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熱點話題

HOT TOPIC 014

018 006

Serpentine Gallery Pavilion 2012

008

The Tanks at Tate Modern

倫敦蛇形畫廊2012年臨時展館

泰特現代藝術館的“大油罐”

010

Digital Crystal: Swarovski

012

Frieze Art Fair & Frieze Masters

014 Art of Change: New Directions from China

變化的藝術:中國新方向

016

Photography from the 60s and 70s

數碼水晶:施華洛世奇

Frieze 藝術博覽會及大師作品展

‘Everything Was Moving’ -

一切都在改變 - 20世紀六十到七十 年代的攝影

018

Bharti Kher

巴蒂 • 克爾個人作品展

020

London Design Festival

Celebrates a Decade of Design

倫敦設計節十年慶典

022

A House of Leaves

024

Mel Bochner:

葉之屋

If The Colour Changes

梅爾 • 波切內爾:假如色彩改變了


每期專題

SPECIAL FEATURE 026

The Middle Kingdom

042

Song Dong: Waste Not

中•國

宋冬:物盡其用

052

Her Dark Materials

058

Small World

瑪格麗塔 • 格魯茲玻格-暗黑之物

062

Chinese Curios:

Homage to Walter Benjamin

084

中國古董

066

Authenticity in Art and Law: A Question of Attribution or Authorization?

藝術和法律的真實性:是歸屬問題還是 認證問題?

Sarah’s Journey:

A Photographic Diary 莎拉 • 艾爾森:攝影日記

090

Helen Couchman

100

Five Minutes with Song Dong

海倫 • 考斯曼

與宋冬的五分鐘

《小世界》

042

026


ISSUE 05 2012

ISSN 2050-4152

Publisher 出版人

Chunfen Liu劉春芬 Editor-in-chief 主編 Harry Liu 劉競晨

Executive Editor 執行編輯 Michelle Yu 余小悅

Guest Editors 特約編輯 Monica Chung Trish Lyons

Translator 翻譯

Shoran Jiang 姜嘯然 Yu Chang 于暢

Creative Director 創意總監 Ye Li 李燁

Xianghui Ye 葉向輝 Art Director 藝術總監 Xiaodan Gao 高曉丹 Nan Wu 武楠

Managing Director 運營總監 Yuese Shi 石約瑟

Visual Design 視覺設計 Bulletpin Studio

Contributors 鳴謝

Geoff Dyer, Sarah Elson, Shoran Jiang,

Syndi Huang 黃煥欣, Shangtong Lin 林上童, Trish Lyons, Monica Chung,

Daniel McClean, Makita Ma 馬怡, Gareth Rees, Song Dong 宋冬, Fresco Su 蘇毅,

Baozhen Xiao 肖寶珍, Wenhua Wang 王聞華


Cover art by Dario Vigorito 封面藝術家

Dario Vigorito is a Neapolitan artist based in London. Going by the name 241-24-7, his agitpunk art and design work is

instantly recognizable for its bold edits and political content. Well known for his synchronized audio-visual editing, he

has just returned from a two-year global tour of the widely acclaimed Chris Cunningham Live Experience, working with artists including Gil Scott Heron and Grace Jones.

Dario Vigorito: www.241-24-7.com / www.aaeaeaa.com 達里奧 • 維格里多(Dario Vigorito),意大利那不勒斯藝術家,常駐倫敦。化名為241-24-7,達里奧agitpunk風格的藝術和設 計作品讓人過目難忘,尤其是他大膽的剪輯和政治題材的探討。達里奧以出色的同步視聽剪輯而聞名。他剛剛結束了 倍受讚譽的藝術項目“Chris Cunningham Live Experience”,該項目進行了兩年的世界巡回,合作藝術家還包括 Gil Scott Heron和Grace Jones 。

