

NB: 我覺得中國教育體系中對於學術傳統非常地重視,你可以看到他們非

get up to thirteen or fourteen applicants, sometimes as many as

會在正式進入大學前的基礎課程階段學習和接觸各種技術,但都是淺嘗

recruiting students. Why don’t you have one?

recruiting institution. The RCA is very selective institution. We can eighteen applicants for every single place. We don’t have to be in the business of setting up shop somewhere to recruit students. A large number of our students do come from China, but we are more interested in students who seek us out rather than

有什麼異同?

常重視對技術的追求,在這一點上與歐洲的模式非常不同;在歐洲,學生 輒止。中國的教育模式培養出來的學生往往都擁有非常出色的技藝,特別 是繪畫和手工技術。不過現在也可以看到中國藝術教育的變化,在中國很 多的藝術研究院開始更多地關注和平衡個人觀念和創造性思維的項目。

recruiting heavily. We are carefully developing some deeply held

除了技術方面的差異,我覺得在學習方式 和方法上中國和歐洲也存在很

work with high quality partners, so we have a link with Qinghua,

威的角色出現,學生希望從他這裡學到知識;而在英國,至少近70年來,

strategic relationships with other institutions. We have chosen to CAFA and others.

ART.ZIP: How do you select students, apart from their portfolios? NB: Not every institution requires interview, but we do. We require portfolios, and some working experience, but we

always interview. Because we know it’s expensive to travel, if

大的不同。簡單來說,中國高等教育體 系中的教授 是 作為一 位專家和權 高等教育都是 建 立在學生自主 鑽研,通 過 實踐 和實驗來學習,老師只是 作為一個指導性的角色。共同點是中英兩地的教授都是兼顧研究和個人 實踐的。所以我覺得最主要的不同點應該是中英學習模式上的不同。 ART.ZIP: 有一些英國的藝術學院開設了在海外的辦公室來幫助招生,皇 家藝術學院為什麼沒有這麼做呢?

students are unable to come to London, we will do an online

NB: 我們確實沒有設立這樣的辦公室,因為傳統上我們並不是一 個大規

students come directly from undergraduate programmes, so

招生名額背後都有十多 位 競爭者。我們不需要像 做 生意一樣開設 “門店”

interview, using Skype for example. Only about a third of our

we have a lot of mature students who may have been thinking for some time about postgraduate education and coming to the RCA. Quite often they have a long conversation with us before they apply.

模 招生的學院 。我們選 擇 學生的標 準 非常高,而且 競 爭非常激 烈,每 個 來招收學生。我們確 實有很多的中國學生,但 是我們更傾向於學生們來 投奔我們,而不是花時間去徵召學生。我們也非常謹慎 地 和一 些研究機 構進行深度的戰略性合作,我們必須 選擇高質量的合作夥 伴,比如我們 現在合作的清華大學、中央美術學院等院校。

ART.ZIP: What is the key point of selecting students when doing

ART.ZIP: 除了學生們提供的作品集,您們在挑選學生的時候還有哪些考

NB: Are they going to change the world? It’s really really

NB:我們會要求和學生 進行面試,雖然並不是 所有學 校都這樣做。我們

have to think differently. We don’t want somebody who does

我們知道很多學生來倫敦要花費很高的費用,因此我們通過網絡面試,

the interview?

important that students have something beyond ambition. They exactly the same thing as somebody else, and there are a lot

of other universities that will accommodate that. We generate

people who will become leaders in art and design. We now have 1,400 students, which is small compared to many other places.

We are actually the smallest university in the UK, but our level of influence is very strong. It’s not about size; it’s about changing the world, being influential.

量因素?

需要學生提交作品集,以及一些工作經驗,但我們還是要進行面試。因為 比如用SK YPE(一種網絡視頻語音軟件)。皇家藝術學院的學生中,只有 三分之一是本科畢業後直接申請的,所以我們有很多非常成熟的學生,他 們都是經過深思熟慮以後來到皇家藝術學院學習的。我們的學生在遞交 申請以前往往都與我們有很長一段時間的溝通過程。 ART.ZIP: 在面試的時候,什麼樣的特質或是因素會影響您們對學生的考察呢? NB:我們主要希望看到這個學生是否在將來可以改變我們現有的這個世 界,這是最為最為重要的部分,我們的學生必須要擁有這樣的特質,僅僅 擁有雄心壯志是遠遠不 夠 的,他們必須擁有一個獨特的思考模式。我們不 希望看到我們的學生重複其他人做過的事情,很多大學可以提供那樣的服 務,但不是我們。我們是要培養未來藝術與設計行業的領軍人才。我們現 在有1400名學生,與其他院校相比也許我們很小,事實上,也許我們是英

CREDIT © RCA

國最袖珍的院校之一,但我們在影響力層面卻非常強。因此,學校的學生 多少及場地大小並不是至關緊要的問題,我們要的是能 夠 改變世界的人。


DESIGN WITH GLOBAL VISION

INTERVIEW WITH PROFESSOR MILES PENNINGTON HEAD OF INNOVATION DESIGN ENGINEERING AT THE ROYAL COLLEGE OF ART

全球化視野的設計 採訪邁爾斯·潘寧頓教授 皇家藝術學院 創新設計工程課程主任

TRANSLATED BY 翻譯 x MICHELLE YU 余小悅

IMAGE COURTESY OF 圖片提供 x ROYAL COLLEGE OF ART 英國皇家藝術學院


PROFESSOR MILES PENNINGTON JOINED THE ROYAL COLLEGE OF ART IN 2002 AS A VISITING TUTOR AND BECAME SENIOR TUTOR OF INNOVATION DESIGN ENGINEERING IN 2007. HE WAS APPOINTED HEAD OF DEPARTMENT AND PROFESSOR OF INNOVATION DESIGN ENGINEERING IN 2009 AND IS ONE OF THE CO-FOUNDERS OF THE GLOBAL INNOVATION DESIGN PROGRAMME.

ART.ZIP: Will you please give us a

brief introduction to yourself and the programme?

MP: I’m the head of two programmes

here, Innovation Design Engineering(IDE), which has been going for 35 years,

and Global Innovation Design(GID),

which is in its first year. It is a brand new programme. I actually studied IDE at

the RCA, which is now called Innovation Design Engineering, though it used to

be called Industrial Design Engineering. I studied in the early 1990s, and at that

time, the programme was about bringing engineers into the world of design, and

making them stronger industrial designers because they understood the function, aesthetics and usability of a designing

object. In the last ten years that approach of accepting people from outside the

discipline has blossomed. We now take people from engineering, from design, and from many different backgrounds.

We have fine artists, journalists, bankers, business people, mechanical engineers, electrical engineers, product designers and graphic designers; we accept

anybody who has passion and talent.

I’m very jealous of the current students.

ART.ZIP: 請您給我們介紹一下您的專業背景和您的課程的設置情況? MP: 我主要負責這裡兩個課程的教學工作,一 個是創新設計工程(IDE),這個課程已經開設35年 了;另一 個是全 球 創新設 計(GID),這個 課程很新,只辦了不到一年的時間 。我 年 輕的時 候 在皇 家藝術學院學習工業設計工程(Industrial Design Engineering),也就是現在的創新設計工程 (ID E)。9 0 年代 初期我在 這 裡學習的時 候,課程的方向是 要 把 工程師帶 到設 計界,讓 他 們成 為 更 強 的工業 設 計 師,因 為通 過 這 些 設 計 課 程,他 們 更懂得 如 何 讓 產品 既 實 用又 美 觀 。過去 十 年 裡,皇藝 招收了很多設 計專業以外的學生。我們現在有來自各個專業背景的學生─ ─ 藝 術家、媒 體從 業 人 員、銀行家、商務人士、機械工程師、電子工程師、產品設 計師和平面設 計師等等。我們 歡 迎任 何有熱情有才華的學生。說 實話,我真的十 分 羨慕現在的學生,在我 求學的那個年代并沒 有像現在這麼國際 化的學習體 驗。現在的學生可以和來自世界各地的同學一同學習,還能擁有很 棒的跨學科、跨 文化的體 驗。譬 如說,一 個 俄 羅斯機械 工程師旁邊 坐著韓國工業設 計師,而他旁 邊 坐 著的是 一 位 英 國 藝 術家,這 真 是 很 美 妙 的人 際 網 絡。我 覺得皇藝 很 突出的 一 點 是,這 裡有 很多學生自發的項目,學生擁有自由探索和自我啓發的體 驗。每年都有很多學生表示他們從同學 身上學到的東西比老師教的要多。這聽 起 來可能有點奇怪,從一 個 傳統的大學模式 來說,老師肩 負著教學的重要角色,但 是我們盡力不去扮演 那 樣的角色,因為這樣很容易教出跟自己一樣的學 生,我們不希望學生 成 為我們的複製品 。我們深 知那 不是 未 來,我們的學生才是 未 來,他們需 要

邁爾斯·潘寧頓教授在2002 年作 為 客 座 導 師 加 入 皇 家

藝 術 學 院 ,2 0 07年成 為 創

新 設 計工 程(I n n o v a t i o n Design

Engineering)課

程 的 資 深 導 師,在 2 0 0 9 年

他 成 為了創 新 設 計工 程 課 程 的 教 授 和 課 程 主 任 ,也

是 全 球 創 新 設 計(G l o b a l Innovation

Design)課程

的創始人之一。


CREDIT © RCA

I didn’t have an experience like that. Here they develop a global

hold their hands the whole way through. So the RCA Master’s

multidisciplinary, multicultural experience. For example, we

the student body, which can sometimes make people feel a

address book of friends, and they have the most amazing

have a Russian mechanical engineer sitting next to a South

Korean industrial designer, sitting next to a British fine artist.

It’s a wonderful network. A lot of what we do here is driven by

the students. These are the key points of the RCA, the freedom to explore and the student-driven experience. Every year on

the student’s feedback reports, students always state that they

learn the most from their peers. This sounds strange, I realise, a

diversion from the classic university model, in which the professor is meant to be the teacher, but we do our best to resist that

model and the risk of just producing replicas of yourself. We

experience is very much about initiative, led by individuals from bit out of their depth: ‘I don’t know what to do, no one’s telling me what to do next.’ That’s the point. When they realise they are doing it on their own, they will become stronger, more

independent, free-thinkers. One of the best quotes that I’ve ever heard about the RCA was from a Californian industrialist on why he loves the RCA design graduates. It’s because they thought

180 degrees differently from everyone else in the room. This isn’t because they’re a bunch of crazy people, they just have different opinions and are willing to express them.

understand that’s not the future. Our students are the future,

ART.ZIP: What about the new programme GID?

like chicks learning to fly; while older birds might try to teach the

MP: Both of these are joint programmes with Imperial College

and they are going to figure out their own way forward. They are chicks, it is ultimately the chicks that must learn to fly. We can’t

London. The students there are both 100 per cent RCA students


and 100 per cent Imperial College students, so the RCA brings

找 到一 條 通向未 來自己的路。他們就像小鳥學飛一樣,年長的教年幼的

brings science, technology and engineering. This is an amazing

所以說 皇藝的研 究生課程有很 大的自主性,由學生自己主導,有時 候 他

creativity, art and design and all sorts of skills, and Imperial resource for the students, who have access to some of the

world’s top experts and all kinds of different resources. I think the next generation of design will be powered by emerging science and technologies that haven’t been developed yet. We’re at the crest of a tidal wave of development around

design, which will hit in the next fifteen to twenty years. I think of something like Graphene, an amazing carbon material,

which is in the lab. People at Imperial are making it. Within ten

學飛,最 終飛 起 來還是得靠他們自己,我們不能一���牽著 他們的手走。 們可能覺得這有點超 越他們的能力範疇,他們或許會抱怨:‘我不知道做 什麼,沒 人告訴 我下一步該 怎 麼 做 。’,但 這 就 是 重 點 所在 。當他 們意識 到 他 們只能 靠自己去 做 點 什麼的時 候,他 們 會 變 得更 強 大、更 獨立,成 為 擁 有自由思 想 的人 。我 聽 過 最 好 的 評 價 是 一 位 加 州的實 業 家 解 釋 他 為 甚麼 喜 歡 皇藝 的 設 計專 業畢業 生,因 為 教 室裡 坐 著 的 每 一 個 學 生 的 想法都和別人 想的不一樣,可以說是大相徑 庭。這不是說坐著的都是一 大幫瘋子,他們只是持不同意見并敢於表達的人。

years, people here will be suggesting what do with it. That’s

ART.ZIP: GID跟IDE的課程特色是什麼呢?

Giving students access to early knowledge is the power of

MP: 這兩者都是和倫敦帝國理工學院合作的課程。參與這兩個課程的學

very different institutions. We straddle the border between arts

意、藝術、設計和其他各種技能,而帝國理工的學生帶來的是科學、技術

the moment we wait for, making something completely new. these two programmes. You know it’s not easy. These are very, culture and science culture. It’s where the magic is happening, where the sparks fly. It’s wonderful.

ART.ZIP: What kinds of methods do you use to guide the students?

MP: Our job is to be a subtle shepherd. We know we want our

生都是百分百的皇藝學生和百分百的帝國理 工學生,皇藝的學生帶來 創 和工程學的知識 。這對學生來說是很好的資源,他們可以接觸世界頂級 的專家和各類資源,我認為新一代的設計很大程度上是受最新的科學技 術影 響而發展的。我們現在站在設 計領域的最前線,這將影 響未 來十五 到二十年的發展。像石墨稀這樣的新型碳材料,現在還僅 是 停留在實驗 階段,而帝國理 工的學生也正在 進 行 著 研 究開發。在未 來十 年 裡,人們 考慮的是如何利用這種新型材料,而我們等的也是這樣的時刻來設計突

students to go up to the mountain, and that’s going to be hard work, but we don’t want to say, ‘You must follow the path’, and we don’t want to build walls along the path so they only go up

in one way. We say, ‘You could go up that mountain.’ When they

CREDIT © RCA


start straight off the wrong way, we will gently put them back in

the tuition fee is high, but I can’t do very much about it. I know

You know, we put a hand on the shoulder when it’s needed.

getting better and better here. Even though the economic

the right direction. So it’s shepherding, it’s teaching from behind. Part of the skill of our staff is to know when to hold back and

when to jump in. Sometimes people say, ‘I don’t know where

to go. I need you tell me.’ Very often they know what to do. We

need to give them the chance to think about it. At Master’s level, that shepherding is done one way. At PhD level, the doctoral or research degree, it’s another level of even more subtle

money is not been spent on irrelevant things, and facilities are

climate is harsh and support is hard to find, I think the RCA gives value for money.

ART.ZIP: Do you have Chinese students? How are they different from other students?

shepherding. It’s a step even further back, like calling someone

MP: Chinese students have been in a very different educational

people to understand this.

they have great freedom to explore, so that can be quite stressful

from the mountain saying, ‘Get to the left.’ It takes one of our

Another quite magical aspect of the RCA is that we have lots

of people from practice backgrounds. They are not necessarily trained academics, but they are very experienced trained

practitioners, so they know how to do the job. People who

typically teach here are naturally good teachers. They are able to combine their experiences and their ability to teach, to guide people.

ART.ZIP: The RCA’s tuition fees are high. What does the RCA offer that’s different to other design schools?

MP: I think the tuition fee is enormous! However, it’s not

because we want to make profits from it. The fees pay for the

model, so I think their minds are open in a different way. Here for them at times. However I think they usually make greater progress than British students. They are very studious, polite

and have a completely different outlook on the world. If there’s one thing I love about teaching here it is that my worldview is constantly challenged by my Chinese students, by my Asian

students from the other side of the world. Chinese culture has

grown up without European and American inflection, to a certain degree. I find it refreshing to speak to my students who have a

completely new way of solving problems, a new voice and a new way of seeing.

ART.ZIP: Do you have particular standard when choosing students? What catches your attention?

resources and the quality of education here. We are working

MP: We don’t have one model of student, because every year

We have one fee that enables students to have access to many

engineers, designers and diverse people from different

hard to find bursaries and scholarships. It all takes long time. programmes and resources.

we’ve got 40 places. We want a diverse spread of people, backgrounds and different countries, so it’s a real mix.

The number of staff to the number of students is really high here.

One moment we are looking at an engineer, and we try to

in a research lab away from students. There is a lot of intense

creativity; the next one we are looking at is a journalist, and we’re

We have a fifteen-to-one ratio. There’s not a professor hiding

contact time between students, as well as the teaching time. The students are there, and I’m here. I’m separated by 15 millimetres

of glass, and I wouldn’t change it. If someone’s ill, you will know it, because we are so close.

The other thing is about resources. A big part of the RCA, is

having access to workshops and facilities. Many universities

are closing down workshops because they are expansive to

run. We are expanding workshops. We now have a big floor

of workshops beneath us, so the students could be designing something up here, and then run down to make it. And we

have really great expert staff guiding students to create things. In two years time, we will finish the refurbishment here, where two floors are workshops. We are probably a little short of

space now, but in two years time we will double it. So I know

figure out whether he is a great engineer, whether he’s got

thinking about why they are interested in our world. We are

looking for potential, and potential might be a tiny little spark. And somehow we want to say that’s your magic thing, so you

fit in there. It’s quite hard choosing people, but the bottom line is talent, curiosity, and passion. We want to know they are full of energy, but it doesn’t mean dancing around the room and

shouting. Some people are quiet, but you can feel that they’re

driven. Curiosity is important, whatever they do; they might be

accountants, but their heads are full of wonder about the world. So we want to see that. And talent: they are not an innovation and design engineer yet, but are they outstandingly good at what they do? If they are, for example if they were biological

chemist, are they the best biological chemist in their group? They need to have a raw brilliance. It is not about people finding what

they are good at and becoming someone else. It’s about building


破性的新產品。因此學生們能 夠 儘早地接觸這些資訊,以便有利於他們

皇藝的另一 個很好的地方是我們很多教員都有豐富的實踐 經驗。他們并

的設計,這點是IDE和GID課程很重要的一點。把這兩所如此不同的學院

不是從傳統的學術背景而來,而是擁有極其豐富實踐經驗的從業人士,

結合在一起是很不容易的,但 是把藝術文化 和科學文化融合在一起會產

所以他們知道怎樣能 夠 出色地完成工作。在這裡教學的老師大都是天生

生奇妙的反應,就 會產生無法預料的靈感和火花,我不得 不說 這真是最

的好老師,他們總能很好地結合自身的經驗和優勢來引導學生。

棒的體驗了。 ART.ZIP: 您通常使用什麼樣的教學手法來引導學生?

ART.ZIP: 皇藝的學費十分高昂。您認為皇藝比起其他設計學院有什麼過 人之處嗎?

MP: 我覺得我的角色就像牧羊人一樣,起著護航和引領的作用。我們知道

MP: 這裡的學費真的貴得嚇人,但並不是我們想要從學生身上牟利,這些

要讓學生往山上走,那不是容易的過程,但我們不想命令似地跟他們說

學費是為了支付最好的資源和保證高質量的教學。我們也努力地尋找資

“你必須往這條路走”,我們不想沿路樹立圍牆讓他們只往一條道走。我們

助和獎學金來幫助學生,但 這個過程 比 較漫長。學生的一次性付費包含

會說,你需要到那山頭去。當他們一開始就走錯了方向,我們會拍拍他們

了幾乎全部的教學項目和資源。

的肩膀給他們指向正確的方向。所以說 就像放羊一樣,我們從後面支持 和指引他們。我們會在必要的時候提點他們。我們的教學人 員都需要知

另外 我們師生 比例也比 較均衡,通常是一 個老師對十五個學生。我們這

道什麼時候進一步或什麼時候退一步來指導學生。有時候學生會說‘我不

裡沒有一 個教授 是 躲 在實驗室裡與學生隔絕的。除了上課的時間,我們

知道往哪走,你告訴我吧。’ 其實他們心裡是知道的,我們需要給他們機

和學生保持著十分緊密的聯繫。我和學生之間只隔著這15毫米的玻璃,

會讓他們自己去思考。在碩士研究生階段,這種放羊式的教學是單向的。

如果有學生生病了,我們肯定知道,因為我們走得真的很近。

但在博士生階段,那是另一種更 寬 鬆的放養 教育模式 。作為導師我們得 退得更遠,就像對山上的人呼喊一樣,“哎!往左走!”。

皇藝的資源是我們很 值 得驕傲的,大家都能自由使用各種設備和參加各 類的工作坊。很多大學都紛 紛關閉工作車間,因為運營起 來成 本實在很 高。但是皇藝卻在擴大工作室和車間。學生們在二層進行設計,然後到一 層的車間進行製作,我們有非常棒的專家教員指導學生如何進行各類的

CREDIT © RCA

操作。現在我們的空間可能有點小,但是兩年后這裡的空間將翻一倍。我 承認皇藝的學費很高昂,但是我知道這些錢并不是白花的,并沒有浪費在


CREDIT © RCA


on who they are. We have a doctor who has just graduated,

who illustrates the point about not changing people. He’s got a job at a company that worked with Imperial College designing

毫無意義的事情上,這裡的設備將越來越完善。儘管經濟大環境很艱難, 資助也不容易找到,但我認為皇藝花的錢都落實用在對的地方。

prototype parts. It’s not just doing it, they are thinking about the

ART.ZIP: 你們有中國學生嗎?您覺得他們如何?

and he’s perfect. He’s not the world’s best industrial designer,

方學生有些差別。在這裡,中國學生有很大的自由度來進行自我探索和學

future of that business, how design can innovate in that space,

he’s spent two years at the RCA, and he got the basics, he knows how design works; but he’s a doctor, he’s got more knowledge

that about the medical side of it than a designer would ever get in ten years in that field. So who’s better for that job? Him? Or a

designer who could draw beautifully and doesn’t know how the

blood supply works. He’s a sign of how good of multidisciplinary approach in IDE, and why it’s so important to bring different

people in. Because traditional design education can only create

one basic model designer, but the world is filling with design and innovation in many different ways and we need different people. ART.ZIP: What would you suggest to those who want to apply your course?

MP: The most important thing is to try. At the RCA and Imperial College, we both have the problem that our global reputation

is so high level that students think, ‘I can’t get in, so I won’t try.’ That’s not true. Honestly, I would say, let us judge. You will be

surprised. You probably are great, but I can’t see that without an

application here to look at, so you have to try. The best way of not getting in is not applying. That will guarantee that you don’t get in. So you really have to try.

MP: 中國學生是來自一個完全不同的教學模式,所以他們的思維方式和西 習,所以有時候他們感到壓力很大,但是我覺得他們通常都比英國學生獲 得更大的進步。他們非常勤奮、有禮貌,而且有著不一樣的世界觀。我喜歡 在皇藝教書的一個原因,是我的世界觀經常被來自中國的學生,或其他來 自世界另一頭的亞洲學生所顛覆。某種程度來說,中國文化是獨立於歐美 體系外的另一種模式。所以每次和我的學生談話,我都會得到一種完全不 一樣的解決方案,一種新的聲音和新的看法。 ART.ZIP: 您在挑選學生的時候有什麼特別的標準嗎?什麼樣的學生會特 別引起您的注意?

MP: 我們沒有一種特定類型的學生,因為每年我們有四十個名額,而學生都 來自不同的地方,擁有不同的專業背景和文化背景。如果我們面對的是一 個工程師,我們會考察他是不是一個好的工程師,他是否具備創新能力;如 果我們面前是一位記者,我們會看看他為甚麼會對我們感興趣。我們找的 是有潛質的學生,那些潛質可能只是一丁點兒,但那是你最迷人的地方,你 就適合在這裡。挑選學生總是很難,但我們的底線是有才華的,富有好奇心 的和有熱情的。我們需要知道他們是有活力的人,但那不代表在教室裡亂

蹦 亂叫。有些人很安靜,但是你能感覺他自主性很強。好奇心很重要,無論 他們從事的是什麼行業。或許他們是會計師,但他們對世界充滿了好奇,這 點很重要。所以我們需要看到他們這些特質。關於才華,他們或許現在還不 是創新設計工程師,但他們現在從事的工作卻完成得很出色。譬如說,他是 生物化學家,那我們看的是他是不是同輩之中最好的生物化學家。他們需 要有出色的頭腦。我們并不是要把一個人變成另一個人,而是在他們自身 的基礎上提高。有一位醫生剛剛從我們這裡畢業,他的例子正好說明了我 們并不需要改變一個人。他現在在一家公司任職和帝國理工合作設計醫療 器械。他們考慮的不只是製造,他們更多的考慮是未來的產業發展,設計如 何帶動產業的發展,這位醫生是最完美的人選。他可能不是世界上最出色 的工業設計師,他在皇藝學習了兩年,他有基礎的設計知識,他清楚如何運 用設計;但重要的是他是一名醫生,他比一名專業設計師更清楚醫學原理 和十年內的醫學發展方向。所以誰更適合這份工作?他?還是一名能畫出完 美設計圖但不懂供血原理的設計師呢?他是我們IDE課程很好的跨學科例 子,他的案例很好地說明了為甚麼把各類型的人才帶到一起的重要性。因 為傳統的設計教育只能培養出一個模式的設計師,但這個世界需要的是各 種領域的設計和創新,所以我們需要各式各樣的人才。 ART.ZIP: 您能給想要申讀這兩個專業課程的學生一些建議嗎?

Tips

小貼示

MP: 最重要的還是要嘗試。在皇藝和帝國理工學院,我們都面對同樣的一

Fin d ou t more 更多信 息:

夠 好所以不去申請。不是這樣的,老實說,我想對想要申請的學生說,讓

g l ob al i n n ovat i on d e sign. or g w w w.rc a.ac .uk /i d e w w w.rc a.ac .uk /g i d

如果你不申請的話我們根本看不到,所以務必要邁出嘗試的一步。如果你

個問題,我們都擁有世界頂級的聲譽,很多學生會妄自菲薄,認為自己不 我們來判斷你是不是有資格,你可能會很驚訝的,你可能真的很出色,但 不提交申請,那就肯定沒有機會了。


LET THE CURIOSITY LEAD YOUR WAY

INTERVIEW WITH PROFESSOR JO STOCKHAM HEAD OF PRINTMAKING AT THE ROYAL COLLEGE OF ART

讓好奇心引路

專訪皇家藝術學院版畫專業 課程主任喬·斯托克姆教授

TRANSLATED BY 翻譯 x MICHELLE YU 余小悅

IMAGE COURTESY OF 圖片提供 x ROYAL COLLEGE OF ART 英國皇家藝術學院


ART.ZIP: Would you please give us a brief introduction about yourself and your programme?

JS: This is my fourth year of running the Printmaking programme. Before doing this, I was working across the school two days a week, and running a sculpture course at another college, because I was trained as a painter before I did an MA in Sculpture. When I was doing my MA, I was making a lot of prints, so I was doing both things alongside each other. Then I worked as an artist for many years, mainly doing commissions for site-

specific installations, often using the history of site. I have always worked in a very mixedmedia way.

I began to work full time because there are things in the programme that I want to change and develop. I was trying to build a bridge between digital skills and older

traditions of making images, to curate a creative space where students can find the value of both of those things, mix them together and work in all sorts of ways to complicate the categorisations of things. Printmaking, historically, was a craft-based discipline,

meaning people were more involved in how things are made rather than why they might be made; it hasn’t been such conceptual area in a way.

JO STOCKHAM HAS BEEN PROFESSOR AND HEAD OF THE PRINTMAKING PROGRAMME SINCE 2008. SHE BEGAN WORKING AT THE ROYAL COLLEGE OF ART IN 1993 AS A VISITING LECTURER IN PAINTING, SCULPTURE AND PRINTMAKING. HER BACKGROUND IN TEACHING SCULPTURE AND ARCHITECTURE AND RUNNING GALLERY-BASED WORKSHOPS AND TALKS CONTRIBUTES TO HER PASSION FOR THE INTERRELATEDNESS OF MAKING WORK AND CREATING SPACES FOR DISCUSSION.

ART.ZIP: 您能給我們介紹一下您和這個課程的

自2008年起喬·斯托克姆就在皇家藝術學院擔任版畫專

術為基礎的學 科,這 意味著人們更關注如 何製

業的課程主任和教授。她從1993年開始在皇家藝術學院

教學,作為繪畫、雕塑和版畫專業課程的客座講師。她曾

經從事關於雕 塑和建 築方面的教學工作,也組 織工作坊 和講座項目來探索創作和討論之間的關係。

情況嗎?

JS: 我教這個版畫專業已經四年了,在此之前, 我每週來學校兩次教不同的專業課程,同時也 在 別 的 院 校 教 雕 塑 課 程 。我 原 來 是 繪 畫 專 業 的,後 來 讀了雕 塑 研 究 生 課 程 ,期 間 我 做了許 多版 畫 作品和雕 塑作品 。然 後我做了很多年的 全 職 藝 術 家 ,主 要 做 特 定 場 地 的 委 託 藝 術 項 目,作品通常與當地歷史相關。此外,很多時候 我都運用多種媒介來進行創作。 我開始全職教書是因為我希望改變并拓展課程 內容。我希望把電子技 術和傳統的製畫技 術結 合 起 來建 立一種新的聯繫,從而塑 造一 個新的 領域讓學生找到這些事物的價 值 所在,把它們 融合在一起,通 過各種 方式 來把互不相同的事 物組 織 起 來 。從 歷 史 上 來看,版 畫 是 一 個 以技 作東西而不是為甚麼 這樣製作;它還 沒被 從觀 念上來進行發展。 許多人 願意製作版畫因為他們對作品的多版本 性 感 興 趣,或者對版 畫的發 展 感 興 趣 。這 些 都 是 與 其他 學 科 相關的,因為大 量的 信息可以從 印刷品中獲 得。學 生們 可以 通 過 地 圖 、醫 學資 料、報紙、媒體和互聯網獲得大量的資訊內容。 對我來說 這都是版畫的表現 形式,因為任 何被 印刷出來的東西都 與印刷術、複印術的歷 史有


A lot of people who work with print do so because they are

關,與 觀念和想法如何傳遞 到世界各地 相關,所以 這是一 個非常豐富和

how print-making evolves. It links to all sorts of other disciplines,

材來 進行探尋 和創作。你也知道中國有著非常獨特的印刷傳統,它與日

very interested in the ideas of multiple copies or interested in because there is so much printed information, students use

maps, medical information, pages from newspapers, media and the Internet. For me, that’s all part of printmaking, because you

know anything printed has history that is tied to reprographics,

tied to the way ideas that circulated the world, so it makes for a very rich, very interesting discipline. If you mix the craft side of

things with the conceptual side of things, you have a very rich

blend to work with, as well as a rich culture. As you know, there

are fantastic traditions of print in China that are different from the traditional in Japan, India, Germany, etc. This is one of the good

parts of having international students, that they often bring with them very different approaches of making images. This is great, because this forces them to learn from each other, and so it is

有趣的學 科。如果把技 術 和觀 念結合在一起的話,你可以有很 豐富的素 本 、印度、德 國 都 非常不一樣 。有國 際 學生参 与 我們 課程的 好處 就在于 此,他們總會帶來不一樣的方式來製作圖片。這是很好的,因為這樣能 夠 促使學生 之間互相學習,這 是課程的一 個重要部分。這裡的學生有著不 同的語言,所以我們可以通過給別人展示製作過程來進行跨文化交流和 溝通 。圖像是視覺藝 術家溝通的重要部分,如果你 對圖像在不同文化背 景下如何發揮作用感興 趣的話,這裡 是很好的一 個地方,人們可以 進行 獨立創作和互相傳授製作技巧。我們找的是那些對創作有熱情的學生, 那些渴望學習并為之奮鬥的學生,那些對未知事物感興趣并敢於挑戰的 學生。 ART.ZIP: 您能談談你們是怎麼挑選學生的嗎?您會給那些想要申請這個 專業的學生一些什麼建議呢?

very nice thing to do, as a part of the programme here. While it’s

JS: 我認為申請人需要有獨立思考的能力,並且渴望去做一些事情。就算

skills are different; we communicate by showing people how

想法,好奇心,心態需要開放,這是最重要的。我希望看到學生們為自己

wonderful to have conversations, often here people’s language to do something. Image is the way visual artists communicate, so if you’re curious about the way images work culturally

throughout the world, this is a space where people can make

things and teach each other. We look for students who have a

genuine passion for making things, who really want to learn, are

committed, and who are prepared to take risks to unlearn things. ART.ZIP: Would you talk a bit more about selecting students?

What kinds of students will catch your eye? What suggestions would you give to those who want to study at the RCA?

JS: I think you need to be able to think independently, and to want to do something. If you are not quite sure what you want to do, you should have strong ideas of what you want to explore. And have your own ideas, your own curiosities; that sense of being

open to what might be given to you is the most important thing.

你不知道具體 要做什麼,但你 必須 知道你想 探索什麼。你需要 有自己的 關 心或關注的事 物去奮鬥。想 法或 許不 盡 完 美,也不需 要是 完 整的,因 為這是 他們來皇藝學習的原因。就算他們不明確 知道具體要做什麼,他 們也不應該擔心,不然那就太嚇人了。 另一方面我們還 會留意的是申請人在空閒的時 候做什麼:他們會不會去 劇場看戲,他們是否喜歡閱讀,他們會不會演奏樂器等等。因為通過這些 愛好我們可以判斷他們想要成為藝術家的原因,他們創意背後的來源, 他們的動力來源等 等。譬 如說有些人喜歡 文學,這並不難 想像 他們為甚 麼 也喜歡製作圖像。就是 這些方方面面影 響著你的日常生活,而這些就 成為了驅使你創作的重要原因。當然,并沒有某一種特定的方式方法,因 為我們尋找的并不是某種特定類型的學生。皇藝的學生沒有一 個固定的 類 型。我們故意挑選各個類 型的學生,因為這樣他們就能互相學習而且 學習體驗也能變得更有趣。我們需要的是多樣化的學生。至今為止,所有 來這裡學習的中國學生都非常不一樣。我認為中國學生需要勇敢地遞出 申請,因為他們往往已經擁有十分出色的技術。

We want to see students trying to make something they care

about: it might not be perfect, and it doesn’t have to be finished, because that is the point of somebody coming here to learn

things. People should not feel they have to know exactly what they want to do before they come, because that’s just too scary.

The other thing we ask is what else they do in spare time. Do

they go theatre, do they read a lot, do they play an instrument, etc., because through that we could better see the creative

drive behind their ideas of being an artist; sometimes people are interested in literature and that’s part of why they like making

images. That kind of thing would impact on your everyday life, and becomes a really important part of what drives people to

make work. There is no one way, because we are not looking for

CREDIT © RCA


any one type of student. There is not one kind of Royal College of

they do it, and then they find the way to do it, acknowledging

because it is more interesting and they are going to teach each

anything, because you can never have complete understanding

Art student. We deliberately take a very diverse range of students, other. We are looking for a variety of people. All the Chinese

students we have at the moment are very different. They need to

be bold and brave to apply, and often they have exceptional skills. ART.ZIP: You have many experiences in China, doing

workshops and communicating with students and professors. What do you think the biggest difference between these two education systems?

JS: We are always very impressed by the skills of our Chinese students. They have been trained and taught in a structural way. The most difficult thing for people transferring to a

UK programme is that in this system, they need to be quite

independent and develop their own judgement about how their work is received. To switch from a hierarchical relationship with your professor, where he is telling you what is good and what is bad, to one in which you may receive technical comments

that there are always changes along the way when you make in your head before something has been done. Other people

work on hunches, without a plan; sometimes they don’t know what they’re making until it is done.

ART.ZIP: 您在中國做過很多工作坊的項目,也和許多教授學生進行過交 流。您認為中英教育體制之間有什麼不一樣的地方呢?

JS: 我們通常都會被中國學生出色的技術功底所震撼,他們受教育的方式 是非常結構化的。對於他們在英國求學來說最難的是從他們原來的教育 體制切換到英國的教育體制,因為英國的課程要求學生非常獨立和能 夠 自我判斷作品以何種方式被觀者接受。在中國往往是從教授那裡獲得意 見,告訴你作品好壞,但到了英國,導師只會給你“技術上”的一些建議,作 品的好壞是完全由自己判斷的。這樣的中英體制切換對中國學生來說是 一個很大的挑戰。現在的社會,成為藝術家是沒有一個標準模式的,年輕 藝術家要往多樣化方向發展也是一個很大的挑戰。

but the ‘good’ or ‘bad’ evaluation of your work is your own is a

ART.ZIP: 對於知識的吸收或學習過程,您有發現任何不同的地方嗎?

that diversity as a young artist is the biggest challenge.

JS: 那是肯定的,我們也鼓勵學生通過不同的方式來學習。我當初是在一

ART.ZIP: With regard to the learning process, do you think there

師們 經常有著相互矛盾、大相徑 庭的教學方式:有些老師教我非常精確

challenge. Today, there is no one way to be an artist. To navigate

are any differences?

JS: Yes, students are expected to learn in quite a different way. I

was taught in very traditional and academic system, so I learned

to draw through life drawing, and even there the kinds of classes I took were often contradictory. Some people were trying to teach

個非常傳統的學術環 境下學習的,我 通 過寫生 來學習繪畫,而上課的老 的繪畫方法,例如透視畫法;而別的老師則會鼓 勵我閉上眼睛來創作。 在基 礎 課程 上,你 會學習到不同的繪畫 方法。我想 這 是 主要的區 別。讓 學生們理 解可能有點困難,這可能 會影 響他們的自信心,因為他們常常 會 擔心應該如何做才好。如果是只傳授基 本 功,慢慢地他們就能吸收 并 理解了。

me to draw very accurately, a certain kind of accuracy, in terms

學生們需要清楚地認識到他們要走自己的路,當然他們也需要很多鼓 勵

to draw with your eyes closed, with spaces between things. It

流,因為緊密的師生關係有助於了解學生并幫助他們找到自己的方向。除

of spatial drawing. And then other people were encouraging me was completely different. On our foundation course, you would be given very different models of what to draw. I think that is

the major difference. For people to understand that can be quite

challenging, and it can affect confidence, because they think, ‘Oh I don’t know where to go, I’ll get lost’. If given fundamental skills, people begin to trust the process, which unfolds over time.

和支持。皇藝的師生關係 都很融洽,我們經常進行比 較深入的溝通和交 此之外,學生需要擁有自己的想法,發掘最合適自己的工作方式,因為人 和人 之間總會不一樣的,有些 人很注 重觀 念,他們希望在做 之前就 想 好 做什麼,然後找方法實現,他們也知道在實現的過程中總會發生變化;有 些人 則喜歡靠直覺創作,沒有任 何 計劃,有時 候得到作品完成的最後 一 刻才清楚自己在做什麼。

You have to find your own way. But obviously you are doing that

with a lot of support. We foster strong staff-student relationships, put people together and talk about these things all the time as

well. If you can create strong mentor-style relationships, it helps individuals to find their own paths. You have to come to your own understanding, uncover the ways in which you yourself

work best; people think in such different ways. Some people think conceptually, they want to work out what they are doing before

CREDIT © RCA


GRADUATE SAID

INTERVIEW WITH THE RCA GRADUATE HAO ZHENHAN

畢業生如是說 採訪皇家藝術學院 畢業生郝振瀚

TRANSLATED BY 翻譯 x IRIS SHIH 施孟慧

IMAGE COURTESY OF 圖片提供 x HAO ZHENHAN 郝振瀚


ART.ZIP: Could you tell us about your studying experience in the UK? Why did you choose the RCA? Did you study in Art school in China as well?

ZH: I had my Bachelor’s degree of Design in the Central Academy of Fine Arts (CAFA) in China. During the four years of study, I was taught to question things and find solutions. However, what I learnt couldn’t solve the questions that kept popping up. My understanding of design was also moving further away from

ART.ZIP: 能給我們講一下你在英國的求學經歷嗎?為甚麼會選擇皇家藝 術學院呢?

ZH: 我在中央美術學院完成了設計學院本科的學習,在這四年的時間裡我 接受的是發現問題解決問題的思考方法,然而我所學到的沒有辦法解決 我腦子裡不斷出現的各種問題,我對設計的理解也越來越偏離大眾的定 義。就在我困惑的時候 我看到了皇藝的師生作品,我覺得突然找到了‘同 類’。在那個時候我就覺得要去皇藝學習。

the general definition - I was so confused. One day, I saw some

ART.ZIP: 你腦子裡不斷出現的各種問題都有什麼呢?你心中設計的定義

moment, I decided that the RCA was the place for me.

困惑呢?

RCA students’ portfolios and felt a connection with them. At that

應該是怎麼樣的呢?皇藝的師生作品有什麼地方讓你覺得你能解除這種

ART.ZIP: What kind of questions kept popping up? What do you

ZH: 本科的教學主要是教育學生通過設計物件來解決問題,但是我發現通

portfolios dispel the confusion you were feeling at that time?

的師生作品更多地參與社會議題的討論,程度也相對比較深入。所以這些

think of the definition of design? How did the RCA students’

ZH: In CAFA, the teaching approach is to solve problems by

designing new things. But I found that solving problems through

designing and producing products introduced more issues than it

過設計和生產產品來解決問題本身所帶來的問題比解決的還多。而皇藝 作品讓我看到了新的可能性。設計有太多可能性,在不同的語境下面設計 的定義也非常的不同,所以我現在不想去定義什麽是設計,只是單純地在 思考通過什麽樣的方法把一件事做好。

solved. Their portfolios involved in depth social discussions, which

ART.ZIP: 申請英國學校的時候有遇到什麼困難嗎?

of design; the definition viewed through different perspectives is

ZH: 我覺得與其說難不難申請倒不如說合不合適,如果你的思考方向和作

a subject by thinking about rather than defining it.

就會選擇你。

opened my eyes to more possibilities. There are so many avenues

also very varied. So nowadays, I just simply do my best to complete

品適合在皇藝學習並且可以通過在皇藝學習和生活得到更大的提高,導師

ART.ZIP: Did you face any difficulties when you applied for schools?

ART.ZIP: 你會給想要申請英國學校的中國學生一些什麼建議呢?

ZH: It was about appropriateness rather than difficulties. If your

ZH: 我覺得在申請之前要清楚自己想要什麽,再看在皇藝是不是你能得到

your study and abilities, then the mentors will choose you.

而不是挖空心思揣摩別人喜歡什麽。

portfolios are suitable for the RCA and their courses can enhance

ART.ZIP: What advice will you give to Chinese students who want to apply for UK schools?

ZH: Firstly, you have to know exactly what you want before you apply for schools. Then check whether the RCA provides the

courses you want or not. When applying, it is more important

to show the applicants’ personalities and what they are good at, rather than guessing what the recruiters like.

ART.ZIP: During two years postgraduate study and living in the UK, what was the biggest change?

ZH: There were two major changes. The first was to further my

understanding of myself. During these two years, I had a clearer

version of what I wanted and also gained more confidence. The

second change was my circle of friends. I met a lot of like-minded friends through study or work experiences.

你想 要的東西。關於申請我希望申請人可以努力把自己的長 處體現出來


ART.ZIP: Can you roughly describe the teaching style of the RCA

ART.ZIP: 這兩年在皇藝的研究生課程,或者說,這兩年的留英生活給你最

ZH: In RCA study schedules are split between theory and practice

ZH: 我覺得最大的收獲有兩個,第一點是對自己的深度認識,在這兩年的

preferences. I was in platform 13, which was led by lectures Onkar

朋友,學習和工作的經歷讓我結識了很多誌同道合的朋友。

tutors or lecturers?

depending on the subject - each studio has its own style and

Kular and Dash Macdonald. Lecturers designed specialised topics

大的收獲是什麼?

時間裡,我更清楚自己想要什麽,也更自信。另一個非常重要的收獲就是

based on students’ degrees and background in the first year.

ART.ZIP: 能描述下皇藝的教授與講師們通常的教學模式嗎?

no limits. They could then choose a concept they were interested

ZH: 皇藝每個系的教學安排都不同,同一個系不同的工作室也有自己的教

Students could explore any concept as they wished - there were in to develop further as their design project in the second year.

ART.ZIP: It is well known that tuition fees are quite expensive in

RCA. Is there any scholarship that can help out talented students that can’t afford the fees?

學傾向和風格,我所在的platform 13是由導師安卡·庫拉(Onkar Kular) 和達什·麥克唐納(Dash Macdonald)帶領的,導師會在一年級的時候根 據學生的程度和背景設計專門的課題,每個課題又有很大的自由度,所以 一年級的學生在很大的程 度上是在嘗試盡可能多的方向,所以在二年級 的時候才能確定自己的選題並將一年級的實驗發展為深入的設計項目。

ZH: It is a shame that there is no scholarship for international

ART.ZIP: 衆所周知,皇藝的學費十分昂貴,對於經濟拮據的一些優秀人

campus, although the working hours are limited for students and

者其他?

students. Students can always work in the bar or library on the income isn’t much.

ART.ZIP: Could you talk about any of your projects? In which area do you think that the RCA influences you the most?

ZH: My project ‘Imitation/Imitation’ uncovers the social, political and economic implications of Chinese imitation culture and

才,是否在皇藝 裡有一 些機會可以 解決 一 部份學費問題,例如 獎學金或

ZH: 學校內部是沒有針對國際學生的獎學金的,如果時間和精力允許可以 在學校的酒吧或者是圖書館打工,但是工作的時間很有限,收入也很少。 ART.ZIP: 能聊聊你的個人藝術項目嗎?你覺得皇藝在哪方面給你最大的 影響?

stimulates a positive future through my direct interventions.

ZH: Imitation是我在皇藝最主要的一件作品,意在揭示中國模仿文化在

research-practices simultaneously under different social contexts.

式 的 調 研與 景德 鎮 以 及 大 芬村 的手工藝人 共同呈現出中國 模仿 文化 的

I have taken on the guise of an agent and am managing two

In China, I have proposed a new production model for craftsmen

in Dafen village and Jingdezhen to imitate and create at the same time. Together, we co-produced a series of improvised products that sought to inspire the imitators to explore their imagination and creativity. In London I introduced Chinese imitation culture through a workshop with the absurd aim of drawing perfect

circles by repeatedly drawing circles freehand. This is similar to

millions of workers’ and craftsmen’s daily jobs in China- making the impossible possible.

It seems like I’m doing an artistic project rather than designing a project that I’m studying in. RCA and my friends give me lots of

support and help. My lecturers guide me through how to discuss a thing in depth, it doesn’t matter how I do it. This is the biggest support I’ve got.

IMITATION IMITATION BY ZHENHAN HAO

新的社會背景下的政治,經濟以 及社會意涵。借由‘中介’的身份 通 過參與 不同面向。整個項目是通過‘買賣關係’完成,在對這些手工藝人進行深入 了解之後我 根 據每 個 人的經 歷 和技 能 為他們設 計了特 殊的 ‘ 訂單’,完成 這些訂單的過程中,制作者潛意識 地把他們自己的創造力放到作品中, 同時也把他們的故事和生活一同加到了作品裡面。最後我又將中國式的 模仿文化和教育系統帶回到英國,通過一系列的徒手畫圓課程介紹給大 家 。徒手繪 制一 個 完 美的圓是看似 荒謬,無法 完成的事,但 是 通 過模仿 和重復的訓練徒手畫圓變成了可能,這代表著千千萬萬的中國工廠工人 和手工藝人每天都在做的事--讓不可能變成可能。 說 到這很多人一定會問:“你不是學習產品設 計的麽?怎麽感覺像是在做 藝術品?”

對,這就是我在皇藝學習得到的最大支持,我在皇藝得到了非

常自由的空間,不會被學院派的傳統 思 維 影 響,導師對我的引導就 是如 何更自由和深入地思考和討論一件事,怎麽做、什麽手法並不重要。當然 了,除了這一點導師和同學們給與了我很多其他的幫助,但是這一點是我 最受益的。


THE IMPORTANCE OF TRANSCULTURAL STUDIES

INTERVIEW WITH ANDREW STAHL HEAD OF UNDERGRADUATE PAINTING AT UCL THE SLADE SCHOOL OF FINE ART

跨文化學習的重要性 採訪倫敦大學學院 斯萊德藝術學院繪畫本科 課程主任安德魯·斯塔爾

TRANSLATED BY 翻譯 x MICHELLE YU 余小悅 IMAGE COURTESY OF 圖片提供 x SLADE SCHOOL OF FINE ART 斯萊德藝術學院


ART.ZIP: Could you please introduce a bit of yourself?

Andrew Stahl’s often large-scale paintings approach cultural

AS: I am an artist, a painter. Everyone teaching at the Slade has

imagination and figuration. Images become vehicles to carry

their own practice. I actually went to the Slade as a student; after graduation I went to live in Rome on a scholarship for two years and on my return I started exhibiting my work widely at home and abroad, and started teaching at Chelsea College of Art. I

differences and connections using pictorial language,

painterly the experimentation. Much of his work reflects on

travels to Japan and Thailand and addresses the conflation of time, space and cultures that long-haul travel brings.

taught on both the graduate and undergraduate programme

安德魯·斯塔爾的作品多以大型油畫為主,用繪畫的語言來表達對不同文

running undergraduate painting for 14 years.

本和泰國的旅行激發了他很多創作靈感,這些作品都表達了旅行給他帶

there for 12 years. Then I came here to the Slade and have been

My practice is associated with painting; I would say my painting came out of a particular time at the end of the 70s when

化之間差異和聯繫的思考。他的作品承載了他對繪畫的思考和探索。在日 來的各種雜糅了關於時間、空間以及文化等方面的思考。

postmodernism surfaced and was part of the questioning of

ART.ZIP: 請您簡單地介紹一下您自己。

painting shows that encouraged me to develop scale and more

AS: 我是一位藝術家。幾乎所有斯萊德藝術學院的老師都有自己的藝術實

the modernist discourse. I experienced a number of early 80s expressive possibilities within painting.

Since leaving college when I did the Rome scholarship I have

been aware of the incredible opportunities that residencies offer so I’ve done residencies in China, Australia, and Sri Lanka funded by a number of bodies including the British Council; I have done

踐。很多年前我也是在斯萊德藝術學院接受的教育,畢業後我獲得一筆不 錯的獎學金讓我在羅馬遊學了兩年,回國後我就開始進行國內外的畫展, 也開始了在切爾西藝術學院(Chelsea College of Art)12年的教學生涯, 包括在本科和碩士課程授課,然後我來到了斯萊德藝術學院,在這裡工作 了14年,主要以教授本科課程為主。

a number of residencies in Thailand – one seemed to lead to

我的藝術實踐都與繪畫有關,比較關注70年代末後現代主義興起時質疑

a number of months around Thailand and to Laos, Cambodia,

經驗讓我更有勇氣去嘗試大尺幅的作品和進行更多表達可能性的嘗試。

the other - and I travelled on a Wingate Scholarship for quite

Burma, and Vietnam in the early 90s - I made a lot of works and came back to show here at the Angela Flowers gallery. I’m very concerned with the possibilities that the transcultural offers

for artists and art. I found Asia - East Asia particularly - so full of

energy and so exciting. I think art is like an international language, and artists can borrow from each other. It’s an exchange. In

2006 I was invited to a residency in Bangkok with three or four English artists and three or four Thai artists, and we all worked in the same space at Bangkok University and showed at the

Bangkok University Gallery. What interests me is the excitement

of intercultural interaction – how being put in situations like this challenges your thinking and being in a very different culture affects your understanding of yourself. After this two-month

residency, it seemed essential to reciprocate so I got one of the Thai artists to come to the Slade to be artist-in-residence and

the same group of artists had a show in London at the Bischoff

Weiss Gallery. We are in fact having a third show this June at the Bangkok Arts and Cultural Centre (funded by the British Council and UCL) so a kind of interaction and network has developed. Having artists-in-residence has showed me the importance

現代主義的那個特定的時期。在80年代早期我舉辦了很多畫展,而這些 斯萊德畢業以後,我在羅馬的藝術家駐留經歷讓我體驗到了非常不一樣 的經歷,所以我在得到包括英國文化委員會等機構的基金贊助後陸續到 了很多其他國家進行藝術家駐留項目,當中包括中國、澳大利亞、斯里蘭 卡等等。我還在泰國做了好些駐留項目,而這些項目又令我有機會開展一 些新的項目。90年代初,在獲得溫蓋特獎學金(Wingate Scholarship) 之 後我 還 到了泰 國 週 邊 的 國家,例 如 老撾 、柬埔 寨 、緬 甸 和 越 南,在 這 過程中我創作了大量的作品,這些作品回到英國在安琪拉弗拉爾斯畫廊 (Angela Flowers Gallery)進行展出。我十分重視這些跨文化交流給 藝 術家及 其 創作帶來的可能性 。我發現 亞洲充滿了活力和激情,特別是 東亞地區。對我來說,藝術就像是一種國際語言,藝術家之間可以互相借 鑑。這是一種交流與交換。2006年我和三、四位藝術家被邀請到曼谷與 幾位泰國藝術家一起合作,我們都在曼谷大學提 供的場地裡一起工作, 一起在大學畫廊裡舉辦畫展。最吸引我的是這種跨文化交流所產生的碰 撞,在自己國家和文化以外的地方挑戰自己、反思自己。在這兩個月的進 駐項目後,作為報答,我 邀 請了其中一 位泰國藝 術家 來 到我們斯萊德藝 術學院進行藝術家駐留項目,同時把當時一起參與這個進駐項目的藝術 家聚在一起到比肖夫·維斯畫廊(Bischof f Weiss Gallery)舉辦群展。可 喜的是,我們得到了英國文化委員會和倫敦大學學院的支持,今年六月, 展覽會到曼谷藝術與文化中心(Bangkok Arts and Cultural Centre)展 出。就是這樣的互動交流促成了我們關係網絡的建立。

nowadays of having a more global approach to the art narrative;

這些藝術家駐場項目讓我意識到了全球化的視角對當代藝術發展的重要

more global. So I established a series of art residencies at the

我在斯 萊德 創立了一系列的藝 術家 駐場項目。我們有來自中國、巴 勒斯

art schools can’t be merely western-focused; they need to be

性。藝術學院不能只以西方研究為中心,我們需要更全球化的視野。所以


Slade. We have had artists from China, Palestine, Bangladesh, Hong Kong and Uganda. The artists come here, and they get

studio space, participate in seminars, exhibitions and so on - I am

really involved with this way of trying to globalise the curriculum. I was brought up to believe that art was focused in New York, London and Paris. Art was so western-centred. I remember

being taught in art history that shadows were first painted in the Renaissance; that this was a discovery of the Renaissance. But

when I went to the Forbidden City in Beijing, I saw those paintings with beautiful shadows on them. I looked at the dates - they were from 60 BC! More than a thousand years before the Renaissance.

I think that our focus can be so limited. To me, there is little more

exciting than to see something from another cultural perspective, to experience the stimulation of pushing your boundaries to their cultural limits. I find it encouraging that the Slade and UCL also considers this important.

ART.ZIP: How would you describe the strength of the Slade? AS: The Slade is a very exciting art school. It is a gigantic

argument about what the possibilities for making contemporary art should be. It is a stimulating place where students are

encouraged to develop their individual directions and strengths. We treat them as artists from the beginning. In applicants, we’re

looking for students able to initiate their own work. Another thing we encourage is experimentation. Skill is absolutely essential,

but it is a vehicle to realise your ideas, not necessarily an end in

itself. A typical situation that reflects this is when undergraduate

The other thing is, the studio programme for the BA and BFA is

and ask them to make something to present to us in perhaps

and fine art media. Interdisciplinary interaction is essential, and

students first come to the Slade, we give students a work space

one weeks time - we don’t set projects or push certain technical learning skills at them; we expect them to access the skills as

they require them to make their work. I think maybe this is a big difference between the Chinese system and our system.

We typically get around 1,300 applicants for our undergraduate course. From them we interview about 200 and we have only

40 places. So it’s probably the most difficult undergraduate Fine Art course to get into and the Slade ranks No.1 in the Guardian. We are part of UCL (University College London), which is an

amazing institution. Often credited as being a key influence on the founding of UCL, Jeremy Bentham argued the doctrine of

utilitarianism saying that the greatest happiness of the greatest number of people was the right position for government to

structured around three studio subject areas: painting, sculpture the staff have tutor groups from across all three areas. Each tutor would have three or four painters, two or three sculptors, two or three media students, all of whom attend cross-area seminars,

do critiques, discuss works and so on. No area is isolated, though they do make their work in spaces based on which of the

three areas they have chosen. In addition, we have a very rich

programme of visiting artists. We have visiting artists coming in

all the time, and very often they give lectures and tutorials to the students; we also have a programme of lectures where critics, curators and theoreticians as well as artists give lectures.

ART.ZIP: Will you say there are big differences in education model between China and the UK?

take. UCL was founded on that principle and also has a tradition

AS: I get the feeling that in some art schools in China - not all

regardless of race, creed or political belief. So we are very

acquire skills. I’m not saying which system is worse or better - it’s

of interculturalism; it was the first university to accept people

international. We are very lucky to be in central of London, so that we can walk down to National Gallery, British Museum and so on.

I’m sure – the focus on arrival at art school is that you have to

a different system. In China, there’s an emphasis on acquiring a level of skill before you decide what you want to do. But here,


坦、巴格達、香港、烏干達等地區的藝術家。他們在斯萊德能獲得工作室

另外我們還鼓勵創作的實驗性。技術當然是基礎,但是技術只是實現作品

空間、參加研討會、展覽等等。我全力支持並贊同以這樣的方式來使我們

理念的一種工具,而不是最終的追求目標。在本科生剛入學的時候,我們

的課程更具國際 化視野。我從小就被灌輸藝術中心在紐 約、倫敦和巴黎

會給學生提供工作空間,讓他們一周之內給我們展示他們的創作,我們並

這樣以西方為中心的意識 。我還記得當初藝術史課上說影子最早在文藝

不會給他們設定什麼條條框框,或讓他們專注某項技術,我們希望他們是

復 興的年代被 繪畫出來,那是 文藝 復 興時期的一大發現 。但 是當我在北

為了實現自己的作品理念而運用某種技術。我想這可能和中國的教育方式

京參觀故宮的時候,我看見了畫上那些影子被完美地勾勒出來。我看看日

有頗大的區別。

期,比文藝復興早了不止一千年!從那時起我覺得我們關注的太有限了。 對我來說,從不同的文化視角來看待事物和體 驗文化差異是非常有意思

我 們 通常有13 0 0 位申請人 來 報 讀 我 們 的 本 科 課 程 。我 們 從 中挑 選 20 0

的事情,這對我有限的文化認 知有很大的衝擊。令我更受鼓舞的是斯萊

位 進行面試,最終只錄取40人。所以我想 這可能是最 難申請的藝術學校

德藝術學院和倫敦大學學院都非常支持我們的項目。

了,因為斯萊德是排名第一的藝術學院。我們隸屬於頂尖的倫敦大學學院

ART.ZIP: 斯萊德藝術學院的強項都有哪些呢?

(UCL)。UCL的創立是有深遠影響的,傑里米·邊沁(Jeremy Bentham) 提出實 用主義的理論,政 府應該最大程 度地滿足大多數 人的需求 。倫敦 大學學院的創立就是在這個準則之上,並一直保持著跨文化交流的傳統,

AS: 斯萊德藝術學院是一所非常令人振奮的藝術學校。現在大家都在爭論

它是 第一所 沒有種 族、宗教 及政治 信仰歧視的大學,這也正是我們保 持

到底當代藝術應該如何發展。斯萊德是一個很有啓發性的地方,我們會鼓

國際 化的背景。很幸運,我們校區在倫敦市中心,離國家畫廊、大英博物

勵學生發展他們自己的長項并按照自己的方向去獨立成長。我們一開始就

館等都是近在咫尺,步行就能到達。

把他們作為藝術家來看待,我們在招生的時候會特別注重學生的自主性, 另外,我們 的 本 科 課 程 分為三個 工作 室 方向:繪 畫、雕 塑和 綜合 藝 術媒

‘BLEEDING CHERRY BLOSSOM’ 2012 ANDREW STAHL OIL ON CANVAS 240CM X 370 CM

介。跨學科的交流是必須的,所以導師指導的學生都來自不同的方向,每 個導師會有三到四個繪畫學生,兩到三個雕塑學生,兩到三個綜合媒介學 生。他們都共同參與跨學科的研討會、做藝術評論、討論作品等等。沒有 一 個領域是孤 立的,儘 管他們創作的時候 都在自己方向的空間裡。值 得


we provide the workshops for whatever you want to do. If you

一提的是,我們有非常豐富的藝 術家 來訪項目。我們全年都有藝 術家 來

a video, we provide the video-editing workshop. It’s about

人、理論家和藝術家作為客座講師的項目也是源源不斷的。

want to draw feet, we provide the model. If you want to make

servicing the student. As I said, experimentation is important at

訪為學生們做講座,給予學生指導或建議。除此之外,藝術評論家、策展

the Slade. I think the common thing between UK and China is

ART.ZIP: 您覺得中英教育體制有什麼異同嗎?

practice and research.

AS: 對於中國藝術院校的情況我知道一些,中國的學生要進入藝術學校通常

ART.ZIP: What differences do you see between Asian students

英國或中國的體制更好,它們都很不同。在中國,學生必須掌握到一定程度

all the teaching staffs are artists themselves; we all have our own

and western students?

AS: I am against pigeonholing people due to nationality, but I do think some of my very best students have come from overseas. Students from China, or Korea, or Japan are often brilliant and very hardworking. Maybe partly it is because they know their

需要先掌握很多專業技能,當然也許並不是所有院校都這樣。我們并不會說 的技術才開始決定自己要做什麼。但是在英國,在斯萊德,我們提供空間讓 學生去做他們想做的。舉個例子,如果你想畫人體,我們就提供模特;如果 你想做視頻,我們就提供視頻剪輯工作室,我們是服務于學生的。就像我剛 才提到的,斯萊德十分重視實驗性。我想中國和英國相似的地方是,我們的 教師自己都是藝術家,我們都有自己的藝術實踐和研究方向。

parents have paid quite a lot of money for overseas tuition fees,

ART.ZIP: 亞洲學生和西方學生有什麼明顯的差別嗎?

are outside their usual cultural context gives them a freshness

AS: 我不贊成把學生按照國籍來分類,但我不得不承認最好的學生裡有相

with intercultural dialogue from the beginning. I think all my

都非常聰明和勤奮。或許是因為他們深知父母為他們的留學支付不菲的

so they are very focused, it is also I think that the fact that they and ‘out of box’ approach to the subject, they have to deal

colleagues would echo that absolutely wonderful students/artists have come through here from outside the UK.

ART.ZIP: What advice would you give to the oversea students if

當大一部分是來自英國以外的學生,特別是中國、韓國和日本的學生通常 學費和生活費,所以他們學習特別專注。另外一點是,他們在脫離原來的 文化氛圍下更能跳出原來的思維方式,以更獨特的角度來審視事物,所以 說他們從一開始就必須面對這樣的跨文化對話,他們真的相當優秀。

they want to apply for studying at the Slade?

ART.ZIP: 您會給予想要申請斯萊德藝術學院的學生一些什麼建議呢?

AS: My suggestion for their application is that they should

AS: 我的建議是他們在提交作品集的時候給我們盡可能多的、盡可能多

artworks they are making. For the Slade, if they are not in the

交電子申請。我們看作品集的時 候 并不會特別留意 某種特定的技 術,技

show us lots of work and a broad selection of the kind of

UK they should make a digital application. When we’re looking at portfolios, we’re not looking for evidence of any proof of

skills in particular though it’s always good to see; we’re looking to be amazed or convinced by the work and to see applicants can really take initiative and benefit from the course.

Sometimes people get set projects in foundation course; of

course this can be interesting, but it can also be limiting for the portfolio. It’s very important for us to see self-initiated

work. If we are interested in the work we always invite people to interview, but non-UK students always have the choice

whether to come or not to interview if they are not in the UK.

樣化的、涉及不同 領域 的 作品 。如果申請人不 在 英國,那麼 他 們 必須 提 術功底好當然是加分的;我們尋找的是學生在日常生活或課程裡被激發 的部分,我們要看到的是學生的自主性 。有時 候申請人在基 礎 課程的時 候有很多命題作 業,當然 這 些 也是有趣的,但 是 這也可能侷限了作品集 的多樣性 。我們最關注的還 是希望看到學生自發的項目。我們會 邀 請學 生來面試,但 是不在英國的申請人可以 選擇是否來面試 。因為有時 候 我 們很難只靠電子申請來判斷學生。我會建議 所有申請人都來參加我們的 面試 ,如 果 他 們 無 法 參加,我們 也不會自動 排 除 他 們,因 為 這 樣 很不公 平,不是 所有人都能負擔 得起 飛一趟 英國來參加面試的費 用。我們對來 參加面試 和無法出席面試的申請人一視同仁,當然,我們在面試的時 候 對學生的考量會更多。

I think digital applications can sometimes be quite difficult to judge on their own. I advise people, if they are asked, to come to interview if they can. If they don’t come, we don’t

exclude them, because it would be unfair; not everyone can

easily afford to travel here for interviews. We consider people who attend the interview equally at the end of the process in just the same way as those who simply make the digital

application but obviously we have much more to go on when we have met them.

SLADE SCHOOL OF FINE ART


CASE STUDY: GOLDSMITHS 個案研究: 金史密斯學院 TEXT BY 撰文 x PENG ZUQIANG 彭祖強 IMAGE COURTESY OF 圖片提供 x HARRY LIU 劉競晨

It is not possible to say that there is such a thing as ‘the best art

stereotypically referred to as an art college that exclusively

such no single mode of art education can cater for all students -

ignorance fails to recognise the critical success of other graduates

course’ as each artist has their individual artistic language and as many of whom come from different backgrounds. Still, despite this, Goldsmiths, is renowned for providing one of the most challenging BA Fine Art courses in the world.

Goldsmiths was the first art college in the UK to introduce the

radical ‘convenor’ education mode Convenor is a session where

educates artists who share the language of the YBAs. This

such as artist and theorist Liam Gillick, Turner Prize winner Antony Gormley, and potentially its first Oscar winner Steve McQueen. The stereotype also fails to represent Goldsmiths dynamic

identity which has consistently continued to challenge and excite the contemporary art world during the last half-century.

6 to 8 students present their art-work in front of a group of 20 to

The equally renowned MFA Fine Art course, is recently celebrating

There are 2 tutors present but neither tutor leads the discussion

point to this course is the two-episode long BBC documentary,

30 students made up of a mixture of different years and levels. between the participants. At the time of its introduction, this unconventional pedagogic model was aimed to encourage interaction between artists practicing in different mediums, challenging the students to experiment across established

mediums such as painting, sculpture and performance. The Goldsmiths convenor model is intrinsic to the nature of the BA Fine art course, as the course does not provide medium

specific pathways. The convenor sessions then lead on to more

conventional ‘group tutorials’ among smaller groups of students and their tutor.

The Goldsmiths BA Fine Art course is also renowned for its list

its first Turner winner, Laure Prouvost. A common reference

“Goldsmiths: But is it Art?” The documentary follows the

experience of a few students on the MFA course, from their daily

practice to their degree show. However, as many students on the

course claimed, the documentary doesn’t resonate with their own

experience, and its somewhat misleading, mystification of the MFA studies didn’t do the course any justice. Along with the seminars

and tutorials offered, the MFA course has a lecture series which is

rigorously organised and invites critical thinkers and practitioners of today to share their knowledge. Recent lectures include the

artist and theorist Hito Steyerl, Tate curator Sook-Kyung Lee, and the philosopher Peter Osborne.

of famous alumni which include Damien Hirst, Sarah Lucas,

As many art graduates mentioned in the documentary, at

has always been misunderstood, Goldsmiths has also been

critical pedagogy is similarly practiced in the Design department

and Michael Landy. Just as the title YBAs (Young British Artists)

Goldsmiths their ‘mind’ was trained to become an artist. This


或許本不應該有“最好的藝術專業”這一說 法,因為每 個藝術家都有著自

其對當代 藝 術界的沖擊與挑戰 。同樣,這種偏見也忽略了同樣 成 功的另

己 的 藝 術 語言,因 此 沒有任 何 的 藝 術 專 業 能 做 到 適 合 所有創 作 者 的 發

一批藝術家: 創作和寫作均見長的利亞姆·吉列克(Liam Gillick),特納獎

展。儘管如此,金史密斯學院,仍然以其頗具傳奇色彩的本科純藝專業吸

得主著名雕塑家安東尼·葛姆雷(Antony Gormley),以及如今的奧斯卡

引著來自全球各地的學生。

獎最佳導演大熱門,史蒂夫·麥奎因(Steve McQueen)。

在英國,金史密斯學院是 第一所納入‘Convenor ’討論 會的藝術大學。每

金史密斯的研究生純藝專業(MFA Fine Ar t)也同樣知名,這個專業今

場‘Convenor ’討論 會通常有六到八名學生,在一 個二三十人組成小組面

年也 迎 來了其 第一 位 獲 得 特 納 獎 的 畢業 校 友 勞 拉·普 羅 佛 斯 特(L a u r e

前展示並討論他們的作品,學生們往往來自不同年級。與此同時,還有兩

Pro u vos t)。每當提 及 這個專 業,許 多人便 想 到幾年前BBC出品的兩集

位旁聽的老師在場。當這樣一個名為‘Convenor’討論會的教育模式最初

紀錄片《金史密斯,這是藝術嗎?(Goldsmiths: But is it Ar t?)》,這部

被金史密斯學院使 用時,其目標就是去激發學生們去跨媒介的實踐與創

紀錄片以幾位研究生在讀藝術家的經歷為主要內容,記錄他們的日常創

作。而金史密斯的‘Convenor ’討論 會,和學校本身無媒介方向區分的大

作以 及畢業 展覽。但 是,這樣的一 部紀 錄片卻遭 到不少在讀或畢業的學

專業設置算是一脈相承 。而在‘Convenor ’之後,學生們則會被劃分成更

生詬病。有些學生說道紀錄片裡所反映的經歷跟他們的實在大相徑庭,

小的組,由此和老師一起開展小組討論。

而 紀 錄 片 本 身 將金 史密斯此 專 業 神 秘 化 的 語 氣 ,也 並 未 能 如 實 地 反映 這個課程 。這個專業除去常規的講座和研討 會外,也會請 到當今頗 具影

金史密斯的本科純藝專業(BA Fine Art)有著一長串的知名校友,這其中

響力的藝 術家,思想家和作家 來校 講課,最 近的邀 請 名單就包括了電影

就包括了: 達米恩·赫斯特(Damien Hirst),莎拉·盧卡斯(Sarah Lucas)

人和作家黑特·史德耶爾(Hito

和邁克·蘭迪(Michael Landy)。正如人們常常持偏見看待這幾位藝術家

究中心的策展人李淑京,以及哲學家彼得·奧斯本(Peter Osborne)。

Steyerl),泰特現代美術館亞太藝術研

在當年所引領的英國青年藝術家運動(YBA-Young British Artists),金 史密斯也經常被誤認是一所僅擅長培養此類風格藝術家的學校。這樣的

正如許多從金史密斯走出來的藝術家所言,金史密斯是磨練他們藝術創

一種偏見不足以代表金史密斯學院這幾十年來不斷演變的教育文化,和

作“心智”的地方。而這樣注重對思考能力培養的教學特色,在金史密斯的


at Goldsmiths. The Design department offers a general BA Design

to a unique BA course titled: BA Fine Art and History of Art. Over

Design or Industrial Design. The philosophy of the course follows

from the Department of Visual Cultures, rather than taking the

course rather than breaking it down into Product Design, Graphic the current design industry trend to expands the territory of each

discipline with multi-directional collaboration. This conceptual-led educational model focuses on questioning the nature of design

itself, as well as its place within society, it asks the students to use design as a means to address issues and phenomenons which occur in daily life. The MA Design course at Goldsmiths further

extends this interdisciplinary approach with more specific research directions, including environment and technological interactions. But Goldsmiths, University of London, is not simply an art college. It may be famous for being the art hub of South East London,

but this Arts, Humanities and Social Sciences University is also

internationally renowned for Sociology, Media Studies, Music, and

a three year period of study, the students take half their modules critical studies classes that the Art Department offers. The Visual Cultures department offers courses which explore and produce new art histories and theories. It doesn’t offer a systematic

History of Art course, but instead introduces students to broader contexts of artistic, visual and spatial practice. For instance rarely

in the classes are classic sculptures from Greek and Roman times discussed. Instead students graduate with knowledge in Urban

Studies, Documentary, Continental Philosophy and many other fields which they have chosen from within the realm of Visual Cultures. Goldsmiths critical edge has also made it the go-to place for aspiring young curators and scholars in the field of contemporary art and visual cultures.

perhaps unexpectedly, its Computer Sciences course. One may

But what are the differences between these two BA Art courses?

the big lecture rooms at its campus, but the students are certainly

for the BA in Fine Art and History of Art, Dr. Ayesha Hameed and

not be able to find the science laboratories or be overwhelmed by proud of the ‘creative atmosphere’ at Goldsmiths. There are not

many who are interested in scientific research or financial studies

We try to find out by interviewing the joint Programme Leaders Marion Coutts.

which might suggest that the diversity of students at Goldsmiths

ART.ZIP: What was the reason for creating the BA Fine Art and

There’s also local edge, which has for years been helping spread

course? Especially when one of the philosophies of the BA Fine

cannot be generally compared to other universities in the UK.

the word that South East is the ‘new East’. The South East London

area which surrounds Goldsmiths has become an up-and-coming district in London. With its comparably affordable rent, as well as

History of Art course which runs in parallel to the BA Fine Art

Art course is not to put any special emphasis on the studying of art history.

being the home to a few art schools, the area attracts a young

AH&MC: The strength of the Joint Honours program is that it

has become edgier over the years with new local initiatives and

Cultures. Students in the Joint Honours program have access to

demographic. The New Cross area where Goldsmiths is situated projects helping. The adjacent neighbourhoods of Deptford and Peckham are famous for their art communities and increasing a

number of galleries and art spaces have opened. Not exclusively catering to the creative crowds, green areas, such as Greenwich

and Dulwich, offer the possibility to escape to nature for those of who live in the South East.

The university is proud of its inter-disciplinary framework,

combines the expertise of two departments - Art and Visual

two completely different faculties and so it is like they are doing

two degrees at the same time!  As a result there is more emphasis on the written portion of their degree, as opposed to the single

honours fine arts program, where in the joint honours they spend 50% of their week reading and writing, compared to the single

honours who spend about 20% of their time reading and writing in Critical Studies courses.

and there are public lectures, seminars, screenings and other

It’s an unusual course in that students navigate the theory/

The interdisciplinary culture is also reflected in certain course

progress, they choose courses in Visual Cultures tailored to the

events that bridge the diverse range of studies at Goldsmiths. structures. At Bachelor level, there are often joint courses

offered, for instance, Sociology and Anthropology or History and Politics. At Master’s degree level, more innovative combinations

practice question for themselves thorough their work. As they directions and interests of their practice. That makes it very exploratory and fluid.

are available like Art and Politics or Photography and Urban

ART.ZIP: How do you select applicants? And how do you decide

experimental educational model that Goldsmiths practices.

suitable for successful applicants?

Cultures and these combined courses effectively represent the

In the Fine Art department, this interdisciplinary spirit gave birth

whether the joint honours degree or the BA Fine Art is most

AH&MC: Students make the choice themselves when they apply


as they have to select which course they want to apply to. We

設計系中也顯而易見。金史密斯的設計學院同樣只開設一門本科設計大

to prospective students and give tours of the respective studio

這樣的課程設置理念也是緊跟當今設 計界,各領域 以合作來不斷擴張 彼

have open days at Goldsmiths where staff present both programs spaces and students then make their own choice.

Students generally are very self selecting. Our students tend to be decisive that this is the course they want. It’s not a default option as its very hard work!

ART.ZIP: How much contact and interaction is there between these two courses?

AH&MC: Students from both programs attend public lectures

and events in both departments. However they take completely different courses with different members of staff. On a personal basis there are tons of connections. Students curate shows

and show work with friends and peers they make across both

degrees. Some schemes, like the masterclasses, operate across both courses.

學科專業,而並沒有劃分成產品設計系,平面設計系,或者工業設計系。 此領域的風向。以培養設 計觀念為主導的課程,注重不斷 質詢設 計本身 的內容 與特 質,以 及設 計在社會環 境中的運 用和發展,這個課程同樣 要 求學 生 將 設 計 當作 一種 發 現 並 解 決 生 活 中現 象和 問 題 的 方 式 。學 院 裡 的研究生專業更是進一步地發展了這樣一 個跨領域的理念,並注重於環 境,科技和互動等更為專業的設計研究方向。 說到這裡,倫敦大學金史密斯學院,並不僅僅是一所藝術學院。儘管它以 作為倫敦 東南區的藝 術坐標而出名,但 這 所 藝 術、人 文和社科大學在國 際上同樣也 以 其 社會學 、媒體 傳 播學 、音樂 系、以 及 更 鮮為人 知的計算 機科學系而持有盛名。或 許學 校裡 並沒有許多大 型講堂或實驗 室,但學 生們卻也在金史密斯獨特的創意氛圍中自得其樂。在這裡可能不常見到 對純 粹的金融或是科學感興 趣的學生,某種程 度 上,也意味著金史密斯 不及一些綜合型大學來得更加多元化 。但金史密斯所處的東南倫敦卻有 著獨特的文化,近 幾年來,東南倫敦一直在和為常人 所 知的藝 術文化 聖 地東倫敦搶風頭。金史密斯周圍的地區確實是倫敦文化領域發展最快的 地段之一,這也是得益於其相對便宜的房租和幾所有名藝術學院,吸引了 不少的年輕 人。隨著一 些獨立藝 術機構 和組 織的進 駐,金史密斯所在的 新街口(New Cross Gate)地區正變得愈發潮流。而其附近的德特福德

ART.ZIP: 金史密斯是出於什麽樣的原因開設了這樣一門雙專業課程,尤 其是當本有悠久歷史的純藝專業中,藝術史的學習並不占主要部分。

(Dept ford)和派克姆區(Peckham)早已因其逐漸壯大的藝術家群體 和畫廊而成為了倫敦藝術的新晉地段。不僅僅是在藝術文化上豐富,東南 倫敦的格林尼治(Greenwich)小鎮和德威士區(Dulwich)也給想要靠 近自然的人們提供了去處。

AH & MC: 雙專業的優勢在於它結合了金史密斯兩個不同學院,藝術以及 視覺文化兩個學院的強項。雙專業的學生在兩個不同的學院裡接觸到不

金史密斯為自己的跨專業跨領域特 色而自豪,而在這小 小 校園裡時常有

同的師資和同學。由此而來,雙專業的學生 比起 純 藝的學生要花更多的

的公開課、放映會和討論 會也進一步地給不同專業搭起互動的橋梁。跨

時間在閱讀和寫作上。在雙專業中,平日學習時間百分之五十的比重在閱

專業的特 色也在學校的課程設置中有所體現,在本 科階段,學校提 供 社

讀與寫作中,而純藝專業的學生只被要求用百分之二十的時間比重去專注

會學和人類學,歷史與政治等雙專業課程。而在研究生學位中,則有更為

於他們批判性研究課程的讀寫內容。同樣,雙專業給 予學生們機會以直

有特色的專業組合,藝術與政治,攝影與城市文化研究等,這些設置都代

面藝術中創作和理論的辯證關係,在他們不斷進步的過程中,他們有機會

表著金史密斯具有實驗創新精神的教育理念。

在視覺文化系中選擇更適合他們創作的理論方向課程,整 個過程相當具 有探索性和流動性。 ART. ZIP: 作為面試官,你們是如何選擇學生的,你們是如何判斷一 個學 生是否比起 純藝專業,更加適合此雙專業呢?

在藝術學院中,這樣一股貫穿於全校的跨界意識,衍生了本科純藝/ 藝術 史雙專業(BA Fine Art and History of Art)的學科。在這個專業的三年 學習過程中,學生們一半的學分來自於視覺文化系的藝 術史和藝 術理論 課程,這也就取代了純藝專業中批判性研究的文本學習部分。金史密斯的 視覺文化學院,開設研究與 創作新藝 術史和理論的課程。不同於大多數

AH & MC: 學生們在申請的時候往往就已做好了自己的選擇。在金史密斯

藝 術史專業以線性 歷史發展 角度,提 供傳統 藝 術史學的課程,學院注重

我們有學校開放日,我們會給學生平等提供兩方面的信息和資料,以便他

於給學生傳 授 更為現代 和當代的藝 術,視 覺與空間文化 理論。視 覺文化

們自己做出選擇。學生們確實自己都比較清楚自己適合哪一個專業,雙專

系的課堂中鮮有出現對傳統 繪畫和雕塑的分析,取而代之的是學生們可

業並不一定適合所有學生,更何況它有著更多的學習任務!

以自主 選 擇的城市研究,紀 錄片文化,或是歐陸哲學等 等文化 藝 術理論

ART.ZIP: 兩個不同專業之間,學生們的互動和接觸有多少呢?

的範疇。近幾年來,金史密斯視覺文化系的不斷發展,已經使其成為了當 代藝術界中眾多年青策展人和學者深造的首選之一。

AH & MC: 兩個專業的學生都會參加到兩個學院的公開課和其他活動,但

但這樣一 個純藝和藝術史對半開的專業設置,跟金史密斯長久以來盛名

他們平日所選的課程是由不同的老師所教授的。學生們私下也會有很多的

的純藝專業相比,有多少的不同呢?為了一探究竟,我們采訪了純藝/藝術

聯繫,他們會聯合策展,或是互相展示和評論作品。而有一些教學內容,

史雙專業的兩位課程主任艾伊莎·哈米德博士(Dr Ayesha Hameed)和

比如邀請知名藝術家來上課的 “大師課程”是平等橫跨於兩個專業中的。

瑪麗昂·科斯(Marion Coutts)。


INTERVIEW WITH LESLEY PUNTON HEAD OF BA (HONS) FINE ART PHOTOGRAPHY (ACTING) DEPARTMENT OF FINE ART PHOTOGRAPHY, THE GLASGOW SCHOOL OF ART

專訪格拉斯哥藝術學院 藝術攝影本科專業 課程主任萊斯利·蓬托 TEXT BY 撰文 x FUNKY HE 何伊寧

The Photography Programme at The Glasgow School of Art has an international reputation for excellence. Established in 1982, it was the first programme of its kind in Europe to award a BA (Hons) Degree in Fine Art Photography and has produced successive generations of successful graduates, many of whom are now leaders in their field. -----

擁有國際贊譽的格拉斯哥藝術學院藝術攝影本科課程成立於1982年,它是歐洲藝術攝影專業中最先獲得可以授予榮譽學士學位資 格的課程,并誕生了一批在各自領域中取得斐然成績的優秀畢業生。


ART.ZIP: What makes you most proud of this programme and

ART.ZIP: 關於格拉斯哥藝術學院攝影本科課程,最讓你 值 得驕傲的地方

LP: It is the students that make me most proud of this

LP: 我以我的學生為榮,我認為是他們成就了這個課程。我們的學生來自

students who make the programme. Our students are really

藝術學院是一個非常小的學院,因此我們和學生建立的關係是完全不同

what is unique about it?

programme. I suppose that this is always the case but it is the committed and they are come from very diverse backgrounds. The Glasgow School of Art is actually quite a small institution, hence the relationship you build up with the students is very

different to the one you may build up in a large university, so is

在哪裡? 這個課程有哪些獨特之處呢?

各種不同的背景且十 分專注 於他們的學習。在我的理 解 看來,格 拉 斯哥 於其他大學的,或 許正是 這樣我們才和他們建 立了良好的友誼 。在本 科 學習的這四年 裡,我們與學生 之間一直保 持十 分緊密的溝通,并且對他 們十分了解,我們是看著他們一路成長起來的。

the ability to have a friendship with students. We work with them

ART.ZIP: 對申請這門課程的學生有什麽標準?

them pretty well. You see quite well the journey they’ve gone on.

LP: 作為一名藝術家,我認為學生必須了解我們開設的是一門純粹的藝術

ART.ZIP: What criteria are you looking for in students who want

問題,很多申請人并不了解這一點,所以我們不得不拒絕那些本來打算來

quite intensively over a four year period and actually you know

to apply for this course?

LP: In terms of what makes entrance, for me as an artist, is the fact

that this is a fine art course. It’s not a fashion course or an editorial

攝影課程,而並非時尚或報 道攝影。在招生過程中我們總會遇 到這樣的 這裡學習時裝攝影的申請者。我認為很重要的一點就是申請來這個課程 的學生一定要清楚地意識 到我們這個課程的屬性,並不是說其他形式的 攝影不重要,我們只是認為不同形式攝影之間是不同的。

one; it is purely a fine art photography course. That is one thing

該專業所有任教的老師都是藝術家。他們的創作都同攝影有著一定的聯

people often don’t understand that straight away and obviously

斯·喬舒亞·庫珀教授(Thomas Joshua Cooper),但也有些老師的實踐最

what we often have difficulty with. When we are recruiting

if students predominately apply for a fashion course, we have to reject them. But it is also really important to let students know that is what we do before they come here. It is not the other

forms of photography are less in anyway, it just they are different. All the staff who teach in the department are artists. They are

all artists who have some connection with photography; some

have very a clear specialism like Professor Thomas Joshua Cooper,

繫,有些教員在攝影領域 頗有建樹,比如說擅長景觀 和海濱攝影的托馬 初來自攝影,但後來延伸到了其他領域中去;他們中有人做電影、裝置、 雕塑,一些則是攝影。從我個人來說,我的實踐主要涉及繪畫和文字,但 同樣運用攝影作為媒介。 ART.ZIP: 據我們了解,英國大學的本科都是三年制,為什麽格拉斯哥藝 術學院的本科需要四年去完成?

LP: 我也不知道具體的原因,但依照蘇格蘭的教育系統,我們的大學的本


who is quite well known in terms of his landscape and seaside

科 都是四年的設置。第一年的課程與英格蘭傳統的基礎課程相似,所以

originate in photography but actually diversify into other areas.

裡完成基礎課程的學習。

photography. But the other staff have practices perhaps that

And actually, it is what we see in our students as well quite often.

來自英格蘭的學生往往可以從 第二年開始上,但他們需要在其他的院校

We have got staff who work with film, installation, sculpture,

這 第一年曾經被視作藝 術類基礎課程,而如今卻變 得更 加專業 起 來。但

drawing and texts but I do work photographically as well.

同。在這第一年裡面,學生們有機會去嘗試各類媒介,而並不一定要用到

and some photography. Personally, I predominantly work with

ART.ZIP: As far as we know most universities in England run a 3

攝影專業的學生們所做的項目可能同雕塑與環境、繪畫與印刷專業的相 攝影,這使得他們能 夠 從不同專業的教員那得到不一樣的建議。

year undergraduate course. What is the concept behind having

其實學生進入學校的第一 個項目便 是繪畫項目,但對於攝影系的學生來

School of Art?

孔相機 在相紙 上留下影像 。學生們並不需要 很多的技巧,但需要一 些耐

a 4 year BA Fine Art Photography programme at the Glasgow

LP: I don’t why exactly but according to the Scottish education

說,繪畫便意味著可以采用藍曬,或用刷子在相紙上進行繪畫,或利用針 性、時間和專注。

system, we have 4 year undergraduate courses here. And the first

ART.ZIP: 很多人都對攝影抱著錯誤的觀念,認為攝影僅僅關乎技術而已。

to the foundation year in England. Actually English students

在本科課程中大概占多大的比重?

year has traditionally always been a foundation year. It’s similar generally don’t need to do the four years but they might have

您認為學習攝影史和攝影理論的重要性何在?關於理論史和理論的學習

done their first year in a different institution.

LP: 我們每周有一天關於攝影史及理論的學習,這個課程是由格拉斯哥藝

The first year used to be like a foundation course but it’s now

作歷史和批判性學習(Historical and Critical Studies)。其所占總課程的

become more specialised. Although it is still viewed as an

opportunity to explore all the fine art subjects, students arrive

with a specialism. Students might have projects are common to

術學院批判性探索論壇(Forum for Critical Inquiry)所主持的,原先被稱 比例約占15%到20%。然而這都取決 於學生在畢業時的決 定,到底是 選 擇項目拓展性論文還是畢業論文。

sculpture and environmental, painting and printmaking. There is

這門每周一天的課程貫穿於學生整個四年的學習當中,在第一年裡,我們

Body Project. Students are actually free to work with all the media

自由地選擇 他們自己感興趣的專題。然而在有關研究的概念也同樣會出

one project that first year students have to do which is called the that they want - hey don’t have to do it photographically. It is a

chance for them to try out different things and to get feedback from a range of staff who they may not normally meet.

會開展更多關於藝術史或個別主題的講座;而學生在第二和第三年裡便能 現在學生的影 棚實踐當中,其 所占該 課程總分的20%。這要求學生能提 供其參觀畫 廊 、博 物館以 及 瀏覽 網頁的研究證據等 等,當然也包含有一 些直接的調 查 研究。

The very first project for students is actually a drawing project,

ART.ZIP: 您能否告訴我們一些有關畢業設計的相關事宜?

form of cyanotypes and alternative processes - they can draw

LP: 學位論文作為畢業設計理論學習的組成部分,大約要求一萬兩千字,

photography where actual light leaks marks onto the paper. They

都是跟他們實踐相關的內容。絕對可以是任何題材。此外,在進入提交最

but for photography students that drawing may take the

on the paper physically, use brushes or perhaps use pinhole

don’t necessary need much skill but patience, time and focus.

而一篇拓展性論文的字數會 稍 微少 一 些。論文由學生自行選題,但 通常 終畢業作品的展示環節中,學生們亦可以 選擇 任 何形式參與其中。雖然

LESLEY PUNTON IS A PHOTOGRAPHIC ARTIST. SHE STUDIED AT GLASGOW SCHOOL OF ART IN FINE ART FROM 1986 TO 1990. LESLEY CONTINUED HER STUDY AT GSA AND WAS AWARDED HER MA IN FINE ART IN 1992. LESLEY PUNTON WAS A FULL-TIME LECTURER IN FINE ART AT GLASGOW SCHOOL OF ART BEFORE BECOMING ACTING HEAD OF THE BA FINE ART PHOTOGRAPHY PROGRAMME IN JULY 2013 TO PRESENT.


ART.ZIP: There has often been a misguided perception that

studying photography is merely about learning techniques.

What is the importance of learning the history and theory of

photography? And what percentage of research into history and theory is included in the programme?