更多詳情請瀏覽以下網站:www.241-24-7.com / www.aaeaeaa.com

Co-operators 合作夥伴

D&Ad, Today Art Museum Beijing 北京今日美術館,Soho.com/Arts搜狐藝術頻道,Art China新浪收藏頻道,

Oriental Art Master《東方藝術 大家》,Art Value《藝術當代》雜誌,Design Museum London倫敦設計博物館, Royal Acadamy of Art皇家藝術學院,National Portrait Gallery英國國家肖像畫廊,Tate 泰特美術館,

Serpentine Gallery蛇形畫廊,V&A Museum 維多利亞和阿爾伯特博物館,The Barbican Art Gallery 倫敦巴比肯藝術中心, Frieze Art Fair Frieze藝術博覽會, London Design Festival 倫敦設計節,Whitechapel Art Gallery倫敦白教堂藝術畫廊, David Roberts Art Foundation 戴維·羅伯茲藝術基金會,Hayward Gallery 海沃德畫廊

Address 雜誌社地址

37 Camden High Street,NW1 7JE,London,UK Website:www.artzip.org

002/003


EDITOR’S NOTE 主編寄語

ART.ZIP雜誌作為一個文化交流平台其宗旨就是希望更多的中英兩地的文化界人士通過雜誌來溝通 彼此理念,展現不同文化背景下對於當代藝術和文化事件的解讀和討論,因此,ART.ZIP雜誌會不 定期邀請中英兩地的知識界精英深入地參與到雜誌內容的建設中來,本年度9月刊的特別專刊便是 雜誌邀請資深國際當代藝術收藏顧問Monica Chung和英國皇家藝術學院研究部主管Trish Lyons博 士作為我們的特約編輯為大家帶來一期別具一格的ART.ZIP。 與Monica和Trish的合作開始於一年前,在這期間這兩位特約編輯為這期特別的雜誌付出了大量的 時間和精力,精心組織了充滿趣味的內容,隨着合作的不斷深入,內容的安排和甄選也逐漸清晰, 從開始以城市為背景的宏大主題敘事模式調整為更為個人化和精神化的文化討論,同時,作為兩位 英國知識分子,她們挑選了一些針對於中國讀者和知識層的話題與大家分享,希望以此為契機將中 英文化交流中產生的問題和現象展現給大家。

As the first bilingual contemporary art magazine dedicated to bringing together the

world of art in the UK and China, ART.ZIP creates a space for all from different cultural

backgrounds to discuss or provide their interpretations on contemporary art and cultural events. We periodically invite professionals from UK and China to contribute to our magazine.

For this September issue, our first special edition, we are pleased to invite two London-

based guest editors, Monica Chung, international contemporary art consultant and Dr. Trish Lyons, artist and writer, Head of Research, School of Fine Art, Royal Collage of Art.

Having worked on this special edition for almost a year, we are grateful for the care and

insight these two professionals have brought to ART.ZIP. Chung and Lyons have carefully selected topics with a Chinese audience in mind, exploring the gaps and cultural issues between the UK and China.

HARRY LIU 劉競晨

Editor-in-chief 主編


GUEST EDITORS’ NOTE 編輯致辭

We wanted this issue to be prismatic, to capture different angles

歷時一年的稿件整理,這期本著呈現中國

reflected; and spent over a year gathering together the writings,

感謝所有為這期特刊作出貢獻的作者和藝

and points of view through which China might be glimpsed and artworks, reviews and interviews. We want to thank all the writers and artists who contributed to this issue.

We are particularly grateful to London artist Margarita Gluzberg

who created a special print from her Consumystic photography series. Thanks to Bullet Pin Studio and Harry Liu for working

closely with the printers in Bei-Jing to achieve the exceptional quality of the lithographic print.

多元化的特刊終於與讀者見面。我們非常 術家。 我們特別感謝倫敦藝術家--瑪格 麗塔•葛魯茲玻格--特地從她的 Consumystic系列里為我們創作了一款 攝影特輯。謝謝Bulletpin工作室和Harry 與北京的印刷廠緊密協作才得以完成這 款別樣的壓印。

Together with our writers we feel privileged to be translated into

當然,我們必須感謝這次將英文翻譯為中

were able to convey the subtleties of the texts.

都翻譯得恰到好處。

Mandarin and would like to acknowledge all the translators who

文的譯製人員,謝謝你們把文章細膩之處

From the outset, we kept our Chinese readers in mind and

從一開始我們就把中國的讀者惦記於

enriched by the experience of bringing it to you.

希望你們也如我們一樣從中得到充實。

we hope that you enjoy this issue as much as we have been

心,而在這漫漫製作過程中亦獲益良多,

MONICA CHUNG & TRISH LYONS Guest Editors 編輯


Serpentine Gallery Pavilion 2012 倫敦蛇形畫廊 2012年臨時展館

TEXT BY 文字提供 x ART . ZIP

IMAGES COURTESY OF 圖片提供 x

SERPENTINE GALLERY 倫敦蛇形畫廊

Tips

小貼示

Exhibition 展出時間 : 01.06 – 14.10.2012

Serpentine Gallery Pavilion 2012 Designed by Herzog & de Meuron and Ai Weiwei © Herzog & de Meuron and Ai Weiwei Image © 2012 Iwan Baan

Herzog & de Meuron and Ai Weiwei have created the 2012 Serpentine

蛇形畫廊臨時展館計劃已經實行了12個年頭,每年夏天畫廊都會邀請

series, the world’s first and most ambitious architectural programme

責蛇形畫廊臨時展館設計的設計師是赫爾佐格與德梅隆(Herzog & de

Gallery Pavilion. It is the twelfth commission in the Gallery’s annual of its kind.

The design team responsible for the celebrated Beijing National

傑出的建築設計師為其量身定做一個風格獨特的臨時展館,今年,負 Meuron)和艾未未。蛇形畫廊的臨時展館計劃是世界上第一個也是最 為雄心勃勃的建築設計項目。

Stadium, which was built for the 2008 Olympic Games has come

此次蛇形畫廊臨時展館是赫爾佐格與德梅隆(Herzog & de Meuron)和艾

annual commission, presented as part of the London 2012 Festival,

年北京奧運會主體育館,也就是被大家熟知的“鳥巢”。此次適逢2012倫敦

together again in London in 2012 for the Serpentine’s acclaimed

the culmination of the Cultural Olympiad. The Pavilion is Herzog & de Meuron and Ai Weiwei’s first collaborative built structure in the UK.

未未的第二次合作,這個設計師和藝術家組成的設計團隊負責設計了2008 奧運會,這個團隊設計的第12座蛇形畫廊臨時展館也是作為倫敦文化奧 運概念的一個部分,同時,這也是他們在倫敦的首個建築項目。


This year’s Pavilion takes visitors beneath the Serpentine’s lawn to explore the hidden history of its previous Pavilions. Eleven

columns characterising each past Pavilion and a twelfth column

representing the current structure support a floating platform roof 1.4 metres above ground. The Pavilion’s interior is clad in cork, a

sustainable building material chosen for its unique qualities and to echo the excavated earth. Taking an archaeological approach, the architects have created a design that will inspire visitors to look

beneath the surface of the park as well as back in time across the ghosts of the earlier structures.

Julia Peyton-Jones, Director, and Hans Ulrich Obrist, Co-Director, Serpentine Gallery, said: “It is a great honour to be working with Herzog & de Meuron and Ai Weiwei, the design team behind Beijing’s superb Bird’s Nest Stadium. In this exciting year for

London we are proud to be creating a connection between the Beijing 2008 and the London 2012 Games.”