LP: One day a week is dedicated to academic study which is run

by the Forum for Critical Inquiry which used to be called Historical and Critical Studies. The end percentage depends on what you

want to do at the end of the final year students have the choice to do an extended essay or dissertation. It can be between 15% and 20% of your mark.

The study runs one day a week right through the entire four

在我看來這更像是一次考試而非展覽,但了解學生如何展示他們的作品 同樣能 夠 體現其完成項目質量的優劣。 我們鼓 勵學生們在四年內盡可能多的展示他們的作品,尤其是在第三和 第四學年。我們盡可能地為學生提 供足 夠 的展覽空間讓他們去嘗試 。而 在畢業展中,每個學生大概能分配到五平方米左右的空間進行展覽。他們 可以展示照片,但由於近年來越來越多的學生選擇移動影像進行創作,他 們也會選擇在小房間內放映電影或錄像作品。學生還可以選擇混合媒體, 例如攝影和雕塑等;此外,儘管我們是一門藝術攝影課程,但 是有時候在 學生作品里可能會見不到任何攝影作品。 ART.ZIP: 除了學院基本的攝影設施如暗房外,攝影專業的學生還可以得 到哪些其他類型的幫助?

years. In the first year, there are a lot more lectures on the history

LP: 攝影工作室都設在這座攝影系建築裡,但事實上學生可以得到任何專

students would start to select their own subjects. But the idea of

個學生想嘗試 絲 網印刷,但攝影系沒有辦法提 供給他 相關的設 施,於是

of art or on particular subjects. And in the second and third years, research actually comes from the studio practice as well. Research in the studio component is marked and becomes 20% of the

grade. So that includes gallery, and museum visits or web links

and students provide the evidence through sketchbooks and so on. But it also includes primary research.

ART.ZIP: Can you tell us something about the final project in the last year?

LP: The dissertation is the theoretical component of the major work and that is about 12,000 words. And an extended essay is slightly shorter than that. It can be on any subject that the student chooses, and it is usually something the students

are interested in relation to their own practice. But it can be absolutely anything.

When it comes to the final degree submission the presentation for the degree show - students can present any form that their

業技術上的支持,也就是說學生有機會進入所有專業的工作室。比方說一 我們便可以為他提 供一份申請表格,而他需要做的便是詳細提 供他實踐 所需要的幫助,通常都能申請成功。 我們藝術系曾經有一個電子媒體工作室,如今被挪到了學院的新建築裡, 成為設計學院設施的一部分。這個工作室內配有電影剪輯,DV攝 像機, 放映設備等 等,我們也希望工作室的使 用情 況有增 無減 。格 拉 斯哥藝 術 學院的技術設施和圖書館都是很不錯的。 另外,每個年級的學生都配有一個專職輔導員,另外還有一位導師會每週 工作一到兩天。一 般來說,每 個年級組的學生每年都能得到兩 到三個導 師的輔助,但主要還是專職輔導員負責課表及各種安排。儘管如此,學生 們依然可以去找覺得更合適的老師以尋求幫助。 ART.ZIP: 格拉斯哥藝術學院攝影專業一個年級大概有多少學生? LP: 我們攝影系目前大約有104位學生,包括兩個碩士專業的學生。因此每 個年級組大約有25名學生。

work has evolved to take. I mean it is an examination rather

作為一 個小型的藝術院校,我們的優勢在於可以把每個專業都聯系在一

us a lot about the quality of their practice. We encourage our

有25個名額,對申請者來說競爭是很激烈的。

than an exhibition. But how our students install the work tells students to exhibit as much as they can, right through the course, but particularly in the third and fourth years. We’ve got lot of

project spaces where students can book, try things out and so

on. So it’s likely that the final presentation will take the form of

起,而且你 能 感受到這裡像是一 個大家庭。但同時也意味著我們每年僅

ART.ZIP: 無庸置疑,格拉斯哥是一座充滿活力的藝術和音樂之城,這座 城市能為學生帶來哪些福利呢?

works installed in a space that has been allocated, which the

LP: 格拉斯哥是一座了不起的藝術之城。格拉斯哥不需要向倫敦看齊,它

photographs or they may propose a dark space to show film and

多特納獎的獲得者。

size is about five meters square. Students might show finished

video, because a lot of students are working with moving images.

將自己視為藝 術中心之一,看看格 拉斯哥這 麽 一間藝 術學院都出了那麽

They may choose a mixture of media like photographs and

在這座城市中學生能得到更多展示作品的機會,這裡有很多建 築物都可

this is a fine art photography course.

倫敦卻沒 那麽容 易。即便 租金開始上漲,但學生依 然可以在城市中找 到

sculptures. Or occasionally we may not see a photograph; despite

以作為畫廊空間去使用。學生在這座城市中可以做很多DIY的作品,但在


ART.ZIP: Apart from basic photography facilities such as

darkrooms and printing spaces, what other facilities can students benefit from on the programme?

LP: The workshops based here are primarily photographic ones, but the technical support department across school means

Edinburgh maybe has a festival but that is held once a year when students are usually are not here.

ART.ZIP: Do many of your students apply for the Edinburgh Fringe or Art Festival?

students can actually get access to any technical workshop area.

LP: We don’t see many people doing that because it is more

way to do that. So we’ve got a proposal form that students can

has loads of galleries there is rivalry between the two cities, but

If every single student wants to do screen-printing, there isn’t a

write a proposal for a specific piece of work they are making, and usually we try to fit that in.

There is an electronic media studio, which was in the fine art area but that has now moved to a new building. It has expanded to

theatre than visual art. But Edinburgh is a very good place that it’s only 49 minutes away by train.

ART.ZIP: What do you expect your students to learn from their 4 years of study?

incorporate - the design school facilities as well, so it has become

LP: They will learn different things. Some will learn who they

studio includes film editing, DV cameras and so on. So the technical

development in any institution is to learn how to be an

a large area. Hopefully it has same coverage as it had before. This facilities are out there and the libraries are pretty good as well. ART.ZIP: What is the size of a year group here at GSA?

LP: We have roughly about 104 at the moment across four years, and that includes two MA students as well. So it’s about 25 students on average every year.

One of the advantages of the Glasgow School of Art is, as a

small institution that you can connect with other departments

and you can also have a real sense that people are like a family.

It does means it is difficult to get in, because it only 25 places. It

actually are but the most important part of any students

independent thinker. They may have learnt how to be artists and we hope that is what they have learnt. But they may also take

different avenues maybe less directly related to visual art. They

learn skills like problem-solving and independent thinking, and that independence is really one of the most important things they can have.

Fundamentally, they learn how to make art and how to enrich

their own lives. It is important to talk about the contribution to

the community but there is a great degree of self-realisation and fulfilment in making art.

is quite competitive.

ART.ZIP: How about the MA Photography course at GSA?

ART.ZIP: Glasgow is a vibrant city with a legendary art and

LP: We have an MA course and an MFA course. The MA is

students studying here?

to September. We also have a MFA course, which spans two

music scene over the last century. What can the city bring to the

LP: Glasgow is an amazing city for art. Glasgow doesn’t look to

London for recognition. Glasgow sees itself as one of the centres, there are numerous Turner Prize winners that comes from the Glasgow School of Art in proportion to its scale.

There is the chance to get your work seen - there are loads of

buildings that are potentially usable as galleries spaces. There are lots of D.I.Y which goes on and it’s less easy to do that in London. Rents are getting very high but students here can get quite a lot of spaces for free and it is cheaper as well.

Glasgow is an edgy city. It’s a bit rough. It is a bit raw. It is not as gentle as Edinburgh, which is a very beautiful city. Glasgow has

got dilemmas but it has a dynamic that Edinburgh doesn’t have.

specialised and it lasts for one full year - that is - from September academic years - that is - from September to June, and then again September to June the following year.

I actually studied on the MFA course here. I have to say that I feel

it’s quite a freedom to have that little bit longer than a traditional one year MA. The MA is multi-disciplinary and the aim is to

specialise. Currently we run an MA Programme in Photography

and Moving Image and also an MA in Print Making, Drawing and Sculpture - so there are various pathways for the MA. The MFA students tend to work across medias. They may come with a

specific discipline, but often they change what they doing during the course of these two years.

ART.ZIP: What’s your advice to students who want to study photography at the Glasgow School of Art as a whole?


LP: It is really hard work and you just need to do it everyday.

You have to love it, it sounds clichéd but if you come here, you have to work hard. You have to take it seriously. I think there is

職業。學生們會學習解決問題和獨立思考的技能,而獨立性 則是 他們可 以擁有的最重要的事情之一。

perception of art school that been something where people can

從根本上說,學生們學會如何進行藝術創作並豐富自己的生活,雖然我們

get a first class degree you have to do a lot of work and probably

和藝術創作的需要。

get an easy degree. That’s possibly true in some institutions. To more than most other university students might have to do.

Students get access to the building from 9 o’clock in the morning

應該去討論他們對社會的貢獻,但更多的還是要看他們個人的自我實現

ART.ZIP: 格拉斯哥藝術學院的碩士(MA)或純藝碩士(MFA)課程是怎樣的?

to 11 o’clock in at night. You have individual studio spaces

LP: 格拉斯哥藝術學院提供碩士和純藝碩士的課程,攝影碩士課程的開設

Students have their own studios generally. And students can

兩年分別從九月到隔年六月。

and that is one of our unique things for a photography course. make their work and try it out and put it up on the wall. Students

通常是一個整的學年,從九月到隔年九月;而純藝碩士則開設有兩個學年,

may share the studios during the first and second years but then

事實上我就是從這裡的純藝碩士課程畢業的,我個人認為相比傳統的碩

fourth years. Students can do many different things in their studio

不同學科的碩士課程,比較專業化,目前我們有攝影和移動影像、版畫、

they will have more individual spaces during their third and

- sometimes it can be a production space, sometimes a thinking space, and sometimes a common space. Sometimes it comes

an empty area because you don’t know what to do next. But it is a place you can go and have time, which is one of the most important parts of the programme as a studio based course.

士課程,純 藝 碩士的學習給予了我更多的自由。格 拉斯哥藝 術學院擁有 繪畫和雕 塑專業的碩士。而純 藝 碩士則傾向於跨媒體的創作,他們可以 選擇某個特定的方向,但在兩年間可能會展開不同的實踐。 ART. ZIP: 您對那些打算申請格 拉斯哥藝術學院攝影本 科的學生有哪些 建議?

LP: 在藝術學院學習是一個很艱苦的過程,每天的努力是必不可少的,雖 然這聽起來或許是陳詞濫調,但如果你選擇來這裡學習,就必須要努力。 人們常常覺得在藝術學校可以很輕松地能拿到學位,或許在一些學院有 這種情況,但如果學生想拿優等,那麽他們甚至需要比其他大學的學生付 出更多的努力。 攝影 樓每天從早上9點到晚 上11點向學生開放 。在 這 裡學生都 擁有個 人 的工作室,而這也是我們攝影課程獨特的地方之一。學生在大一和大二共 許多免費或便 宜的展 覽空間。格 拉 斯哥的當代 藝 術圈富有活力,我認為

享工作室,到第三或第四年便擁有更多的個人空間,他們可以在各自的工

這些都是這座城市為藝術系學生帶來的福利。

作室創作,嘗試把作品掛在墻上等等。學生可以在工作室裡嘗試各種不同 的東西,這裡有時是影棚,有時是一個思考空間,也有時成為公共聚會區

格拉斯哥是一座前衛的城市。她有些粗糙,有些樸實。她並不像美麗的愛

域 。但 工作室絕 對是學生該 好好花上時間的地方,而這也是我們攝影 專

丁堡那般優雅,但格拉斯哥卻有著愛丁堡所並不具備的活力。雖然每年的

業課程中極其重要的一部分。

藝穗節都在愛丁堡舉行,但那個月學生們通常都放假回家了。 ART.ZIP: 有很多學生會申請參加每年的愛丁堡藝穗節(Edinburgh Festival

萊 斯 利· 蓬 托 是 一 位 攝 影 藝 術家 。她曾在

LP: 我們並沒有發現有很多人申請,或許是因為藝穗節更偏向戲劇表演而

術學院純藝本科專業,隨後又在1992年完

Fringe)或愛丁堡藝術節(Edinburg Art Festival)嗎?

不是視覺藝術。愛丁堡是一座很不錯的城市,她擁有很多畫廊,兩座城市 之間也在相互競爭,不過互相僅相隔49分鐘的火車車程。 ART.ZIP: 您期待學生能從這四年的課程中學到什麼呢? LP: 學生們會從中學到不同的東西。有些看清了自己,但大多學生應該在 院校中學會如何獨立思考。他們或許學會成為一名藝術家,這也是我們所 期待的;但或許 他們中的一 些人會選擇 一 些和視覺藝 術並不直接相關的

1986年至1990年期間就讀 於格 拉斯哥藝 成了碩士階段的學習。

在2013年七月成為藝術攝影本科課程主任

之前,萊斯利則一直在格拉斯哥藝術學院 教授純藝課程。


TEXT AND IMAGE BY 圖文提供 x FUNKY HE 何伊寧

The Contemporary Art Photography programme at Edinburg College of Art (ECA) primarily enables students to use lens-based

media to examine and explore themes of their own choosing and to produce a resolved body of work allied to rigorous research and

professional practice. ECA Students consistently demonstrate exceptional levels of achievement across an impressive range of practice

including Landscape, Documentary, Portraiture, Still Life, Video. Whatever the approach, it is undertaken within contemporary contexts

allied to historical/cultural awareness of the medium in the context of contemporary art practice and underpinned by academic rigour. -----

愛丁堡藝術學院當代藝術攝影課程力求讓學生通過使用鏡頭的媒體去考察並探索他們自己所選擇的題材,並制作出具有活力的研究和專業的作品。 愛丁堡藝術大學的學生們在一直以來都在如景觀攝影、紀實攝影、肖像、靜物攝影或錄像中展現出非凡的水平。無論選擇何種攝影方式,這門課程都 是與攝影在當代藝術實踐的歷史和文化認知背景下展開討論的,並以學術的嚴謹性作為支撐。

ART.ZIP: Can you tell us about the Contemporary Art

Photography course at the Edinburgh College of Art as a whole? NM: Photography at the Edinburgh College of Art used to be a

design course - not long ago - it was in the design school, but it has held a visual communication perspective for a long time. It

photography technical ability. The programmes at ECA are kind of mixture whilst Glasgow School of Art, for example, has two programmes that are completely separate. The course here is

more or less dominated by a fine art approach and recently we

have moved over to the School of Art from the School of Design.

sat inside animation, film and television and so was in that kind of

Photography students here all have studio space which they

photographers. Undergraduate photography in that sense was

making. Many of our photography students don’t need a lot of

design/photography niche, but the staff had always been fine art very broad and it combined a fine art sensibility with a design

share with others. It is all about what kind of work they are

space as they spend a lot of time out - off site - or in the dark


ART.ZIP: 您能就愛丁堡藝術學院的當代藝術攝影專業給我們一個大致的 介紹嗎?

NM: 一直以來,愛丁堡藝術學院的攝影專業中都被劃分在設計院系當中。 雖然攝影 被設置為實用設計專業,但卻從很早之前便開始往視覺傳媒的 方向發展;同時,我們在傳統意義上將攝影和動畫、電影和電視視為同一 個門類,但其授課老師卻一直都是藝術攝影的實踐者。愛丁堡藝術學院攝 影本科專業所涉及的內容相當廣泛,它既享用了實用攝影的技術設施,同 時也包含在藝術的語境當中。相較格拉斯哥藝術學院來說,愛丁堡的本科 課程將上述的教學內容合二為一,而不是在傳統的意義上分設兩個專業。 然而正 是 因 為 我們 在 攝 影 課 程中或多或少地 采 用了當代 藝 術 的 教學方 式,因而不久前則將它從設 計學院劃分到藝 術學院中來。同研究生課程 的 整 體 性而言,愛丁堡 藝 術 學 院 的 攝 影 本 科 專 業 是 一 個 非常寬 泛 的 課 程,其內容涉及 到繪畫、雕 塑和媒體 等各個 領域 。攝影本 科的課程不單 包括上面所提到造型學科,同時還有涵蓋了攝影理論的學習。這樣,我們 的學生們都能 夠 共享工作室中的所有資源。所有攝影專業的學生都在一 個樓裡學習,並分配有共享的影棚,而據我了解,很多學校是沒有影棚專 門提供給攝影系學生的。不過這也要取決於學生選擇創作何種類型的作 品,我們很多學生大部分時間都在外拍,或者花上大把的時間在暗房中。 這樣的學生沒有必要成天待在影棚裡工作,但另外一些學生則選擇利用


room. They don’t necessarily sit in the studio, but some of them take the opportunity to use the space they have and to use the

facilities that the art school has. So they may spend time learning

to a workshop model. So the way our students are taught is coming from that kind of educational inheritance.

how to cast or they may do a lot of video, digital work, web work

Having joined the University of Edinburgh, we found ourselves

interest is, perhaps aside of a conventional lens based approach

which has incredible range of expertise. The photography

and electronic, that kind of thing. So it all depends on what their to making their work. But there is usually something that draws

them back towards lens based practice. Take one of our students who graduated last year for example. She worked for a few years

on lenses specifically, and collaborated with staff and students in

the glass department to make lenses. Then she used the lenses to create photographs.

part of a gigantic College of Humanities and Social Sciences, students here can draw on the other fine art or design areas

(glass, sculpture, film and TV, textiles), or whatever they think

may be useful in their work. They are also able to access all of

the workshops that take place in the College of Humanities and

Social Sciences, so there are actually thousands of lectures taking place every week.

ART.ZIP: I have noticed that many young students are crazy

Students also can identify various support mechanisms for

your students are interested in?

and they can work directly with experts as well. Also, there

about analogue photography? Are there any specific areas that

NM: They are interested in hypo-technology in that sense,

which is combined with a broader interest in new media. A

lot of recent photography students have been drawn to look

at lenses, or students have become fascinated with analogue

equipment that is difficult to get your hands on. We found quite a lot of students who come over from America are interested in American vernacular photography. They start off investigating vernacular photography but very quickly that spreads into something broader which develops out of that interest in vernacular types of practice.

It is interesting because historically it is a kind of mechanised

media but increasingly these days professional photographers use digital cameras, so it’s almost like that has created a space for people to double or re-engage with something more

mechanical. That needn’t necessarily just be the use of large

format or conventional dark room technology but they are kind

of looking at things that are proto-photographic or things which sit alongside photographic technologies.

ART.ZIP: What is the competitive edge of MA/MFA course at ECA? And what makes you most proud of it?

something that they may be interested in, theoretically speaking; is a lot of room for cross-over into sciences and medicines

department. For example, our MFA students did an exhibition at the end of 2012 with the Roslin Institute. The work was

produced in collaboration with scientists who worked in the

institution and then exhibited there. They brought some of the

work permanently as part of the new Roslin Institute just outside Edinburgh. So, there is this kind of possibility to work with the huge University of Edinburgh on of all sorts of projects. The last aspect is that Photography exists as a Fine Art

programme and that programme includes theory and curating. Students who specialise in these areas also inhabit the same studio. You may see some institutions where humanity and

theoretical areas are quite often separated academically. But

students here at ECA share the same spaces, the same courses and often, the same assignments. For example, our first year

students have a large exhibition at the Talbot Rice Gallery, which was both a curatorial project and exhibition opportunity for

them. They do a lot of collaboration with the curating students and all of them were involved. And they also work with other

Master students from other MFA programmes in Europe. So this year, they are going to work with some students in Leeds and others from Ghent.

NM: To some extend, I think all Masters Photography courses in

There is a sort of emphasis on collaboration between students

a European critical framework or something like that. There is

need to learn. If they don’t learn to work independently and

Europe are same, in a lot ways. They sort of need to be part of

international debate and discourse surrounding contemporary art and photography that they need to conform to. We don’t necessarily focus on differences but on what makes us alike.

We are in the art school, which was until recently an independent art school and therefore it has that tradition which is connected

to produce projects and exhibitions, and that is something they socially, I would say, in Scotland there are no other options, where we don’t have primary art market. In Scotland, art students have to learn how to represent themselves and be self-organised.

So developing connections with self-organised projects and spaces in Edinburgh is particularly important. MC Gallery for

example, delivers all the professional practice components of


PROFESSOR NEIL MULHOLLAND IS DIRECTOR OF THE POSTGRADUATE PROGRAMME IN CONTEMPORARY ART PRACTICE, THEORY, PAINTING, SCULPTURE AND PHOTOGRAPHY AT THE SCHOOL OF ART. HE IS CURRENTLY ASSOCIATE HEAD SCHOOL OF ART AT EDINBURGH COLLEGE OF ART.

這所藝術學院內所提供的影棚和其他設施進行創作。在攝影創作之外,

除了上面提 到的以外,攝影系學生 還可以在他們感興 趣的領域 裡得到不

學生可能會學習如何做雕塑、或是嘗試制作視頻、或與數碼、網絡或電子

同程度的幫助,理論上說,他們甚至可以直接和相關專家們一起合作。比

類相關的實踐。不過這統 統取決 於學生們的個人興趣所在,但是都和鏡

如說在2012年年底,我們攝影純藝專業的學生同愛丁堡 醫學院(羅斯林

頭有一定的聯系。舉個例子來說,我們上一屆畢業的一位學生花了幾年時

學院Roslin Institute)的科研工作者們共同完成了一場展覽,醫學院還購

間研究與相機鏡頭相關的領域,她的畢業創作便是同玻璃工藝專業的老

買了部分學生的參展作品並收藏在遷址愛丁堡城外的新校區內。所以說,

師和學生一起合作完成的,然後她再用這些鏡頭創作作品。

學院在並入愛丁堡大學之後也意味著我們學生能獲得更多元的機會。

ART.ZIP: 據我的觀察,如今有很多攝影系學生都熱衷於運用傳統的膠片

最後,作為純藝專業的攝影課程設置中包括了藝術理論和策展部分的學

進行創作,愛丁堡藝術學院的學生是否也有類似的偏好?

習,因而無論偏向理論還 是攝影實踐的學生都 共享同一 個工作空間。你 或許會發現很多學院都在學術上都把人 文和理論 領域分的很開,然而愛

NM: 我們的學生中有很多都對低技攝影(傳統膠片攝影)有著特殊的愛

丁堡藝術學院的學生則共享同一個空間,學習相同的課程,甚至完成同樣

好,同時亦 對 新媒體 也抱有廣泛的興 趣 。目前我們 的學生中很多人都對

的作業。比方說我們一年級的學生每年都會在愛丁堡大學塔爾伯特·萊斯

鏡頭,或對那些通常不容易上手的傳統膠片器材有著相當的喜好。另外,

畫廊(Talbot Rice Gallery)舉行一次大規模的展覽,因而這次展覽對學

我們也發現很多來自美國的學生都對美國街頭攝影有著深厚的情感,他

生來說 既是一 個展 覽,亦是一次 策 展項目,均由攝影實踐方向和策 展 方

們也將這一興趣慢慢拓展到其他的實踐中去。

向的學生們共同合作完成 。我們的學生還常常同歐洲其他專業的純藝學 生進行一些合作項目,比如今年將與來自英格蘭利茲以及比利時根特藝

街頭攝影是一個很有趣的攝影類型,很多專業攝影師都開始放棄傳統機

術院校的學生展開合作交流。

械相機轉而使用數碼相機去拍攝,所以年輕人便利用這個空間去嘗試機械 相機,但並不意味著他們必須要用大畫幅相機或使用常規的暗房技術。 ART.ZIP: 愛丁堡藝術學院當代藝術攝影的碩士(MA)和純藝(MFA)課 程的獨特之處在哪?最令您驕傲的地方又在何處?

我們的專業十 分強調學生們在實踐和展覽中的合作,這些工作並不是一 個人就能完成的,因而合作成為他們所必須要掌握的領域。我想說的是, 在攝影藝術還沒有形成初級市場的蘇格蘭,學生們並沒有其他的選擇。 在這裡,藝術專業學生必須學習如何表達自己,並學會自我組織。因此, 在愛丁堡,學生學會自我發起藝術項目並同畫廊互動尤為重要,比如在每

NM: 從一定程度上來說,我相信歐洲所有攝影碩士課程都有著極其相似

年五月下旬在MC畫廊(MC Gallery)的展覽便是學生展示專業水平的絕

的地方,其課程都是在歐洲學分框 架 之下所設置的,這便 意味著這些課

佳例子。另外我們希望在一開始就能帶領學生走進蘇格蘭獨立的藝術界,

程必須符合國際上有關當代藝術和攝影話語的討論。因而我們更看重的

我們希望他們從學院畢業時就已經成 為圈子裡的一部分,這也為那些繼

是課程同該標準的相似 度,而不是其 獨特之 處,所以我們並不強調它同

續攻讀純藝碩士學位的學生搭建了進入另一 個階段的臺階。我們必須看

其他院校攝影課程的區別。這裡一直以來都是一 個單獨的藝術學院,直

到的是,蘇格蘭的特殊 經濟環境導致愛丁堡藝術市場同其他城市不同,

到最近才並入愛丁堡大學,所以我們依舊遵循的是傳統藝術院校工作坊

例如法蘭克福或倫敦。

的教學方式,而我們教授給學生也是延續了藝術院校的那一套。 自從合並入愛丁堡大學以來,曾經的藝 術學院 便 成 為了人 文與 社科學院 這個巨大體 系的一 部分,後者更擁有著令人 難以置信的專業 知識 。攝影 系 的學 生同 樣 可以 接 觸 到其他 造 型 或 設 計 範 疇 的 課 程,比 如 說 玻 璃 工

ART.ZIP: 眾所周知,攝影理論和批評是攝影教育中非常重要的一部分, 所以關於理論和批評在愛丁堡藝術學院碩士/純藝碩士攝影課程中大概 占多大的比重?

藝 、雕 塑、電 影 、電 視 及 紡 織 等,或者更多可以 應 用到學 生 實 踐 中的學

NM: 我們每學期都會開設兩個相關的課程,其中一個占有四十個學分,屬

科。我們的學生亦可以參與到人文與社科學院所有的工作坊,以及每周數

於是課程設置中最大的組成部分。它側重於考察一 個藝術項目的實踐和

不勝數的講座。

研究,然而我們很難說這其中究竟有多少是理論學習,又有多少是實踐部 分,但是卻幫助學生將兩者合二為一。我們對學生的考察基於他們所做的


the programme for the students that exhibit work there. The

The smaller course is worth 20 credits. It is usually more

year. A strong sense of what we are trying to do is to involve

have to attend and they have to prepare the content for it. We

work on the project for MC takes place usually in late May every our students from the beginning with the independent art

scene in Scotland. So when they graduate from art school they have already become part of the art scene. Most of the people

involved with those organisations did the MFA as well, so it gives a sense of moving from one platform to the next. We can see

that is a certain kind of economy that exists in Scotland which is specific to a small country and that may be differently from Frankfurt or London.

theoretical, which means it’s based on seminars that students

ask them to read, reflect, visit or examine something and they have to come and present on that. That forms an educational

experience itself and they will usually write a paper relating to

that. These are more conventionally theoretical approaches but the nature of these courses change quickly. They become more

blurred in the second semester when students hold an exhibition at Talbot Rice Gallery. They need to work collaboratively and they need to produce a publication that comes with the exhibition.

ART.ZIP: It is a common truth that learning theory and critical

We also have a two year MFA course. At that level students have

what percentage of the MA/MFA photography programme at

and chose the most suitable programme for them. So either

study are a very important part of studying photography? If so, ECA is made up of theoretical study?

NM: We have two related courses that run each semester. One of

them forms 40 credits, which is effectively the largest component. It focuses on practice and research that links to their artistic

practice. It is difficult to say exactly how much is theoretical study and how much is practice; but it is really the development of

how those two come together. Students are examined based

the choice to focus on what they expect of the programme

they do a degree show, or they read a body of art reading or

they do something in-between. They can do a project and an

accompanying report - something that is between a thesis and a

degree show. Their choice, in a sense, is based on what they have tested out before they get to that point. Our degree shows are

not conventional in that they include other possibilities that our students may have pursued.

on the research that they do, how they communicate, how they

The MA show which happens during the Edinburgh Festival is also

their peer group. So we assess how they communicate, how they

our students are part of a broad spectrum of events at the festival.

have developed a discourse, and what they have worked on with respond to other’s work; we also assess the studentship and how

connected with a bigger programme that the art college runs. So

they exhibit and distribute their work. Some cases are maybe the

The nature of the kind of theory we pursue here is one of being

be more projects based or they may have published their work. It

in visual culture, material culture and we are looking at the new

exception - a lot of students are not that straight forward, it may depends on what their practice is but these are the main things that we look at.

experimental, philosophical and so on. We are really interested

aspects of theory that artists are drawn to at the moment. Then we move on to things are maybe more practical in orientation,


like curatorial studies and curatorial practices. We also think about

研究,考察他們如何進行溝通,以及他們在與其他同學合作時所開發的話

become part of their work rather than something which is done

傳自己的作品。但在一定的情況下也有特例,可能很多學生更偏向於攝影

the engagement with organisational practice, which should

to them. Our students will not wait for somebody to spot them or tell them how to sell. They need to learn how to do that by

themselves; again you don’t have any other choices in Scotland.

語權;我們同時考察學生如何回應其他人的作品,以及他們如何展示並宣 實踐或在雜誌上出版作品,雖然這一切都取決於每個學生各自的實踐,但 上述的這些要點都是我們主要考察的內容。

If you don’t do that, you don’t have a career, you don’t have

而另一門占有二十學分的課程 則會涉及 到更多的理論學習,這門基於研

commercial; it is different sort of climate here.

讀,反思或審視一些課題,並將這些研究成果做成報告,並完成一份與之

anywhere to exhibit. You need to make opportunities. It is not

Rather than imagine that one day you will make work which earns you a big enough grant upon which to survive or that

someone will pay a lot of money for your works, the importance is that you learn how to make good work with what you have.

討會形式的課程要求學生必須參加並提前做好準備。我們要求學生去閱 相關的論文。雖然上面提到的兩個課程都采用了比較 傳統的理論教學方 式,但課程的性質是不斷 發生變 化的,到了第二學期之後兩者間的界限 就變得模糊起來。這學期學生會在塔爾伯特·萊斯畫廊為觀眾舉辦一場展 覽,他們需要共同協力地去合作完成,並為展覽制作一本出版物。

You need to become savvy about using all possible resources

另外,我們學院還有一個為期兩年的純藝碩士課程。因此,學生可以在這

because they are the people who have time and energy.

可以選擇做展覽,還可以撰寫論文,或是將兩者結合起來。學生還可以選

that you can gather. The best resource you have is your peers

ART.ZIP: What is your suggestion to students who want to study photography at Edinburgh College of Art?

NM: We do have a lot of people apply who seem to think they can come to the MA course to learn photography. I suppose

一階段選擇去全身心投入他們所期盼且更適合他們的實踐項目,他們既 擇 做一 個介於論文和畢業展之間的攝影項目,即附帶有紀錄項目進程報 告的作品集 。我們的畢業 展相當開放,因此 學生可以在此嘗試各種不同 的可能。攝影碩士學生的畢業作品會在每年愛丁堡藝術節期間展覽,同時 展覽也是藝術學院所組織大型活動的一部分,所以我們的學生亦成為藝 術節上眾多活動的參與者之一。

‘taught’ in the UK means you go to acquire a ‘Master of Skills’. I

我們一直對視覺文化及物質文化都抱有興趣,我們同時將目光轉向當下

We are a postgraduate degree structure that has courses,

向,例如策展學習和策展 實踐 。我們也會去鼓 勵學生參與到組 織的實踐

think it is just a different comprehension of what taught means. assignments and certain assessment criteria which is different from a completely open-ended research degree. I think the

first thing is to understand is the difference between these two

approaches, and to understand that taught is probably not what you think it means.

藝術家們所關注攝影理論的新方向。而且我們則更看重具有實踐性的方 中,這其實是學生學習中的一部分,而不是別人應該為他們做的。我們的 學生不會去一直等某個人去發現他/她,或告訴他/她如何去賣作品,他 們要學會自己去承擔這些責任,因為身在蘇格蘭他們沒有更多的選擇。如 果學生不這麽去做,他們便沒有工作,也找不到地方去展覽,他們必須自 己去制造機會。在蘇格蘭的藝術生態並不是商業的,這裡是另一種氛圍。

I think what they need to do is come with a practice that is

我們的學生應該學會在現有的條 件下去創作,而不是幻想有一天等你拿

about completely taking it apart - almost starting it again. They

源,而最好的資源便是那些擁有時間和能量的同學們。

robust, and they want to develop and be really open-minded

need to be prepared to deconstruct what they do, to be open to work of others and also be open to constructive critique.

到一筆獎金或有人贊助時才去做作品。他們必須學會如何聚集手上的資

ART.ZIP: 您對那些打算申請愛丁堡藝術學院攝影學院的學生有哪些建議? NM: 我們的確接收到很多碩士課程的申請。我猜想在英國學習碩士課程 意味著你將會獲得碩士級別的技能。我覺得這是大家對教育意義的不同 理 解罷了。愛丁堡藝 術學院的攝影 專業 將設置有不同課程、作業和若幹 評估標準的研究生學位結構同一個完全開放式的研究學位區分開來。我

尼爾·穆 赫蘭道在藝 術學院中負責並教 授 當代藝術實踐、理論、繪畫、雕塑以及攝影

的研究生課程。他目前在愛丁堡藝術學院 擔任藝術系的副主任。

認為學生首先應該理解的便是這兩者之間的區別,並懂得這裡 所謂的教 育或許並不是你所想的那樣。 我認為申請這門課程的學生應該帶著 他們具有活力的項目而來,並帶著 完全開放的態 度去全盤否定它,從頭再來 。學生們應該時刻準備著解 構 他們所做的實踐,並對其他人的作品有足 夠 開放的接受能力,並隨時準 備接受那些建設性的批評。


INTERVIEW WITH PROFESSOR DAVID BATE

COURSE LEADER OF MA PHOTOGRAPHIC STUDIES DEPARTMENT OF MEDIA, ARTS AND DESIGN UNIVERSITY OF WESTMINSTER

專訪大衛·貝特教授 威斯敏斯特大學 媒體、藝術與設計學院 攝影學碩士課程主任 TEXT BY 撰文 x FUNKY HE 何伊寧 IMAGE COURTESY OF 圖片提供 x HARRY LIU 劉競晨

The MA in Photographic Studies programme at the University of Westminster offers a dynamic and exciting environment for studying independent practice and the critical theory of photography at a masters level.

The course explores the different relationships between photographic practice and photographic theory in a

flexible scheme. You will develop your practice in the context of thinking about photography as a broad social and historical phenomena in art, popular culture and global mass media. -----

威斯敏斯特大學的攝影學碩士課程為追求獨立實踐以及攝影批評理論的學生們提供了一個充滿活力的學習環境。該課程旨 以靈活的方式去探討攝影實踐和理論之間的關係,學生能 夠 在藝術、大眾文化以及全球大眾媒體的廣泛社會和歷史現象的 角度來思考攝影,並提高其實踐的能力。


ART.ZIP: What makes you most proud of this programme and what is unique about it?

DB: The MA Photographic Studies course already has quite a

long history, and has been running since the mid 1990s. What

is unique about the programme is the combination of practical work and taught photographic critical theory and history.

Most MA Photography courses in the UK are by ‘project’, that is, a student agrees a topic and they pursue this through the programme as a photography project. Our students do this too, but they also develop skills in photography

theory alongside their photographic work. The programme is ‘heuristic’ so that students are able to understand

photography in a broader sense as a form of communication, with social and cultural implications. We explore these

ART.ZIP: 這門課程最讓您驕傲的地方在哪?它有哪些獨特之處呢? DB: 威斯敏斯特大學的攝影學碩士課程自上世紀90年代中期開設以來, 到今天已經有相當長的歷史了。這門課程最獨特的地方在于它將 攝影實 踐與攝影史及攝影理論的教學緊密地結合在了一起。在英國,大多數的攝 影碩士課程都是由一個個“攝影項目”所組成的;也就是說,學生們在課程 規定的範圍內確 定一 個拍攝項目並付 諸實踐 。當然,我們的學生也會 按 照這個方式去完成一 個個攝影項目,但他們是在學習攝影理論的過程中 去展開的。因而,我們的課程是“啓發式”的 ,這就使得學生可以從更廣義 上去理解攝影,領悟這個賦含了社會和文化性的媒介。為了去實踐並懂得 如何思考攝影,我們對一系列問題的含義 進行了探索。學會將 攝影作為 一種社會形態去討論並會意,學生則被賦予了自主選擇工作方向的能力, 而不是被訓練成某一種職業 人。而在今天,尤其是攝影實踐及其產業不 斷發生變化的情況下,這樣的“ 啓 發式”教學則尤其重要。

implications as series of issues for both the practice of, and

ART.ZIP: 我們不得不承認,中國攝影學習的理念仍然局限在其技術和商

understand photography as a social form empowers students

攝影史和攝影理論的重要性又在哪裡?

how we think about, photography. Being able to talk and

to decide for themselves about what sort of work they wish

業的用途 之 上,您能告訴我們學習攝影理論的關鍵 是 什麽?同時,學習

to do, rather than being trained in one or another vocational

DB: 照片是一個社會自我認知方式的重要組成部分。攝影自發明起便涉及

of photographic practice and the industries that support them

一定程度上傳承了這一技術方向的討論。然而,如今人們並不需要很多的

practice. This is especially important today when the very form are undergoing so many changes.

了化學、光學(數學)和圖像組成上的復雜技術,這就意味著攝影教學在 攝影技術知識便能成為一個攝影師,即便一無所知也沒有關係。


ART.ZIP: I have to admit that the concept of studying

photography in China still limits it to its techniques and

commercial functions. Can you tell us what are the key concepts of photographic studies and what is the importance of understanding photography history and theory?

DB: Photographs are a crucial component in the way a society sees itself. The complex technological origins of photography

in chemistry, optics (mathematics) and image composition has

meant that teaching photography has inherited a rather technical orientation. Yet today it is possible to be a photographer with very little technical knowledge, or even none at all!

Automated cameras replace many of the skills that were

taught before. Certainly, teaching the electronic components

of photography are important as ‘how’ photographs are made,

but the other important questions are ‘what’ pictures you make

and ‘why’? What are they for, what is their purpose? This is not a purely technical question.

Most amateur photography is still governed by nineteenth century ideas of ‘good composition’. These ideas in photography, were first developed through reference to theories of European ‘pictorial’

painting, and worked out in Pictorialism, the first global movement of art photography. These ideas spread across the world from

Theory is distinct from criticism. Theory attempts to identify

technology of photography. From this brief excursion into history,

often personal and emotive rather than analytical. In this sense

Europe and the USA in the late nineteenth century, along with the you can see that the history of photography as a history of ideas about photography is surely important.

These questions about what the photographs are being

structural features, whereas criticism is primarily evaluative, the general aim of theory is to establish how ‘meaning’ is

communicated (or not) with photography and in particular how specific types of meaning are circulated by photography.

made for (and why) relate to this wider historical and cultural

ART.ZIP: How is the Photographic Studies course connected to

photography, notably realism (journalism and documentary),

And what has changed during the last five years in terms of

environment of photography, the history of ideas about

of persuasion (advertising and propaganda) and all of these

along with ‘personal expression’ in art. If education is to mean

the fast changing world of photography, culture and history? course content, core modules, and needs of the students?

anything it is to develop a knowledge and understanding of

DB: In the 1960s the Canadian theorist, Marshall McLuhan

day life. These practices form a general context for students

has more truth in it than it did then! The Internet clearly offers

the forms of practice that a student may encounter in day-toto consider their work. By understanding the context, they can understand better how to act in it or even against it.

Photographs appear within specific contexts, the family, the state, the media, the street, via different cultural institutions

or even across all of these. These ‘contexts’ have an important relation, both in terms of the types of meaning given to

photographs by them, but also in the image-language relations. Surely, to understand how photography is enmeshed in these different uses and functions, along with their histories, is a crucial part of photography education.

argued we were living in a ‘global village’. Perhaps today this

great potential for international dialogue and exchange. There are some clear consequences of the Internet and the other

innovations across electronic media. Cameras today are complex computers, so as instruments they have changed the way that people think about photography and their use of it. In this

sense the idea of photography is very different, it is possible

to move images from screen to screen extremely fast. People

can take photographs without thinking at all about the process of making them. This mobility of the image and automation

of the processes of making pictures opens up lots of different


全自動相機的使 用取代了過去攝影教育中代代 相傳的技能培訓,當然, 教授給學生有關相機電子元件的知識與教會他們“如何”拍攝照片同樣重 要,但另一 個關鍵的問題則是:你要拍“什麽樣”的照片?“為什麽”要拍? 它們的用途是 什麽,拍它們的目的又 是 什麽?而這些 都 再 不是單純的技 術問題了。 當下,大多數 業余攝影愛好者的觀念都受到十九世紀“好構圖”標準的制 約。這些攝影的想法最早是從歐洲畫意風格的理論中發展而來的,接著 便在“畫意攝影”這個全世界第一次藝 術攝影風潮中得到完善。這些思想 隨著攝影技術的進步在十九世紀末期從歐洲和美國開始遍布世界。從這 個簡短的歷史回顧中你可以看到,攝影理念的歷史作為攝影史的一部分 亦為重要。 這些問題也揭示了照片制作的目的和原因,這都涉及到更 廣泛的攝影歷 史和文化語境之間的關係;以及攝影 觀念的歷史。比如說代表現實主義 的新聞和紀實攝影,或者是具有說 服功 能的廣告和宣傳 攝影,以 及伴隨 其中作為攝影藝術的“個人表達”。 攝影教育的意義在於幫助學生在增長知識的同時,教會他們去理解日常 生活中所遇到的不同形式的實踐。這些實踐形式最終組成了一 個整體的 語境,在學生考慮未來可能應用到某種實踐,或者當我們要求學生“你必 須這樣去做”的時候提供更多的幫助。通過了解語境,學生可以更好地理 解如何去利用它,或者是反對它。

possibilities, new ways to think of photography-language

照片產生在具體的語境中,比如說家庭、國家、媒體、街道、或者各種 文

course aims to address these new questions, but also tries to

但在於它們所賦予攝影的意義類 型,同時還包括圖像語言之間的關聯。

relations, still and moving images, ways of dissemination. The situate them in a historical and critical context. Increasingly

important to this field has been the role of photography in art, which has been changing the way that art sees itself, and the

化機構,甚至交叉在各種語境當中。這些“語境”之間都有重要的聯繫,不 當然,要了解攝影是如何發揮這些不同的用途和功能,以及了解這些相關 語境的歷史都是攝影教育的重要組成部分。

theory of art in the twenty first century.

攝影理論與攝影批評是截然不同的。理論試圖定義 結構特點,而批評則

ART.ZIP: What kind of students are you looking for? What should

感有關。從這個意義上說,學習攝影理論的目的在於確定攝影是如何同

they do to prepare before entering the programme?

DB: We want students who are highly motivated – inspired – to

主要是評 價性的,相對於前者的分析性 來說,攝影 批判往往同個人和情 “含義”聯繫(或沒有)在一起的,特別是那些由攝影所傳播的具體類型的 含義。

develop their photographic practice and who have ideas, but

ART.ZIP: 請問攝影研究是如何同瞬息萬變的攝影產業,以及大眾文化聯

too. We, like most photography courses in the UK, expect

學生需求在過去五年中都發生了哪些變化?

are also interested in reading and the concepts of photography applicants to have a portfolio of their own photographic work

繫在一起的?威斯敏斯特大學的攝影碩士專業的教學核心 、課程內容和

that shows not only their visual skills, but also coherent aim and

DB: 在20世紀60年代,加拿大理論家馬歇爾·麥克盧漢(Marshal McLuhan)

types of photography (e.g. fashion, documentary, editorial

實,互聯網為國際間的對話和交流帶來了巨大潛力,於此同時,它的應用

a set of values in the use of photography. A portfolio of different work) is of less use to us than a singular project (or several small projects) that show an attempt to communicate something in depth. International applicants are competing with UK based

students who have probably already completed a BA (Bachelor of Arts) course, where they have been reading photography theory and history.

指出,我們正生活在一個“地球村”中。也許這個說法在今天比當時更加真 及其它電子媒體的創新對攝影帶來了明顯的影 響。今天我們所使 用的相 機 便 是一臺復雜的電腦,因而它作為一種工具改變了人們對攝影以及如 何拍照的想法。 從 這個意義來說,攝影的觀念發生了很大的改變,人們因此能 夠 很快地 將相機屏幕上的照片轉移到電腦上。人們可以不假思索地完成一切拍攝


Students engage primarily in ‘personal work’ although the

ART.ZIP: What do you expect your students to learn and gain

and usually relates to others as a social issue, question or idea

Can you give some suggestions for students who want to learn

theme of the work is not necessarily personal or private to them about the modern world. Some of these projects may be called ‘documentary’, others may create images of things that do not

from this programme when they graduate from the course? Photography in UK as a whole?

exist, or use performances to generate pictures. Many of these

DB: Students from the MA Photographic Studies go on to a

1920s and 1930s, but are now interpreted in many different ways,

related career paths in photo editing, media experts and industry

methods were developed during the art avant-gardes in the and related to new, modern contexts.

ART.ZIP: The University of Westminster has a long history in

delivering high standards in photography education, what kind

of support can your students expect during the one year course in terms of photography facilities, research, tutoring and so on?