今年的臨時展館將觀眾帶入蛇形畫廊前的草坪之下,來探索過往那些臨 時展館被隱藏的歷史。展館有11根立柱代表過往每一個臨時展館的歷 史,第12根立柱代表了當下的這個展館,同時這12根立柱支撐著一個高 於地面1.4米的充滿水的平盤型圓頂。臨時展館的內部裝飾材料的選擇考 慮到低碳環保的需求,最後採用了與泥土的顏色相近的軟木來製作內飾 和座椅,軟木獨特的質地也使得整個展館與周圍的環境融為一體。設計 師借鑒了考古學的方法,設計了這個半地下的臨時展館,帶領觀眾探索 這座花園地表以下的世界,同時也猶如時光穿梭一般去追尋以前那些消 逝了的展館的痕跡。 蛇形畫廊總監朱莉婭佩頓 · 瓊斯(Julia Peyton-Jones)和漢斯 · 烏爾 里希 · 奧布里斯特(Hans Ulrich Obrist)表示:“我們非常榮幸能與赫爾 佐格與德梅隆和艾未未一起工作,他們曾經設計了北京著名的鳥巢體育 館。在倫敦這令人振奮的一年,我們非常的自豪能够創造一個北京2008 年與倫敦2012年奧運會之間的連接。”

Serpentine Gallery Pavilion 2012 Designed by Herzog & de Meuron and Ai Weiwei © Herzog & de Meuron and Ai Weiwei Image © 2012 Luke Hayes

Serpentine Gallery Pavilion 2012 Designed by Herzog & de Meuron & Ai Weiwei © 2012, by Herzog & de Meuron and Ai Weiwei


The Tanks at Tate Modern 泰特現代藝術館的“大油罐” TEXT BY 文字提供 x ART . ZIP

IMAGES COURTESY OF 圖片提供 x TATE MODERN 泰特現代藝術館

The Tanks at Tate Modern are the world’s first museum galleries permanently

泰特現代藝術館的“大油罐”是世界上首個永久用於展示現場

The Tanks were originally massive industrial chambers containing oil that fuelled

“大油罐”最初是用於儲存為發電站提供燃料的油罐,從1981

in 1981. The cavernous underground oil tanks have undergone extensive

量的改造之後,這個地方再一次作為大型建築的組件繼續工

dedicated to exhibiting live art, performance, installation and film works.

the Bankside power station and have lain unused since it was decommissioned redevelopment and are once again working components of a larger building.

No longer generators of electrical energy, they are instead generators of ideas, creative energy and new possibilities for artist and audiences. Neither white

cube, nor black box, they provide an entirely new type of space for Tate Modern and for museums internationally. Part of the Tate Modern Project, The Tanks

opened on 18 July 2012 with a 15-week festival programme of international performance, films, talks and live events.

藝術、表演藝術、裝置藝術和電影作品的博物館展示空間。

年至今一直關閉未被使用。在對海綿狀的地下油庫進行了大 作。它們從電力發動機,變成了藝術家和觀眾們觀點、創意 能源和嶄新可能的發動機。它不是白立方,亦不是黑匣子, 它是為泰特現代藝術館以及國際博物館提供的一個全新空 間。作為泰特現代藝術館項目的一部分,“大油罐”於2012年7 月18日開放,並且帶來了為期15周的涵蓋國際表演、電影、 講座和現場活動的藝術節。

The Tanks at Tate Modern Photocredit: Tate Photography


Flip Book Conception Boris Charmatz 1997 © Boris Charmatz

Tips

小貼示

Exhibition 展 出 時 間 : 18.07 – 28.10.2012

Selected upcoming events and performances include choreographer and

特選的即將舉行的活動和表演包括舞蹈編導家、舞蹈家鮑里

Years, which charts in pictures Merce Cunningham’s choreography over 50

在1997年大衛·沃恩出版的著作《五十年》中,展示了摩西·

dancer Boris Charmantz’s Flip Book. Taking David Vaughan’s 1997 book Fifty years. Charmatz invited different groups of dancers – from ex-members of Cunningham’s company to amateur practitioners – to learn and perform