DB: Students have access to tutors, technical workshops, studios,

analogue darkrooms, electronic darkrooms, printing facilities and exhibition spaces. We are proud of the history of innovation in

photography education that the university has, as you say, long

number of careers: as artists and photographers, as well as

specialists, curators, researchers, writers, critics and teachers.

British education system thrives on a system where students are in

dialogue with tutors, rather than simply being told what to do. The old academy system where masters inducted students into their way of thinking can still be found, but a more modern approach is much more common, which asks students to think what they

are doing, to talk about what they are doing and why, and what

they are trying to achieve. This approach has helped to create an

autonomous environment, where students engage in conversation and debate about ideas and practices, ideas and interests.

been associated with. Most of the tutors teaching on the course are involved in their own practice, whether this is photography or writing (or in my case both). Research is important to the

university; many of our graduates go on to do further research on photography, whether as PhD students, in art gallery work and curating, etc.

ART.ZIP: What are the teaching methods and approaches specially designed for this programme?

DB: The course uses different learning and teaching strategies, from formal lectures to seminars, individual and group

tutorials, workshops, symposia and exhibition work. We

are also increasingly using interactive tools on the Internet. Understanding how to use information and evaluate it as

David Bate is a photographic artist and writer. He studied at

Portsmouth College of Art before going on to do the famous BA Honours Film and Photographic Arts course at the Polytechnic of Central London (PCL). After working as a photographer and tutor in London, he took the MA in Social History of Art at the

University of Leeds, also completing a PhD there with Griselda Pollock during the 1990s.

knowledge for research on the Internet is a key modern issue.

David was one of the first UK photographic artists to

ART.ZIP: Can you tell us something about the major project?

travelled widely. Most recently he was artist-in-residence

How it will be presented as a final body of work? And what are the grading criteria for a masters level student?

DB: The Major Project is the culmination of the masters degree,

with an exhibition in a public gallery. The students share a gallery

space, like a group art show, but each has their own separate area for their photographic work. Each person exhibits their body of

photographic work in whatever form is appropriate (wall display, screen, book, etc.). The students usually organise additional

events around the exhibition too, and the whole event works to

show what work the students have been doing, which has been developed by them throughout the course.

experiment with digital photography. His work has

in Melbourne, Australia where he shot his new work, about

globalisation called Australian Picnic . His writings include

the books Photography and Surrealism and Photography:

Key Concepts. A founder member of the artist-run gallery Accident, later re-named as Five Years, he also co-curated

several shows there. As an influential teacher, he has taught and was the course leader of the famous British Social

Documentary Photography programme at Surrey Institute of Art (now University of the Creative Arts) at Farnham. He later moved to the University of Westminster, where he currently leads photography research including doctoral candidates and the MA Photographic Studies programme.


大衛是一位攝影藝術家和作家。他早先就讀於樸茨茅斯藝術學院(Portsmouth College of Art),隨後在倫敦中心理工學院(Polytechnic of Central London)獲得電影和攝影藝術課程的榮譽學士學位。在倫敦作為攝影師和導師之後,大衛又獲得利茲大學(University of Leeds)藝術社會史的碩士 學位。他在上世紀九十年代同知名藝術史學者格瑞瑟達·波洛克(Griselda Pollock)一同完成了博士階段的學習。 大衛是英國攝影史上最先嘗試數碼攝影的藝術家之一,他的作品曾在全世界各地展出。他最近完成了澳大利亞墨爾本的藝術家駐場計劃,並完成了一 套有關“全球化”的新作——《澳大利亞野餐(Australian Picnic)》。大衛·貝特的著作有《攝影與超現實主義(Photography and Surrealism)》及《攝 影:核心概念(Photography: Key Concepts)》。是“意外(Accident)”畫廊合夥人和創立者之一,大衛在這裡參與了很多策展活動。而作為一名相當有 影響力的老師,大衛曾在著名的薩裡藝術學院(Surrey Institute of Art,現為英國創意藝術大學University of the Creative Arts)教授社會紀實攝影的 課程。隨後大衛返回倫敦,在威斯敏斯特大學負責攝影學碩士課程並擔任博士生導師。

過程。圖像的靈活性以及拍攝照片過程的自動化為攝影開辟了很多不同

學術研究對於一個大學來說尤為重要;我們的許多學生畢業后繼續做對

的可能性,同時也帶來了人們對攝影語言關係、靜動態圖像以及其傳播途

攝影進一步的研究,無論是 作為博士研究生、還 是在美術館工作 或 從事

徑的全 新思考。我們的課程旨在解決 這 些 新的問題,也試圖將它們放在

策展等。

歷史 及批評語境中去討論。另外,攝影 在當代 藝 術中所扮演的角色也愈 加重要,它改變了藝術審視自身的方式,以及二十一世紀攝影理論的發展 進程。 ART.ZIP: 對於攝影研究這門課程來說,您所期待的學生是什麽樣的?他 們在進入這門課程之前需要做哪些準備?

DB: 我們希望看到那些對攝影有很高積極性、受其 啓 發並能 夠 發展自己 攝影實踐和想法的申請人,但同時他們也要對攝影的解讀及概念深感興 趣 。同大多數英國攝影課程一樣,我們期待申請人能 夠 展示出一 個不單 能表現 他 們 攝 影 技 能 ,還 能 夠 反映 其 攝 影目的及 其價 值 觀 延 續性的 作

ART.ZIP: 這門課程有哪些特別的授課方式? DB: 我們的課程采用不同的教學策略,從正式的講座、研討會;到個人和 小組討論、工作坊;再到專題討論會和展覽。我們也越來越多地開始使用 互聯 網上的互動工具。在我們看來,學會 如何在互聯 網上使 用信息並將 它看作是研究技能則是現代化的一個關鍵問題。 ART.ZIP: 您能同我們分享一下畢業創作的大致內容嗎? 學生們將如何呈 現他們的畢業作品? 對於碩士畢業生的評價標準又是什麽?

品集 。對於我們來說,一 個混 雜著如時尚、紀實或報 道攝影內容的作品

DB: 畢業創作是學生取得碩士學位的最關鍵部分,通常最後會以畫廊的

集 並不如展現一 個單獨的拍攝項目(或幾 個小 項目)更能傳達 及 展現作

展覽作為展現方式 。和群展的概念一樣,學生們共用一 個畫 廊空間並在

品的深度。同英國本 地的學生相較,來自國際上的申請人 應該已經擁有

獨 立 的 空 間 內 展 示自己 的 攝 影 作 品 。每 個 人 展 示 的 攝 影 作 品可以 以任

了學士學位,並在本科學習的過程中完成了攝影史和攝影理論的閱讀。

何合 理的形式出現,比如說傳統的墻上展 覽,電腦屏幕放映或是攝影冊 等。學生們通常還會圍繞著展覽組織額外的活動,但 是 這些活動都向觀

對於那些主要 拍攝“個人作品”的學生來說,即便他們的作品不一定是關 於個人或 私 人的題材,但 通常都與需要與 社會問題、現代世界中的議題 和概念有關。或許我們可以把這其中的一部分稱作“紀實”攝影,但另一部 分則可以是創造出並不存在的圖像,或者是通過各種方式將照片收集起 來 。許多這些方法都在20世紀20年代 和30年代前 衛藝 術的浪 潮中發展 起來,但現在卻在現代語境下被賦予了不同的解釋。 ART.ZIP: 威斯敏斯特大學一直以來都以高質量攝影教育聞名於世,那麽 就攝影和研究設 施、輔導等方面來說,學生們能在這一年的學習中獲得

眾呈現他們在整 個課程學習過程中的實踐。 ART.ZIP: 你期待學生在完成這門課程時能從其中學到哪些?請您給那些 想來英國讀攝影的學生一些建議?

DB: 從攝影學碩士畢業的學生投身到不同的攝影行業裡去:有些成為藝 術家和攝 影 師;有些 成 為圖 像 編 輯、媒體專家和行業 專家;另外一 些 人 則選擇去做策展人、攝影學者、作家、評論家和教師。

哪些幫助?

英國蓬勃的教育體系依賴於它的一個特殊制度,這便是讓學生與教師們

DB: 學生在得到老師的輔導的同時還可以利用學校所提供的工作室、影

學術體系中發現老師用自己的思維方式將知識灌輸給學生。相比較而言,

棚、傳統暗房、數碼工作室、印刷設施和展覽空間。我們一直以威斯敏斯

新式的教學方法更為常見,教師要求學生去思考自己在做什麽;討論他們

特大學在攝影教育史上創新而感到自豪。大多數的教師在教學過程中都

在做什麽;為什麽這樣做;並如何去實現。這種教學方法有助於創建一個

同時進行著自己的項目,或攝影或攝影寫作(對我來說,這兩種都有)。

自主的學習環境,讓學生針對自己想法、興趣和實踐進行交流和辯論。

進行溝通,而不是簡單地被告知該怎麽 做。雖然我們還能在一些守舊的


THE BEGGARS’ OPERA © PATRICK BALDWIN

THE POSITION OF LANGUAGE

INTERVIEW WITH PROFESSOR PAUL BARKER PROFESSOR AND COURSE LEADER OF MA MUSIC THEATRE, ROYAL CENTRAL SCHOOL OF SPEECH & DRAMA

至關重要的語言

專訪皇家中央戲劇與演講學院 音樂劇場碩士課程主任及教授 保羅·巴克 TRANSLATED BY 翻譯 x MICHELLE YU 余小悅


PAUL BARKER IS A COMPOSER, PIANIST, DIRECTOR AND AUTHOR. HE HAS WORKED EXTENSIVELY WITH SINGERS AS COMPOSER, MD AND COACH IN OPERA, MUSICALS AND CONCERTS ACROSS MANY GENRES AND STYLES. HE WAS ARTISTIC DIRECTOR OF MODERN MUSIC THEATRE TROUPE (UK), AND OPTEMUS (MEXICO), CO-FOUNDER AND FIRST CHAIR OF OPERA AND MUSIC THEATRE FORUM. HE HAS WORKED AT RCSSD SINCE 2005 WHERE HE IS PROFESSOR OF MUSIC THEATRE AND COURSE LEADER OF MA MUSIC THEATRE. ART.ZIP: When and how did you start doing music theatre?

ART.ZIP: 您是如何開始進行音樂劇場實踐的呢?

PB: I started singing and playing piano when I was 8 years old.

PB: 我八歲的時候就開始唱歌和彈鋼琴。我在劍橋出生,從小就在一個學

a boy. My choirmaster gave piano lessons and I said to him I

的鋼琴老師。我的老師特別不同尋常,練了一段時間鋼琴後他對我說:

I was born in Cambridge and I sang in a college choir there as

wanted piano lessons. My piano teacher was very unusual, after a while he said to me, ‘you are a bit bored with some of this

music, shall we write our own?’ So he wrote me a piece of music then and there which I still have. So for me composing was very natural thing, it was just what I did from then on. I was lucky

院唱詩班唱歌。有次我跟唱詩班指揮說我想學鋼琴,就這樣,他成為了我 “你現在對某些歌曲感到無趣了吧,我們自己寫寫曲子看看?”然後他就給 我寫了一首曲子,那曲子到現在我還珍藏著。所以作曲對我來說是自然而 然發生的事,從那以後我就開始譜曲了。我覺得很幸運有這樣一位鋼琴老 師啓發我去創作。

enough to have a piano teacher to inspire me to do that.

之後我到了倫敦市政廳音樂學校(Guildhall School of Music)學習鋼琴

Later I went to Guildhall School of Music as a composer pianist,

期的作品是給一 個當代舞蹈團寫的,但很快我就發現自己更喜歡作為整

and then I went to Durham University for electronic music. My earliest work was for a contemporary dance company

but I soon found myself interested in theatre as a whole. I

became very excited about how drama and music were the

same thing, different aspects of the same set of disciplines. So all my life I have worked in music and theatre professionally, as a composer, pianist, composer and conductor and lately as director too. I have discovered being a composer and

a director for me is very much an expression of the same

process. So now I run the MA Music Theatre here and I work

作曲,再後來到了杜倫大學(Durham University)學習電子音樂。我最早 體來看待戲 劇。我很激 動地發現音樂和戲 劇在本質上是一樣的,只是同 樣規律的不同方面。所以我一生都在音樂和戲劇領域工作,無論是以作曲 家、鋼琴家、指揮還是導演的身份。我發現作為作曲和導演都有著同樣的 表達過程,因此在這裡教音樂劇場碩士課程的同時我還為十七個在各國 表演的歌劇和音樂劇場作曲。我還曾為一些管弦樂團作曲,但音樂劇場是 我做的最多的。對比為鋼琴或者弦樂四重奏譜曲,我更傾向為音樂會劇場 (concert

theatre)寫曲。表演者需要通過戲劇的形式來體現他們的表

演,而不是依靠視覺閱讀的方式。我的戲劇世界走進音樂世界就如我的音 樂世界邁入我的戲劇世界一樣,對我來說音樂和戲劇都是一樣的。

as a composer with about 17 operas and music theatre works

ART.ZIP: 你們的課程有和業內人士合作的機會嗎?

chance to write a few orchestral works, but music and theatre

PB: 在我們學校全年都會有和導演、音樂總監、設計師、編舞、歌手,還有

to write a concert work for piano or string quartet, I prefer

但也有很多沒合作過的。我們與業內人士合作的原因是為了讓學生們知

that have been performed all over the world. I have had the

is where I do most of my work. Whenever I am commissioned to write for concert theatre. Where the performers need to

embody their performance theatrically, not depending upon

sight reading. My theatre goes into my music world, just as my music goes into my theatre world. That’s how I think of music and theatre. They are the same.

其他專業人士合作的機會。當中有許多都曾經在學校以外和我合作過, 道業內需要的是什麼、標準是什麼。去年我的一個學生被選上成為《承諾 (The

Commitments)》的主演,這部音樂劇現在正在西區上演。我們

都會竭盡全力讓業內人士看到我們的學生都具有很高的水準。我們這裡 很多學生畢業以後都直接入行,但我不得不說這是一 個競爭非常激烈的 行業,一點都不容易。有時候厚臉皮、堅韌的意志和能力一樣重要。


ART.ZIP: Do you have collaboration with the professions of the industry?

PB: At RCSSD we have directors, musical directors, designers,

choreographers, and singers, others coming to work with us all the way through the year. Many of them may be professionals I have worked with outside the school, others are new to me.

The reason why we get professionals to work with us is that is

how the students learn what is required outside. Last year one

of my students was chosen to be a lead in ‘The Commitments’,

the musical which is at the West End now. So we constantly try to find ways to make the profession see the good standards

our students can have. Many of our students go direct from the course directly into good work in the profession like this. But I

have to say it is a hard and very competitive industry. A thick skin and determination are sometimes as important as ability.

ART.ZIP: How do you recruit your students? What kind of students are you looking for?

保 羅 · 巴 克 是 一 位 作 曲 家 、鋼 琴 家 、導 演 和 作 家 。作 為 作 曲 家 的 他 與 眾 多 歌 手 合 作,在各種 類 型和 唱法的歌 劇、音樂 劇和

演 唱 會 裡 擔 任 音 樂 總 監 和 指 導 。他 還 是 英國現代音樂劇場劇團(Modern

Music

Theatre Troupe)及墨西哥歐特姆斯劇團 (Optemus)的藝術總監,第一屆歌 劇音

樂劇場論壇(Opera and Music Theatre Forum)的聯合創始人及主席。從2005年

起巴克教授在皇家中央戲劇與演講學院授

課,並擔任音樂劇場課程的教授及碩士課 程主任。

PB: Very good question. It’s really important. Firstly, at

ART.ZIP: 你們是如何挑選學生的呢?或者說你們在找什麼樣的學生呢?

obviously, but at postgraduate level when I teach them, they

PB: 這是一個好問題,因為這個很重要。首先,在本科階段,學生可以從中

degree, often in theatre or music or dance, but sometimes it’s not

再來申請,通常他們已經修完一個戲劇、音樂或者舞蹈表演的學位,但有

undergraduate level, the student can come straight from school, usually come from a university course. Usually applicants finish a

a degree like that at all. We get quite a few people from theology

or from law or other apparently unrelated subjects. Typically their parents said ‘go and get a proper degree’, but afterwards they

say ‘I’ve got my degree, it’s boring, and I want to do something

I love, now.’ So then they audition here. They probably spent all their time at university in student performances, so they know

how to be on the stage, they know how to act and dance, play

instruments, compose, choreograph and even produce shows. They see this one-year course of MA Music Theatre as their

學畢業后直接申請。但在碩士階段,他們通常要先完成一個大學課程之後 時候他們的本科課程可能與戲劇和表演一點都不相關。我們有不少學生 以前是讀神學、法律甚至是其他一些毫不相關的學科。典型的一 類學生 是父母要求他們完成一個“正當”的學位,但當完成學業以後,他們就會跟 父母說,“我已經拿到學位了,實在很無 趣,現在我 必須做 些我愛做的。” 然後 他們就來參加我們的面試 。他們很可能在大學花了相當多的時間在 學生表演上,所以他們知道如何在舞台上表演、跳舞、演奏樂器、作曲、 編舞還有劇場製作。他們把這一年的音樂劇場碩士課程看成一 個機會, 看看自己是否能 夠 進入這個行業。

chance to see if they can make it to the profession.

ART.ZIP: 所以申請人不需要相關的學歷?

ART.ZIP: So they don’t need a relevant degree?

PB: 相關的學歷不是最重要的,最重要的是表演經驗,他們需要有相關的

PB: They must have experience. The relevant degree is not so

有一 個女孩參加面試,她從來沒有接受過任 何 歌唱訓練,她也完全不懂

important; it’s experience in performance that really matters. I

think experience comes in different ways. In the first year I was here, there was a girl in our audition, she never had a singing

lesson in her life, and she couldn’t read music at all. But she has

been singing in a gospel choir from the age of three, so she knew all about singing. Because she sang in front of big crowds all the time, and she had a voice of massive size, it was an enormous

voice. She could act, because her instincts were learned through

regular performance. Her first job was in a musical at the National Theatre. It’s extraordinary and it confirmed to me that to do a

經驗。我覺得經驗是可以通過不同途徑獲取的。我剛到這裡任教的時候, 聲樂,但是她從三歲開始就在一個福音合唱團唱歌,她知道如何歌唱,因 為她一直在一大群人面前歌唱,所以她的聲音很宏厚響亮,她也會表演, 她都是在往常的表演裡自學而成的。她第一份工作就是英國國家劇院的 一個音樂劇,這很不尋常,但這更堅定了我的想法,修讀音樂劇場學位, 你並不需要會讀譜,你更需要的是經驗。或許因為音樂是用來聽的,而不 是用來讀的。不管怎麼說,我們很多學生來自公立音樂學校,也有那些連 譜都不會的學生,他們都能互相學習,都能有所裨益。所以在這麼短短一 年學習裡,我們會給學生提 供 在強 度和深度上都儘 量豐富的體 驗,還有 在智力上、情感上和肢體技巧上的自我分析和高密度的引導支持。學生畢 業以後我們還會幫助他們,讓他們日後能 夠 找到不錯的工作。


music theatre degree you don’t need to read music, you need

ART.ZIP: 大部份學生畢業以後都會進入戲劇行業嗎?

than reading, too? Certainly acting is about listening. Anyway,

PB: 大部份是的。每年九月,也就是學年結束的時候,大概一半的學生能找

alongside those who cannot read, and they learn from each

的學生也能找到與專業相關的工作。我們的課程特別強調作曲、寫作、編

experience more. Perhaps music should be more about listening we have many students perhaps from music conservatoires

other the benefits of both. So what our intensive year offers is

到自己的經紀人。其他學生畢業不久後也能找到經紀人,而那些沒有簽約 舞、演奏樂器、唱歌、表演和舞蹈,這樣的能力足 夠 使他們找到一份很不

an experience as deep and as intense as we can make it, backed

錯的工作。一小部分學生不會選擇表演,但也會挑選與其相關的職業,例

emotional and physical skills. Fitness is crucial. We also help out

在是喜劇演員、唱作人和作曲家。不是所有的學生都會成為專業演員,但

up by self-analysis and intensive guidance into intellectual,

students to survive beyond the year with us, to be adaptable and to sustain a career throughout a life.

ART.ZIP: Do most of your students go to the industry after their graduation?

PB: Most of them. At the end of the year, by September, I would

如教師、電視台監製、導演、或者成立自己的公司等等。相當一部分校友現 其中很大一部份畢業生最後會成為專業演員。值 得注意的是人們也會改 變自己的職業方向;戲劇行業挺不公平的,譬如說總是喜歡年輕人,還有 男性;當你變老的時候就更困難了,特別是女性。 ART.ZIP: 你們每年都招多少學生呢?有來自中國的學生嗎?您會給想要 申請這個課程的學生什麼建議呢?

expect over half of them have an agent. The others may find

PB: 我的課程每年招二十位學生,自從我來這裡任職以後每年都有一到兩

but still get professional work. Our course is unique in the

是他們能否站在台上,用英語表演並讓台下的觀眾明白,這可能是一個難

agents later on and there are always those that won’t get agents emphasis it gives to composing, writing, choreographing and

playing instruments as well as singing, acting and dancing. That

kind of adaptability sustains a career. A small number will decide that they are not going to do perform, they may do something

connected to it, perhaps teaching, perhaps working on television in production, a lot of them work as directors, set up their own companies. Several alumni are now working as comedians,

song-writers and composers. I won’t say those we take on that they would all end up professional performers, but I would say

the majority do. It is also important to realise that people change

their profession too; theatre is very unfair, for instance it is greedy for young people and men. There is little doubt it becomes harder as you get older, and tougher always for women.

ART.ZIP: How many students do you recruit every year? Do you have any students from China? What suggestions would you give to those who would like to apply for your course?

PB: We have about 20 students a year on my course. Currently

we have one Chinese student from Shanghai, and we have had one or two most years I have been here. The really crucial thing

for foreign students is that can they stand on stage, act in English and be understood by the audience. That may be a barrier.

If someone has a wonderful voice but can’t be understood,

there’s little we can do in one year. I lived and taught theatre for some years in Mexico and it was the same there, that we sent

people away if their accent was too Brazilian, or they came from countries like Uruguay, which has a very different Spanish. If

they could not be understood in Mexico, we couldn’t take them on. Pronunciation of the language is crucial: if it isn’t clear, the

位中國學生,最近就有一位來自上海的學生。對於外國學生來說最關鍵的 點。如果他有美妙的聲音但卻無法讓台下的觀眾明白,那麼我們很難在一 年內使他有什麼明顯的改變。我曾經在墨西哥生活並從事教育,在那的情 況也是一樣的,如果他們擁有濃重的巴西口音我們也不能要;或者他們來 自烏拉圭這樣有自己獨特腔調的西班牙語國家,如果他們在墨西哥不能 被理解,我們也不能選他。語言的準確發音是非常重要的:如果說得不清 晰,觀眾就可能跟不上了。英語不是一種容易發音的語言。作為一 位作曲 家和音樂家,這讓我很苦惱,所以我做了一些舉措,等會我會談到。


audience aren’t going to follow it. English is not an easy language

stand in front of a few people, you perform and you leave, but we

did something about it I will discuss later.

to work together.

to pronounce. As a composer and musician, that annoys me, so I

ART.ZIP: Apart from language, what other things would you say

it’s quite different between western student and Asian students? PB: Maria Huesca teaches singing on my course as a physical

don’t do that. We have a very different approach exploring how

ART.ZIP: Do you have any interesting projects recently? PB: In June we have an unusual project combining music theatre with conceptual street art. It is called ‘The Tights Ball’ and is a

discipline and we believe that to sing you need to be in part an

collaboration between MAMT, Platform 7 and two artists, Anna

be an important part of singing. There was a very muscular tall

from colleagues and the public, in the street. Along with them

athlete. So dealing with muscle tension, dealing with pain may

student, who played rugby and football. Maria said to this man,

‘what we are going to do may be a little painful’. He said, ‘I don’t mind, I’ll be alright.’ Within five minutes, he was on the floor

groaning in pain. Next was a Chinese girl I remember well, called Candy Ma, looking quite tiny and not obviously muscular. After

20 minutes, Maria went up to her and asked, ‘is it hurting?’ Candy nodded, still smiling but not showing the pain. So from this I

Kompaniets and Lenka Horakova. We have collected old tights we have collected many stories. Some of those stories will be

performed with music and theatre in the streets of Camden on June 21 & 22. The giant ball of recycled tights that the artists

have made will be in the performance which will have a Camden rubbish truck as a functioning part of the set. Our approach to

music theatre crosses into other genres, which is typical in Europe.

understand many Asian students have great resilience: an ability

On a more traditional level, our production of ‘The Beggars’

western idea of strength. There are many forms of strength which

to the Zhongguancun International Musical Festival in Beijing.

what sort of physical development to pursue affects what kind of

first musical ever; our version has original music by myself and

to deal with such challenges which is more profound than the

range from how to resist movement to how to bend. Knowing performer you are and what skills you can master.

Now regarding thought-processes and emotional development, it’s something very different indeed. Yixuan Liu is my current

student from China. She has had to challenge her understanding and use of facial expressions. At first, her face did not change

much in class. There was perhaps a resistance to demonstrating her feelings that was cultural. But on an acting course control over your facial expression is crucial. And the change in a few

months that I see in people like her dealing with, in this learning process, can be very challenging and very profound.

So what must the Chinese student show to get in this course?

Opera’, which we premiered earlier this year, has been invited

‘The Beggars’ Opera’ dates from 1728 and is often talked of as the others in the cast. Also invited is a work of mine called ‘El Gallo’.

It was commissioned by a Mexico-based theatre company, Teatro de Ciertos Habitantes who have performed it well over one

hundred times across the US, Latin America and Europe. It is for

six actors and two string quartets but it has no text, no words in any language. The syllables that are sung are all nonsense and

invented by me. But not to confuse the audience, but rather to

allow the music, theatre and dance to lead the audience through the story, whatever language they speak, without translation,

subtitles or programme synopsis. Audiences everywhere seem to like this and as a composer and musician, I sometimes like to see language kept in its place!

Number one, they must have experience in performing; number two, they must be able to stand in front of people, speaking or singing English and be understood. Those who also play

any instruments, can compose or can choreograph would be

particularly welcome. In our course audition we have 12 people in each time. They are all in front of each other for three hours. They do everything in front of each other with the singing teacher, the dance teacher, another director as well as me. And we give them a small version of what our course is like. In those three hours,

they experience the course, a miniature part of it. So hopefully

they understand better what the course is after the audition. So I

recommended people to come to do the audition, because there

isn’t an easy way to explain what we do. In some schools, you just

Tips

小貼示

Fi n d ou t m or e 更 多 信 息: www.cssd .a c.u k / www.pa u la la n ba r ker.n et


EL GALLO: OPERA FOR ACTORS © LORENA ALCARAZ

ART.ZIP: 除了語言之外,您覺得西方學生和亞洲學生還有什麼特別不一 樣的地方嗎?

精簡版的課程體驗。通過這樣的迷你課程希望他們能 夠 了解我們的課程 是怎麼樣的。所以我會強烈建議大家都來參加面試,因為要向大家展示 我們是如何教學的,這實在不是一 件容易的事。某些學校的面試只要求

PB: 瑪利亞·修斯卡(Maria Huesca)在我的課上進行歌唱練習來作為身

申請人站在老師面前表演一段 然 後離開,我們沒有那麼 做。我們用不一

體訓練的一 部分,我們相信歌 要唱得好,你在某種程 度上就得 像 運 動員

樣的方式來探尋如何能 夠 更好地合作。

一樣,因為處 理 肌肉緊張和疼 痛是歌唱的一 個重要部分。曾經有位非常 高大健碩的學生,他是玩橄欖球和踢足球的,瑪利亞跟他說,接下來我們 進行的訓練可能會有點痛。他說,我沒問題的,來吧 。五分鐘之後,他已

ART.ZIP: 你們最近有什麼有趣的項目嗎?

經疼得躺在地上發出痛苦的呻吟。下一 位接受訓練的是一 位中國女孩,

PB: 六月份我們有一個挺好玩的項目,那是結合音樂劇場和概念街頭藝術

我記得特別清楚,她看起來很瘦小,一點都不強壯。過了二十分鐘,瑪利

的項目,叫做“絲襪球(The Tights Ball)”項目。這個項目是我們音樂劇場

亞上前問她,疼嗎?她點點頭,還是笑眯眯的,看起來一點都不覺得疼。

課程和七號站臺(Platform 7)藝術組織,還有兩位藝術家安娜·康姆潘尼

從這以後我明白很多亞洲學生具有極大的韌性,一種處理挑戰的能力,

爾茲(Anna Kompaniets)和蘭卡·霍拉科娃(Lenka Horakova)一起合作

他們身體裡潛在的力量遠比西方概念裡的“強壯”要深遠得多。力量有很

的。我們在街頭向路人回收舊絲襪和收集他們的故事。彙集來的那些有意

多種 形式,包括如何抵抗外力還有如何屈伸。懂得如何運 用身體 來獲 得

思的故事將會在今年6月21日和22日被搬到卡姆頓(Camden)的街頭用

某種效果直接影 響了你是哪一 類 型的表演者,還有決 定了你可以掌握哪

音樂和劇場的形式表演出來。兩位藝術家會把回收來的絲襪做成一個巨

一種表演技巧。

大的球,這個球也會和卡姆頓的垃圾車一起作為道具出現在表演中。這種 音樂劇場和其他類型的藝術形式合作的項目在歐洲十分普遍。

而對於思考方式和情感建立方面則是大大的不同。劉以軒是我現在的中 國學生,她必須學會挑戰她的理解力和學會運用面部表情。起先,她在課

至於傳統的劇場作品,我們製作的《乞丐的歌劇(The Beggars’ Opera)》

堂上完全沒有表情。或許是因為文化的差���,她拒絕流露自己的情感。但

在今年年初首映,現在已被邀請到北京中關村國際音樂節進行演出。這部

是表演課最重要的就是學會控制你的面部表情,通過數月的學習她的轉

1728年的作品被認為是最早的音樂劇;而且我們自己製作的版本有原創的

變大得令人驚訝。

音樂部分。還有一部默劇叫做《El Gallo》也被邀請演出,這是一部由墨西 哥戲劇公司委託創作的作品。居民劇團(Teatro de Ciertos Habitantes)

所以中國學生想要申請這個課程需要什麼?第一,他們需要有表演經驗;

已經在美國、拉丁美洲和歐洲巡演了不下一百遍了。這個劇只有六個演員,

第二,他們必須能 夠 站在觀眾面前,說英文,唱英文並被聽懂。我們更歡

兩個弦 樂四重奏樂隊,沒有任 何台詞和文本 。歌曲中的音節都是由我 寫

迎那些會樂器,能作曲或者會編舞的申請人。

的,沒有任何具體含義。但我並不是為了迷惑觀眾,而是希望讓音樂、劇場 和舞蹈本身來讓故事,娓娓道來。表演期間沒有任何的翻譯、字幕或者節

我們的課程面試每次都會由十二名學生一起 進行。他們會和聲樂老師、

目介紹。無論哪個國家的觀眾都對這部默劇十分著迷,作為作曲家和音樂

舞蹈老師、導演和我一起 進行三個小時的面試 。我們會給他們展示一 個

家,有時候我真的覺得音樂勝比萬語千言。


DANCE WITHOUT FEAR

INTERVIEW WITH HAGIT YAKIRA AND SOPHIE ARSTALL

舞者無懼

採訪海吉特·雅琪拉和 蘇菲·阿斯多爾 TRANSLATED BY 翻譯 x MICHELLE YU 余小悅

IMAGE COURTESY OF 圖片提供 x HAGIT YAKIRA COMPANY 海吉特雅琪拉舞團


ART.ZIP: Would you please give us a brief introduction of yourself?

somewhere else, and not only in Israel is because I wanted to

HY: I’m Jewish, originally from Israel, and I’ve been living and

choreography. The UK is very different to Israel in all terms, there

working here in London for 10 years. I came here to study

dance, doing an MA in European Theatre Dance at the Trinity

Laban Centre. This is where I met Sophie, she’s a dancer and she danced in one of my first choreographic work. In 2007 I formed

Hagit Yakira Dance Company, realising I want to work mostly as a choreographer. These days I am mostly choreographing and

teaching all around the UK, Europe, Israel and Scandinavia, and I

am performing less. I’m also doing a PhD in Choreography at the

have different perspective on dance, on dance education and

isn’t a better way or worth, but just different. I also realised that I had to really decide why is it that I study dance so deeply, is

it dance for dance’s sake, for amusement’s sake, or it could be

for technique’s sake - much more physical, or for more critical reasons, creative, experimental. But all of those studies help

and direct oneself to look at the body and the physical in many possible ways.

moment at Trinity-Laban.

SA: I studied here a BA and an MA. Some courses here train you as

When I teach within institutions, there are specific things I’m

it is a bit less creative, and you are trained to be a dancer for

needed to teach - but what I do in my workshops results in much more freedom in deciding what I want to teach. People who are participating open workshops are normally also freer in terms of what they can do. They don’t have to feel purpose-driven, they

can just come to experiment. And it is this freedom of exploration that I really enjoy teaching.

ART.ZIP: What do you think of dance education in the UK? HY: I didn’t study my BA here, and also not my first MA. I came here to do my second MA. The reason I wanted to study

an athlete, so you have to be really fit and very disciplined. Maybe someone else – in a company, for example. That’s the aspiration. I think every school is different, and has a different emphasis. In the UK, what’s great is that there are many options with a huge sector of community dance. England has a massive tradition of community art.

HY: I think dance in the UK is in a very crucial point these days, a very interesting period for dance, for many reasons. The sad

thing about dance in the UK is that it is a less viewed art form; people will do it, but they won’t go and watch it. In addition

due to the recession people invest less money in dance, this

Award-Winning Israeli choreographer Hagit Yakira founded

ART.ZIP: 您能給我們簡單介紹一下你自己嗎?

on to tour the UK, Europe, Scandinavia and Israel. So far

HY: 我 是 來自以色列的猶太 人 。我 來倫敦已經10 年了,我 起 初是 來學習

many other commissioned works for other companies and

舞 蹈 碩 士 學 位 。就 在 那 我 認 識了舞 者 蘇 菲,她 為 我 最 初 編 導 的 舞 劇 表

Hagit Yakira Dance Company in 2007 and has since gone she has created seven works for her company amongst

students. Hagit Yakira Dance Company creates work whereby

storytelling, intimacy, dance and text are uniquely interwoven into an individual interpretation of inter human relationships and emotions through dance theatre and performance.

舞蹈的,在三一拉 班藝 術學院( Tr init y L ab an Centre)修 讀歐 洲戲 劇 演 。20 07年 我 創立了海 吉特 ·雅 琪 拉 舞 團,因 為 我 發 現自己內心最 想 做 的還 是 編 舞 。現在我 表 演的不多,更多的是 進 行 編 舞 和 教學工作,主 要 在 英 國 、歐 洲 、以色 列 和 斯 堪 地 那 維 亞 地 區 。現 在 我 還 在 三一 拉 班 藝 術學院 修 讀 博士學 位 。

屢獲殊榮的以色列編舞海吉特·雅琪拉在2007年創辦了海吉特·雅琪拉舞團

我在院校教學的時 候需要 教 很多特定的內容,在工作坊我則有更多自由

(Hagit Yakira Dance Company),至今已多次於英國、歐洲、斯堪地那

度來決定教什麼。參加開放工作坊的人也通常更靈活,他們目的性沒有那

維亞地區和以色列巡迴演出。海吉特為自己的舞團創作了七部作品,同時

麼強,所以就 能自由地來參與和體 驗 舞蹈。我十 分享受這種教學實踐 裡

許多其他舞團也委託她來創作。海吉特·雅琪拉舞團的作品把故事、舞蹈

的自由探索。

和文本融合在一起,再通 過舞劇來表達她對人與人之間關係和情感的獨 特詮釋。

Tips

小貼示

Fin d ou t more 更多信息: w w w.h ag i t yak i ra.c om

ART.ZIP: 您覺得英國的舞蹈教育怎麼樣? HY: 我的本科和第一個碩士學位都不是在英國讀的,我來英國修的是我 第二個 碩 士 學 位 。我 到 以色列 以 外 的 地 方學 習的原 因 是我 希望 能 對 舞 蹈、舞蹈 教育和編舞有不一樣的理 解。英國在各個方面和以色列都很不 一樣,不是說哪個更好,只是不大相同。我知道我 必須作出選擇,到底為 甚麼我要這麼深入地學習舞蹈,是只為了舞蹈本身呢,還是為了開心呢,


challenge us- the dance artists- to ‘seduce’ people into our world. I find it a very critical time for dance. We don’t know where this art form is going, where the possibilities are or how we need

the programme. Some have very straight disciplines; less theatrical, and possibly even less creative training.

to re-educate our dancers to be able to communicate different

ART.ZIP: What is your approach to teaching?

with an emphasis on creativity, and other schools with more of

HY: Choreographing autobiography is my PhD research topic. I

This is very much what I find interesting and also an important

alongside forming a career as a dancer and creator. I feel that

things in different ways. As Sophie said, there are some schools an engagement with intellectual, philosophical perspectives.

linking point to some places in Europe, which ensure that art and philosophy and the academia are all coming together - which I find really amazing, because this opens up possibilities. You

can focus on becoming a dancer, which is very technical, and/or you can decide to focus on creativity and engage with dance in different ways.

SA: In terms of people coming for courses, say university courses, it’s a more academic and less vocational thing, it’s about training

the body. In Surrey and Middlesex, Brighton, Northampton - these all do good courses; a lot of people go there and you are trained to be an all-round dance artist. You learn to teach. You learn to make and to create - for special communities, film, sound and

lighting. It’s very complete, though maybe it’s less being a dancer, there’s lots of that. And you also have 3 to 4 vocational schools

to choose from, such as Trinity Laban or London Contemporary

Dance School in London and The Northern Contemporary Dance School in Leeds. They’ll retrain you to be a dancer, and maybe choreographer as well.

HY: I think those are the main ones, Trinity Laban Conservatoire

of Music and Dance, The Place in London, and then the Northern School of Contemporary Dance in Leeds.

SA: Even between these schools, it depends on who is leading

was also trained as a dance movement therapist many years ago, in order for dance students to be able to reach their potential,

with the way we are living in the West, people want to express themselves to their maximum. However, I felt that I needed to

find different ways to teach people how to use their bodies, and how to express themselves, really their own individual voice. I trained with quite strict techniques as well as trained as a

Graham teacher - which is very specific modern dance technique. I realised that when I teach very strict techniques, I basically

eliminated the possibilities of my students. They have to learn a language, which might not fit their bodies. Their bodies can

do amazing things, however this technique might not enable

them to know that. So I wanted to find a way that I can tag each student, or group of students, and give them information, to

then let them explore by themselves, of course with a flavour of techniques. This way they can understand their body, and

movement and understand their basic aim, the relationship with

the floor, the space, the gravity - they explore by themselves, so I

don’t need to give them all the answers. I think this benefits them very much, even for professional dancers that I train in this very

specific way, because it gives them the responsibility to re-learn. For people who’ve never danced before, or people who are just starting to dance, it gives them the freedom to explore without the fear of doing something right or wrong.

SA: What is great about Hagit’s approach is that improvisation become accessible to everybody, either beginner dancer or

professional. Because it’s up to you, you have to be more poetic in the class - it’s about experiencing what you want to achieve and how to challenge yourself. It’s being offered something, and not having something imposed on you, and somehow I think that allows everybody to maximise their potential.

Schools in England are starting to realise how important this technique is, alongside Cunningham and Graham and other

stylised techniques; it’s free of approach, which requires, I think, more creative and mental input from both the teacher and the students than just learning a language.

HY: You have to constantly challenge yourself, you have to

constantly want to achieve something. If you want to improve, it’s your responsibility. I find it very important. Especially in the

western world, it doesn’t allow you to be lazy when processing


PHOTOGRAPHED BY IOANNA ZOULI 

或者是為了肢體上的某種技能,還是為了更批判地探索舞蹈及 其創新性

塞克斯、布賴頓和北安普頓,他們都有很好的舞蹈課程,很多人在那兒接

和實驗性。但這些所有的學習都能幫助和引導一 個人來看待身體和肢體

受訓 練并成 為全方位的舞蹈藝 術家 。你 會學習如何教學,如何進行編舞

的可能性。

和創作,如何為特定的社區、電影、聲音和燈光進行創作等。這種舞蹈教 育都比較全面,或許說不是教育你如果成為舞者,因為學習的內容比成為

SA: 我在這裡修讀本科和碩士。這裡的課程有些會像訓練運動員一樣訓練

舞者要求的更多。你還可以 選擇職 業性較強的學校,有三、四家,例如三

你,所以你要非常健美並經受嚴格訓練。或許這樣會使人缺少創造力,因

一拉班藝術學院、倫敦當代舞蹈學院、還有在利茲的北方當代舞蹈學院,

為你會被訓練成為別人的舞者,譬如說為某個特定的舞團服務。我認為每

他們會把你培養成舞者和編舞。

個學校都是不一樣的,他們都有自己的側重點。在英國的好處就是有多種 多樣的選擇,而且還有很豐富的社區舞蹈。不得不說英格蘭有很龐大的社

HY: 倫敦的三一拉班藝術學院、The Place舞蹈中心、利茲的北方當代舞蹈

區藝術傳統。

學院都是比較重要的院校。

HY: 我認為舞蹈在當今英國是很重要的,它也正處在一個很有趣的時期,

SA: 這些學校的教育發展方向很大程度是看誰在指導。有些會比較教條,

這包含很多種原因。令人傷感的是舞蹈在英國是較少被觀賞的藝術形式,

不那麼注重戲劇性的表演,有時候還可能少一些創意培訓。

人們都樂於參與,卻很少去看。另外,因為經濟不景氣,人們投資在舞蹈 上的資金就更少了,這對我們來說是個很大的挑戰 。作為舞蹈藝術家,我 們需要“誘惑”更多人來舞蹈世界。我覺得現在是一個關鍵性的時刻,我們

ART.ZIP: 您能介紹一下您的教學方法嗎?

不知道 這種藝 術 形式會向哪個方向發展,可能性在哪,我們如何重新 教

HY: 自傳式編舞是我的博士研究課題。在很多年前我受訓成為一名舞蹈治

育舞者來用不一樣的方式進行 新的交流 。就像蘇菲所說,有些院校會著

療師,同時也是舞者和編舞。我認為要讓學生能 夠 更好地發揮他們的潛

重于創新性,而其他學校則會側重于思維和哲學層面的探索。這是我覺得

能,要聯繫他們自身的生活,在西方,人們都渴望表達自己。但我覺得我需

英國有意思的方面,也是連接歐洲各地重要的一環。我認為藝術和哲學、

要做的是尋找不同的方式來引導人們,讓他們運用自己的肢體作為自己獨

學術結合在一起是非常棒的,因為這樣意味著更多的可能性和開放性。

立的聲音來表達自己。我受訓的時候是運用非常嚴謹規範的舞蹈技巧來

你可以專注于成為一名舞藝超群的舞者,或者你又可以選擇專注於創新,

培訓成為格雷厄姆式的教師(Granham)。可是我發現教這麼特定的舞蹈

用不一樣的方式來舞蹈。

技巧從根本上抹殺了很多學生的可能性。他們很可能學了一種並不適合他 們自身的舞蹈語言。我們的身體可以做很多令人驚奇的事,但是這些特定

SA: 大學舞蹈課程更多是學術的研究,職業性沒那麼強。在薩里、米德爾

的舞蹈技巧可能並不利於幫助學生了解這一點。所以我希望能 夠 做到因


material. I also think that many people have fears of dancing.

how to bring the best out of people. I wish more teachers would

because they feel they can’t dance. Or a lot of dancers who are so

your body, it’s so important to understand psychology as well.

There are a lot of people who are afraid to go to dance classes

over-trained, they are afraid to do other techniques, it’s like they

direct and train in that way, because when you are working with

lost their own voice. I believe in challenging the dancers in a nice

ART.ZIP: What are Open Classes?

in a fun way - where people can try and fail and try again. I don’t

HY: Open Classes are classes where people can just join us, there

in failing.

teach both and sometimes in the same class as I believe it creates

way, positive, I am still being very physical and challenging but

believe so much in being right or wrong. And I also don’t believe

SA: I think Hagit’s method could be related to her training in

dance therapy, I think this is hugely important in understanding

the psychology of a group or an individual. They are not just the bodies, they are not just one of 30 people training. Everybody is

different, you need to understand how people work and behave,

PHOTOGRAPHED BY IOANNA ZOULI 

are classes for professionals and for non dancers, and I like to

a great energy! During production time, when we are rehearsing for a choreographic work with my company I normally close the door so people can’t be a part as it’s very private; my creative process is very autobiographically, and personal, so I prefer

there will be nobody observing – so the performers don’t feel so exposed. My research into autobiographical work contains


a dialogue between art and dance and philosophy. It does

材施教,引導他們如何運用舞蹈技巧來進行自我探索和發展。這樣他們可

how we tell stories, and it challenges and recreates essences of

心引力之間的關係,學生們可以自主地進行探索,我並不需要給他們全部

challenge what autobiography means, what storytelling means, community and connectivity, the space in between people. For me, a lot of philosophical questions are about body and about

connection with audience; about empathy, about sympathy and

identification. We are in a very narcissistic time, where everybody

is willing to expose themselves, for instance for their five minutes of fame on the X-Factor, or everybody on Facebook telling their

以逐步了解自己的身體,肢體運動及其基本目的,他們與地面、空間和地 的答案。我想這樣對他們很有好處,就算是對於專業舞者我也用這樣的方 式,因為他們有責任進行自我學習。對於那些從來沒有舞蹈經驗的人,或 者剛開始接觸舞蹈的人,這樣的教學可以讓他們更自由地去探索舞蹈,而 不用害怕哪裡做錯了。 SA: 我認為海吉特的方式是很 值 得推薦的,即興表演對於每個人都是可

stories, it’s all about me me me me me…what does this mean?

行的,不論是初學者還 是專業舞者。因為這 完全是靠自己把握的過程,

rethink it, rework it and make choreographies about it. For me it’s

和自我挑 戰 的過程 。這 是被 給 予的過程,而不是 把什麼 強 加在 身上,我

Psychologically it’s very interesting. How can we challenge it, really interesting.

在 課 堂 上你 需 要 運 用詩 意的思 維 方 式 來 進 行探 索,這 是 一 個自我 體 驗 覺得 這 樣 可以 讓 每 個 人都能 盡可能 地 發 揮自身 的 潛 能 。英 格 蘭的 院 校 現在開始意識 到這種 技 巧的重要性,它和坎寧安、格雷厄姆等風 格是同 等 重 要 的;我 認 為 這 種自由 的 方 式 對 於 教 師 和 學 生 來 說 都 需 要 更多創 意和精神投入,而不僅僅是作為一種語言來學習。 HY: 你需要不斷挑戰自己,需要有渴望達到某種目的的欲望。如果你想要 提高,你就必須 這樣做。我認為這很重要,特別是在西方世界,在提煉學 習的過程中不允許懶惰。我還發現人們對於舞蹈有一種恐懼。很多人害怕 去舞蹈課的原因是他們覺得自己不會跳舞。還有很多舞者他們已經被過 度訓練了,他們害怕嘗試其他舞蹈技巧,就好像害怕會丟掉自己的語言一 樣。我相信用一個友好的、積極的方式來對待舞者會更有效,我還是會在 舞蹈技巧上挑 戰他們,但 是 用一種 更有意思的方式,他們可以 進行多種 嘗試,一種不行就再嘗試另一種。我認為沒有什麼對的或錯的,我不認同 失敗這一說法。 SA: 我覺得海吉特的教學方法和她早期的舞蹈治療訓練有關。我認為了解 個人或群體的心理是至關重要的。他們不僅僅是肉體,他們不是三十人中 其中一個人的訓練。每個人都是獨特的,你需要了解人們的行為舉止,如 何把他們最好的一面帶動出來。我希望更多教師能注意到這點並運用這 樣的方式引導學生,因為你是和自己的身體合作的,所以了解人的心理是 很重要的。 ART.ZIP: 能介紹一下你們的公開課嗎? HY: 公開課是鼓勵大家參與的舞蹈課程,有為專業舞者設置的也有非專業 的,兩者我都喜歡教。有時候我會把他們安排在同一節課裡,因為我相信 這樣能激發更多能量!在為舞團編舞和排練的時候,我會把門關上,因為 那是很私人的;我的創作過程很注重個人,自傳式的,所以我會更願意在 沒人觀看的時候進行,表演者也不會覺得太暴露。對於自傳式舞蹈研究, 我覺得是一種包括藝術、舞蹈和哲學的對話。它挑戰的是自傳的含義,什 麼是故事敘述,它挑戰並重新創造了社區及其關聯的本質、人與人的距離 等等。對我來說,很多哲學問題是關於身體的,關於與他者聯繫的;關於 共鳴、關於同感和身份認同的。我們處於一個非常自戀的時代,每一個人 都願意將自己展示在公眾面前,例如在選秀節目上五分鐘的成名,或者在 社交媒體上絮叨自己的事,所有一切都是圍繞“我”的,這說明什麼?從心 理學來說這很 值 得探討,我們如何挑戰它、反思它、重新創造,用它來編 舞等等,對我來說都是非常有趣的。


CONTEMPORARY CIRCUS EDUCATION 當代馬戲教育 TRANSLATED BY 翻譯 x IRIS SHIH 施孟慧


JOHN ELLINGSWORTH IS A WRITER AND EDITOR WORKING IN CONTEMPORARY CIRCUS. HE RUNS THE WEBSITE AND MAGAZINE SIDESHOW AND A COMPANY CALLED CRKO WORKING AT THE INTERSECTION OF CIRCUS AND TECHNOLOGY. 約翰·艾利斯沃斯(John Ellingsworth) 是 專注於當代馬戲的作家和編輯,他創辦了 線上雜誌《Sidehow(雜耍)》,還有關注 科技與馬戲結合的CRKO公司。

ART.ZIP: 當初您是如何開始從事當代馬戲的呢? JE: 我覺得是機緣巧合吧。2006年我在Total Theatre(全劇場)當實習生, 這個組織致力於肢體與視覺表演,馬戲、默劇、木偶劇、街頭表演藝術、特 定場地的裝置藝術、行為藝術等等。Total

Theatre在80年代初期成立,那

時候表演藝術在英格蘭并不流行; 時至今日,表演藝術雖然還是以獨立群 體而存在,但已經對主流藝術有了非常大的影響。總之,我在實習的同時, 也幫Total Theatre出版的雜誌工作。實習快結束時,公司送給我一個空中 飛人的課程。我學習了一段時間覺得還不錯,最後跑去馬戲學校學習了一 年。畢業以後我建立了一個關於馬戲的雜誌和網站叫做《Sideshow》,以 此作為寫作和思考馬戲的平台。就這樣經營了幾年,直到我遇見鄧肯·沃爾 (Duncan Wall),他是《一位平凡的雜技演員(The Ordinary Acrobat)》 一書的作者,該書去年由諾弗出版社(Knopf )出版。我覺得我們倆還挺 像的,大家都在馬戲學院學習了一年(他在法國學習),最後也都從事寫作, 他 寫書,我辦 雜 誌 。我們都認為馬戲 應該 被 視為一種藝 術 形式,我們也 希望人們可以這麼來看待馬戲,因此我們一起成立了公司CRKO,致力於 研究馬戲和科技的結合。線上課程《當代馬戲入門( An Introduction to Contemporary

Circus)》是我們目前一直在做的一個大項目,目的在於

讓每位馬戲從業人員對馬戲都有基本的認識,如此一來,人們就能更自信 地、更有條理地把馬戲當作一種藝術形式來看待及探討。

ART.ZIP: How do you get into contemporary circus?

ART.ZIP: 這個項目的線上課程和在專業學校裡提供的有什麼不同?

JE: I sort of fell into it. Back in 2006 I started doing an internship

JE: 首先,現在沒有多少高等學院提 供馬戲 相關的學位課程。在英國,

for physical and visual performance, circus, mime, puppetry,

一 所 名叫 C i r c o m e d i a 的 藝 術 學 院;在 國 外 則 有 瑞 典 的 D O C H(D a n s

with an organisation called Total Theatre that was advocating

street arts, devised and site-specific work, live art, and so on. Back

我們有國家馬戲 藝 術中心(National Centre for Circus Ar t s),還有

when Total Theatre was founded, in the 1980s, all of those things were on the fringes of theatre in England; today they still exist

as independent sectors, but they’ve got much more influence

on mainstream practice. Anyway, I did this internship with Total

Theatre and worked on the magazine they produced, and at the

end of that internship they gave me six weeks of trapeze lessons as a leaving present. I did those for a while, got the taste for it, and ended up going to a circus school for a year. After I left I

started a circus magazine and website, Sideshow, as a platform

for writing and thinking about circus. I ran that for a few years and then ended up meeting Duncan Wall, the author of a book about circus, ‘The Ordinary Acrobat’, which was published by Knopf last year. We found we had a common background: both of us

went to a circus school for a year (he went to one in France) and then embarked on these big writing projects. For him it was the

book; for me it was Sideshow. We were both engaged in thinking about circus as an art form, and we both wanted to try to get

people to talk about circus as an art, so we started a company

together, CRKO, that’s dedicated to looking at the intersection of circus and technology. The big project we’ve been working on

is an online course called ‘An Introduction to Contemporary

Circus’. The goal of it is to give everybody working in the circus

SANS OBJET © AGLAE BORY


sector the same basic level of knowledge so that circus can

start to talk about itself as an art form in a more confident and coherent way.

ART.ZIP: What makes your project different from education offered within a university structure?

JE: The first thing to say is that there are a small number of

Higher Education circus schools and that you can go there

to do accredited degree courses, MAs, even PhDs. In the UK

there’s the National Centre for Circus Arts and a school called Circomedia; abroad there are places like DOCH(Dans och

Cirkushögskolan, University of Dance and Circus)in Sweden or CNAC (Centre National des Arts du Cirque) in France. Still, at a

lot of these schools students concentrate on technical skill and performance disciplines (dance, movement, physical theatre,

and so on) but perhaps don’t learn so much about aesthetics –

about what’s going on in the world, about the history of their art form, where contemporary circus came from, where it’s going next, these sorts of things... And there’s no textbook to teach

that, no documentary series – we wanted to create the course

because we felt there was nothing else like it. We were aiming to produce a resource that the circus sector could use in its

education programmes, but at the same time we’d like to bring

it to a larger performing arts market: there are a lot of universities which teach performing arts courses and cover other branches of performance (dance, physical theatre, puppetry, and so on) without touching on circus.

ART.ZIP: How will the project reach its audience? JE: At the moment we’re working to complete a ten-lesson

course that can fit within circus school curriculums, but we’re

SMASHED, PHOTOGRAPHED BY LUDOVIC DES COGNETS from 30 contemporary circus productions. Each video is

accompanied by an interview with the production’s artists or

directors, and through these readers can get an insight into the various facets of contemporary circus.

also thinking about a shorter version that can be offered to a

ART.ZIP: Circus has a long history in China, but it hardly has a

contemporary circus is and where it came from. Given that it’s

western cultural context?

general audience – so an absolute basic introduction to what

an online course our ideal would be to reach as many people as

possible and to have an impact on the way contemporary circus is seen in general society.

ART.ZIP: What other projects are you working on? JE: I’m working with the photographer Ben Hopper on his

project Duende – which is his attempt to capture ‘el duende’,

which you can think of as being a little bit like the soul of a

great performer. I’m doing some writing to go alongside that

and thinking about how to present the project online. Another

project I’m working on for Sideshow is called Deconstructing

Circus. It is a six-month project to publish videos of 30 scenes

circus culture. Do you think circus culture is stronger within a

JE: There’s a long history of acrobatics and circus in China –

in Russia as well. Both have a very strong tradition of circus,

but aesthetically they’re generally closer to traditional circus. Contemporary circus is to traditional circus as contemporary dance is to ballet. So when you think about a ballerina, what

they do is very codified: there’s a correct way for them to stand,

move, set their shoulders, raise their arms, and so on. Everything is very strict and disciplined. Then when they go on stage the

performers are replicating what they’ve learned – they’re aiming to show their technique as perfectly as possible and they’re

judged on this perfection. With contemporary dance you learn technique, but the actual performance is shaped by what you


want to express – about yourself, about the world, about society.

och Cirkushögskolan, Universit y of Dance and Circus)或法國的

circus. Traditional circus is focused on the replication of

通常著重于技 術技 能 和表演 規 範(舞蹈、動 作、形體 劇場 等 等 )的教育,

This is more or less how it is with traditional and contemporary

technique, doing something spectacular or superhuman, while contemporary circus is using those circus techniques and

methods as a language, as an art form, to express something. In the west we also have a long history of traditional circus.

During the 19th Century you had these really big circuses in

Europe and America, and for some of the massive ones in the

CNAC(Centre National des Ar t s du Cirque)。儘 管如此,這些學校 但很少提 供 美學 教育--當今的美學發展,藝 術 形態發展 史,當代 馬戲 的 淵 源 ,發 展 趨 勢 是 什 麼 等 等。現 今 沒有任 何 教 科 書 可以 提 供 這 些 知 識,也沒有任 何相關的紀 錄片,這 就 是我們創辦這個 線 上教程的初衷。 我們旨 在為馬戲 教 育 項目提 供 資 源 ,同 時 也 希望 能 夠 把 這個 教 程帶 到 更 大 的 表 演 藝 術 市 場 去 ,現 在 許 多大 學 裡 的 表 演 課 程 囊 括了舞 蹈 、形 體 劇場、木偶劇場等,卻唯獨沒有馬戲 。

US you could get an audience of tens of thousands of people

ART.ZIP: 您打算如何將這個項目帶給您期待的讀者?

touring locally to small towns and you can imagine what it

JE: 我們現在正努力完成一個十堂課的課程,使之可以穿插在馬戲學校課

at each pitch. During the early 19th Century you had circuses would have been like for the people there: growing up in a Tips

小貼示

Fin d ou t more 更多信息: h t t p ://s i d e s h ow -c i rcusmagaz ine. com h t t p ://c rk o.org /e d

程裡,另外我們還想提 供一 個精簡版本讓普羅大眾都能參與,讓 大家對 當代馬戲 及 其來源有基 本的認識 。因此我們從線 上課程入手,希望 越 來 越多人能 夠 接觸并關注當代馬戲。 ART.ZIP: 目前還有其他正在進行的計劃嗎? JE: 目前我還在協助攝影師本·霍珀(Ben Hopper)的項目“Duende(精靈)”。 霍珀試圖運用攝影的手法來捕捉表演者的靈魂,我則著手進行一些相關輔


small town you would have never seen an elephant before,

助的寫作,也會協助把這個項目搬到網上呈現給更多觀眾。 《Sideshow》的

brought something that was amazing – something that was

項目,我們精選了三十個當代馬戲表演,然後從每個表演中挑選一個場景

never seen an acrobat, never seen a contortionist, so the circus totally outside of ordinary life. Because of that power to amaze, and because of the power of spectacle, it became the biggest

form of popular entertainment in the western world. Eventually film came along, which was cheap and easier to distribute, and

oil prices went up so that it became more expensive to tour, and traditional circus sort of collapsed. Contemporary circus rose out

of that, and because the old model didn’t work anymore it had to find something new.

ART.ZIP: Would you name some important companies and productions from the contemporary circus sector?

JE: There have been a lot of important companies and shows

through the years, so I’ll just name a few artists that I like... In the UK, Gandini Juggling have been around for more than twenty years and they’re a really inventive group; they work with

juggling, but their interests stretch in a lot of different directions and they’ve made shows inspired by visual art, haute couture fashion, Pina Bausch, ballet, and many other things. I think

they’re planning to tour their show Smashed in China. There’s

a French director called Aurélien Bory who I like a lot. He makes work that isn’t necessarily recognisable as circus, but he works

另一個項目叫做“解構馬戲(Deconstructing Circus)”。這是個長達六個月的 再配合對藝術家或導演的採訪,以視頻的形式呈現給線上讀者,讓他們能 了解當代馬戲的各方各面。 ART.ZIP: 中國的馬戲團歷史悠久,但卻難以成為一種文化。您認為馬戲 文化在西方的語境下是否更有影響力?

JE: 雜技和馬戲在中國有著悠久的歷史,俄羅斯也是如此。兩者都有很強 大的馬戲傳統,但從美學的角度來說它們更接近傳統形式的馬戲表演。 當代馬戲 之於傳統馬戲,就像現代 舞之於芭蕾舞一樣。芭蕾舞者的表演 都有明文規定怎樣的姿勢才是正確的,從站立、移動、肩膀的形態到如何 舉手投足等等,都有著嚴格的規定。所以當芭蕾舞者上台表演的時候,他 們必須盡可能地完美呈現所學的一切,因為評判的標準就是如何做到所 規定的極致的完美。但對於現代舞而言,舞蹈技巧是基礎,但實際演出的 時候只是以舞蹈作為一種方式來表達自己,表達對世界,對社會的想法。 這或多或少解釋了傳統馬戲 和當代馬戲的不同。傳統馬戲專注于技巧的 成熟,做一 些讓 人嘆 為觀止或超 越 人 類極限的表演,而當代馬戲僅 是利 用這些技巧和表演作為一種語言,作為一種藝術形式來進行表達某種觀 點或想法。 當 然 西 方 國 家 也有歷 史 悠 久 的 傳 統 馬 戲 ,19 世 紀 時,在 歐 洲 和 美 洲 都 有 很 龐 大 的馬 戲 團 ,美 國 有些 大 規 模 的馬 戲 團 甚 至 可以容 納 數 萬 名 觀 眾。19世紀的馬戲團從大城市到小 鄉 村巡迴演出,你可以想像在某些小

with acrobats and is a juggler himself. One of his most famous

鎮 鄉 村,那 裡的人可能一輩子都沒看過 大 象、雜 技 演 員和柔術 演 員,對

industrial robot – so on stage you have this huge machine that

盛大表演使得馬戲 成 為西方文化裡最大型的大眾娛 樂。後來,隨著電影

shows is Sans Objet, which is a piece for two acrobats and one used to build cars on an assembly line. And then because I saw

their show recently I’ll mention Sanja Kosonen and Elice Abonce Muhonen, two Finnish artists who decided to train hair hanging (an old traditional circus discipline) and then to make a full-

length performance playing with how the audience responds

to this quite gruesome sight of someone being suspended from their hair...

他們來說,馬戲帶來了前所未有的新奇體 驗。因為這些 令人嘖嘖 稱奇的 的出現,傳統馬戲漸漸走向衰落,一來因為電影的成本更低,更容易散佈 到各個地方,二來石油價格的上漲 提高了馬戲 團巡演的成 本 。當代 馬戲 也 算從中應 運而生,因為老一 套已 經不管用了,所以必須尋求突 破 來獲 得重生。 ART.ZIP: 可以為我們介紹一些重要的當代馬戲團或作品嗎? JE: 這幾年有很多重要的馬戲團和表演,我只能列舉一些我個人喜歡的。 英國的甘迪尼雜技團(Grandini Juggling)是在業界活躍了超過20年的 團 隊,他 們善於 發明 新 玩 法,他 們不只 是單 純的雜 耍,他 們 的表 演 結 合 了不 同 的 藝 術 形 態 ,視 覺 藝 術、高 級 時 裝 訂 製、現 代 舞 專 家 皮 娜 · 鮑 許 (Pina Bausch)、芭蕾等等,最近他們計劃把他們其中一 個表演“搞 砸 了 (Smashe d)”帶到中國進行 巡演。我還很喜歡法國導演歐瑞利安·博瑞 (Aurélien Bory),他廣為人知的作品不全都是馬戲,但是他自己本身就是 一名雜技演員。他其中一個最有名的作品叫做“不適用(Sans Objet)”, 由 兩名雜技演員和一 個工業機器人共同演出,在舞台上你可以看到這個曾 在流水生產線上用於製造汽車的巨型機器在舞動。最後是最近我看的表

SANJA KOSONEN & ELICE ABONCE MUHONEN. PHOTOGRAPHED BY SEBASTEIN ARMENGOL.

演,兩個芬蘭藝術家珊吒·可頌恩(Sanja

Kosonen)和愛麗絲·阿本斯·穆

霍寧(Elice Abonce Muhonen)正在為頭髮吊掛表演(是傳統馬戲表演 的一種)進行訓練和演出,屆時觀眾對這令人毛骨悚然的詭異演出的反應 將會十分有趣。


EVERYTHING ABOUT QUALITY INTERVIEW WITH NIXI CURA PROGRAMME DIRECTOR ARTS OF CHINA CHRISTIE’S EDUCATION

以質為本

專訪倫敦佳士得美術學院 中國藝術項目總監黃巧巧 TRANSLATED BY 翻譯 x MICHELLE YU 余小悅

IMAGE COURTESY OF 圖片提供 x CHISTIE’S EDUCATION 佳士得美術學院

Christie’s Education is the first British institution to offer a Master’s programme devoted exclusively to Chinese art. While acquiring experience in object analysis, students will explore archaeological and historical contexts and the multiple narratives in the story of Chinese art. The course also explores

cultural developments from the 19th to the 21st century, when intensified contact with foreigners generated new practices, functions and meanings in Chinese art. -----

佳士得美術學院是英國首家特別為研究中國藝術開辦碩士課程的教育機構。課程內容涵蓋新石器時代至二十一 世紀,讓學員在作品分析的實踐當中聯繫考古及歷史文本來探索中國藝術的各種敘事方式,從而進一步了解與世 界接軌後的中國藝術所產生的新實踐、新功能和意義。


ART.ZIP: What are your students like? Are they mostly Chinese?

ART.ZIP: 能談談您的學生嗎?會不會大部份都是中國學生?

NC: Some have noted the number of quite a lot of Chinese

NC: 有人會說很多中國學生上這個課程,我會反問他們,你指的中國人是

mean by Chinese? In my opinion, China is a space not a place.

由英語教學,就算是客座專家講師,他們的第二語言都是英語,所以無論

students in the programme. I would respond, what do you

This course is conducted entirely in English, with many of the

lecturers—specialists in their field—also speaking English as a second language. This means that even if the students come

from Mainland China, Hong Kong, Singapore or wherever, they have to have fantastic English. So generally, they’ve already

done their first degree, either in the UK, US or Canada, Australia, Hong Kong, etc. The Mainland Chinese students whose English is good enough for this course have usually studied or worked

abroad for a little while. The majority of students have Chinese heritage, but grew up somewhere else. So we get a lot of

Canadians, Chinese-Americans, Australian Chinese, and we get

什麼?在我的理 解裡,中國是一 個空間而不是一 個地 域 。這個課程全程 從中國大陸、香港、新加坡還是別的地方來的學生,他們必須擁有很高的 英語水平。普遍來說,他們通常已經完成了本科學習,無論是在英國、美 國、加拿大、澳洲、香港等等。中國大陸來的學生普遍都在國外學習或工 作過一段時間,英語水平才能 達 到我們的要求 。我會說大部份學生是華 裔,加籍華人、美籍華人、澳籍華人,還有從新加坡和馬來西亞來的華人 等等,他們都在中國以外的地方長大。每年大概還有一到兩名來自台灣和 香港的學生。有時候也有英國本土學生,但不多,這個課程涉及大量中文 參 考資料,這可能是讓他們望而卻步的原因。而且英國本土學校的學費 每年才3000鎊,比我們便宜很多。他們確實需要很大的決心 和毅力來完 成這個課程。

ethnic Chinese from Singapore, Malaysia. We get one or two

ART.ZIP: 你們的擇生標準是什麼呢?

have the occasional Brit, but they are rarer these days, partially

NC: 我們會面試每一個符合要求的申請人。首先他們需要符合網站上列出

Chinese language, but also because it’s cheaper for them to

約、香港、上海都會安排面試的機會,例如當我剛好帶學生們到某個城市

students each from Taiwan and Hong Kong every year. We do

because it’s very daunting to take on this course without some attend an English school at £3000 a year. They really have to make a commitment to the course.

來的要求,然後負責招生的同事就會安排一對一的面試。我們在倫敦、紐 遊學的時候,就會在那個城市進行面試 。打個比方,如果我在新加坡,學 院官網就會告示面試的時間地點。


ART.ZIP: When choosing your students, what are your criteria?

我認為面試更像是一種雙向溝通的談話。我們需要了解申請人的期待,

NC: We interview everyone in person. All candidates must meet

業生涯提 供怎樣的幫助。申請學校其實是很讓 人頭痛的過程,如果你可

the requirements listed on the website, then our recruitment

officers arrange interviews. We do interviews here in London, New York, Hong Kong, Shanghai, wherever the Arts of China

faculty might travel. For example, if I’m over in Singapore, our website will indicate the possibility of meeting with me in

Singapore. The interview is a two-way conversation, really. We

ask applicants what are they looking for in the course, and they

ask us what we have on offer to enhance their careers. Applying

知道他們想 通 過課程得到什麼,同時,他們也想 知道我們能為他們的職 以直接與學院老師取得聯繫,某種程度上能 夠 減輕對於未知的恐懼,而 不是遞交冷冰冰的電子申請然後默默祈禱被錄取。所以面試能讓我們判 斷申請人 是否適合修讀這個研究生課程:這個課程是否你想要的?或許 你想要的是藝術、法律與商務碩士課程,而不是中國藝術課程。我們的碩 士課程學生畢業的時候會獲得由格拉斯哥大學授予的藝術史和藝術實踐 碩士學位。課程著重培養學生通過歷史、社會、考古和經濟文本來對藝術 品進行研究的能力。

to graduate school is very nerve-racking, right? When you meet

另外,為了評估申請人的英語水平,在面試時我會故意將語速加快。那些

eliminates the fear of the unknown, and the impersonality of

家或者地區工作或生活一段時間,然後再申請。

someone from that institution to establish direct contact, it

sending out your application and then praying that you’ll get a letter of acceptance in the post. So in the interview we can

determine whether you are appropriate for the Master’s: Is this

the right course for you? Or perhaps you would prefer to study Art, Law and Business, not the Arts of China? Students obtain a

達不到我們要求的申請人,我會建議他們先提高英語水平,在講英語的國

面試時我還會考 查 申請人是否具備一定的藝術史知識,看看他們是不是為 了取悅父母才來學習。如果他們對藝術史沒有一定的背景知識,但對中國 藝術很有熱情的話,我會建議他們先上一個藝術史課程然後來年再申請。

University of Glasgow degree in the History of Art and Art World

我們每天都與學生見面,因此面試還能讓申請人確定是否能和我以及其

social, archaeological and economic contexts. To gauge fluency

榮的人,那麼你被錄取的機會也很渺茫。同樣的,如果申請人覺得我很刻

Practice, which trains them around objects and their histories and

他學院的夥 伴們生活在一起 。老實說,如果面試時我發現你是 個貪慕虛


in English, I might speak very quickly on purpose. For applicants

薄、霸道、傲慢,實在無法每天相處的話,那也不行。可是不知為甚麼,學

first improve their English by living or working somewhere where

望讓他們知道我們是有準則的,我們非常的嚴謹認真。

who do not yet meet our standards, I would suggest that they

they have no choice but speak English all the time, then re-apply. In interviews, we also assess applicants’ art history knowledge,

生們都非常願意來,估計是我還不 夠 嚇人,沒能把他們嚇跑。但是我們希

ART.ZIP: 你通常要面試多少個申請人呢?

or whether they have embarked on this path only to please their

NC: 我面試很多申請人,現在亞洲的申請人越來越多。因為我們採用小班

they are really excited about Chinese art, I might also suggest

讓 大家可以在博 物館進行小型授課和學習。這個 課程彈性很 大,如果學

parents. So if they don’t possess the requisite knowledge, but they take a course in art history, and then apply again in the following year.

We see the students everyday during term time. The interview

的授課模式,所以我們都會把最後的學生數量控制在一 個合理的數量, 生人數較多,我們可以抽調額外的教員來確保高質量的小班教學,這樣能

夠 保證學生之間有足 夠 的交流和溝通,他們在畢業以後也能保持緊密聯 繫,形成自己的關係網。

can help applicants decide whether they can live with me and

ART.ZIP: 課程為學生提供怎麼樣的體驗呢?

you’ll have a slim chance of getting in. Likewise, if the applicant

NC: 佳士得是世界上首屈一指的藝 術商業機構,我們幫助學生達成他們

live with on a daily basis, then it is not going to work. Somehow

培 訓 和 關 係 網 絡,讓 學 生 能 夠 面 對 面 地 和 中 國 藝 術 圈 內 人 士 交 流 ,各

other faculty. Honestly, if at interview I peg you as a prima donna, finds me mean, overbearing, and arrogant, someone you couldn’t I’m not scary enough! — the students keep coming, but we do wish them to know we have standards, that we are serious.

ART.ZIP: How many applicants do you get to meet normally? NC: I interview a lot, more and more in Asia. We try to keep the

numbers in line with the upper limits to hold handling sessions

at museums. This course is flexible; we could hire additional staff

to accommodate the number of students to maintain small class

的期望 。不是 所有人都能在佳 士得 獲 得工作崗位,但 是我們提 供 專業的 個 領 域 的專家、策 展 人、學者、媒體 人 員、基金會人士、保 險 從 業 者、藝 術 法 律顧 問、企 業和私 人 藏 家等。所以他 們學到的不僅僅 是藝 術史,同 時也了解 現今中國 藝 術圈 是 怎樣 運作 的 。我們 希望 能 夠 給 他 們 足 夠 的 信 心去 找 工作,因 為 他 們 在 佳 士得已 經 有 了與 各 類 專 家 見 面 和 合 作 的 經 驗 。另外,他 們 還 能申請在香 港 佳 士得 美 術 學院 的實習機 會,這 是 對 所有佳 士得 美 術 學院 學生開放 的,包括中國 藝 術、歐 洲藝 術、藝 術風 格 與設 計、現代 及當代 藝 術等 課程的學生 。這個 實習機會 很 難 得,競 爭 也 很激烈,所以學生們都需要竭盡全力去爭取。

sizes. The students here flourish in this environment and get to

ART.ZIP: 學生畢業後的去向通常是什麼呢?

they graduate.

NC: 今年是我在這裡的第七個年頭。我們每年有十到十二位學生,40%的

know one another very well. They become a tight network after


ART.ZIP: What does the programme offer them?

education in England, noted as ‘good practice’ our support

NC: Christie’s is the biggest art business in the world, and we

of our business to look after our students’ happiness. Because

manage their expectations. Not every one of them could get a

job at the Christie’s, but we do offer professional development sessions and networking possibilities, as part of the degree in

We make them meet people in different fields involved in the Chinese art world: experts, curators, academics, journalists,

people who work in foundations, insurance, art law, corporate

towards students’ future employment. We actually make it a part Christie’s Education is so small, we become a kind of family,

and we keep track of students after graduation. We give them

advice, write references, and we give them introductions even

after they’ve left the building. Part of my job is to help students develop guanxi (connections) for their career prospects.

collections, and the collectors themselves, too. They get a sense

ART.ZIP: In this course there are two divisions, one is PgDip,

works right now. And hopefully we empower them to gain the

programme? How different is it from Masters?

of not just the art history, but also how the Chinese art world

confidence to go out and look for jobs. We also offer the Christie’s

the other is Masters. Would you explain more about the PgDip

Education students opportunities for work experience at Christie’s

NC: The Postgraduate Diploma course covers the same material

apply for a the Christie’s Education Hong Kong internship, open

the Master’s if they do really well in the first term. There are

and to meet the relevant specialists at the Christie’s. They also can to all the students in the Arts of China, Arts of Europe, Art Style

and Design, and Modern and Contemporary options at Christie’s. The competition can be intense, and the students work really hard to prove their mettle.

ART.ZIP: Where do the students go normally after the course? NC: This is my seventh year of teaching this course. We’ve had ten to twelve students per year, 40% of whom have worked at Christie’s in London (South Kensington and King Street),

New York, Hong Kong, Shanghai and Beijing. As we’ve trained them here at Christie’s Education, they know what Christie’s

demands from its employees. So they know the standard and work towards it. We have one or two students each year who

as the Master’s, but without a thesis. Students can convert to

four tiers in the British system: Postgraduate Diploma, Master’s, MPhil and PhD. A Postgraduate Diploma is actually a perfectly

respectable postgraduate degree recognised, particularly in the

Commonwealth. Outside the Commonwealth, such as China and

the US, the PgDip remains a bit of a mystery. As such, at interview

we always alert applicants who wish to work in Mainland China or Taiwan or the US. Some of our Mainland Chinese students have

expressed concerns about the PgDip, and tend to work towards the Master’s degree. With the PgDip degree, our alumni have

found meaningful work in, for instance, Poly International Auction. ART.ZIP: What is the relationship between Christie’s Education and Christie’s the auction house?

wish to go on to do a PhD, and we support them and provide

NC: Christie’s Education operates as an independent company

Some of the students, to be honest, don’t need to work ever.

have the ability to step outside the auction world, as it were. We

advice on undertaking further advanced research in Chinese art. But I’d say the majority actually do end up working. Through the programme they all learn transferable skills, because the assignments accord with actual working the art world. For

example, students write critical reviews, so if they are considering

a career in journalism, they understand the expectations and that type of writing. Among their essays is a standard research paper with footnotes and bibliography, so if they want to pursue an

owned by Christie’s as part of its core business. In practice we are Christie’s and we are not Christie’s. We can step back and

from an outside perspective. But because we are part of Christie’s, we can also engage our students with everything Christie’s has to offer. For the auction house, Christie’s Education provides a

talent pipeline and an institution for learning that embodies the expertise and passion for art for which Christie’s is renowned.

academic or museum career, they know that the standards.

ART.ZIP: Do you think art education in the UK is more likely to help students prepare for the future?

NC: I have to say that Christie’s Education is not representative of

the UK as a whole. The government currently encourages schools to ensure career possibilities for the students. Earlier this year the Quality Assurance Agency, which accredits institutions of higher

Tips

小貼示

Fi n d ou t m or e 更 多 信 息: www.ch r isties.ed u / L on d on / cou r ses/ ma ster s- a r ts- of - chi na


學生會留在佳士得工作,倫敦、紐 約、香港、上海 和北京分 部 都有。因為 他們在佳士得美術學院受過專業訓練,所以他們知道佳士得需要什麼樣 的人,他 們朝著標 準努力就 是了。每年有一到兩位學生會選 擇 繼 續修 讀 博士學 位,我們會給 予他們全面的支持,為他們進一步研究中國藝 術提

ART.ZIP: 這個課程有兩個分支,一個是PgDip(Postgraduate Diploma) 課程,一個是碩士學位課程。你能給我們說說PgDip課程嗎?它和碩士學 位有什麼不一樣?

出建 議 。還有某 些學生 其 實一輩子都 不需要工作,但 大多數都是會去工

NC: PgDip就是 進修文 憑課程,內容 與碩士課程沒有分別,只是不需要

作的。學生們在課程裡學到的東西都能活學活用,因為課程作業都是根

提 交 畢 業 論 文 而 已 。如果修 讀 進修 文 憑課程的學生在 第一學 期 表現不

據當今 藝 術界的實際 情 況 來佈置的。例如,學生們需 要寫評論,如果他

錯,他們就可以申請轉到碩士課程。英國高等教育有四個級別,進修文憑

們想要從事新聞媒體行業的,他們會懂得媒體的需求和挑選適當的寫作

(PgDip),碩士學位(Master’s),哲學碩士(MPhil)和博士(PhD)。進

形式 。又譬 如說,他們的研 究論文都是 嚴格符合學術標 準的,註 腳和參

修文 憑其實是一 個相當受尊重和認可的學位,特別是在英聯邦國家 。可

考文獻各項都不允許有差錯,如果他們想要往學術方向或博物館方向發

是在聯邦外,例如中國和美國,人們對進修文憑的認識很有限。因此,我

展,他們都知道這種學術標準是什麼。

們在面試的時候 都會特別提醒日後希望在中國大陸,台灣或者美國工作

ART.ZIP: 你覺得英國教育是為學生就業準備的嗎? NC: 我 覺 得 佳 士 得 美 術 學 院 並不 能 籠 統 地 作 為 英 國 教 育 的 代 表 。近 年 來 政 府 鼓 勵 學 校 為 學 生 的 就 業 提 供 幫 助 和 保 障 。今 年 年 初 ,監 管 英 格 蘭 高 等 教 育 院 校 的 Q A A( T h e Q u a l i t y A s s u r a n c e A g e n c y

的申請人。好 些中國大陸的學生都會 對進修文 憑表示疑 慮,因此都傾向 于讀碩士課程。但 其實 獲 得進修文 憑的校 友都能找 到不錯的工作,例如 在保利國際拍賣行工作的。 ART.ZIP: 佳士得美術學院和佳士得拍賣行的關係是什麼呢?

f o r H i g h e r E d u c a t i o n ─ ─ 高 等 教 育 評 估 與 質 量 保 障 機 構 )在

NC: 佳士得美術學院由佳士得全資擁有,是佳士得旗下獨立運營的公司。

為學生未來職業發展方面給予了我們很高的評價。讓學生滿意是我們的

我們能 夠 跳出拍賣圈來進行藝 術實踐 。我們是 佳士得的,也可以說不是

責任之一。因為佳士得美術學院很小,我們就像一個大家庭,所有學生畢

佳士得的。我們可以 退一步來客觀地審 視佳士得。但 是其實我們又隸屬

業後的去向我們都會很上心 。我們不但 給他們就業建議,還給他們寫推

於佳士得,所以我們可以給學生提 供任 何佳士得現有的資 源 。佳士得美

薦信,就算畢業後我們也會給他們介紹相關專業 人士。我認為為學生未

術學院為佳士得拍賣提 供了各類專業 人才和學習進修的地方,所以兩者

來發展而拓展關係網絡是我的義務和責任。

的關係很好地體現了佳士得對藝術的專業和熱忱。


KNOWLEDGE SHOULD BE PRICELESS INTERVIEW WITH PAUL STEWART

知識本無價

專訪保羅·斯圖爾特 TRANSLATED BY 翻譯 x HARRY LIU 劉競晨

IMAGE COURTESY OF 圖片提供 x PAUL STEWART 保羅 · 斯圖爾特

Paul Stewart is an artist and researcher focusing on themes of alternative learning and critical pedagogy. He has a BA (Hons) Fine Art from the

University of Lincoln (2011) and also completed an MA in Art and Politics

at Goldsmiths (2012). He is the Learning Research Assistant at Tate and the creator and Co-producer of The Alternative Art College. -----

保羅·斯圖爾特是一位藝術家同時也是一位研究員,他的工作重心是研究可替代性 的學習方法和批判性教育學。他于2011年獲得英國林肯大學榮譽學士學位,并在 2012年獲得了倫敦金史密斯學院藝術與政治專業的碩士學位,他是另類藝術學院的 創始人和聯合出品人,現在他供職于泰特美術館從事助理教育調研工作。


ART.ZIP: Would you please give us an introduction of your

project, the Alternative Art College (AAC)? How did it start and what triggers the establishment of AAC?

PS: The Alternative Art College is a non-profit education facility,

an online creative platform to critique higher education which I

developed whilst studying for my Undergraduate (BA Fine Art). In 2010 the government begin to dismantle the higher education

system, home students’ tuition fee increased to £9000 per year. The response to this was in the form of mass demonstration; this often was unsatisfactory because of the reaction of the

authorities. In response to these events I set up the Alternative Art College in the tradition of protest art, as a proactive form of protest that was an alternative both to the prospect of an

increasingly expensive education system and also to the existing forms of protest that were being used in 2010.

In short, the reason for the start up of the AAC is as a response to the current educational system, to question aspects of

learning aimed to produce consumers of knowledge rather than participators in a grander scheme. The aim is to get students to

question how they learn as well as what they learn and allow them to become active agents in a participatory learning experience. The initial rationale behind the idea of the Alternative Art

College in 2010 was to show that you could gain the same, if not a better understanding of a topic, than you could if you

were to pay £9,000 to study at an education institution. Why is

Higher education something that is only financially accessible? Knowledge should be priceless.

ART.ZIP: How would you describe this project, political activity or art practice?

ART.ZIP: 可不可以給我們介紹一下你的“另類藝術學院(Alternative Art

PS: It’s really a good question. I would say that it is both and

這樣的學院呢?

both elements are intrinsic in to how the Alternative Art

College,以下簡稱AAC)”項目?AAC是怎麼開始的,為什麼要建立一個

College functions. The AAC attempts to question the dominant

PS: “另類藝術學院(AAC)”是一個非盈利的教育項目,通過網絡平臺來搭

experiences that can develop learning practices in a more open

我的純藝術專業本科。在2010年的時候,英國政府開始大刀闊斧地改革

power, and then producing a space with a selection of shared

and discursive form. At the same time the Alternative Art College is my art practice, so I am constantly combating that relationship you have between making work and producing an open space.

My commitment to the concept may not always be represented by the work as commitment is not a category of art. I do feel

very protective of the AAC as it is my ‘making’ process but this

建一 個質疑英國高等教育體制的平臺,建立它的時候我正在林肯大學讀 和破壞高等教育系統,本地學生的每學年學費漲到9000英鎊(約9萬人民 幣),加之當局對民眾的呼聲沒有做出滿意回覆,由此引發了大規模的遊 行抗議活動。對於這個事件,我成立了AAC來表達我的態度,這也是一種 傳統上的通過藝術行為來進行抗議,這是一種主動的抗議形式,同時對上 漲的昂貴的學費和既有的高等教育體制提出抗議。

alongside the values of the AAC to be collective and open

簡而言之,建立AAC是為了對現在的教育體系做出質疑,現在的體系是為

ways of dealing with that by the making process focus on the

與。我們的目的是讓學生們思考他們如何學習、學習什麼,從而使他們更

produce to opposing positions. To combat this,Ihave found

production of posters, and publications, and I was able to release

了培養“知識”的消費群體,而不是在宏觀上促 進教育和鼓 勵對教育的參 好地,更積極地參與到學習的體驗中來。


that relationship through those, and then keeping the context and ideas open.

I would say the AAC is a politically active art practice, maybe. ART.ZIP: How does AAC run? What kind of practice is it like? PS: At present the Alternative Art College does not have a constant physicality and our events and projects happen

whatever they were as the practice in a move onto questioning what is education, treating learning as an experiment. This form is looking into pedagogical approaches, and moving

back into questioning those processes and creating work from that. I guess that’s what a lot of our work has been for the last couple of years and now it’s kind of move on to not so much

of a physical happening but a series of conversations using the blogs and tweeter feeds as dissemination points.

sporadically. When I started the AAC I wasn’t really aware what

I think in this way, the AAC bridges digital media with grass root

university project in itself where we turned five students

development of alternative education discourses.

was happening. It started as a protest as an undergraduate

accommodation houses into our ‘university’ campuses. We

activities and creative platforms, focusing specifically on the

lifted our practice out of our art college and moved them into

ART.ZIP: What kind of feedback did you get till now?

space where we could remove the power relation of higher

PS: When we started, we had a lot of interest from local and

a more personal context , more informal space for learning. At

the local ITV news in response from that way. And then as we

students’ houses, and used that as a navigation to relocate a

education. So its the home that creates a different atmosphere, the start, there were talks, common assemblies, art exhibitions in these spaces and all bits of pieces for a period of three

months, basically. And then I think there’s a dramatic shift where the AAC went from rather than trying to offer learning classes or

national press, such as news articles we have with the BBC and developed a more mature approach within our art practice,we moved on to collectively communicating experience of

the events and how we can develop them collectively. This

allowed us to have a core openness, and we are able to have


conversations that people could both take from and give to. So that’s nice and what we received back.

I get some interesting emails from individuals. It depends on the content of the event. And I think we keep everything as open as possible. I set a reading group recently that was open to all, and it brings in different ages, different backgrounds and different

在2010年,AAC想要表達的態度是,從教育的本質上來說,花費9000英 鎊才能得到的教育資源也許在不花錢的情況下依舊可以實現,為什麼獲 得高等教育是要有“金錢准入”原則的呢?知識本該是無價的。 ART.ZIP: 你怎麼定義AAC這個項目呢?是一個政治行為還是一次藝術實 踐呢?

context. I think what the key thing could be taken from it is

PS: 這 是一 個很好的問題 。我想說 這兩方面都有,而且這兩方面是根植

disseminating it from a point of authority but brining different

個 共享體 驗 的 區間,來 開 發 更 開 放 更 具有 交 流 性 的學 習和 教 育實 踐 。

that process of doing, so not taking a piece of knowledge and

perspectives to the table to learn collectively. This allows space

to have an open discussion about how to engage socially, how to create critical events, and how to develop those that kind of situations. When people emailed me asking to be students of

the AAC, I find it really flattering. A lovely lovely question. Then I quickly say to them, I don’t have an accommodation, and it is a

house. It’s normal spaces where we accommodate, it’s a process of happening and then I would tell them a list of how to start

于A AC 的 功 能 層面 的 。A AC 是 對 主 流 的 聲 音提 出質 疑 ,並 且 開 發出 一 同時,A AC是我個人的藝 術實踐,因此我 必須協調我自己的藝 術創作和 A AC 這個 開 放 空間 之間 的 關 係 。我 對 觀 念 的 信 守 往 往不能 通 過 作品 來 呈現 ,因為這種 “ 對觀 念的堅守 ”並不是藝 術的 範 疇 。作 為 我 “生 產 ”的一 部 份,A AC是 具有保 護性 的,同 時它的意義 在 於,在 兼容并包的開放性 之下對 對立的系統 產生 影 響。為了協調這 些問題,我不得 不找出方法來 解決,通 過製作海報和出版物我可以同時 保 持A AC的理 念和開放性,同 時完成我的個人 創作。

their own AAC. Most recent case is a Lithuanian student, who has

或許我可以說AAC是一個政治行為的藝術實踐項目吧。

gave up because of the financial situation, and then she turned

ART.ZIP: AAC是如何運作的呢,它到底是怎樣的一種實踐?

series of things that could help her start her own form of practice

PS: 現在AAC並沒有一個實體或者物理空間,我們組織的活動和項目都是

decided to go to Holland for studying an art degree, and then she to our AAC. I thought it was lovely, I hope what I have given her, a there. And I think that is a real creative sharing.

ART.ZIP: Many of your co-workers are working for the

universities, what do they think about this different way of doing education?

PS: What you find is that, if I was to generalise, many academics have critiqued their institution they’ve worked in for years.