Vaughan’s images in Flip Book – through rehearsals and full performances. 2530 September

斯 · 查爾曼茲(Boris Charmantz)的《翻轉書(Flip Book)》。 簡寧漢50多年來的舞蹈編排。在《翻轉書》中,查爾曼茲 邀請了不同群體的舞者──從簡寧漢公司的前成員到業餘實 踐者──來學習、並通過排練及完整的表演,表現沃恩的圖 像。演出時間為9月25-30日。

Performance Year Zero: A Living History, screenings, talks, performance and

《表演元年:一部活生生的歷史》,通過電影放映、講座、

created a vocabulary passed between generations of artists that is distinct from

造幾代人的詞彙溝通的,這也是與更當代的藝術中引用���考

discussion, explores how histories of action and event-based works have

the citation of references or sampling in much contemporary art. The recourse to art history is less about footnotes, drawn from a network of original sources and more about finding new ways of performing art history live, as evolving communicatory forms, akin to oral tradition. 30 September – 6 October.

表演和討論,來發掘行動和基於時間的作品的歷史是如何創 或採樣所區別開來的。較之於腳註和原始資料的關係網,對 於藝術史的追索,更多的是來自於尋找到新的方式來現場表 演藝術史,同樣也囊括類似於口頭傳統的、可以交流的形 式。演出時間為9月30日-10月6日。


Digital Crystal: Swarovski 數碼水晶:施華洛世奇

TEXT BY 文字提供 x ART . ZIP

IMAGES COURTESY OF 圖片提供 x

THE DESIGN MUSEUM 倫敦設計博物館

Daniel Swarovski founded the luxury crystal glass company Swarovski in 1895. Over a century and

many generations later, it has pushed the cut glass medium to new heights. With its collaborations and sponsorship of experimental innovation in

architecture and design, it has nurtured the talent

of some of our best-known international designers. ‘Digital Crystal: Swarovski’ at the Design Museum is an exhibition bringing the latest challenge

from Swarovski to a new generation of designers with a brief to examine the future of memory

in the digital age. The end of the analogue era

is changing the nature of our relationship with objects and even with time.

The exhibition showcases new commissions by exemplary international designers in response to one of the most interesting philosophical

questions of the modern age. Designers Ron Arad,

Yves Béhar, Paul Cocksedge, Troika, and Fredrikson Stallard have also been asked to participate,

reworking existing pieces in response to the brief. Eight years ago, Ron Arad’s ‘Lolita’ chandelier used cutting edge technology to display text messages in LED pixels on a spiral crystal chandelier - very much in the vanguard of the digital age. Today a new generation of designers is challenged to embrace the meaning of ‘Digital’ in 2012.


Design Museum Crystallize by Paul Cocksedge for Swarovski Crystal Palace

Design Museum Lolita by Ron Arad

Tips

小貼示

Exhibition 展出時間 :

05.09.2012 - 13.01.2013

1895年,丹尼爾 · 施華洛世奇(Daniel Swarovski)

展覽展示了國際設計師對於這個摩登時代裡最有趣

成立了豪華水晶玻璃公司施華洛世奇。一個多世紀

的哲學問題而創作的作品。設計師羅 · 阿拉德(Ron

以來,經過幾代人的打拼,他們已將玻璃切割媒介

Arad)、伊夫 · 貝哈爾(Yves Béhar)、保羅 · 考克

推至了一個新的高度。由於他們在建築和設計領域

塞芝(Paul Cocksedge)、特洛伊卡(Troika)以及

的合作和贊助,他們孕育了許多我們熟知的國際設

福萊德里克森 · 斯德拉德(Fredrikson Stallard)也被

計師。

應邀參加,圍繞此次展覽主題重新製作已有的作品。

倫敦設計博物館的《數碼水晶:施華洛世奇

八年前,羅 · 阿拉德(Ron Arad)的作品《洛麗塔

(Digital Crystal: Swarovski)》展覽帶來了施華洛

(Lolita)》吊燈採用了前沿技術,在螺旋形水晶的

世奇為新一代的設計師提出的最新挑戰,來實驗數

吊燈上通過LED像素來展示文字信息。今天,新一代

碼時代裡未來的記憶是怎樣的。模擬時代的結束改

的設計師們將面臨新的挑戰──在2012年如何迎接

變了我們與物體甚至時間之間的關係和性質。

並闡釋“數碼“這一意念。


Frieze Art Fair & Frieze Masters Frieze藝術博覽會及 大師作品展 TEXT BY 文字提供 x ART . ZIP

IMAGES COURTESY OF 圖片提供 x

FRIEZE ART FAIR FRIEZE藝術博覽會

Colnaghi, London Gaetano Gandolfi Venus ordering armour for Aeneas at Vulcan’s forge (1770s), Oil on canvas, 146x114cm Courtesy of Colnaghi

Matti Braun Untitled (2011) Fabric dye on silk, coated aluminium frame Courtesy of BQ, Berlin

David Zwirner, Dan Flavin Untitled (to Donna) ,1971 Blue, pink, and yellow fluorescent light 244cm square across a corner, Photography by Billy Jim © 2012 Stephen Flavin/Artists Rights Society (ARS) Courtesy of David Zwirner


October is the start of the contemporary art fair season in Europe and what

better place to kick off events than London, with this year’s tenth edition of Frieze. Everyone’s favorite contemporary art showcase brings together of over 170 international commercial galleries from 34 countries.

The spotlight is on the UK this year; with the Queen’s Diamond Jubilee,

the Olympics and the all-inclusive Cultural Olympiad being all hard acts

to follow, Frieze will not be pulling any punches and has a few tricks up its sleeve. One of which, is the launch of Frieze Masters.

Frieze Masters is a carefully selected presentation of over 90 of the world’s leading galleries that give a unique contemporary perspective on art

throughout the ages. Coinciding with, and within walking distance of

Frieze London (the New York edition of Frieze, launched in May this year) the two fairs will make London the focus for as broad an international art audience as possible.

Once again housed in a bespoke temporary structure, resembling a long marquee, created by award winning architects Carmody Groake, the fair

brings excitement and purpose to the immaculately maintained Royal Park. In addition to the launch of Frieze Masters, Frieze London will feature a

new section entitled Focus; a platform for galleries established after 2001, showing up to three artists each.

Galleries from China and Hong Kong included in this year’s Frieze are Long March Space, Bei-Jing, Vitamin Creative Space, Guangzhou and Osage,

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If you are going to visit only one fair this season, make it Frieze and Frieze

Exhibition 展 出 時 間 :

Hong Kong.

Masters - there will be something for everyone’s taste.

小貼示

11.10.2012 – 14.10.2012

十月是歐洲當代藝術博覽會季節的開始,今年第十屆的Frieze藝博會使得作為揭幕

期的金字招牌,由獲獎建築師卡莫迪 · 戈洛克(Carmody Groake)