Normally they dislike the structure, which is controlled by the

QAA, Quality Assurance Agency, dictates how learning outcome

should be formed, which is one of the bodies to find and decide how learning is justified. And those kinds of situation question are to find out how you teach. For instance, a lecturer might

want to teach how socratically as an approach through learning, and you can’t justify because you can’t quantify an outcome

through that for the Quality Assurance Agency, ‘where are your

learning outcomes?’ There are no learning outcomes. You know

比 較鬆散的。我創立A AC的時候 還並沒有意識 到到底發生了什麼。開始 的時 候就是一 個大學本 科 期間的抗 議活動,我們將5間學生宿舍改 造為 我們“大學”的校園。我們把自己的實踐從藝術學院轉移到學生宿舍,通過 這種形式,我們解構了高等教育和學校空間之間的關係。在那裡,我們開 創了不一樣的氛圍,更個人化的上下文關係和更隨意的學習空間。在開始 的時候,我們在這裡舉辦講座、討論、集會以及藝術展覽,基本上在那三 個月時間裏就是這樣,各種各樣的事情。後來,AAC項目的發展發生了戲 劇性的變化,它從嘗試提供學習空間和課程轉變為探討和質疑什麼是“教 育”的本質。“將學習作為一種實驗來對待。” 這種形式開始進入到教育學 研究的範疇,而且返回到對過程的反思並且開始就這個問題進行藝術創 作。我猜這也是近些年來我們很多工作的重心,而且這也是為什麼我們並 沒有舉 辦太多實打實的活動而是舉 辦了一系列的討論,并很多運用博 客 和推特等手段的原因。 通過這種方式,我覺得AAC建構了一個根植于基層的創意平臺,來着眼於 對可替代性教育問題的討論和發展。

that kind of process. And a lot them have already started up their

ART.ZIP: 目前為止,AAC項目獲得了哪些反饋?

There are a lot of shifts and also you have to be aware that with

PS: 在開始的時 候,有很多地方和國家 級 媒體都對我們的項目非常感興

commodity, it’s a value system of Capitalism.

逐 漸將實踐 重 點轉 移到將 整 個事件過程中的溝通和交 流的經 驗 進行整

own projects, such as Mike Neary at the university of lincoln.

high education in general, to generalise it as well, it is part of a

趣,BBC和IT V的新聞都報導了這個項目。隨後,我們的想法更為成熟, 合,并 探 討 如 何 更 深 入 的 發 展和 挖 掘 這 些材 料。這 讓 我 們 能 夠 保 持 一

To paraphrase Walter Benjamin, a man makes shoes for another’s

個開放的核心態 度,我們可以提 供一 個有意義的討 論,讓 人們可以各自

we can be part of a system but get equal participation in response.

挺不錯的。

needs rather than needs of his own. It’s about finding a point where

貢 獻,同 時也可以各取 所 需,我 覺得 這 就 是我們 收 到的回 饋,我 覺得 這


ART.ZIP: What is your attitude towards the current education system?

PS: I think rather than waiting for something to happen, do it

yourself! Having interesting chats at a coffee or shop, or creating,

starting political approaches, taking actions, this does not have to be direct action, they can be an art practice, it can be in any form, I have met a lot of people that have different ways of doing it. ART.ZIP: Do you think AAC has changed something? PS: I would say so. It was definitely a moment when I think about it.

thought they are going to catch me out, but they accepted it and they put it on the news. No way of backing this fact! And in some way you deal with humour to combat the current context. You

play with the current context. To avoid positioning yourself as a victim of the commodity system humour allows a space to use

capitalisms tools against itself. And I think digital media and digital platforms are the space to reunite this common ground. I think that’s something which might reach the search for something else, it’s moving and hopefully collectively we can produce a

learning space that is open in both its practice and separate from a commodity system quantified by values and outcomes.

We realized that a collective could do something, there’s shift and change of when it happened. I remember when the AAC did its

first TV interview, and they are asking me how I was going to fund

the AAC, I was thinking in my head, it’s an art practice, I don’t know how I’m going to fund the AAC, I have to think of something, so I said if you could tax football transfers by 2.5%, you could pay for

everyone in the UK to go to higher education. And at that point, I

Tips

小貼示

Fi n d ou t m or e 更 多 信 息: h ttp:/ / a lter n a tiv ea r tcollege.co.u k h ttp:/ / a r tv oid a r t.com


我也收到很多來自四面八方的有意思的郵件。我想我們一直都堅持最開

套用本雅明(Walter Benjamin)的一句話,鞋匠做鞋是為了顧客量身定

放的 態 度,最 近 我 成 立了一 個 讀書興 趣 小 組,對所有人 開放,將不同年

做,而不是為了給自己穿。我們是處在整個系統中的一員,但我們同樣處

齡、不同背景和不同語境 之中的人都彙 聚 一堂。我覺得這件事最重要的

在一個可以同等參與其中并給出反應的位置。

一 個收穫就是在“做 ”的過程中,教育并不是學習一小 塊 知識 或者從當權 者的角度去做某種宣傳,它應該是縱橫捭闔地馳騁和以一種開放態度去 汲取和吸收養分。這樣,我們可以以一 個開放的態 度來探討我們如何來

ART.ZIP: 對於當下的整個英國教育體系,你是怎麼看的呢?

和這個社會相契合,如何舉辦批評活動,如何將現有的情況進行拓展。當

PS: 我覺得,與其等待整個系統發生改變,不如去改變它,通過每個人的

人們給我發信,說希望成為AAC的學生的時候,我真的覺得受寵若驚。真

行動!在商店 裡 或咖 啡 館進 行有趣的聊天,或者開始 一 些政 治行動 、不

的是很可愛的來信,後來我會給他們回復,說 我們並沒有真正的住宿條

一定採取直接的行動,可以是藝術實踐,可以是任何形式,我遇到過很多

件,這裡只是普通的民宅而已。雖然如此,但這是一個開端,我會告訴他

人,他們都用各種方式和途徑來表達和實踐他們的想法。

們如何開始他們自己的“可替代性”學習。就在前不久,一位立陶宛的學生 打算去荷蘭學習藝 術課程,後來因為經濟原因未能實現,她便來聯繫我 們的A AC 。我覺得這件事很有愛,我希望我 給她的建議可以幫助她開始 建立自己的學習實踐,我覺得這樣的互動是非常有創作力的分享體驗。 ART.ZIP: AAC的很多同仁都是在大學裡面供職的,他們是如何看待這種 不同方式的教育行為的呢?

ART.ZIP: 你覺得AAC的出現對現在的系統有所改變麼? PS: 我覺得可以這麼說。每當我思考這個問題的時候,我都覺得AAC出現 的那一刻是有巨大象徵意義的。我們認識到開放和協作可以成就很多事 情,從開始到現在,AAC有了很大的轉變。我記得在AAC第一次接受電視 臺採訪的時候,他們問我如何能 夠 保證A AC運作的資金來源,當時我腦 子里 想“這 是 個藝 術項目,我不知道 怎 麼能 為A AC籌 集 資金。”但當時 我

PS: 總體說來,多年來他們都對自己供職的教育機構有很大的意見。一般

必須 說 些 什麼,所以我說 “ 如果可以徵收 英 超球 隊 每 位轉會隊員轉會費

來說,他們不喜歡現有的系統 結構,整 個教育系統被教育質量評 估機構

用的2.5%作為稅收,那麼就可以讓英國所有人都獲得高等教育了。”當時

(Quality Assurance Agency)所控制,它規定了教育的成果是應該如

我覺得這段 肯定被切掉了,誰 知後來他們不僅沒切還 放 到了新聞里 。很

何評定的,他們擁有評估教育機構成敗的權利。這類機構的問題就是,他

多事情其實就是這麼簡單,赤裸裸的直白!也正是因為這樣,你不得不用

們會影響教育機構的教學實踐。比如,一位老師想要教給大家如何通過蘇

幽 默的手段 來 平 衡當下的 語境 ,或者說 “ 玩 轉 現 實 ”。為了不 把自己置 於

格拉底式的思維來學習,但是教育評估機構會覺得你的教學沒有實際的結

一 個商品社會中受害者的角色,幽默感是一 個用資本主義反對資本主義

果,也沒有方法可以評估,所以你的教學是失敗的,我想你能想像這樣的過

的偉大武器。我覺得 數碼媒體和網絡 平臺都具有這樣的共同點,我想它

程。很多在學術領域的老師都已經開始建立他們自己的項目,比如林肯大

們可能 會將 研究的重點引入 別的方向,不過不管怎樣,這種 變 化 希望 是

學的邁克·內亞里(Mike Neary)。現在在教育界有很多的轉變,而且你要認

我們可以開闢出一片開放的、脫離以功利為價 值 取向的商品社會系統的

識到,在資本主義的價 值 系統之中,教育是商品社會的一個組成部份。

實踐空間。


Artists statement As the battle to stop the rise in fees exploded into the political imaginary of the student body, so did an extended period of experimentation with autonomous pedagogies. This shift in

is adopted due to his interest in autonomy’s function towards social change and the imaginary of change.

consciousness prompted Paul to begin his project The Alternative

The second research stream is concentrated on the role of the

question pedagogical processes, albeit temporarily.

of learning. This is carried out by analysing four ‘alternative’

Art College in 2011, which created an experimental platform to

I would like to open this by discussing how my art practice

evolved to form my current research practices. I come directly

‘alternative’ learning space towards supplementing formal modes learning spaces to observe what their form offers towards learning and knowledge production.

from an art (creative) background where I create work that holds

Alternative learning spaces are spaces that function as an

aim is to create politically informative pieces. The main body

method, in most cases as a critique to the current higher

political connotations and implements social statements, as the of my practice is trying to find subtle ways to depict reactions to situations in the political sphere; an example of this is the

Alternative Art College that is a website based piece of work but

also works as an actual college. The art is the documentation, the protest is the action.

Theorists such as Jacques Ranciere, Pierre Bourdieu, Walter

Benjamin and Max Weber have influenced the theory behind

the work that has and will continue to be created. Han Haacke is an artist who has influenced my work to take on political

education facility to question learning practices in an informal education system. My project and research aims to analyse

these approaches taken towards knowledge production from a selection of ‘alternative’ learning spaces in comparison with the current HE and art and gallery education systems in both

the UK and the US. I position the ‘alternative’ as a positive shift

towards knowledge production that does not rely on historical, architectural or economical forms. Do these ‘alternatives’

supplement the current HE systems formal focus with informal and semi- formal modes of learning?

connotations. His work has made me realise that to create a

I have been situated as both a student and an employee in

take in to account three things, site specifics, aesthetic value and

university movement; I feel it is a position that is beneficial to the

piece of art that has a politically charged reference you need to

ephemeral practice. This is to insure it is in the right place, in the perfect form and how to judge how long you have with that piece before it becomes obsolete.

My art practice is the Alternative Art College. In response to these

HE alongside being an artist whose work is located in the free

development of this project. To paraphrase Noam Chomsky, ‘debt neutralises critical thinking, disciplining students into efficient

components of the consumer economy’. As the university lies in ruins how will the next generation learn to resist?

events I set up the Alternative Art College in the tradition of

protest art, as a proactive form of protest that was an alternative both to the prospect of an increasingly expensive education

system and also to the existing form of protest. For this research project I will reflect critically on this initiative, drawing on the experience of other alternative education organisations.

I have two main research streams. The first focuses on whether the ‘alternative’ learning space can operate

A UNIVERSITY dean has praised the foundation of an “Alternative

of informal learning. To achieve this, my work focuses

up the “college of ideas” less than two weeks ago – but already,

autonomously and if this is beneficial to their policy

on understanding the relevance of the creation of an

‘alternative’ learning space and how they tackle the topic of knowledge production. The autonomous nature of the

Art College” in Lincoln. “Third-year fine artist Paul Stewart set

guest speakers are clamouring to give talks in the living room of his student house.”

‘alternative’ learning space is considered in both political

Ross Cummings, 22, a “pupil” of the college, said: “The college is a

Castoriadis and Benjamin. Castoriadis’ definition of autonomy

riot. “We’re here and we’re actually learning something.”

and artistic terms, referring to the conclusions of Adorno,

proactive way of doing something without going and causing a


藝 術家自述 當對於反對學費上漲的鬥爭演變成一 個學生主體的政治性象徵,在這個

作是去理解創造“另類”學習空間和知識生產之間的相關性。“另類”學習空

活動展開和延續的時期,正好是一 個適合做自主教育實驗項目的階段。

間的自治性特質是關照了政治和藝術兩個領域的專有概念,比如參照了

在意識上的這種轉變促使保羅·斯圖爾特在2011年開始了“另類藝術學院”

阿多諾(Adorno)、卡斯托里亞迪(Castoriadis)和本雅明(Benjamin)

項目,這個項目創立了一個平台來質疑現有的教育過程,雖然只是一個短

等人的論述。卡斯托里亞迪對“自治性”的定義是基於他感興趣于“自主性”

期的項目。

在社會變革和對變化產生的假想之中所起的作用。

作為開頭,我想說一下我的藝 術實踐是如何介入 并構成了我目前的研究

另一個研究重點是“另類”學習空間對于常規學習模式的促進和補充功能

實踐的。我的背景是 做藝術創作的,我的作品都與政治和社會實踐緊密

上 所扮演的角色 。我分析了四個 “另類”學習空間的并觀察他們是如何 建

聯繫,我希望通過我的作品能 夠 創造出大量具有豐富政治含義的作品。

構并如何作用於學習過程和知識生產的。

我的藝術實踐的主體是要嘗試以一種微妙的形式來描繪對當下政治問題 和實踐的一種反饋,我的“另類藝術學院(A AC)”就是 這樣一 個例子,這

“另類”學習空間是以教育機構的形式,用一種非正式的形式 來質疑學習

是一 個基於網絡的作品,同時它也真正像一 個實際的學院一樣 運作。基

實踐,大多數情 況下這些 教育機構 都是在批評現有的高等教育體 系。我

於此的文本和記錄都是藝術作品,所有的行為和活動都是抗議。

的項目和研究目的是通過挑選一些特定的“另類”學習空間并分析他們的 知識生產手段從而對比他們在英美現有高等教育體系和畫廊教育體系之

Ranciere),皮埃爾·布迪厄

間的異同。我認為“另類”學習空間對於知識生產來說是一 個很積極的轉

(Pierre Bourdieu),本雅明(Walter Benjamin)和馬克斯·韋伯(Max

變,它們不限于歷史、建 築或者是經濟 結構等各種 形式的束縛。這些“另

Weber)的論述都深刻地影響了我的創作。韓·哈克(Han

類”的學習手段是不是能 夠 促 進現有的高等教育體系開始關注這樣的非

很多理論家比如雅克·朗西埃(Jacques

Haacke)對我

的 影 響也很 大,在 他 的 影 響 下 我 開 始 圍 繞 政 治 問 題 和 相 關 事件 進 行 創

正式或者半正式學習模式的發展?

作。他的作品讓我認識到,在創作一件政治性題材作品的時候,需要考慮 和關照三件事情:特定的場景;美學價 值;曇花一現的時效性。這些都是

我在大學 做 過學生,也曾經在高等教育機構任職,同時我也是一 位為當

確保作品能 夠 在正確的地方、以完美的方式、並在議題被遺忘以前將作

地“免費大學運動”工作的藝術家;我覺得我所處的位置和狀 態有助於我

品製作出來。

的項目的發展。套用諾姆·喬姆斯基(Noam

Chomsky)的話,“個人債務

抵消了批判性思維,這將學生們打造成 為了商品經濟中的零件。”當現在 我的藝術實踐是“另類藝術學院”,一方面這是延續了一種以藝術方式來對

的大學成為了一片廢墟,那我們的後代如何才能學會反抗?

政治問題進行抗議的傳統, 另一方面也是對上漲的高昂學費以及現有教 育系統的一種 反抗 。對於這個研 究項目,我 結合了其他替 代性教育機構

林肯大學的一 位院長曾稱讚了“另類藝術學院”的成立,“大學三年級的藝

的經驗,對我們的實踐進行了很認真的反思。

術學生保 羅·斯圖爾特設立的‘思想的大學’不到兩個星期,但 是很多客座 嘉賓已經開始在那裡做講座了,就在學生宿舍的起居室裡。”

我有兩個主要的研究方向: 22歲的“學生” 羅斯·明斯(Ross Cummings)說:“這個學院提供了一個積 一 個重點是我們的“另類”學習空間是否能 夠 自主運行,而且這種 形式是

極的解決方案,我們不用到大街上去,也不會引起暴動,我們在這裡確實

否可以助力于他們的“非正式”學習政策,為了實現以上兩點,我的主要工

學到了很多東西。”


INTERVIEW WITH PHILIP-LORCA DICORCIA

專訪

菲利普-洛卡·迪科西亞 TEXT BY 撰文 x LI BOWEN 李博文

IMAGE COURTESY OF 圖片提供 x THE HEPWORTH WAKEFIELD GALLERY 赫普沃·斯維克菲爾德畫廊

ART.ZIP: Would you tell us about the recently opened exhibition ‘Philip-Lorca

ART.ZIP: 能 給 我 們 介 紹 一 下 最 近 在 英 國 赫 普 沃 · 斯 維

PD: This is an abbreviated version of an exhibition that has been shown in two other

影 展“Philip-Lorca diCorcia Photographs 1975-2012”嗎?

diCorcia Photographs 1975-2012’ at the Hepworth Wakefield Gallery?

places in Europe. So it is really not a surprise to me at all. The difference this time is of course it is in this museum that is quite nice. All the people I worked with are also

quite nice. Maybe because I haven’t had a show of this nature in Great Britain before, the reception has been very positive. So yes, I am happy with it. I don’t really consider it a retrospective though, because retrospectives are made from a choice of what

you have done over your entire career. In the case of this, and its other versions, it was more or less what was available, and that has to do with the cost, more than

anything else. The works have to be borrowed within Europe so that it wouldn’t be too much a hassle, in terms of, say, customs, and all of that. So this defined the choice

of what could be in the exhibition. I see it as an introduction to a large part of my work, but not a retrospective. I had to loan them a lot of works that are my own,

which was a difficult decision because the methods used to print twenty years ago don’t exist anymore. I loaned the work to the exhibition so that it wouldn’t be limited to whatever was available in various collections within Europe.

ART.ZIP: How do you find your teaching experience at Yale University

克 菲 爾 德 畫 廊 ( Hepworth Wakefield Gallery) 開 幕 的 攝

PD: 在來到英國之前,這個展覽已經在歐洲兩個不同的機

構中展出過。因此,我已經很熟悉這次展覽的內容了。相比那 兩次展覽來說,這是一個精簡過的版本。這次展覽在一個非 常好的美術館內進行,我也得以與友善的館內職員們一同工 作。可能因為我是第一次在英國進行這種性質的展覽,關於 展覽的評價都非常正面。所以,是的,我非常滿意這次展覽。 然而,我並沒有把這個展覽看作是一次回顧展,因為回顧展 意味著從你的整個創作生涯中挑選作品。這次展覽——包括 在歐洲的其它版本——更多地與取得作品的難易程度有關, 而這也在很大程度上與預算有關。我們只能從歐洲大陸內借 出作品,因為這樣在海關等問題上不會太麻煩。這個狀況決 定了這次展覽中能展出些什麽作品。我把這個展覽視作是對 我整體創作生涯的介紹,而不是一個回顧展。我自己也借出了 許多作品,雖然我不太情願——二十年前的照片印刷技術現 在已經不存在了。我把自己手中的作品借給展覽,這樣展覽中 收錄的作品就不必僅僅局限於歐洲大陸內的收藏。


School of Art?

PD: It began in 1996. It was more a casual role. I was invited to co-op and to critique the work of the students, and then I began to actually teach some practical courses

about lighting and the methods of doing things. It is a graduate school, so its emphasis

is really not on training professional photographers. It is within the art department. So in some way it’s not very good as a means to learn how to work professionally.

Artist Philip-Lorca diCorcia with exhibition Philip-Lorca diCorcia- Photographs 1975 2012 at The Hepworth Wakefield 2014. Photo- Bob Collier. Image courtesy the artist and The Hepworth Wakefield.

There is a desire to have some of the skills necessary to do that, and I have been

working professionally, so among other things, I was asked to do that. Eventually that was phased out, I just sit on a panel with up to four other people, maybe five. We

ART.ZIP: 能給我們講講在耶魯大學藝術學院的教學經驗嗎?

is a final critique, so I sit with others on that panel, then I give lectures about my own

初這是一個相對自由的身份。我受邀對學生們的作品進行

review students’ works, they have to present their works twice a semester, and there work or something. But it is not like I go and teach the history of photography or even

workshops on technical matters because it is just not something I really want to do anymore. The people who sit with me on the panel change all the time, including the head of the department, and a few permanent members of the faculty. My position is described as chief critic. So I guess I am a critic.

I am not sure exactly if I am going to continue to do it. To some degree that has to do with the nature of the photographic practice, and the policy of the institution. Frequently now the students, who are all graduate students, are not even making

PD: 我在耶魯大學藝術學院的教學生涯開始於1996年。最

評價、指導;繼而我漸漸地開始教授一些關於燈光使用以及 創作技法的實踐課程。這是一個研究生學院,所以教學重點 並不是訓練專業攝影師,但也歸於藝術系之中。所以,在某種 意義上這並不是一個進行職業技能學習的好地方。然而,在 學生中有對職業技能學習的渴望,我自己本身大量進行職業 創作,所以我也被邀請進行這種教學。 在一段時間之後這種教學結束了。我與其他四、五個人一同 組成一個評委會,點評學生作品。學生們每學期遞交兩次作


photographs in the traditional sense. At first that was okay but I really don’t feel I

品,此外還有一次最終評估。所以這是我在耶魯大學的重要

rarely see a straightforward photograph. I am really not interested in trying to have a

不會去教授攝影史或技術層面的問題,因為這已經不是我想

have that much to say. It is the nature of photography itself in the art world now: you

meaningful dialogue about abstraction or heavily conceptual work, that just doesn’t interest me. So that makes my presence somewhat irrelevant.

ART.ZIP: Do you think you contribute somehow to such a change in photography

責任之一,此外我還會進行關於我自己作品的講座。但我並 要做的事了。評委會經常更換包括系主任或其他全職教員在 內的成員。我的職位被描述成主評論。所以我想我擔任的是 一個評論家的角色。

as an artistic practice?

我並不清楚我是否要繼續留在這個職位。在某種程度上,這

aspect of the work that I do. But I don’t think there is anyone that owns any particular

越來越慣常地進行非傳統攝影實踐。在最初這沒什麽問題,

PD: I cannot speak for the medium at large. It is something I think about and it is an

aspect of photography solely by himself/herself. If the question suggests that

somehow I out of thin air evolve this particular aspect of my work, which has been noticed, I would say no. Everything comes as result of smaller steps, the awareness of

the history. The one thing I would say is that, as an artist, I chose to try and investigate that and emphasise it, and a lot of people were not interested in that. So the re-

emphasis on that is something that I can claim responsibility for, but inventing it, no. ART.ZIP: You mentioned the policy of the school, can you say a little more about it?

PD: It is the same thing that you see in the art world in general. I really don’t think that for instance identity politics is a particularly interesting thing. To investigate your sexuality is fine, but to do it with emphasis on you yourself is to me ultimately

與攝影實踐的本質有關,也與學院的政策有關。現在的學生 但是我真的感覺到我沒有什麽好說的。這也與藝術界中攝影 本質的改變有關,你越來越少能看到一張直截了當的照片了。 圍繞抽象或非常概念性的作品進行一次有意義的對話—— 我對這真的不感興趣。所以,在某種意義上,我的存在已經不 太重要了。 ART.ZIP: 可是您的創作不正是這種改變的推動力嗎?

PD: 我不能代表攝影這種媒介說些什麽。這問題是我的關注 所在,也是我創作中的一個重要層面。但我不覺得任何個人 能 夠 為攝影中發生的改變負責。如果這個問題意味著,不知 為何,我的作品推動了攝影的發展,並因此被注意——我的 答案會是否定的。事物的發展來自於細小的累積,來自於歷


boring. I don’t think that there is anyone in the art world and anywhere else that is

that interesting. Suddenly everything is me me me. Let’s say that people who have decided in what direction to go, at Yale for instance, they are all about having a career in the art world, and investigating notions of yourself and art itself. So it is art about art, it is art about ego, it is art about career. Those are the three things I couldn’t care

Philip-Lorca diCorcia ‘Chris, 28 years old, Los Angeles, California, $30’, 1990-92. Courtesy the artist, Sprüth Magers, Berlin/London and David Zwirner, New York/London

less about, so I am not interested in continuing.

史的意識。我只會說,作為一個藝術家,我選擇嘗試探究並關

Reality takes a part in the sense that it is a motivation. The experience of making

稱我關注這個問題,而創造這一切——不。

a photograph is not new to me. Increasingly it could be new, because I have no

注這個問題,而很多人對這個問題不感興趣。所以,我可以聲

real digital knowledge but let���s just say starting out, leaving your house, with your

ART.ZIP: 您提到了學院的政策,能多談一些嗎?

anymore. So what is unique is where you put yourself and what you experience as a

身份政治一類的問題是特別有趣的。去探究你的性別沒有

studio and facing a blank canvas and having anything that I want to register on that

聊了。我不覺得藝術界中的任何人,或更廣大世界中的任何

camera, and coming back with something that you have made, is not unique for me result of that. I chose photography in one way because the idea of going in to a big canvas just didn’t happen, it is just not something I want to do. So reality comes in to play, because reality is the substance that I work with.

ART.ZIP: So identity politics and art about ego are trendy at Yale?

PD: Oh it is quite trendy. One of the reason why I have a problem currently is because I believe that Yale’s reputation is based upon a certain tradition. That might sound

PD: 這也是在藝術界裡普遍存在的事情。我真的不覺得諸如 問題,但是在這個探究中強調你自己——這對我來說太無 人這麽有趣,值 得這麽多關注。突然,這一切都變成了“我, 我,我”。在耶魯之類學院內學習的人們,他們想投身藝術界, 探究有關自身以及藝術的概念。所以這一切變成了有關藝術 的藝術、有關自我的藝術、有關職業的藝術。這三樣東西是 我完全不感興趣的。所以我並不想繼續我的教職。

stuffy and old-world or something like that, in an atmosphere in which everybody

現實是創作的靈感和推動力。創作一張照片對我來說不是一

development and trend is usually not the latest, it is really a reiteration of something

多數碼科技知識。但是,帶著相機走出家門,帶著你拍下的

is looking for the latest development or trend. I think everybody knows the latest that has been done before, but because there is no cultural history at play, like there

is an amnesia. If somebody digitally makes a reproduction of something that was done in an analog manner 50 years ago, is it new? I don’t think so. But that seems to make a difference for some people, and it is not a discourse that I really feel is worth engaging in.

件新鮮事。在最近,我可以選擇新的創作經驗,因為我沒有太 事物回家——對我來說已經不是獨特的經驗了。所以,獨特 的是你身處的境地以及你最後從中得到的經驗。我選擇了攝 影,因為進入到一個大工作室之中面對著一張空白畫布嘗試 做出什麽來,這樣的創作不適合我。所以現實成為了重要的 元素,因為現實是我創作的質料。

It is not as if there is no sacrifice to being a professor, a critic in Yale, it is work. It is

ART.ZIP: 所以身份政治和關於自我的藝術在耶魯很流行?

degree of commitment. I see increasingly that people that are invited are just egos.

立在一種傳統之上的。在當下追逐流行的環境中,這可能聽

not as if they pay you a lot or you get a lot of benefits or it doesn’t take energy, or a

They don’t invest themselves very much in what they do at Yale, in terms of critiques, they just talk about what they do. That’s fine, most people want to know how these

people practice, but, you cannot do it year in and year out. That is the difference. I

mean the people that have stayed there, the people who are showing up year after

year, they are not talking about: “alright this is what I do.” They are trying to engage

with what is being done by other people and placing it in a context that is useful to that person. They are not stars to talk about their lifestyle and how they figure out that

PD: 非常流行。我現在感到困惑,因為我相信耶魯的名聲是建 起來很古板很保守。但我想所有人都了解,所謂最新發展或 流行往往不是最新的,而只是過去發生過的事情的重述。但 因為文化歷史的缺席,失憶症得以蔓延。如果有人以數碼攝 影技術復制了一張以膠片攝影技術在五十年前創造的照片, 這新鮮嗎?我不認為是這樣的。但似乎有的人是這樣想的,而 我覺得這是一個不值得考慮的話語。

a giant stainless steel puppy dog would sell for millions of dollars. I am not naming

在耶魯擔任教授和評論家並不是沒有犧牲的。這是工作。這

that arise. But I think my doubts about continuing in the present situation have more

履行職責。我看到越來越多被邀請來學院教學的人只關心自

names. There are of course in any institution, any job situation, personality conflicts

to do with a general change. It is not just a change in art education, it is a change

並不是拿著高額的酬勞或大量的福利而不需付出精力,不需 我。他們在耶魯的工作中並不投入。在評價作品的時候,他們

in the nature of the practice. And we all see it. I have - I would guess - a very good

只提他們自己的創作。這沒什麽問題,人們想了解他們是怎麽

the way that the art world has changed. I see it first-hand because, to some degree,

思是,在學院內工作的人們,全身心投入學院之中的人們,他

perspective because galleries that I work with in some ways are quite indicative of although I may not feel this way at all, galleries like David Zwirner or Sprueth Magers

are considered to be a symptom of a consolidation of money and power, in the art

創作的,然而你不能沒完沒了地這樣做。這就是不同。我的意 們不僅討論自己的創作。他們嘗試介入他人的創作之中,並 為他人創造有益的語境。他們不是那樣的明星:只會討論自


world which has, depending on whether you are getting that money and power or

not, been described as corrupting. You see it quite first-hand how these things

work. It is never the way it is described. The people are not what you think they are like. They are all committed, truly

believe in the work they are trying to

exhibit, promote, and sometime sell. It is also a big myth that everybody that has an exhibition gets rich.

I think I would continue some relationship with teaching, but I may not be at that particular institution. You know there is a cynical aphorism, I cannot quite

remember how it goes, but something like: “Real artists do, bad artists teach.”

There is within all art institutions a group of people who have basically either never

accomplished anything, or accomplished

something so long ago that nobody can

remember. But they got their jobs, and it is a lot harder to get rid of them, than to get

己的生活方式,或吹噓自己是怎麽想出來做一只價值幾百萬

every student is a good student. Somebody has to deal with the very basic levels

構中,在任何一個工作環境中都會存在性格沖突。但是我想

them. All schools are filled with these people. They have a few thankless jobs – not of art education, and that is usually on an undergraduate level. The people who

are privileged, as I believe I am, are those who really just have to deal with already

developed artists, and don’t have to do much more than to express their opinions that are valuable to the people there. Not just to the people you are talking about,

because you are doing it in front of all the other students as well. So the dialogue is larger than just the specific person that you are talking to. The references can often be seemingly relevant but that is the nature of the practice that you are trying

not only to help somebody improve what they are doing but possibly to change it

into something else. I cannot put it down into a percentage, but a large part of the people I worked with, they come into the program doing one thing, and they leave

it doing something entirely different. It is not the intention of anyone I think to make everybody change into a different beast but it happens, and increasingly it happens

美元的不銹鋼狗的。我不在針對任何人。當然,在任何一個機 我目前關於繼續教職的困惑與整體環境的改變有關。這不僅 僅是藝術教育的改變,這也與藝術實踐本質的改變有關。我 們共同目睹了這些改變。我想,我有一個非常好的視角,因為 與我合作的畫廊在藝術界的改變中有指標性意義。我有發言 權,因為在某種意義上,儘管我自己沒有這種感覺,大衛·茲維 爾納畫廊(David Zwirner)以及Sprueth Magers等畫廊被視 作金錢與權力媾合的產物,而藝術界因為這種畫廊的存在而 被視作是——視你是否是既得利益者而定——腐敗的。我 親眼見證了這一切的運作,而這一切與那些傳聞大相徑庭。 在這些畫廊裡工作的人們也不是你想像的那樣。他們非常投 入,真正相信他們嘗試展出的作品,宣傳,並偶爾完成交易。 每一個能 夠 辦展覽的人都能變得富有,這也只是一個大神

in a way that I am not particularly interested in, which is that they change medium

話。

twenty students, so ten are admitted every year – applies with a fairly traditional

我想我會中斷某些教職,也可能不會留在耶魯。你知道那句

say that when they leave, at least half of them are not doing it anymore. Like I said

術家教書。” 在任何藝術學院中都有這樣的一群人:他們要

altogether. Almost every single person who applies to that department – there are form of photography: something in a rectangular format, and has an image. I would

previously, they will be doing maybe video, installation, performance... It is kind of

difficult to even quantify it in some way. It is not unusual. There are a lot of installations

and videos, short films these days. The art world is used to that now. Having a subject has always been a large part of the practice of photography and increasingly that subject has become more and more nebulous and hard to define. When it is truly

interesting or well-developed, it can be a really good thing. But when it is just an excuse to avoid the fact that, you are kind of stuck but you need to make work: that

話——原文我記不太清楚——“真的藝術家創作,糟糕的藝 不然沒有任何成績,要不然就只在很久之前做過些什麽。但 他們得到他們的職位,從此之後,解雇他們比得到他們要難 得多。所有學院裡都有很多這樣的人。他們有一些不成功的 工作經歷,而學生們也不都是好學生。總有人需要進行最基 本的藝術教育,而這往往是學士學位時期的事情。幸運的人 們——比如我——只需要與成熟藝術家們溝通,而不需要 做提出有益意見之外的事情。而意見不僅需要對你的單一談


is the nature of going to school. That is not the nature necessarily of being an artist.

話對象有益,因為你需要在全體學生面前發表意見。所以對

well, and to have them exhibited, all of that – but I do not have to, necessarily. But

但創作的本質要求你不僅需要幫助學生進步,也需要幫助他

Whatever I do – of course there are all sorts of pressures to finish things, to do them when you are a student, you have to produce on a regular basis, and you have to show it to a bunch of people, and you have to take the criticism, that is a form of pressure which is somewhat artificial, although it does reflect in some microcosmic

way the larger world works. That pressure can take quite an emotional toll. I am not sure the students think of it as fun.

ART.ZIP: You described once the relationship between you and the subjects in your work as “I just tell them what to do.” What is the relationship between you and your students?

PD: I try as often as possible to not tell them what to do, because I think, in my experience, both of my own work and others, a lot of the quality that comes out

of things is something that results from the practice of making it, and not from a specific suggestion. I mean, yes, there are specific suggestions, buy a new camera,

whatever. But the idea that you could say “you need to really just stop taking pictures

of your mother” is not something I would be willing to do. I would approach it more

話不僅僅是一對一的對話。意見可能只在某種程度上有效, 轉變他的創作。我不能給出數據,但是我接觸的學生之中,很 大一部分學生畢業時的創作與入學時的創作完全不一樣。把 一個人轉變成一個完全不同的人不是任何人的本意,但是這 時常發生。這也經常以一種我不感興趣的方式發生:他們完 全轉換了創作媒介。幾乎每一個申請入學的學生——系內有 二十名學生,即每年級十人——在申請時都提交了相對傳統 形式的攝影作品:矩形,有明確形象。大約一半的人在畢業的 時候完全不做這樣的作品了。有的人在做影像,有的人在做 裝置藝術,行為藝術。量化這樣的轉變是困難的。這都經常發

Philip-Lorca diCorcia, ‘Lynn and Shirley’, 2008. Courtesy the artist, Sprüth Magers, Berlin/London and David Zwirner, New York/London.

Philip-Lorca diCorcia, ‘New York City (Bruce and Ronnie, 1982)’, 1983. Courtesy the artist, Sprüth Magers, Berlin/London and David Zwirner, New York/ London


like, “well, if you are going to take pictures of your mother, you need to stop doing it in this particular way.” That is about specific as it gets.

ART.ZIP: Internet and digital technology - could you say you have a problem with it?

PD: Problem... Well I do not have anything good to say about it. If that is a problem, I guess I do. I just find it to be idiotic, to be honest. I know there is a huge generational

gap concerning people who seem to be constantly pecking at their mobile device, and the sharing of the most banal details of their probably very banal lives, constantly. Yes, I think that is really a sort of waste of your time on earth. I really don’t practice

social media. I don’t think I have ever posted anything on Facebook, I don’t have Twitter. And I become to realise that, Facebook and Twitter are not even relevant

anymore, they are almost like old school, with other stuff out there. And Instagram?

I just don’t get it, and I wish people would stop taking my picture, and putting it on Instagram. I get an email from somebody and it says “oh I saw a nice picture

生。在今天,我們經常看到裝置藝術作品、影像作品、短片等 等。藝術界已經習慣了這樣的作品。創作對象對於攝影實踐 來說一直是非常重要的,然而在今天的攝影中,創作對象越 來越模糊,難以定義。如果這攝影是真正有趣的,或是很好地 發展出來的,這可以是一件非常好的事情。但是有時這種攝 影只是這樣的一種藉口,用來逃避你在創作中停滯不前卻又 必須創作的事實。這是學院體制決定的。做一名藝術家未必 需要這樣做。無論我做什麽——當然,我需要在各階段面對 各種壓力,完成作品、做好作品、展覽作品等等——我不需要 不情願地創作。但當你是一個學生的時候,你必須以一定的 頻率創作,必須得對一群人展示作品,必須接受批評——這 些是一種人為的、非自然的壓力,儘管這個狀況多少反映了 現實世界中的壓力。這種壓力能 夠 帶來不小的心理影響。我 不認為學生們覺得這有趣。

of you on Instagram” and I am like “what?” I got sued for taking a photograph of

ART.ZIP: 你曾經這樣描述你跟攝影對象的關係:“我告訴他

complain about people posting things on the web that I was not even aware were

PD: 我嘗試儘量不去告訴他們該做什麽,因為我從自己的經

a man and putting it in an art gallery and selling it. So I guess I have no right to done and certainly didn’t give permission to do, but they do it. It is sort of like there

is this great big digital community out there and you are sharing something really

in need of attention with this entire community. I just don’t think it is really relevant. I do see the need through the Internet to share information and to exchange ideas

and to motivate political discourse and resistance. But I would say 99.99% of it is not at all about that. Everybody knows that most of the Internet traffic is pornography.

Nobody would deny that the Internet is a great and revolutionary thing. The fact

們該做什麽。” 那麼你跟學生的關係會這樣嗎?

驗中了解到,無論是我的作品或是別人的,作品本身的特性 往往與某個特定建議無關,而很大程度上來自於創作的過 程。我的意思是,是的,我可以給很特定的建議,比如去買個 新相機等等。但是我不願意說這樣的話:“你別再拍你媽了。” 我會這樣去處理:“ 嗯,如果你要拍攝你母親的肖像的話,你 需要停止繼續以這樣的方式拍攝。” 這是我能給予的最具體 的建議了。


Philip-Lorca diCorcia, ‘Hartford’, 1979. Courtesy the artist, Sprüth Magers, Berlin/London and David Zwirner, New York/ London

Philip-Lorca diCorcia- Photographs 1975 - 2012 installation view at The Hepworth Wakefield 2014. Photo- Bob Collier. Image courtesy the artist and The Hepworth Wakefield.

that most of it is used to absorb pornography... it just goes with the territory I guess. ART.ZIP: What about your student life. What was it like?

PD: It was very, very different. For one thing, I made the commitment to be a

photographer, let’s say, late. It was not the only thing I ever did. When I decided to commit myself to it, the practice of photography was very different. There was no art market for photography. I believe there was one gallery in New York City that

devoted itself to photography, most art galleries did not include photography, there was very little interest in it. It was considered like a subdivision of the art world, a poor

ART.ZIP: 您如何看待互聯網和數碼科技的呢?

PD: 對於這些,我沒有什麽好的評價。如果這是有意見的話, 我想我的確有意見。我覺得這很蠢,說真的。我知道這與代 溝有關:一代人無休止地擺弄他們的移動設備,無休止地分 享他們無聊生活中最無聊的細節。是的,我覺得這是浪費時 間。我真的不使用社交網路。我想我從來沒有在Facebook 上發表過什麽,我沒有Twitter賬戶。我也發現:Facebook和 Twitter等社交網路已經不重要了,與別的東西一同已經是 老舊的事物了。還有那個Instagram?我真的不明白,我也 希望人們能停止在Instagram上發布我的照片。有人給我發 郵件,告訴我:“我在Instagram上看見一張你的照片。” 而我 說:我說:“什麼?這太扯了吧?!”我曾因為在畫廊展示並交 易一張隨機拍下的人像照片被別人起訴。因此,我想我沒有 權利抱怨人們在我不知情的情況下在互聯網上發布我的照

relative. The perspective was very vague. Going to Yale was of course buying into

片;但他們的確喜歡這樣做。我感覺互聯網上有一個巨大的

had been, until he established a separate photographic department, a subdivision of

事情。我不覺得這真的重要。我清楚有在網上分享信息、交流

the legacy of Walker Evans who established the department. But the department

數碼社區,而人們與這整個社區分享著些什麽亟需關注的

graphic design. Not art, graphic design. And a lot of people sort of treated it that way.

以推動政治話語或抵抗的必要,但我會說網上99.99%都不是

do sculpture, video, painting, it didn’t really exist. And so I am not sure I had a clear

人會否認互聯網是一個偉大的、革命性的事物,而其中一大

So the idea that one day I would have my work mixed in with a group of people who

idea of the outcome of two years of studying at Yale, where I was a graduate student. Before that I was in an art school which, as I said, was like a process of discovery,

where I tried this, I tried that, and eventually found my way to photography. But it

was certainly not the only thing that I did. That was very useful, but at the end of it, I

這些。所有人都知道互聯網傳播最廣泛的是色情內容。沒有 部分是色情信息可能是我們被迫要接受的現實。 ART.ZIP:您的學生生涯是什麽樣的?

PD: 那時跟現在非常不同。首先,我很晚才決定要成為一位攝


was basically trained to do nothing. I chose to go to graduate school to kind of evade

影師。這是我從事過的許多創作中的其中一件。當我決定要

career, it absolutely did not. As a matter of fact, I think that they almost considered

那時,對於攝影來說,並沒有一個藝術市場。我相信那時在紐

that reality, not that going to graduate school really trained you for a professional commercial photography to be some sort of corruption of the media. People like

me basically have developed a postmodern attitude towards commercial work: it reflects society, therefore its qualities can be used in different contexts in a way that

is relevant. Not only that, but you can use the skills necessary to do it to do other

things as well. I don’t think there is anything wrong with having some skills. I didn’t learn that many skills, but I did learn a lot. I was really forced to challenge my attitude

about things. I would say that that is part of what any good school does. It’s not really

to change you, to mould you into what they think you should be, but to challenge your conceptions of what you are doing. That was pretty much what I got out of it.

I had a fairly successful academic career. I got a lot of resistances, but then I got a lot

of acceptances. That’s encouraging, of course when they set you free and when you have to decide what are you going to do with the rest of your life, it’s good to feel like you don’t have to go back to your hometown and try to get a job in a high school. ART.ZIP: Theatricality in your work, you picked that up in school as well?

PD: In the late 70s, the idea of staging photography didn’t really exist. Of course there was Cindy Sherman, but I wasn’t really aware of her when I was a student.

That’s about as close as I can remember. Once you make the move to stage things, theatricality is a natural result of it. As a matter of fact, one of the problems is to keep that theatricality from being the only quality of the work.

I know that the system that exists in China for instance is very different from the

system that exists in the United States. Even within the United States, there are different systems. If you want to be a photographer, and if you want to know

everything you could possibly learn about, everything digital, technical, every piece

進行攝影實踐的時候,這種實踐面臨著非常不同的狀況。在 約只有一家展示攝影作品的畫廊。大部分畫廊不接受攝影, 一般來說,人們對攝影並不感興趣。攝影被視作是藝術界的 一個分支:一個窮親戚。在那時攝影並沒有什麽前景。去耶魯 進修,當然是對攝影系建立者沃克·埃文斯(Walker Evans)遺 產的繼承。但攝影系由埃文斯獨立出來以前一直是平面設計 的一個分支科系,不是藝術,而是平面設計。很多人也的確這 樣看待攝影。所以在那時我並沒有想到,在未來,我的作品將 與雕塑、影像、繪畫等作品放置在一起進行展覽。當我是一名 研究生的時候,我並不清楚在耶魯兩年的學習能帶來什麽。 在那之前,我在另一所藝術學校進行各種探索,並最終決定 進行攝影創作。但這肯定不是我唯一一件做過的事情。這些 學習非常有用,但在最終,我並沒有接受過什麽訓練。我進行 研究生學習也是為了逃避這個現實,而不是因為研究生學習 能夠為你未來的職業生涯進行訓練——你絕對不會在研究 生學院接受到這種訓練。事實上,我想學院幾乎認為商業攝 影是對攝影媒介的褻瀆。而像我一般的攝影藝術家對待商 業作品有一種後現代態度:這種商業攝影反映社會,而這攝 影的各種特質可以在不同的語境中以有效的方式被挪用。其 次,你也可以使用習得的相關技能進行其它的創作。我不覺 得有技能是一件壞事。我沒有學會太多技能,但我學會了很 多。在學生時代,我被迫挑戰我自己對事物的態度。我覺得這 是所有好藝術學院的特質。這與直接改變一個人、以一個既 定模型塑造一個人無關;這種學習挑戰你對自身創作的既定 概念。這是我在學院中學到的事情。我有一段頗為成功的學 習生涯。我遇到了許多抵抗,也得到了許多認可。這鼓勵了我。 當然,當你從學院出來、決定了未來的人生軌跡之後,知道自

of equipment that you could possibly use, there are schools that teach you that. I

己不必回到家鄉的中學去擔任老師讓人感覺很好。

about it, it is just not the way that I approach it, not the way that Yale approaches it.

ART.ZIP: 你作品中的戲劇性也是在學習時練就的嗎?

They are usually sort of like what they used to call the humanistic education. It’s not

在。當然,那時候辛蒂·雪曼(Cindy Sherman)已經開始創作,

didn’t and don’t participate in those programs, I don’t think there is anything bad And most of the programs that I am aware of or have contact with, they don’t either. to train you to do something, it’s to train your mind to be able to do something later. That’s kind of the way that it is approached. If you, as increasingly you do now, need

training in Photoshop or Final Cut Pro, whatever, you can get it. If you are going there to master your Final Cut Pro, forget it. It’s not the right place for you. I would say that

my knowledge of Chinese education in the arts is that it is more technically oriented. They train people to have the skills to reproduce things, for one, quite accurately. It’s more of an industrial education.

The Chinese artists that are known in the United States, a lot of them didn’t develop in China. It’s well known that the Chinese art market is now huge, but it’s mostly traditional Chinese art, it’s not contemporary. I don’t have any regrets about having chosen to pursue art as a profession if you want to call it that. But I never really

consider myself a professional artist. The one thing about the current relationship of the art world to culture in general is that there is a lot of myths about what it

PD: 在70年代末,編導攝影(Staged Photography)並不存 但作為學生的我並不熟悉她的作品。其它以相似方法創作的 藝術家並不多。一旦你開始布設場景,戲劇性就會隨之而來。 事實上,避免這種戲劇性成為作品的唯一特質是我經常要面 對的問題。 我知道中國的藝術教育體系與美國的現存藝術教育體系非 常不同。就算在美國境內也存在著許多不同的藝術教育體 系。如果你想成為一名攝影師,如果你想知道所有你能學習 到的東西——無論是數碼科技的或是技術層面的——所有 你可能將要用到的器材,你能 夠 在某些學校裡學到這些事 情。我從未也不會在這些課程中任職,儘管我不覺得這樣的 課程有什麽不好。這不是我的方法,不是耶魯的方法。我知道 的或接觸到的課程也不這樣做。他們很像是人文教育課程。 這些課程不嘗試訓練你去做些什麽,而是嘗試訓練你的頭


takes to be successful or even survive in this environment. Everybody

腦,以在日後完成什麽事情。這是一種常見的方法。如果你現在的普遍

But it’s much more unusual than people think. Very often, just having an

夠輕易地進行這種學習。如果你為了掌握Final Cut Pro而進入到學院之

thinks you can be a super star in a couple of years – that does happen.

exhibition or being included in an important group show, that doesn’t really change things that much. You do need to figure out a way to survive,

while being able to still make your work, and keep it from disappearing. That’s not quite so easy. One of the ways that a lot of people survive, and

one of the reasons why there are programs like Yale’s which gives you a

Master of Fine Arts degree, is that they teach. To work in a university in

狀況一般,需要學習使用Photoshop或Final Cut Pro一類的工具,你能 中,算了吧,學院不是適合的地方。我想,我印象中的中國藝術教育更多 地關注技能訓練。他們訓練人們精確復制事物的技能,更多地像是一個 工業教育。在美國聞名的中國藝術家,他們中的很多人並不是在中國得 到職業發展的。中國藝術市場非常巨大是眾所周知的,然而這個市場更 青睞傳統中國藝術,而不是當代中國藝術。

the United States, you pretty much need a master degree. I am not sure

我不後悔選擇藝術作為我的職業,如果你要把我的創作稱作職業的話。

mind: I need this degree in order to be a teacher. I never thought of that I

係中很重要的一點是:今天存在許多關於在這個環境中成功或生存的

how many people that enroll in the program have that in the back of their was going to be a teacher, when I graduated thirty - something years ago.

但是我從來沒有把我自己視作職業藝術家。現今藝術界與整體文化關 神話。每個人都覺得自己能 夠 在幾年內成為明星——這的確發生過。

The vast majority of my professional life has nothing to do with being a

然而,事實上,這件事情發生的幾率比人們想像的要小。通常,得以展出

the very least, practicing artists. Sometimes the act of teaching excludes

條生存的道路,繼續創作,並嘗試不要讓自己消失在人群中。這不是簡

professor. That’s the way it should be done – teaching should include at the capacity or time or whatever to actually do what you need to do. Or, you get a job in the middle of nowhere, and you suddenly are isolated.

That happens quite a lot. Teaching can be a kind of curse. You can start

teaching right away, and never be anything more. It’s just a diversion. It’s so hard to be so methodical, to say: okay, every Tuesday between 2 and

6 pm, I am going to work on my own project. Universities don’t pay you

作品或被邀請參加某個重要群展,並不能真正改變什麽。你需要找到一 單的事。很多人生存的方式——同時也是耶魯之類研究學院課程的設 置原因——就是教學。在美國,碩士學位是在大學內任職的必要條件 之一。我不知道人們在申請入學的時候有沒有考慮這件事:我需要這個 文憑以在大學擔任教職。在三十多年前我畢業的時候,我從未想過當老 師。我職業生涯的大部分與教授職位無關。這是一種有效的工作方式。 教學應當包括正在實踐的藝術家。在某些情況下,教學不能保證足 夠

very well, that’s one thing. If you are teaching full time – and I do not teach

的時間、精力等以完成你應當完成的工作。或者,你突然得到一份教學

that’s probably at least three times a week, and all the peripheral things

以馬上開始教學,就這樣過去一輩子。這可以是一條分岔口。有條理地

that’s the minimum – before you are considered to be full time. Believe it or

六點,我將進行我的個人創作。學院工作並不能提供很高的酬勞,這是

full time, never have – you have all the benefits, health care, whatever. But

you have to do. The time in the classroom amounts to about three days – not, that’s a lot. Three days doesn’t sound like much, most people work five

days a week. But it doesn’t really leave much time and energy to do other

工作,而也因這個工作被孤立。這經常發生。教職可以是一種詛咒。你可 同時進行教���和創作不是一件容易的事情:比如,在每周二下午兩點到 其中一個問題。如果你是全職教學——我不是,從來不是——你能夠 得到所有的福利,醫療保險等等。但是這意味著最起碼一周三次課程,

things. Universities and colleges are social contexts as well. There are other

以及所有其它日常工作。全職教職每周在教室內的工作最起碼要花掉

have to do other things. There are a lot of stars, they fly in for a day... I don’t

多,大部分人一周需要工作五天。但是這真的意味著沒有時間或精力進

people and other things. I am not talking about a lot of money, people

know, I don’t even know if that kind of thing exists anymore. Well they did

exist. For instance, I think Gary Winogrand used to teach in Texas. He would just fly to Texas, stay there for two days, and then they would give him a lot

of money and he just goes wherever else. He was not from Texas, I don’t even think he liked it.

三天時間做準備。不管你信不信,這其實已經非常多了。三天聽起來不 行什麽別的創作。學院也是社交環境,學院中也有其它人進行著其它 事。各種明星飛來進行一天的課程,再馬上飛走。我不清楚這樣的安排 現在是否仍然存在,最起碼這種安排曾經存在。我記得加裏·溫諾格蘭德 (Gary

Winogrand)曾經在德克薩斯州教學。他會飛去德克薩斯州,在

那呆兩天,學院給他許多錢,他再飛去別的什麽地方。他不是來自德克 薩斯州的,我想他根本不喜歡那。


11 COURSE LEADERS: 20 QUESTIONS – A COLLECTION OF INTERVIEWS WITH 11 LONDON BA FINE ART COURSE LEADERS 《倫敦藝術課程主任二十問》 TEXT BY 撰文 x PENG ZUQIANG 彭祖強

There seems to be a rather redundant amount of discussion on the future of

近幾年來,在英國關於大學藝術教育的討論尤其熱烈。在經

questions was whether it would still be worthwhile to study art after UK tuition fee

在藝術市場萎縮的年代,來大學學習藝術專業到底值不值。

art education at a higher level. During the age of crisis, one of the most debated increases and with the market showing signs of fatigue.

濟乏力的年頭,學生和學校所共同面對的最常見問題便是:

而三年前出版的《倫敦藝術課程主任二十問》 ( 下文簡稱為

In a way, the book 11 Course Leaders: 20 Questions – A collection of Interviews with

《二十問》),則正是想給所提及的這個問題給出回應。 《二十

to this question. The book, as its title suggests, takes the format of interviews, with

敦十一所藝術大學本科純藝專業的課程主任訪問組成的合

11 London BA Fine Art Course Leaders, attempts to provide a series of responses the author Sarah Rowles asking the leaders of 11 BA Fine Art courses in London 20 questions each. These questions, some drafted before-hand and some of which

emerge during the conversations, are intended to demystify undergraduate art

問》,書如其名,是一本由作者莎拉·羅斯(Sarah Rowles)對倫 集。薩拉·羅斯向每位課程主任提出了二十個問題,這十一場 對談中,二十個問題各有不同,有些是提前準備,而另一些則 是隨著訪談話題的深入而展開。而所有這二十個問題,都給


11 Course Leaders: 20 Questions – A collection of Interviews with 11 London BA Fine Art Course Leaders. Interviews and Foreword by Sarah Rowles. Independently-published, £ 12.50, 239 pp, ISBN: 9780-9564355-1-4.


education from multiple perspectives.

予不同的角度來理解和認識本科階段的藝術教育專業。

Readers who expect this book to list the ‘pros and cons’ of each Fine Art course might,

可能讀者們會期待這本書成為一本列出各學校優劣的‘擇校

is not Rowles’ intention to publish a book which serves that purpose. As a graduate

問。寫一本‘倫敦選校指南’並非薩拉·羅斯的初衷,薩拉·羅斯從

in the long and in-depth interviews, find it is not what they looking for; however, it of BA Art Practice from Goldsmiths, Sarah Rowles discovered her own interest in

investigating models of art education while she was still a student. This book is a result of her sustained passion for art education - an interest which also drives her to run the art education organisation ‘Q-Art’, whose aim is to support people into, through and beyond art education.

By bringing these 11 London-based art courses together in the same book, this small publication employs no hierarchy - giving equal weight to colleges that are

easily overlooked, such as Cass School and City and Guilds, as to those that are more

internationally renowned, namely Central Saint Martins. That said, readers are still

手冊’。但這本書所包含的其實是十一組具有深度和長度的訪 金史密斯學院純藝本科畢業,在金史密斯的學習過程中,她 對藝術教育自身的結構與其不同的模式產生了興趣。而這本 書正是她畢業後這樣一個興趣的延伸,她對藝術教育體系的 好奇也促使她創辦了Q-Art這個藝術教育組織,而Q-Art通過 出版物、藝術研討會和展覽的方式,為在藝術教育不同階段 的受眾提供幫助。 這十一組與各個倫敦藝術院校課程主任的對談,沒有按學校 的名氣來分配其地位。而其中一些經常被人忽略但同樣優 秀的學校:卡斯藝術學院(Cass School)和城市協會藝術大學

made aware of the differing educational models practiced in the various art colleges.

(City & Guilds of London Art School),也跟另外一些國際

For instance, the split in teaching models, between the conceptual-led versus the

但是,這並不意味著訪談的內容有任何大相徑庭,讀者們還

material-led, can be thought of as a criteria to differentiate art schools. However, in

actual fact, most schools do not define themselves so rigidly. When asked about

知名的學院在這本小小的出版物中占據著同樣重要的位置。 是能從中辨別出這些學校所施行的各不相同的教育模式。

the common stereotype towards the Slade School of Fine Art as the ‘materials-

例如,在純藝專業中,以觀念為創作起點或是以材料為中心

school as such, denying any opposition to the conceptual-led model. He referred

大部分的學校已經不會再用這樣死板的二分法來定義自己。

led’ school, the Slade’s then director, Professor John Aiken, refused to identify the

to alumni, well recognised in the contemporary art world in recent years such as Angela de la Cruz and Tacita Dean, claiming that they both exhibit a highly discursive

practice whilst still maintaining incredibly good ‘craft-based’ skills. Aiken does not believe the word ‘skill’ to be the most appropriate word to negotiate definitions of art school, however, he thinks that material culture is strong at the Slade, and the debate surrounding ‘skilling and de-skilling’ is very active in the school.

This model of ‘first skill, then de-skill’ was too often used on students who came from a non-Western educational background. Aiken gives the example of students from

the Far East who, in their undergraduate education at home, experienced a heavy

emphasis on learning traditional skills. When they arrived in the UK for their Masters degree, they found the different approach to teaching contemporary art practice very challenging.

This rather outdated East/West split may also have a parallel in to the divided

pedagogical pathways of Painting, Sculpture, Photography and New Medias. A more traditional art school in a non-Western region is likely to be organised around such pathways, an approach many art colleges in the West have abandoned, replacing it with a broad-based BA Fine Art course.

However, not every art school agrees with the division-less educational model.

Wimbledon College of Arts, part of the University of Arts London, still offers subjectspecific Fine Art provision. As Dereck Harris, Wimbledon’s BA Fine Art courses leader

曾是一個能區分學校特色的指標。然而,在當今藝術教育中, 當被問及如何看待斯萊德美術學院(Slade School of Fine Art)常被看作是‘以材料為創作起點’的學校時,斯萊德的課 程主任約翰·艾肯(John Aiken)教授不同意這種簡單的兩兩 相對的比較。他舉出學校的知名校友,同時又是近幾年活躍 在當代藝術界的藝術家馬丁·克裏德(Martin Creed)和塔其 塔·迪恩(Tacita Dean)為例,他們二人均以觀念藝術創作見 長,但同時都具有紮實的技巧功底。艾肯教授並不認為‘技巧’ 是用來衡量藝術教育優劣的最佳詞匯。但同時他也同意對材 料的深度鉆研在斯萊德學院是很常見的,而學校裡關於‘技 巧’和‘去技巧’的討論也相當的普遍。 這種‘先熟練技巧,再疏遠技巧’的特質,經常被用來形容有著 非西方藝術教育背景的學生。比如在東亞地區,很多藝術學 生在大學本科階段重視磨練他們的繪畫或雕塑技巧。而當他 們到西方來學習藝術研究生學位時,則被一種截然不同的看 待當代藝術的角度所挑戰。 類似於這種‘東西教育差別’的過時論調,同樣也出現在專業 內部方向的區分上。比如,一些較為傳統的非西方院校可能 大多保留著繪畫、雕塑、攝影、新媒體等等諸如此類的方向區 分規劃。而在西方的大多數院校已經取消了這些分類,而只 開設一門兼容並包的純藝專業。

comments, Wimbledon, as a small and originally independent art college, maintains

儘管如此,也並不是每所倫敦院校都不再分專業方向。倫敦

learning. Wimbledon offers three divisions: Painting, Sculpture and Print & Time-

仍然堅持著按方向區分的本科純藝學位。溫布爾登學院的藝

a friendly and supportive atmosphere, and this works well with subject-specific

藝術大學溫布爾登藝術學院(Wimbledon College of Arts),


Based Media. Harris discussed how broad-based art courses often promote a ‘prior-

術課程主任德雷克·哈裡斯(Dereck Harris)談到,作為一個規

the making process itself. Again this is a question which activates the debate

保留了一個友好而互助的學習氛圍,而這種氛圍對專業分化

conceptualisation’ of art practice, in which the discussion of ideas usually precedes surrounding skill/de-skill and process/concept.

A division into specialisms also challenges the group critique which is commonly

practiced in the broad-based model, where students discuss each others’, work,

assumptions and values. Harris thinks this group-critique model can potentially ‘lead to a conceptual, stylistic or attitudinal homogeneity’ which he doesn’t like. Instead,

he thinks Wimbledon, with its subject divisions, offers a more democratic and pluralistic approach - one which emphasises diversity.

Whether it is ‘Thinking through Making’, or ‘Making through Thinking’, historically, contemporary art practice and art education also included an art history and critical

theory component. This also highlights another key question of BA art education:

whether art history and theory should be taught as part of the course. Sarah Rowles

模相對較小、同時具有悠久獨立歷史的藝術學校,溫布爾登 的設置很重要。溫布爾登學院的本科純藝專業有三個方向: 繪畫,雕塑,多媒體。而哈裡斯認為單一而不分方向的專業設 置通常會偏向於以觀念為中心的創作模式,而在此之中,對 於觀念的辯論往往超越了創作過程本身。而這也是一個有關 於‘技巧/去技巧’,‘過程/觀念’的藝術教育大討論。 有方向區分的專業設置,也是對另一種藝術中‘Convenor’討 論會的一種挑戰。哈裡斯認為這種‘Convenor’討論會,會可 能引導學生們進入一種‘觀念、風格及態度上的同一性’,而哈 裡斯本人並不贊同這種現象。取而代之的,一種更為民主、多 元、強調多樣性的教學模式是他所認為溫布爾登學院所能提 供的。

first entered Goldsmiths as an student of art history, but changed her mind after

無論是‘以思考帶領創作’或是反其道而行之的‘以創作引領思

a graduate who had experienced both disciplines at Goldsmiths, she asked the BA

密的聯繫。這也往往引出另外一個藝術教育的問題,在本科

studying for a year, instead graduating from the BA Fine Art practice programme. As Fine Art course leader Michael Archer the reason for not teaching art history in the practice course.

Michael Archer is not a practicing artist, instead he has a History of Art degree and a prolific career as a critic and writer. Archer agrees that knowledge of art history can benefit anyone who practices art. Nevertheless, he also believes that the studying

of art history ‘should not be prioritised over having knowledge of other things.’ For

考’的模式,在當代藝術教育中,藝術理論跟創作往往有著緊 純藝專業裡,需要開設藝術史和藝術理論的課程嗎?這本書 的作者薩拉·羅斯最先是以一名藝術史學生的身份來到金史 密斯學院,在一年的學習後,她改變主意轉到了純藝專業。作 為一名在金史密斯學院對兩門不同專業都有經歷過的畢業 生,羅斯問到學院的課程主任邁克爾·阿徹(Michael Archer) 為什麽不在純藝術課程裡開設藝術史課程。

Archer, art history is as important as any other personal or professional development

邁克爾·阿徹雖然並不是藝術家出身,但擁有藝術史學位的他

how to paint, or familiarity with the world outside the art college.

何一位藝術創作者都有幫助,但他同時也提出對藝術史的學

which helps the student to become an artist, whether it is the craft skills of knowing

For Archer, the most important reason of not including art history classes as part of the pedagogy was the worry of potentially restricting students’ curiosity, imagination and willingness to experiment. It is therefore left up to the students themselves

是一名著作等身的藝評人和作家。阿徹認為藝術史常識對任 習‘不應被提升至比對其他知識的學習更高的地位’。阿徹教 授認為學習藝術史和學習創作技藝以及職業規劃課程對藝 術家有著同等的幫助。

to find out more about art history, should they believe that it would inform their

然而,在他看來,在金史密斯學院不把藝術史課程囊括在純

as print-making and photography to feed into their art-making.

和實驗性帶來任何限制。所以要不要學藝術史可以由學生們

practice, in the same way that they can seek technical guidance in workshops such

The book’s Q&A format also prevents it from simply being a ‘manual of art course

comparison’. The ambition of the book lies beyond just comparing these different

dynamics of art education by also reflecting on these courses against the background of art education in the UK generally.

In the years after the financial crisis of 2008, the Art and Humanities education

sector suffered greatly in terms of receiving reduced government funding. One of

藝術教育中的最重要原因,是不想給學生的好奇心、想像力 自己根據需求決定,正如同他們可以選擇是否向學校裡的技 術人員和各種類型的工作室尋求幫助和支持一樣。 這本書的問答形式確保了書中內容不僅僅只是一本‘藝術院 校比較指南’,作者的目標不僅僅是把不同的藝術教育風格囊 括在一本出版物中,而且也試圖以深度對話的形式去尋找歸 納不同風格教育中所經歷的共同性。

the shared experiences of most colleges was the lost of funding which affected

在金融危機發生後,英國的藝術和人文教育學科在政府的預

tuition fees went up to £9,000 per year.

到,資金緊張是學校和學生共同面對的情況。對於本地學生

institutions and students. For the latter, the situation had worsened by 2012, when

算資金支持上受到最大的沖擊。受訪的眾多課程主任都反映 而言,情況似乎更糟:在2012年,大多數的藝術院校把學費拔


As many course leaders recall in this book, art education back in the 60s and

高到了每年9000英鎊。

College of Art and Design states that, in the previous generation, education was

正如受訪的諸多課程主任所回憶道,英國六七十年代的藝術教

Nowadays it is becoming increasingly difficult for students to choose to study

sign)的純藝課程主任莫·索普博士(Dr. Mo Throp)提到,在他們

70s was very different. Dr. Mo Throp, the BA Fine Art course director at Chelsea free and art students received extra grants for materials, rent and transportation.

art and design for its own sake. Students, facing the reality of their future livelihoods, now have to ask both themselves and the art school the question:

‘is it still worthwhile spending so much on an art school degree?’ Certainly, a question with no easy answer.

育是相當不同的。切爾西學院(Chelsea College of Art and De還是學生的那個年代,藝術教育是免費的,而學生們還可以在 材料、房租和通勤方面得到額外的補助。而現在,純粹為了藝術 和創作來選擇大學專業,對於學生們來說似乎越來越難了。面 臨著生存的壓力,學生們現在得問自己,以及他們的學校:“花這 麽多錢上藝術學校是否值得?”。而這可不是一個能隨意給出滿

For Dr. Throp, choosing to be an artist then was a choice to resist all expectations of

意答復的問題。

of professional art practice, the prospect of part-timing in shops to support their

索普博士在當年選擇學習藝術,也是出於一種想要抵抗階級、

their parents - who are paying the fees.

術世界,一個需要靠著微薄兼職收入養活自己的藝術創作生涯,

class, career and bureaucracy; now however, with the highly competitive industry artistic practice may no longer seem so desirable to many students - let alone

Maybe the institutions are not the ones to blame, however the growing expectation on art schools to do more for their students future employment

就業和官僚作風的一種激進態度。但在如今這個競爭激烈的藝 似乎對那些要付出高昂學費的學生和家長而言,不再那麽有吸 引力了。

prospects is putting pressure on many courses. The students are asking for more,

或許我們不應問責於學校本身,但對藝術學院應為學生的未來

develops a higher degree of consumerism, there is consequently a risk of losing

力。學生們現在想要的東西更多了,並且有著把自己定位成藝術

and in turn, risk identifying themselves as ‘customers’. As the art school system artistic ‘integrity’ - ironically, a subject which art schools are best placed to critique. Another common criticism which emerged from the interviewees in the volume is

the increasing bureaucratisation of art education. It started in the early 90s when

做出更多的這種期待值,已經開始給純藝術課程帶來了不少壓 學院的‘消費者’的危險,而藝術院校本身似乎也在變得更為商業 化了。但諷刺的是,消費主義正是當代藝術中長久以來所批判的 對象與主題之一。

many independent art colleges could no longer financially sustain themselves

受訪課程主任們所反映的另外一個問題是,藝術教育的愈發官

among themselves to become a larger community of art colleges. In more recent

下去的時候,多數選擇了合並或是被納入一個綜合大學的體系

and therefore either had to become affiliated with a university, or amalgamate

years, following the switch from art college to university, the art schools are now

encouraged to operate in the same way as a university. This not only means the

僚主義化。九十年代初,當諸多獨立藝術院校無法再繼續運行 中成為其中一個學院。這幾年來,藝術學院到大學的這種轉變 正不斷促使著藝術學校用綜合性大學的運作管理模式來督促

teachers have more paper work and administration, but that the departments are

自己的運營。這就反映在藝術教師們需要花更多的時間在辦公

work. The school also often becomes subsumed into research - a tradition of the

要求以綜合大學式的審核標準來評估學生的作品,而一些藝術

also required to follow the university assessment formula when assessing students’

室裡填寫文書表格和完成更多的管理任務,藝術學院同時也被


university rather than the art school. Though a frustration shared by many, the undergraduate Fine Art programme

director of Camberwell College of Arts Martin Newth reflects on his experience

of bureaucratisation, critically ascribing it to the fact that structures in art college are not strong enough. As he continues, ‘If the timetable is completely rigorous

and assessment procedures are tied up and all of those things are completely clear and structured, then students can forget about them and do the interesting stuff, which is talking about ideas and making art.’

The questions also introduce a sense of history as they often begin by asking how

教育也慢慢被融入到了大學中才有的‘研究文化’中,這在之前並 不是藝術院校裡有的傳統。 官僚主義是諸多課程主任所為之頭疼的一個問題,坎伯威爾藝 術學院(Camberwell College of Arts)的課程主任馬丁·內爾斯 (Martin

Newth)認為這是因為藝術學院本身的教育建構還不

夠完善與穩固而造成的。在他看來,若是課程設置更為合理,審 核評測過程更為嚴謹,所有的框架細節都更為清晰的話,學生 們大可以忽略這些條條框框,放心大膽的去實驗,去創作,去討 論藝術。

the course leader became a teacher, and what art courses were like when they

這本書中的提問形式也算是不斷回顧英國藝術教育在這幾十

how and why art education has become what it is today.’ The exchanges between

樣當上老師的,或者在他們的年代,藝術課程是什麽樣的。而這

were students. This again coincides with Rowles’ intention of ‘getting to grips with the interviewer and the interviewees are indeed fascinating; nonetheless, upon finishing reading the 11 different experiences, one might also wonder what the

students, those who are the most directly affected individuals in today’s art education and who, incidentally are ultimately the customers, think.

年來的發展進程。薩拉·羅斯通常最先問的問題是,受訪者是怎 些問題,也正符合羅斯‘了解藝術教育是如何演變成現在這個模 式’的寫作意圖。采訪者與受訪者之間的這些對話的確引人入 勝,但讀罷全書,我們可能會提出新的問題,這本書有沒有提及 當今學習藝術的學生們對藝術教育的看法和感受呢?

This also led to another question, which is a reoccurring one throughout the book,

這或許也算是聯系到了書中另外一個能連接起老師和學生們

teachers: can art be taught? Jane Lee, the BA Fine Art course director at Central

(Central Saint Martins)的本科純藝課程主任簡·李(Jane Lee)

in a didactic way, saying that, although the practical element can be taught in a

中,技巧的部分可以以一種更直接的方式去教學,但藝術教育

and one that can potentially bridge the perspective of both the student and the

Saint Martins College of Art and Design doesn’t think any subject can be taught more direct manner, ‘the broadest part of our subject, develops through continual

investigation by the student.’ Director from Cass School, Rosemarie McGoldrick

agrees, saying that ‘Art education can open things up and enable you to develop your work. You can also be shown other artists and how you can use their ideas to develop.’ Art education takes places not only through critiques and tutorials, but

also film clubs, art societies and gallery visits. The art schools have always been

institutions that pioneer independence and creative collaboration which facilitate

students’ free-thinking and decision-making. And this is the strength of the BA Fine Art Course in the UK, which is unparalleled by other models of education.

的問題:“藝術是否可以被傳授?”在中央聖馬丁藝術與設計學院 看來,沒有任何一個專業可以被機械地傳授。或許在藝術創作 中最重要的一部分是學生的獨立研究和探索。羅斯瑪麗·麥戈 德裡克(Rosemarie McGoldrick),卡斯藝術學院的課程主任說 道:“藝術教育可以打開你的視野並不斷促使你完善你的作品, 而學院的框架也可以給你提供機會,看其他藝術家是如何實踐 和發展他們的想法與創作。”

藝術教育中的教學成分不僅來自

於小組討論和老師的反饋,教學同樣貫穿於學生們自己組織的 放映會、藝術社團和畫廊參觀等。藝術學院一直走在推崇獨立 性和創意合作的最前沿,藝術教育所提倡的自由思考和自主判 斷正是英國本科藝術教育所獨具的特色。


FROM FOUNDATION TO FUTURE ARTISTS: AN INTRODUCTION TO FOUNDATION COURSES IN BRITISH ART EDUCATION 從“基礎課程”到“未來藝術家” 一個關於英國藝術教育 基礎課程的簡要介紹 TEXT BY 撰文 x PENNY PENG 彭一歐

The research department at Tate Modern has dedicated five years to the on-going

“藝術教育學校(Art School Educated)”是一個泰特現代

institutional changes in UK art schools from 1960 to 2000. When the Tate’s project

究英國藝術院校從1960年到2000年期間課程設置的發

project ‘Art School Educated’, focusing on the curriculum, development and

ends in February, the ICA (Institute of Contemporary Arts) will present a symposium titled ‘Just What Is It That Makes Today’s Art Schools So Different, So Appealing?’

which will discuss the legacy of the UK’s ‘self-organised, experimental and alternative’ education models and ‘interrogate’ the content of art and design education. Such

awareness and emphasis on art education is not surprising as London is considered a heavenly playground for design, fashion, art and creative industries. The topic of

‘Just What Is It That Makes Today’s Art Schools So Different, So Appealing’, is also constantly questioned yet confirmed by the growing number of international

美術館研究部持續了五年的研究項目。此項研究專注於探 展和教學體制的變化。在“藝術教育學校”的研究即將在今 年二月畫上句號的同時,當代藝術研究院(ICA-Institute of Contemporary Arts)將舉辦一個題為“為何當今的藝 術學校如此不同,如此誘人?”的學術會議來討論英國“自 我組建、實驗和非正統”的教育模式。與此同時,來嘗試“質 疑”藝術和設計兩門學科所涉及的教育內容。英國本土對 於討論藝術教育的重視其並不是出人意料之外的。特別是 在倫敦,這個被譽為是設計、時裝、藝術和文化創意產業的


“All of this proceeds from a point where Marx reminds us that the ultimate foundation remains living experience, living production...”  Jacques Derrida and Bernard Stiegler, Spectrogrvaphies


students coming to art institutes in England to pursue their artistic dreams. However,

天堂般的“遊樂場”。於是,這個“為何當今的藝術學校如此不

that makes art education in England so ‘different’ and ‘so appealing’? The structure

遠道英國求學的國際學生們所質疑并認同。然而,到底是什

what exactly are the elements which have been built into the pedagogical system of the foundation course accounts as one of the most crucial aspects in illuminating how secondary art education and higher education is bridged.

According to UCAS (The Universities and Colleges Admissions Service), the foundation course is designed to transit students from their secondary education

同,如此誘人”的命題也逐漸被越來越多抱有其藝術夢想而 麼元素使得英國的藝術教育體制如此不同并具吸引力呢? “基礎課程(Foundation Course)”的設立是不容忽視的,特 別是其對於中等教育、高等教育,以及藝術實踐這三者之間 的銜接和轉換所具有的強大的、首屈一指的影響。

into higher education - combining academic study with practical work which

根據英國高等院校入學申請機構(UCAS-The

students to experience a wide range of subjects, equipping them with relevant skills

對於某一領域的理論學習和實踐學習兩個層面來幫助學生

eventually focuses on a specific discipline. It is considered good preparation to allow in different practice fields. For example, before the students make their final decision

regarding the specific subject they are going to pursue at university, the foundation course allows students to experiment with different media including painting, drawing, and photography. The length of the foundation course varies from one year

to two depending on the specific programme which is usually provided by either a secondary school or a university.

The origin of the foundation course dates back to the late 1950s. William Coldstream, Herbert Read and Harry Thubron are considered the ‘fathers’ of the foundation

course. As an artist himself, Coldstream had a life long interest in art education. He taught at Camberwell School of Art from 1945 to 1949, and then later became the

Universities

and Colleges Admissions Service)的定義,“基礎課程”通過 實現從中等教育到高等教育的過渡以及轉換。教育工作者們 認為基礎課程對於學生們來講是一個非常必要並且有效的 學習過程,因為這樣的課程允許學生們在一個廣泛定義的領 域內,盡可能地嘗試不同學科的學習來獲取一些基本的技能 和知識。例如對於希望學習藝術和設計的學生們來講,相對 應的基礎課程會讓他們去嘗試不同的藝術媒介包括油畫、素 描、攝影等等,從而讓學生們發現更多自己的興趣所在。這樣 的經歷和知識可以有效地幫助學生選擇自己在大學想要學 習的某一項更加具體的藝術學科。基礎課程的長短為一年到 兩年不等,取決于具體的學校和學校學科的要求。

principal, and professor of Fine Art at the Slade School of Fine Art, University College

基礎課程的歷史要追溯到二十世紀五十年代末。威廉·寇德斯

excellence. Coldstream’s influence was not only reflected in his teaching at the Slade

和哈里·特博倫(Harry Thubron)被認為是基礎課程之父。寇

London, where he had the most impact, striving to make the school a stage for artistic

but also through his innovative ideas for art education. He served as chairman on the

National Advisory Council for Art Education in 1958, and contributed revolutionary solutions to the development of the British art education system. For example, the

Coldstream Report published in 1960, outlines the requirements for a new Diploma

in Art and Design (Dip.A.D.). This led to the establishment of the foundation course in art institutes, followed by three years of studio practice and complimentary studies, leading to a Dip.A.D.

William Coldstream’s colleagues Herbert Read and Harry Thubron went on to develop

the foundation course system in more detail. The aim for the foundation course was

to teach the students, what were considered to be, the basic skills that underpin

all art disciplines, including design and architecture. Influenced by the German Bauhaus School of Art, Read reflected how, ‘this resulted in projects designed to develop techniques in using colour, articulating two and three-dimensional space, defining form and experimenting with diverse materials.’ One original feature of the foundation course method was that it did not teach any specific technique of art

吉姆(William Coldstream),荷爾博特·雷德(Herbert Read) 德斯吉姆不僅僅是一位偉大的戰地藝術家,他對於基礎課 程的設立以及英國藝術教育的啓蒙與發展有著深遠的影響。 從1945年到1949年,寇德斯吉姆曾任教於坎伯威爾藝術學院 (Camberwell School of Art),之後他成為了倫敦大學學院 斯萊德藝術學院(Slade School of Fine Art, University College London)的教授和校長。在斯萊德藝術學院任教期間, 寇德斯吉姆對於戰後斯萊德藝術學院在英國藝術教育界的 崛起作出了眾多決定性的決策。寇德斯吉姆的影響並不僅僅 拘泥於教學,他對於藝術教育本身的思考也是超前並且深遠 的。1958年,在他擔任國家藝術教育顧問(National Advisory Council for Art Education)主席一職期間,由他撰寫并于 1960年發表的“寇德斯吉姆報告”總結歸納了藝術設計學位的 入學條件。由此對於藝術設計學位的確立變成了基礎課程誕 生的直接原因--Dip.A.D.(Diploma in Art and Design)= 基礎課程+三年藝術理論及實踐。

or design practice. A student with the aim to pursue further study in painting, for

寇德斯吉姆的學術同仁荷爾博特·雷德和哈里·特博倫在細節

ideas and skills that are perceived to be common to all art practices.

目標是教授學生那些被認為在所有藝術領域(包括設計和建

example, would not learn the basic techniques related to painting but instead core

上把基礎課程進行了更加詳細的設計。最初設定基礎課程的 築)可運用以及探究的基本技能。受到德國包豪斯藝術學派

However, such a generalist foundation course model seems to have been

(Bauhaus)的影響,雷德認為基礎課程應該培養學生對於顏

specific over the years. Art institutes have started expecting and demanding that

形式。除此之外,還應該讓學生嘗試運用多樣的素材來進行

abandoned as the foundation course has been become more and more subject

their applicants have an increasing amount of knowledge that is specifically related

色的運用技能,以及精確地運用平面以及立體來確定其作品 藝術創造。基礎課程教學方法最原始的特點是它不會教授學


to the art practice they aim to pursue in the future. Therefore foundation

生任何具體學科將會學到的技能。倘若一個學生決定在大學期間學

courses’. The following possibilities might be identical to the formation of the

而會培養他可以運用在所有藝術學科領域的最基本的思維方式和藝

courses nowadays have gradually become ‘subject-specific preparation contemporary foundation course:

• Fine art: drawing, painting, photography, printmaking, sculpture, textiles.

• Visual communications: advertising, animation, film and T V, forensic photography, graphics, and illustration.

習油畫,基礎課程並不會教授這個學生任何與油畫相關的藝術技巧, 術技能。 然而,由於基礎課程變得越來越具體化和學科化,如今人們已經 拋 棄了這樣廣泛式的基礎課程模式。隨著藝術院校錄取門檻的提高,他 們期望自己未來的學生在入學前就能夠掌握一些與其想要進修的專

• Design: ceramic, fashion, furniture, glass, interior, jewellery, knitwear,

業的相關技能與知識。於是當今的基礎課程變成了為某一具體學科

Education critics and workers believe that the foundation course system is a

藝術:素描、油畫、攝影、版畫、雕塑、紡織

a final decision on their major. Moreover, foundation courses are not only

設計:陶藝、服裝、傢俱、玻璃、室內、珠寶、針織、戲裝、銀器、戲劇

costume, theatre.

great way to help art students develop their future interests before making subject to art and design but other disciplines as well. According to a report

所開設的機械化的預備課程。以下是一些比較典型的基礎課程項目:

視覺傳播:廣告、動畫、電影電視、法醫攝影、圖像設計、插畫

from the Guardian newspaper in 2012, UCAS lists 2,922 different foundation

藝術評論家和藝術工作者們相信基礎課程體系在幫助學生決定他

the most common subject areas, studied by more than 20% of foundation

僅只是在藝術和設計領域。2012年《衛報(The Guardian)》的一篇報

courses in England, Wales and Northern Ireland. Though art and design are

students starting in 2008-2009, the report indicates, ‘some 65% of full-time

students were still studying six months after gaining their foundation degree, and 47% were working.’ Thus foundation courses nowadays not only prepare students for an academic future but can also be seen as a practical pre-

career training. In ‘Foundation degrees offer a strong vision for the future’, an article published in the Guardian in 2012, Susan Young argues, ‘Foundation degrees are excellent for people who want to get practical knowledge of

們未來的興趣和專業方面是非常有效的。而如今基礎課程的設立不 告統計,在英格蘭、威爾士和北愛爾蘭地區UCAS列出了2922個不同 的基礎課程項目。其中從2008年到2009年開始,有超過20%的學生 學習與藝術和設計相關的基礎課程。此項報告還明確指出65%的學 生在完成基礎課程的學習以後選擇繼續學習,47%的學生選擇并有 能力進行實踐工作。因此基礎課程如今不僅僅只是幫助學生們完成 從中等教育到高等教育的過渡,它同樣也有效地輔助學生從課堂走 入社會。蘇珊·揚格(Susan Young)在2012年發表于《衛報》上的文章

their chosen industry.’ ‘Staff are industry professionals and bring that world

《基礎課程著眼于未來(Foundation Degrees Offer a Strong Vision

says Jeb Haward, head of Higher Education in the arts at SCC. This idea is

和深造的人們的最佳選擇。‘很多在基礎課程任教的老師們同時也在

in with them, and conversations always lead to how it is in the outside world’, agreed by the education consultant Maggie Greenwood who suggests, ‘[On

for the Future)》中寫到,“基礎課程是那些計劃在相應產業進行發展 相應的領域工作,所以他們自身的實踐經驗可以幫助學生們更好地

a foundation degree] the student learns their way around the industry and

了解他們即將接觸的工作環境,傑布·哈維德(Jeb Haward)說。” 教

been in industry for five or six years. If you just do a degree you may not have

說,“基礎課程讓學生們在做決定之前提前感受他們將會面臨的挑戰

can see if they like it first. You could be sitting alongside someone who has that depth of experience.’

Over the years, as art education has evolved in the UK, the foundation course

育顧問麥琪·格林伍德(Maggie Greenwood)也贊同這樣的觀點。她 和環境。你身邊的同學可能已經有五、六年的工作經驗,與他們一起 進行實踐學習與討論是一般學位課程無法給予的經驗。”

has transformed itself into a more pragmatic pedagogical model and moved

隨著藝術教育的發展,基礎課程從它最開始所推崇的“廣泛式”理念

such skill-concentrated practice is comprehensive enough to produce future

于技能的特點,其是否有足夠全面而廣泛的能力來決定未來藝術家

away from its original generalist concept. However, it is difficult to say whether artists, which echoes the current concern surrounding the desire of students to learn ‘how to draw’,rather than,‘how to think’.

轉變為了一個更加實用型的教育體系。然而,由於基礎課程本身偏重 的發展還很難下定論,同時也反映了當今學生迫切想要學習“如何畫 畫”勝於“如何思考”的擔憂。


WANG YABIN: REFLECTIONS IN TIME 王亞彬 時間裡的映像 TEXT BY 撰文 x MONICA CHUNG

TRANSLATED BY 翻譯 x XU SHENG

IMAGE COURTESY OF 圖片提供 x NUO GALLERY NUO畫廊 2012《飛來石》 120X80cmX2 布面 丙 烯 ,油彩及其它

‘The real voyage of discovery consists not in seeking new landscapes but in having new eyes.’ Marcel Proust, French novelist (1871 - 1922)

“真正的發現之旅不在於新的風景,而在於新的眼睛。”[1] 馬歇爾·普魯斯特(Marcel Proust),法國小說家(1871-1922)


Wang Yabin’s ethereal portrayals of vertiginous landscapes, and everything that

王亞彬用輕盈的方式刻畫眩目的風景,以及在燦爛如斯的美

heritage of a bygone China. His monochromatic paintings resemble colour reversed

的遺產。他的繪畫常以一種色彩為主,類似底片的反色效果,

travels through such resplendent beauty, is informed and inspired by the rich cultural

photographic negatives, distilled contemplative visions that could have been captured in our past, present or future. If Marcel Proust were alive today, perhaps he

would be an acquaintance of Wang’s, and been inspired by his oneiric landscapes,

which have borne witness to everything, yet remain untouched and transcend time.

麗中穿行而過的一切。畫的靈感來自很久以前的中國所留下 提煉出令人感懷的視覺,寄托屬於我們的過去,現在,或者未 來。如果馬歇爾·普魯斯特在今天還活著,他也許會成為王亞 彬的知交,並且被他夢般的風景所啓發。那些風景是一切的 見證,超脫時間之外,孑然而立。

For centuries, nature, the great muse, with its unforgiving and eternal beauty, has

許多世紀以來,自然,這個偉大的女神,用幾近殘酷而永恒

hallowed tradition. His pastoral observation of nature, and mankind’s isolated position

的一員。他將整個自然視作自己的牧場,並在那裡看見了人

consistently challenged and lured artists, and Wang is very much a part of this

的美麗,引誘並挑釁著藝術家。王亞彬當然是這個神聖傳統


within its cosmology, serves as a spring from which his impressions of another place

類在宇宙中的孤獨,喚醒了自己對另一個時空的印象。在歐

such as Caspar David Friedrich’s ‘Wanderer Above the Sea of Fog’[1]with its figure,

Friedrich)的《霧海上的漫遊者(Wanderer above the Sea of

and time are called forth. In the finest examples of the European Romantic Tradition,

upon a rugged precipice, looking down to a burgeoning sea, we find an expression

洲浪漫主義傳統的典範作品,比如弗雷德裏希(Caspar David [2]這幅畫裡, Fog)》 一個人站在崎嶇的山崖頂端,望著澎湃的

of the duality of man’s place in this world, his life both significant and insignificant.

雲海,折射出人在世界中的位置,以及不凡卻又渺小的生命。

the same contemplative disposition, and embody the same spirit. His ‘Hailar’s Elm

和同樣的精神。他的《海拉爾的海拉爾》裡面有一個批鬥篷的

Wang Yabin’s depictions, albeit in less tumultuous natural environments, possess

woods’ presents to us a cloaked figure, deep in wildwood, where familiar Chinese octagonal Ba Gua motifs are seen to float beside the long and wide vertical brush

strokes, suggesting a cosmological harmony between man and his surroundings. Through such expressive forms, one begins to sense a kinship with Leon Spillaert whose brooding self portraits, look towards vast horizons and assess man’s

王亞彬描繪的自然環境雖然更加平和,卻有同樣的冥思氛圍 人,身處森林深處。長而寬的筆觸似乎在那裡形成一種接近八 卦圖形的韻律,暗示著人與周圍的一切的終極關係。這幅畫讓 人想起萊昂·斯皮拉爾特(Leon

Spillaert)那些沈靜的自畫像,

裡面的形象望著遙遠的地平線,琢磨著人在自然中的位置。

relationship with nature.