地的倫敦當仁不讓地成為了全球藝術界的焦點。來自34個國家、多達170家國際商

設計,此次的藝術博覽會將在精心裝扮過的攝政王花園迎接來自世

業畫廊為大家呈現了“各有所愛”的當代藝術。

界各地的買家和觀眾。

今年,全球目光都聚焦在英國:女王的登基鑽禧,倫敦奧運會還有包容各方的文

除了推出Frieze Masters繪畫大師作品展,Frieze London藝博會同樣

化奧林匹亞節都是今年的強力看點,Frieze藝術博覽會更是不遺餘力地使出渾身解

有一個新的名為“聚焦(Focus)”的部分,這是一個專門為2001年後

數,其中最具亮點的,就是今年推出的Frieze Masters繪畫大師作品展。

建立的畫廊準備的平台,每間畫廊可展出至多三位藝術家的作品。

Frieze

今年來自中國和香港的畫廊包括北京的長征空間畫廊、廣州的維他

Masters繪畫大師作品展精心挑選了90余家國際一線畫廊,這些畫廊多年來

為當代藝術提供了與眾不同的視角。而且,Frieze London藝博會與Frieze Masters

命創意空間以及香港的奧莎畫廊。

繪畫大師作品展的場館距離更是近在咫尺,這將使得倫敦成為國際藝術觀眾在今年 秋天的首選遊覽勝地。

如果今年秋天你只打算參觀一個藝術博覽會,那麼Frieze藝博會和 Frieze Masters繪畫大師作品展絕對是首選──那裡會有適合每個

與以往一樣,藝博會的舉行還是在定製的臨時建築裡,這樣的臨時場館更像一個長

人口味的藝術。


Art of Change: New Directions from China 變化的藝術:中國新方向 TEXT BY 文字提供 x ART . ZIP

IMAGES COURTESY OF 圖片提供 x

HAYWARD GALLERY 倫敦海沃德畫廊

The first major exhibition in the UK to focus on contemporary installation and

此次在倫敦海沃德畫廊展出的《變化的藝術:中國新方

most innovative artists and artist groups from the 1980s to today – Chen Zhen,

展覽。展覽匯集了九位最具創新性的藝術家,展出了他們

performance art from China, it brings together works by nine of the country’s

Yingmei Duan, Gu Dexin, MadeIn Company, Liang Shaoji, Sun Yuan & Peng Yu, Wang Jianwei and Xu Zhen.

向》是英國首次舉辦關注中國當代裝置和表演藝術的大型 從1980年代至今的藝術作品,他們是陳箴,段英梅,顧 德新,沒頂公司,梁紹基,孫原&彭禹,汪建偉,徐震。

The idea of change – impermanence as an inescapable fact of human

“變化”這個概念作為人類生存歷史中不可逃避的現實體驗

this has led artists to positively embrace transformation and transience as

家們是如何積極的回應“變化”這樣一個貫穿中國當代裝置

existence – is deeply rooted in Eastern philosophy. Art of Change argues that key themes running through much of contemporary Chinese installation and performance art.

Each artist in the exhibition presents works that alter their appearance over time or convey a powerful sense of volatility in some way – from fleeting images of objects thrown out of a box or a person magically floating above the gallery floor to a wildly thrashing hose pipe dancing through space.

深深根植於東方哲學。《變化的藝術》為觀眾展示了藝術 及表演藝術發展的重要主題的。 展覽中,每位藝術家的作品都會隨著時間的推移而改變外 觀,或者用其他的方式來傳達強烈的波動感,比如物體從 盒子里飛出來的稍縱即逝的畫面,或者是神奇的漂浮在畫 廊地板之上,像一個瘋狂的舞者一樣顛簸著穿過空間。

Xu Zhen In Just A Blink Of An Eye (2005/2012) Courtesy Long March Space ©the artist 2012 Image courtesy Long March Space

Liang Shaoji Nature Series No.10/Bed (1993) ©the artist 2012 Image courtesy the artist and ShanghART Gallery


Highlights of the exhibition include: In Chen Zhen’s (b.1955- d.2000) Purification Room (2000) everyday items such as a bed, chair,

refrigerator and TV are collected together locally and covered in a

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小貼示

layer of mud which dries, cracks and changes its colour – in the artist’s

Exhibition 展 出 時 間 :

objects as they will be unearthed in future years.

Archive: A specially-created interactive archive tracing the

words it is a sort of archaeology of the future, presenting today’s

The exhibition presents a selection of works by Liang Shaoji (b. 1945), from his Nature Series begun in 1988. The artist choreographs the

activities of silkworms causing them to weave their silk webs around

sculptural objects. In the artist’s words, “I don’t think it is necessary to repeat the past. Instead I try to make silk stand for the line of human beings, and also the history of human beings and silkworms”.