王亞彬的家鄉和他創作的地方都在河南省,位於經歷了五千

Closer to home and where we find Wang Yabin working today, the Henan Province

千年前,那裡還是中國的文化、政治和經濟中心;至今仍在出

in the Eastern Central part of China, is steeped in more than 5,000 years of history. The birthplace of Chinese civilization, it remained at the centre of culture, politics and the economy up to 1000 years ago. Ancient ruins, relics and artifacts are still

年歷史浸泡的中原東部。那裡是中華文明的發源地,直到一 土古代遺跡、墓葬和藝術品。王亞彬家 鄉 的西面是延綿的山 脈,包括守護著古代重要佛教寺廟的聖地嵩山。那裡有中國 最早的佛塔嵩嶽寺塔[3]。省會鄭州就在山腳以東,從那裡駕


found throughout the region. To the West are a range of gentle sloping mountains,

including the sacred Songshan (Song Mountain) which guards and protects ancient Buddhist temples and shrines; namely the Songyue Pagoda[2], the oldest example

to be found in China. Zhengzhou, the province’s capital sits close to the foothills of these mountains. An hour’s travel out of the city, the roads begin to fade into the mist and disappear, and one has the sense of traveling through time…

…The art of the Han Dynasty[3]produced sculptures and objects that were employed

predominately as burial artifacts and placed within tombs. Representations of

《松房》布面丙 烯 ,油彩及其他 110cm×150cm 2012年

車一個小時之後,路途就漸漸隱沒在迷霧中,仿佛是前往另 一個時空的旅途。 漢代[4]墓葬藝術裡有大量的雕塑和小物件。墓室的畫像磚

the human figure and animal depictions were carved on tombstones, whilst

上雕刻著人物和動物圖案,而裡面的繪畫幾乎都是裝飾性

Tang Dynasty [4]that multi-ethnic influences, from the ever growing influx of

來,將不同民族的文化滲入中國社會。這些影響帶來了重要

paintings were mostly for ornamental purposes. It was at the beginning of the foreigners travelling The Silk Route, permeated Chinese society. These influences established important new art forms such as Buddhist sculpture and the ink renditions of landscapes. The Five Dynasties period to the Northern

Song [5]

is today heralded as ‘The Great Age of Chinese Landscape’ from which a truly distinctive style emerged. Scholars mastered the technique of creating three dimensional space between the foreground and background of the picture

plane, creating a sensuous distance between the two sections, and leading to

的。在初唐時期[5],外國旅行者沿著絲綢之路源源不斷地趕 的藝術變革,尤其反映在佛教雕塑和水墨風景畫上。五代和 北宋[6]的繪畫誕生了真正的開創性風格,並在今天被稱為 “中國風景畫的黃金時代”。那時的文人已經善於在平面上制 造富有縱深感的前景和背景,並進行了更具感官性質的距離 劃分,創造出著名的山峰高聳於雲霧之上的意境,深刻地影 響了後世。

the famous and beloved images of mountain peaks rising out of misty clouds.

今天,王亞彬對油畫媒介敏感而細膩的掌控,讓他有能力賦予

Today, Wang Yabin’s sensitive handling of the medium has furnished him with the skills

的中國色彩體系更加接近自然,這從“秋香”等色彩名稱上就能

to accomplish the same reverence to that which is represented in these historical ink

wash paintings and Han sculpture. In the same fashion that the traditional Chinese palette employed colours such as moon white to mimic natural phenomena, Wang’s

subtle monochromatic shades recall the aged patina of ancient pottery, emoting

a sense of nostalgia and melancholy. His paintings suggest ‘Memento Mori’, and reinforce a deep and spiritual connection to the long and complex cultural ancestry of the land.

‘All the world’s a stage, And all the men and women merely players��� They have their exits and their entrances; And one man in his time plays many parts…’ ‘As You Like It’ William Shakespeare, English poet and playwright (1564-1616)

風景同樣的尊嚴,就像古典水墨和漢代雕塑所做的那樣。傳統 窺見一二。王亞彬用同樣的精神建立起自己的色彩體系。他為 單一色彩注入豐富的層次,讓人想起古代陶器那種具有時間 感的色澤,喚起懷舊和憂郁的情感。他的作品讓人想起一句拉 丁箴言:“人皆為將死(Memento mori)”;同時,又與屬於他的 土地的、輾轉流長的文化建立起深刻的精神聯繫。

“世界不過舞臺而已,

男女不過演員而已…… 各懷出入之道;

一人分飾數角……” 《皆大歡喜(As You Like It)》,威廉·莎士比亞 (William Shakespeare),英國詩人和劇作家 (1564-1616) 莎士比亞這段廣為流傳的文字,指向人的生命從出生到死亡 的“七個階段”。雖然王亞彬畫中那些永生的主角逃離了這一 命運,卻仍然在星空、松樹、山峰組成的布景前扮演著不同的 角色。他常常用直線畫出一個矩形,包圍著自己的演員,暗示 這世界就是一個舞臺,並讓布景逐一顯現。在加斯頓·巴赫拉 (Gaston Bachelard)的認識論裡,閉合的空間是背景,包容一 切有意識的存在;而記憶則是當下的一部分。這正好可以形


Shakespeare’s widely known and

recited words, point to the ‘seven ages’ that man transitions in life,

from his birth to his death. Although Wang’s

immortal

protagonists

escape such a fate, they still play their different parts amidst the

scenic backdrops of stars, pine trees and mountain peaks. Surrounding his cast of players, the artist draws straight lines that trace a loose

rectangular shape, suggesting a proscenium view of the world,

and the staging begins to reveal itself. Gaston Bachelard’s concept of topoanalysis - the theory that

the house serves as the backdrop

to the conscious being, and that memories become part of the

present existence - could be said

of Wang’s surreal arrangements;

‘…in the theatre of the past that is constituted by memory, the stage

setting maintains the characters in their dominant roles. At times we

think we know ourselves in time, when all we know is a sequence of

fixations in the spaces of the being’s

stability…that is what space is for’[6].

Wang’s paintings are scenes from a hypnagogic storyboard, playing to a narrative that is populated by elements that are familiar to all.

As with early portrait photography, perhaps the fictional places that Wang depicts,

connect his abstract feelings between what is real and unreal. In the painting ‘Road

of Pine Shadow’ we see an aerial view of ramblers walking through a forest, on a

path made of something that cannot be grasped; the shadow in the title suggests to us a sense of ‘otherness’. A geometric outline hovers above the walkers, crowns

容王亞彬的超現實布景。“……在記憶形成的、過去的舞臺上, 布景會保持角色最重要的特質。有時候,我們會認為,自己是 通過時間來了解自己的,但實際上,我們想了解自己,需要’存 在’的各種穩定狀態都固定在空間中,串聯起來,並成為我們 所知的全部……這就是空間的意義。”[7]王亞彬畫中的場景 類似催眠所使用的故事模版,它們是由人們都很熟悉的元素 所構成的。

the landscape, and converts the outdoor image into an interior one – this Origami

就像早期的肖像攝影,王亞彬所描繪的虛構地點,連接著他

both visible and artificial. The painting ‘Pavilion’ brings us to an isolated male figure,

中的漫遊者,他們的道路是由難以辨明的東西組成的。標題

transformation draws us into Wang’s representation, where exterior and interior are who stands within a hut surrounded by forest, and we watch him as he returns our gaze. This is a temporal space for contemplation, perhaps the one that Michel Foucault

describes when he speaks of the mental and physical spaces of ‘otherness’ that exist, and how we might be in two places at once, as during a phone call conversation,

or when reflected in a mirror. ‘The mirror is, after all, a utopia, since it is a placeless place. In the mirror, I see myself there where I am not, in an unreal, virtual space that

opens up behind the surface; but it is also a heterotopia….it makes this place that I occupy at the moment when I look at myself in the glass at once absolutely real, connected with all the space that surrounds it, and absolutely unreal, since in order

亦真亦假的抽象感覺。在《松影道》這幅畫裡,我們能俯瞰林 中的“影”字暗示著某種“他者”;幾何形的輪廓浮現在漫遊者 周圍,環抱著風景,將室外的景色折回室內。這種類似折紙的 轉變顯現了王亞彬的再現方式:內部與外部均是可見的,並 且是人為的。 《涼亭》那幅畫裡有一個孤獨的男子形象,站在 樹木環繞的木亭裡,當觀眾望向他時,他也報以回望。這是一 處暫時的冥思空間,也許就是福柯(Michel Foucault)所談論 的,“他者”所存在的心理空間。福柯認為一個人可以同時身處 兩地,比如在打電話的時候,或者照鏡子的時候。“鏡子,說到 底,是一個烏托邦,因為那裡是一個無處之處。我看見自己在


鏡子裡,但我不在那裡。那裡是一個不真實的虛擬空間,展開

《金邊森林》 180X150CM 布面丙 烯 , 油彩及其它 2007

於表面之後。它也是一個異位的烏托邦(異托邦)…當我在鏡 子裡看見自己所處的空間時,這個空間就變得絕對真實了,因 為我看見它與周圍的空間相連接;但它又變得絕對不真實, 因為想要感知這一點,我必須通過那面鏡子裡的虛擬之處來

to be perceived it has to pass through this virtual point which is over

there.’[7]If

is true, then Wang’s solitary figure suggests a portal for our own reflection.

this

Wang Yabin’s subliminal gateways are inspired by his own existence, in both the

確認。”[8]如果此言不虛,那麽王亞彬畫中那個孤獨的形象, 就為我們自己的映像打開了一扇門。 畫中這扇潛意識的大門源自王亞彬自己的存在——他存在 於故 鄉 真實的,以及歷史的緯度中。那麽,我們究竟是被邀

physical and historical realm of his native land. Are we being invited to gaze into a

請,去騁目於一個被再現的平行世界;還是原本就在那裡,回

reflected selves? The artist’s ‘Little Goddess’ renders such manifold existences. The

多樣性。透過一個卵形的小孔,畫家描繪了一個手捧小雕像

parallel world of representation, or are we inside the room itself looking back at our painting portrays, through an oval shaped aperture, a figure holding a small statue. Is

the statue a representation of the man himself, his alter ego, or the essance of his very being? Such layered construct recalls Velasquez’s ‘Las Meninas’[8]. Here we see the

King and Queen of Spain’s image reflected in a mirror on the back wall, and although they are not formally posing for the painting, they are included in the pictorial space; this suggests a connection between illusion and reality. Wang’s tender depiction of a resting couple ‘Lover Stone’ creates just such a displacement, and consequent

opening for the viewer. Against a blood red haze, amidst tall pine trees, the lovers seem to be part of the rock beneath them. The title subscribes itself to the traditional language of local folklore. How many other couples have been subsumed in such a

place of beauty? Our role as spectator is not only to observe their intimacy but also to bear witness to a transformation; the lovers have become part of nature itself.

望著我們自己的映像? 《小女神》這幅畫就呈現出這種存在的 的形象。這座雕像究竟是畫中人自己,還是他的另一個自我, 抑或他核心的“存在”本身?這種多層次的結構讓人想起維拉 斯奎茨(Diego Velasquez)的《宮娥(Las Meninas)》[9]。在那 幅畫裡,西班牙國王和王后的影像在背景墻上的一面鏡子裡 顯現出來;雖然他們不是那幅畫的正式模特,卻出現在畫裡, 暗示真實與虛幻相連。在《映心石》這幅畫裡,王亞彬用柔和 的方式描繪了一對休息的情侶,展現了這種真假之間的位移 感,並讓它隨之面向觀者。在血紅色的薄霧和高聳的松樹林 裡,那對情侶似乎成為了身下岩石的一部分。畫的標題追隨了 地方民俗;有多少對情侶曾經置身這個美麗的地方呢?作為 觀眾,我們不僅在觀看他們的親密,還在見證一種轉換:情侶 成為了自然的一部分。

Wang’s objectivity as an artist transmits a deep and graceful candour. His paintings

王亞彬用屬於一名藝術家的客觀性,傳遞著深沈和優雅的直

simple answers. A worthy title for the painter would be that of a time traveller. He

又不提供簡單的答案。“時間旅行者”這個頭銜也許適合這位

pose questions to our perceptions of what is truthful, and do not provide us with takes in all the things that surround him, and his paintings are manifestations of such journeys. These speak to us through the palette and brush strokes previous masters

have entrusted to him. His immortal protagonists and memorialized landscapes

capture all that is eternal, casting a pulsating nostalgic aura that penetrates us, whilst nourishing an alternative perception of our own reality through our imagination.

Footnote: [1]: Date of painting: 1818

[2]: Songyue Pagoda 523AD

[3]: Han Dynasty 206BC-220AD [4]: Tang Dynasty 618 – 907AD

[5]: Five Dynasty – Northern Song Dynasty 907-979AD

[6]:Gaston Bachelard, ‘The Poetics of Space’ Beacon Press, p.8

[7]: Michel Foucault, ‘Of Other Spaces, Utopia and Heterotopia’ Architecture /

Mouvement/ Continuité October, 1984; p. 4 (“Des Espace Autres,” March 1967 Translated from the French by Jay Miskowiec)

[8]: Diego Velásquez, ‘Las Meninas’ 1656

率。他的繪畫對我們的感知提出了疑問:什麽才是真實的,卻 畫家。他吸收自己周圍的一切,並用繪畫展現這種旅途。他用 過往的大師托付給他的色彩和筆觸,向我們訴說著。畫中那 些不死的角色和被紀念的風景,捕捉著一切永恒,散發著懷 舊的光環,浸入我們內心;同時又借助我們的想象,培育出對 現實的另一種感知。

[1]: 本文所引用的所有原文由本文譯者翻譯, 與相關中文出版物的翻

譯會有出入。——譯者註 [2]: 作品完成於1818年 [3]: 嵩嶽寺塔, 建於公元523年 [4]: 漢代, 公元前206年-公元220年 [5]: 唐代, 公元618年-907年 [6]: 五代至北宋, 公元907年-979年 [7]: 加斯頓·巴赫拉, “The poetics of space”,Beacon Press,p.8 [8]: 米歇爾·福柯,‘Of Other Spaces, Utopia and Heterotopia’

Architecture /Mouvement/ Continuité October, 1984; p.4。 英文由傑·米斯考維科(Jay Miskowiec)翻譯 [9]: 作品完成於1656年


DRAMA AND THEATRE EDUCATION 教育戲劇和劇場 TEXT AND IMAGE BY 圖文提供 x FRESCO SU 蘇毅

Drama, Art Education and Me

我、戲劇、藝術教育

Drama is something intriguing. The first time I participated in it was at the age of

戲劇是件有意思的事,第一次和它接觸是25歲,當時一個好

to play a part. In spite of my minor role as an amorous heartbreaker, I attended each

演一個多情的負心人,角色雖小,但也參與每場排練,隨著演

twenty-five, when a friend who was the president of a college drama club invited me

rehearsal and became more actively involved as the performance date approached.

Our show was welcomed enthusiastically on that day, and I was overwhelmed with delight and pride in the midst of flashing lights and rounds of thunderous applause.

I became officially engaged in the field of drama in 2007, when I became a member of

an organisation in Shanghai called Uncertainty Theatre and also got involved in folk theatre group Down-Stream Garage/ Mecooon Space. In addition to daily rehearsals and performances, I staged an annual theatre festival with drama lovers. I embarked

on my work at a modern art museum in the same year. Since then, “drama”, “art” and “art education” have gradually become a part of my life. It was also from that moment on that I started the journey of “knowing myself”.

When it comes to “knowing oneself”, I have to mention Thales, an ancient Greek

philosopher. One day, he was asked what the most difficult thing was in the world,

友是一所高校劇社的老社長,他將我引薦過去,在一出戲裡 出臨近越發投入,演出當天反響熱烈,燈光閃爍、掌聲雷動, 快樂而得意。 真正走進戲劇是07年,那年在上海加入一個叫“測不準戲劇 機構”的組織,並和上海的一個民間劇場“下河迷倉”結了緣, 除了日常排練、演出,每年還和其他戲劇愛好者一起籌辦戲劇 節。同年,我進入藝術館開始工作,自那以後,“戲劇”、“藝術”、 “藝術教育”這三個詞便逐漸匯成了我的主要生活。也就是從 那時起,我開始對一些問題進行思考,諸如“我從哪裡來”、“要 到哪裡去”,重新開始“認識自己”。 說到“認識自己”,古希臘哲學家泰勒斯(Thales)有一天被問 到,什麽是世上最困難之事,他回答:“認識你自己。後來哲學 家蘇格拉底(Socrates)將“認識你自己”作為自己哲學研究的


and he replied “knowing yourself”. Later, famous philosopher Socrates regarded

“knowing thyself” as the core of his philosophy research. Montaigne, French thinker during the Renaissance, once said that the most vital thing in the world is to know yourself. “Knowing yourself” becomes an essential issue since it motivates selfobservation and introspection; thus, humans are able to separate themselves from

others, to define their own happiness as well as the truth and accordingly to control

核心命題,文藝復興時代法國思想家蒙田(Montaigne)說: 世 界 上 最 重 要 的 事 情 就 是 認 識自我。它 的 核 心 意 義 在 於 啓動了人對自我的觀察和內省,如此,人才能 夠 將自己與 別人區分開來,定義自己的幸福、真理,從而掌握自己的命 運,實現人生。

their destiny and achieve life aspirations.

而認識自己,往往需要借助某種媒介或途徑,例如讀一篇

‘Knowing yourself’ tends to be realised with the help of a certain medium or measure.

程,能 夠 深入地認識自己、探索自己都和戲劇有關。隨著戲

For example, reading an article, watching a drama, experiencing a parting or life and

death. Recalling my growth process, having an in-depth understanding of myself and exploring myself are all related to drama. The more I am involved in drama, the

文章、看一場戲,經歷一場離別或生死,回想自己的成長歷 劇實踐的逐漸深入,我越發感受到戲劇除娛樂之外還有更 豐富的功能。

more it went beyond entertainment; drama has additional rich functions.

如果說不斷的戲劇實踐使我意識到戲劇具有更多的功能

If the constant drama practice allows me to realise the multi-functionality of drama,

將戲劇與教育結合起來。當我掀開這窗簾一角,我立刻意

my work of art education in the modern art museum inspires me to think about how to combine drama with education. When I pulled up the corner of a curtain,

I immediately discovered the exciting wealth of treasures hidden behind it. This fascination inspired me to devote myself to research and development in such areas. Under the guidance and help of my directors, I came to study the postgraduate

program of Drama and Theatre Education at the University of Warwick in Britain in 2010.

Art and Education After the one-year postgraduate program, I stayed in Britain and continued to do my

性,那麽在藝術館從事藝術教育工作便啓發了我思索如何 識到這之後激動人心的豐富寶藏,便決定將此作為今後的 研究領域和發展方向。2010年,在藝術館領導的指引和幫 助下,我來到英國華威大學(University of Warwick)學習 教育戲劇和劇場的研究生專業。 藝術、教育 經過一年的碩士課程學習,畢業以後,我留在英國繼續研 究課題,學習更多的藝術教育理論以及進行藝術實踐,這 個過程使我愈發認識到藝術所包含的價 值 以及藝術和教 育之間的關係。


research, for the purpose of acquiring more

theories on art education and conducting art practice, enabling me to better understand

the values underlying art and its relationship with education.

In the recent century, the very concept of art was challenged through the practice of, two

significant artists, Marcel Duchamp and Joseph Beuys. The former took a lead to demolish the

technical threshold of art in the artistic palace; the latter simply attempted to abolish the

distinction between art and life and waved the flag of ‘everyone is an artist’, arguing that art does not need specific material results like

exhibitions or performances and emphasising that what counts more is conversation about the world in which we all live.

In that context, then, art does not merely

function as an object, nor take beautiful, sacred or abstract forms presented in galleries

and museums for a handful of people to appreciate; art’s core value lies in being

藝術存在至今已有三萬多年,而其發生最大的轉變卻是在

should be an artist or the people working in art industry. Dancing is not necessarily

(Marcel Duchamp),另一位是博伊斯(Joseph Beuys),其

painter either. Art creates various means for people to observe, experience and

走,另一個幹脆直接試圖取消藝術與生活的區別,舉起“人人

an accessible platform for people to engage with. It does not mean that everyone

for becoming a dancer and drawing is not necessarily for becoming a professional

explore the world and to enrich their understanding of their life, just as Beuys said, “everyone is an artist”.

In terms of education, logic, dialectics, and some scientific principles are supposed to

這近一百年。這一百年裡有兩位重要的藝術家,一位是杜尚 中一個帶了個頭,將藝術的技術門檻從藝術“聖殿”中生生拆 都是藝術家”的大旗,宣揚藝術並非需要有具體的物質結果進 行展覽或演出,而強調人對社會生活的參與,與之產生直接 的對話和聯繫更為重要。

be mastered, yet these subjects are far from enough. In formal education, introspection

在這種背景之下,藝術的價 值 便不再僅僅作為客體對象,以

education. Young children who are just learning about the world surrounding them

供少數人所觀賞,它的價值 更在於作為一種日常容易接近的

and observation are often overlooked; these can be reconstructed through artistic

美的、神聖的或是抽象看不懂的形式呈現在畫廊、博物館裡

are necessarily helped by an artistic approach. The role of teachers, in the mean time,

途徑讓更多人參與進來。這並不是說每個人都要成為藝術家

top-down information in order to develop more creative pedagogical practices and

一定要變成職業畫家,跳舞和畫畫只是作為一種途徑,去觀

needs to be reconsidered. Teachers need to break free from the stereotype of being welcome new academic possibilities.

Art, therefore, should not only serve as a discipline or a ‘game for the minority’, but

also be more actively integrated into teaching activities and as a means to acquire and expand knowledge. Art should work as the basis of human life and education. The Problems of Our Education Education has remained a big problem for all ages. Even in many western countries,

education is sometimes criticised as being too utilitarian and inharmonious with

或藝術工作者,跳舞不是一定要變成專業舞者,畫畫也不是 察、體驗、感悟,去豐富自己對世界的理解與感受。這也就是 博伊斯所說“人人都是藝術家”的意思。 而對於教育,邏輯、辯證、一些科學原理是必須要學會的,然 而那並不是全部,在學校教育中喪失的那些重要的、微妙的 有關如何看待世界、認識自己都可以通過藝術得以重建。對於 那些尚未成熟的孩子,他們還處於靠聲音、圖形、圖像、交互 活動等來了解這個世界的階段,更需要用藝術的方法去進行 學習。老師,同樣也需要進行重建,不再是僅僅對信息進行傳 遞,更要不斷地變得更具創造性。


demands of the progressing talents of society. In China, education problems are deeply rooted and it is hard to explore these problems further.

Influential British arts educator Sir Ken Robinson said that their education system

藝術因此,不應只作為一門學科或“少數人的遊戲”,它更應融 入到教學活動中成為一種途徑和方法來獲取和擴張知識,藝 術應是生活和教育的基礎。

cultivates people in the same way as we exploit the earth — with the utilitarian

我們的教育問題

help kids seek financially satisfying jobs in the future, but does not tap into existing

教育古往今來都是個大問題,即使是“先進”的西方國家,他們

into moral and ethical matters. As ‘subjects’ of utilitarian education, students are

及對人性的重視;而在中國,教育的問題根結很深,一旦追究

purpose. When it comes to today’s utilitarian society, such education is likely to

personal values, recognise and pursue beauty or discuss about and develop insights therefore denied the best things life has to offer.

的教育也被認為太過功利,不符合社會進步對人才的需求以 下去,便是無力。

Despite thirty years of educational reform in China, teachers still focus on imparting

英國的肯·羅賓遜(Sir Ken Robinson)爵士是藝術教育領域

School education is college-oriented; the humanities are all but ignored and even

方式正如我們開採地球的方式,以功利為目的。在一個功利

pragmatic knowledge which may allow the students to eventually earn a living. art education itself tends to be empty, utilitarian, blind and vain.

In our result-oriented education system, the constant pursuit of test scores turns the

art of teaching into something rigid and mechanical. In order to make the effects of teaching easily assessable, either in knowledge-based disciplines or in the humanities, students’ individual understanding and digestion of the world will be ignored and

影響頗深的一位學者,他說到:我們的教育體系培養我們的 社會的背景之下,此種教育或許可以有利於孩子在未來謀取 一份職業,但缺乏對個人價 值 的挖掘和激發,缺乏對於美的 認識和追求,缺乏對道德、倫理的討論和感悟,學生作為受教 育的主體“人”,其生命中最具靈魂的部分實際上是被蒙蔽的。 我國教改之路已有三十年,我們的教學重點如今仍放在那些

replaced by a single standardised answer, all while they are systematically ranked

以後可能讓我們得以謀生的實用主義知識之上,學校教學方

In classrooms, students are often treated as ignorant, while teachers consider

虛榮的。

imposing knowledge on students without dialogue. However, if students’ personal

我們的教育體制,則是以結果為導向,對教學成果評估的快

passively involved in class. In fact, students should be the real subjects in teaching

育目標異化為績效考核。這意味著為了使教學效果易於評

and defined as either good or bad.

themselves owners and authorities of knowledge, transmitting information and

experiences, feelings and thoughts are unable to merge into learning, they are only activities and teachers should act as the facilitators of interpretation. An education

system in which students are not subjects and teachers only work as executors of education measures and deliverers of teaching contents not only runs counter to the real purpose of education, but also goes against the changeable relationship

向直指大學之門,有關“人”的人文主義學科遠沒有在學校得 到足 夠 的重視,藝術教育本身,也往往是形式、功利、跟風和

速、精確、標準化的過度追求,使得教學方法機械而僵硬,教 估,無論是知識學科還是人文學科,學生自己對於這個世界 個性化的理解和消化將被忽視,取而代之的是標準化的統一 答案,學生在被狹隘的方式來進行排名和定義好壞。

between teachers and students, teaching and learning.

在課堂上,學生常被當作一無所知的對象,老師將自己作為

Sir Ken Robinson believed that diversity of human abilities should be redefined and

傳遞和知識灌輸;而如果孩子的個人經歷、情感和認知無法

uncertain futures embraces innovation more. With high expectations of their kids,

parents send them to school, hoping they will learn skills and enjoy a bright future. Actually, kids who used to be different from each other are undergoing a uniform

transformation in the education assembly line. Their most valuable uniqueness, talent, imagination and creativity are being erased little by little rather than being developed further.

知識的擁有者和權威,在缺乏對話的情境下對孩子進行信息 融入到學習中去,學習只能是處於被動狀態。實際上,學生才 應該是教學活動中真正的主體,老師應該幫每一個學習者創 造屬於他們自己的模式去解讀世界。當學生不成為教育的主 體,老師也只是教育手段的執行者、教學內容的傳遞者,這種 教育不僅違背了教育的真正目的,也違背了老師和學生,教和 學之間關係可變的本質。

Our discussions about democracy are mainly conducted from a political perspective;

對於不確定的未來,羅賓遜爵士認為未來社會需要重新定義

human civilisation and permeates every aspect of life. Education should also be

家長總是對孩子的未來充滿期望,而他們所做的僅僅是將孩

however, far more than a political topic, democracy serves as the foundation of

democratic. Only by taking democratic measures in education can we truly carry out humanistic education and make cultivation of aesthetics, creativity and imagination

possible; only in this way can children really learn to respect others and work in a

人類能力的多樣化,不確定的未來更需要創造力才能應對。 子送進學校以為他們在那裡學習本領為以後立足,事實上那 些原本千差萬別、與眾不同的孩子只是被送進流水線接受統 一化改造,他們最為可貴的獨特性、天賦、想象力和創造力不


team. In this regard, the fundamental contradiction between system and quality education becomes a big flaw underlying in our education.

Characteristics of Drama/Theatre Activities and Essence of Drama and Theatre Education

Here I return to my earlier discussion of Greece. Theatre and democracy, two of humanities greatest inventions, both originated in ancient Greece. This cannot be a

coincidence, there must be a link between the two. If ancient Greeks regarded “who

am I?”, “where do I come from?”, and “where am I going” as the ultimate philosophical

僅沒有被開發反而被一點一點地抹去。 當我們在談論民主,大多是從它的政治範疇來談論這個話 題,而實際上它遠不僅僅是政治的,更是人類文明活動的基 礎滲透在生活的方方面面,教育理所應當也是民主的。只有 這樣,我們才有可能真正地進行人文教育,審美、創造力、想 象力的培養才成為可能;也只有這樣,孩子也才能夠 真正學 會尊重他人以及與他人合作。而在這些這方面,體制教育與 素質教育的根本矛盾成為我們教育的一個硬傷。

questions and began the human exploration of the meaning of life from there, they

戲劇/劇場活動的特質,以及什麽是教育戲劇和劇場

the development of human civilisation and society long time ago.

由此我要談回到希臘,劇場和民主這兩項人類歷史的偉大

Inspired by history, ancient Greek playwrights wrote plays and arranged rehearsals.

之間存在著某種必然聯繫。如果說古希臘人最終將人生的

had raised questions about life through drama and accordingly laid a foundation for

On stage, actors in character constantly asked the audience “what should I do?” This question in the face of Greek drama’s moral dilemmas and crises spurred the

audience to discussion and reflection while providing guidance. Dialogues made participants, both actors and audience, open to the outside world and put everyone

into independent consciousness. It was in such an environment that democracy was nurtured. Therefore, dramatic and theatrical activities possess two indispensable elements for the teaching processes—dialogue and democracy.

The practice of drama has developed over the course of more than two thousand

years and has, in that time, undergone many changes, but now as then, in the performing arts, the performers are the real subjects of the theatrical activities. Thus,

teaching approaches characterised by the twin mediums of drama or theatre allow students and performers to share the same identity and work as the subjects in

發明同在古希臘發源並不是某種巧合。民主的誕生,和劇場 終極哲學問題定在“我是誰”、“我從哪兒來”、“我要到哪兒去” 開啓了人類對於生命意義的探索,那麽在更早以前,他們已 經通過戲劇對人生發出提問,並為人類社會的文明發展奠 定了基礎。 古希臘的劇作家們從現實中獲得靈感,將其改編成本排演成 劇,演員在一個個道德困境和決斷危機時向觀眾反復發問“我 該怎麽辦,我該怎麽辦?”,使演員及觀眾進行對話和思考,從 而對現實生活進行指導。對話使得每一個人向外界敞開,讓 每一個人處於有獨立意識和可變性的狀態中,而民主,正是 在這樣的環境中得以孕育。戲劇/劇場活動因此具備了教學活 動中所必需的兩項重要內容——對話及民主。

creating/teaching and learning processes.

人類的戲劇活動發展已有兩千多年,其中經歷了很多變化,

As the most comprehensive type among all art forms, dramatic arts includes

正的主體,因此以戲劇/劇場作為媒介的教學方法,使得學生

performing arts, visual arts, sound effect, choreography, lighting and so on. Each

field can be designed into a course boasting a wealth of content. Take performing

但本質上作為一門表演藝術,表演者是戲劇/劇場活動中真 和表演者的身份合二為一,成為創作/教學/過程中的主體。

arts as an example. It not only achieves practices of text comprehension, text writing

戲劇/劇場藝術在所有藝術形式裡是一門最具綜合性的藝術

imagination, creativity, aesthetics and physique by means of physical/dancing arts.

每一個環節都能設計成為具有相當教學內涵的課程。例如表

and verbal expression through the form of stage plays, but also realises training of

The teaching mode with drama and theatre as a medium is mainly divided into two branches. The first one is Drama in Education, which introduces drama elements

into classes, such as “role-playing” or a variety of drama games in teaching. It is

種類,它包括了表演藝術、視覺藝術、音效、舞美、燈光等等, 演藝術,既可以通過話劇表演藝術形式實現在文本理���、文 本創作、口頭表達方面的訓練,也可以通過肢體/舞蹈藝術形 式來實現想象力、創造力、審美、形體方面的訓練。

unnecessary for students to be equipped with acting skills; all they need to do is

以戲劇和劇場作為媒介的教學方式目前主要分為兩大支系:

by communicating and collaborating with others under the guidance of supervisors.

演”或各種戲劇遊戲進行教學。學生不需要有特殊的演技,只

being willing to engage in games, play parts, experience a story or complete a task It aims to stimulate students to experiment on their own without right or wrong

answers, rewards or punishments. In such a relaxing and safe teaching and learning

第一是教育戲劇,即在課程當中引用戲劇元素,例如“角色扮 需要在導師的帶領下一起玩耍或成為某個角色,通過與他人 溝通、協作,共同去經歷一個故事、完成一個任務。這個過程

environment, children are encouraged to show themselves and explore potential

旨在經歷、體驗,沒有是非對錯、獎懲排名,輕松、安全的教學

larger confidence and therefore greater innovation.

的能力與自我,從而在現實生活中更加自信更具有創造性地

capabilities, so that they will take challenges and solve problems in real life with

環境使得孩子更加大膽地去呈現自己,挖掘、開發更深層次


The second mode is Theatre in Education. Teachers here are performers, creating

去面對困難、解決問題。

questions raised through performance, spurring them to dialogue and debate. At

第二個是教育劇場,老師同時作為表演者,針對學生群體當

them for advice and to complete dialogues or to help make choices and decisions,

過對話和爭辯引起學生思考,並邀請學生進行互動,例如向

dramatic works about topics relevant to students, motivating them to ponder the same time, the performer-teachers invite students to interact, for instance, asking etc. and then continue with performances according to students’ ideas. After the end

of plays performed by teachers, discussions are usually carried out. The purpose is to

make students be aware of their existence in a larger social context and thus develop

a more in-depth understanding of cultural, social, moral and ethical elements and also know how to deal with their relationships with others and the society.

下比較關注的話題,例如早戀等改編成劇,在表演過程中通 學生征求意見、讓學生代為對話或讓學生幫忙做選擇、決策 等,再根據學生想法將表演進行下去,劇演結束後再集中進 行討論。其意圖使學生在更大的社會範圍內意識到自己的存 在,從而對文化的、社會的、道德的、倫理的各個方面有更深 的感知,更加知道如何去處理人和他人,人和社會的問題。

I believe that teaching approaches based in the performing arts such as Drama in

除了教育戲劇和教育劇場,筆者認為以表演藝術作為教學途

is plenty of room here to discover and develop new teaching theories and methods

域是充分開放的,可以由更多的人來擴充教學理論和方法,

Education and Theatre in Education should be explored further by educators. There and break educational boundaries as well.

徑也應成為教育戲劇和劇場的之外的另一重要支系。這個領 突破教學邊界。

The Program of Drama and Theatre Education

教育戲劇和劇場專業

Relevant programs have currently been set up in some universities and colleges

目前英國、澳洲和美國都有一些高校有相關專業設置,其中

University in Britain, enjoys highest prestige and first-class faculty in this regard.

的聲譽和師資配置。華威大學的該專業方向主要是為了學

in Britain, Australia and America, among which the University of Warwick, a Top 10

The program at the University of Warwick aims to providing schools, educational

institutions and community centres with courses and teaching methods. Boasting a scientific structure and richly-experienced teachers with wide-ranging interests, it enjoys a considerable flexibility and accordingly satisfies students who come from various academic and cultural backgrounds. Based on students’ professional

backgrounds as well as career experiences and aspirations, teachers help them choose topics of term papers and directions of their graduate theses. Through one-year programs of academic study, students are equipped with fundamental

排名英國前十位的英國華威大學在該專業上享有最頂尖級 校、教育機構及社區中心提供教學課程和方法。該課程結構 科學,老師教學經驗豐富,涉及領域廣泛,使之具有相當靈 活性來面對各種來自不同教學和文化背景的學生。任課老 師會根據每個學生過去的專業背景、職業經歷以及未來的 職業發展方向幫助他們選擇每門課程的論文題目以及畢業 論文的研究方向。學生通過一年的學習,預期可具備基本或 相當的戲劇和劇場教育理論基礎及教研技巧,畢業後可作 為學校教育戲劇和劇場領域的專家講師、劇場的教育部門 顧問、政府的教育官員或社區戲劇工作者,也可以申請博士


theories of drama and theatre education along with teaching and research skills.

繼續攻讀博士學位。

and theatre education at schools, consultants at theatres, educational officials in

作為一門學術理論和實踐活動高度結合的課程,該專業十分

After graduation, they are capable enough to work as lecturers in the area of drama governments, head community theatres or apply for PhD.

As a program which integrates academic theories and practice, it attaches great

importance to the balance of teaching theory and making artistic work. During

my stay there, chairs were arranged in a circle in the first-half class and theoretical

learning was conducted; in the second-half period, chairs were all removed and each

重視理論學習和實踐的配比和平衡。筆者在學習過程中,每 堂課通常開始半堂課將椅子圍成一圈進行理論學習,後半堂 便把椅子移走以工作坊的形式讓每一個人參與到其中,本堂 課所學的相關理論通過實踐來加深理解,老師手把手地將戲 劇經驗及教學方法傳遞給學生。

student was asked to engage in the workshop. Theories were understood by means

由於華威與外界一些戲劇及教育機構有著良好的合作關係,

by step and hand by hand.

明翰話劇團劇院(Birmingham Repertory Theatre)等,院系會

of practice and teachers imparted drama experience and teaching approaches step

Thanks to a good cooperation with a few drama and educational institutions,

including the Royal Shakespeare Company and Birmingham Repertory Theatre, the college arranges workshops and offers students chances to watch dramas from time

to time; it also invites distinguished specialists in drama education such as John

O’Toole to conduct workshops or give lectures; in addition, it organises students to participate in drama education summits and observe experienced teachers giving

class and even assisting them in making practice at local schools. With a variety

of teaching and learning forms together with a wealth of practical activities, this

例如皇家莎士比亞公司(Royal Shakespeare Company)、伯 不時組織交流工作坊和演出觀摩;院系還會不時邀請國際上 其他傑出教育戲劇從事者,例如約翰·歐突爾(John O’Toole) 等來為學生開展工作坊或進行授課;此外,院系還會組織學 生參加相關的(戲劇)教育峰會,及去當地學校觀摩教學經驗 豐富的老師進行現場教學,並協助有意願的同學選擇當地的 學校進行教學實踐。多樣的教學形式加上豐富的業內活動使 得學習生活立體,大大有助於學生鞏固知識、開闊眼界、結識 同行、建立資源,為今後從事學術研究或教學工作打下基礎。

program stimulates students to consolidate acquired knowledge, broaden horizons

該專業的主要授課老師喬·溫斯頓(Joe Winston)教授是該領

academic research and teaching.

文章被國內外該領域認作最具職業及專業性的學術文章。他

and build resources, thus helping them to lay a solid foundation for their future

The principal teacher in this program, Professor Joe Winston, is a leading figure in the field. He is widely published. He takes deep interests in aesthetic education, the role

of stories in drama education, application of Shakespeare in teaching and second

域的領頭人物之一,他在各種專業期刊上有諸多發表,眾多 的學術研究領域包括美學教育、故事在戲劇教育中的角色、 莎士比亞在教學上的應用以及用戲劇來教第二語言。他出版 過眾多教育戲劇的書籍,例如 《美和教育(Beauty and Education)》、 《開始玩戲劇:4到11歲(Beginning Drama: 4-11)》

language teaching with the aid of drama. He has also published many books about

(已有中文譯本)、 《戲劇、語文與道德教育:5到11歲(Drama,

Chinese edition), Drama, Literacy and Moral Education 5-11 (also in a Chinese edition)

及參與編輯的《教育戲劇及第二語言學習(Drama Education

drama education, such as Beauty and Education, Beginning Drama:4-11 (which has a and also edited Drama Education and Second Language Learning. Motivated by a

long-term interest in China, he has visited Beijing, Shanghai and Guangzhou more than once and carried out workshops and other teaching activities there. Exchange

with China’s education industry and accumulated experience of teaching Chinese students allow him to develop a better understanding of China’s educational environment and background as well as demands of Chinese students.

Professor Jonathan Neelands, another well-known teacher in the college, serves as the chairman of the Department of Drama and Theatre Education at Warwick and

is the prize-winner of the National Quality Teaching Award enacted by the British Higher Education Academy. His sensitivity to education modes under different

political systems allows students from different educational backgrounds to have

Literacy and Moral Education: 5-11)》 (已有中文譯本)以 and Second Language Learning)》。溫斯頓教授一直以來對 中國十分感興趣,他曾屢次造訪北京、上海、廣州開展工作坊 及教學活動。數年來通過與中國教育行業的交流以及對中國 學生的教學經驗的積累使得他對中國的教育環境、背景以及 中國學生的需求有了很好的了解。 另一著名的授課老師喬納森·尼蘭茲 (Jonothan Neelands) 教授 是華威大學教育戲劇和劇場專業的主席, 也是英國高等教育學 院所設立的國家級優質教學獎的獲得成員。 他對不同政治體制 下的教學體系具有相當的敏銳度, 使得來自不同政治環境背景 的學生對教育能夠產生更加深入更有針對性的理解。

deep insights into education.

另一主力講師瑞秋·金(Rachel King)曾做過課程負責人,她對

Rachel King, a major lecturer, used to be the class manager here. She is quite

常充分的經驗,這使得對於中國學生來說,華威成為選擇學

experienced in dealing with specific problems and urgent requirements that Chinese

students encounter in their learning processes. Taking all elements mentioned above into account, Warwick is a second-to-none choice for Chinese students to study

處理中國學生在學習過程當中出現的具體問題和需求有非 習教育戲劇和劇場十分理想之地。 筆者在這裡想特別提醒,教育戲劇和劇場專業是一門教育學


Drama and Theatre Education. I would like to emphasise that as an educational discipline, Drama and Theatre

科,特別針對未來職業規劃是教育方面的同學而設計,僅有 戲劇背景但無從事教育行業計劃的申請者需要謹慎。

Education is especially created for students who will devote to education in their

由於這是一門跨學科專業,任何具有教育或戲劇相關專業、

twice.

要具有教師資格證書,然而申請者除了需要對從事少兒教學

future career and therefore applicants with only a drama background should think

Since this is an interdisciplinary major, anyone with education or drama background is qualified to apply and applicants with backgrounds in both are preferred. It is not necessary for them to have teacher’s certificates, but they should not only

have interests in teaching children, and have interest in working in local schools

從業背景的人都可以申請,兩者兼具為最佳。申請者並不需 有相當興趣之外,學校建議申請者在赴英學習之前最好能夠 在當地找一間學校工作一段時間以獲取一些工作經驗,這樣 會很有利於碩士期間的學習。此外申請者在申請該專業時需 向院系提交一份個人說明,解釋為何選擇申請該科目。

where they can gain practical experience before going to study in Britain, which

另外,院系今年開設了另一門用戲劇方式來進行英文教學的

personal statement, in which causes for selecting this program are clarified.

tion and English Language Teaching (ELT)),有興趣的同學

will definitely benefit their academic life here. Besides, they are required to submit a

MA Drama Education and English Language Teaching (ELT), a new program in

teaching English by means of drama, is set up in the college. Applicants interested in it can get more information from the Warwick website. Conclusion Currently being applied in various teaching areas like Chinese literacy, foreign languages, history and geography and etc., drama and theatre education is particularly vital for humanities. Drama’s unique democratic and open way of

teaching helps it not only become humanised, motivational and acceptable in

teaching, but also play a constructive role in developing children’s personality, emotion-management ability, teamwork, critical thinking and morality; its colourful,

wide-ranging teaching methods as well as art elements inside make it inevitable to

碩士學位課程--戲劇教育與英語教育(MA Drama Educa可以去網站搜尋相關信息。 結尾 教育戲劇和劇場目前在眾多教學領域都有研究和應用,例如 語文、外語、歷史、地理等基礎學科,其在人文學科裡的作用 尤為重大。它所特有的民主、開放的教學方式,使之不僅在的 教學上更加符合人性,更容易激勵學生和讓學生接受,還在 孩子成長過程中更為重要的性格養成、情緒管理、團隊合作、 批判思想及道德倫理方面有著重要的建設作用;其豐富多彩 的教學方法及其本身包含的藝術內質,使孩子在學習過程中 審美、好奇心、想象力、創造力等方面的培養和提升也成為某 種必然。

foster children’s aesthetic, curiosity, imagination and creativity.

藝術和教育觀念長期的發展,大量人力物力在研究實踐上的

Due to long-term development of art and education concepts, a large amount of

得我們再沒有更多理由停留在一味背誦、模仿和復制的舊有

manpower and capital spent in research and practice, changes in productivity and production relations and the constantly progressed society, we have no excuse to

confine our kids to the conventional teaching and learning mode, such as blind recitation, imitation and copy. Those who say “not to make a bet on kids” and “so

much afraid of taking a joke of kids’ future” are actually lazy intellectually. Everyone needs to face the laws underlying social growth, seek means to bridge the gap between institutional flaws and future demands and cultivate imagination, creativity

投入,生產力和生產關係的改變以及社會不斷前進的步伐使 教學模式中。那些聲稱“不敢拿自己的孩子作賭注”、“不敢拿 孩���的未來開玩笑”的人,與其說不敢讓他們的孩子去接受風 險不如說是他們自身知識上的一種懶惰。所有人都需要面對 社會發展變化的必然規律,找到一個途徑去彌補制度缺陷和 未來需要之間的斷層,去培養和提升想象力、創造力以及審 美,從而適應今後不確定的未來。

and aesthetic so as to adjust to the uncertain future.

教育戲劇和劇場長期的實踐積累以及它所具有的堅實理論

Wealthy practical accumulation of drama and theatre education together with a

論作為學校、政府、教育機構的教育項目或是那些有志投身

solid theoretical foundation endows it with considerable possibilities in the future, which makes sense for both educational programs set in governments, schools and

educational institutions and those students who determine to treat education as

their life-long career. Huge possibilities and rich innovation incorporated in theatres enable them to yield something as big as the civilised system of democracy and also nurture greater wisdom and feelings which are a must in the establishment of a more advanced human civilisation. I hope more people would benefit from it.

基礎使得這個領域在未來的發展具有相當的空間和可能,無 教育的學生的職業規劃都是具有相當意義的。劇場所蘊藏著 極豐富的可能性和創造性,它既能孕育出大到民主一般的文 明制度,也能孕育出人類邁向更高文明所需要的更高的智慧 和情感,願有更多的人能夠從中獲益。



ART.ZIP issue 10