主要作品包括: 在陳箴(b.1955 - d.2000)的《淨化室(2000)》作品中,日常用

07.09.2012 – 09.12.2012

development of installation and performance art in China from 1979 to today forms the backbone of the exhibition. Presented through an innovative digital interface created by Land Ahoy, the archive is comprised of short descriptions of over 130

performances, exhibitions and art events, as well as images, and expert commentary.

檔 案:貫穿這個展覽的框 架是建立在一 個專門創立的互動式 檔案,追溯 了從1979 年以 來中國 裝置 和 表 演 藝 術 的 發 展 。通 過蘭德 阿霍伊(L a n d Ahoy)設計的數碼交互平台,歸檔了超過130場表演,展覽和藝術現場的 圖文資料。

品如床,椅子,冰箱和電視機等物品被收集到一起,然後將其覆蓋上一層乾燥開 裂的泥層,用藝術家的話說,它們是一種考古學的期貨,將它們以未來出土文物 的形式展示在當下。 此次展覽還展出了梁紹基(b. 1945)創作於1988年的“自然”系列作品。藝術家編 排蠶在雕塑的周圍作繭,用蠶絲將雕塑對象纏繞覆蓋。藝術家表示:“我覺得重 復過去是沒有必要的,我將蠶絲的纏繞變為人類的立場和觀點,這也是比喻人類 和蠶的歷史。”

Chen Zhen Purification Room (2000) ©the artist 2012 Image courtesy the artists and GALLERIA CONTINUA, San Gimignano / Beijing / Le Moulin. Photo: Ela Bialkowska


‘Everything Was Moving’ Photography from the 60s and 70s 一切都在改變 - 20世紀六十 到七十年代的攝影 TEXT BY 文字提供 x ART . ZIP

IMAGES COURTESY OF 圖片提供 x

THE BARBICAN ART GALLERY 倫敦巴比肯藝術中心

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小貼示

Exhibition 展 出 時 間 :

13.09.2012 – 13.01.2013

Raghubir Singh (1942-1999) Below the Howrah Bridge a Marwari bride and groom after rites by the Ganges, 1968 © 2012 Succession Raghubir Singh

Bruce Davidson (b. 1933) From New York, 1961-65 © Bruce Davidson / Magnum Photos

This major photography exhibition tells a history of photography

這個重要的攝影展是通過照相機的鏡頭來講述攝影歷史。縱觀展

approximately 350 works, some rarely seen together with recent

品,而且許多作品在英國是第一次展出。

through the camera lens. The survey show brings together

discoveries and many prints being exhibited for the first time in the UK. Key figures featured include William Eccleston, David Goldblatt, Graciela Iturbide, Boris Mikhailov, Ernest Cole (South Africa’s first black freelance photographer) and Indian ‘street art’ photographer Raghubir Singh.

The exhibition covers the 1960s and 1970s – a pivotal era that defined

覽,多達350幅作品呈現在觀眾面前,當中有最新發現的罕見作

展覽囊括了眾多重要的攝影師,其中包括威廉 · 埃克萊斯頓(William Eccleston)、大衛 · 葛浩文(David Goldblatt)、格拉謝拉 · 艾特 拜德(Graciela Iturbide)、鮑里斯 · 米哈伊洛夫(Boris Mikhailov)、 歐內斯特 · 科爾(Ernest Cole)(南非第一位黑人自由攝影師)以 及印度的“街頭藝術”攝影師拉弗博 · 辛格(Raghubir Singh)。

the modern age, emerging from the post-colonial and Cold War era.

展覽跨越了二十世紀60和70年代──一個來自於後殖民時期和冷戰

the medium as a new aesthetic language.

言,蓬勃發展為一種先進媒介的現代藝術形式。

Photography came to thrive as a modern art form with the advance of

時代,一個定義現代社會的關鍵時期。攝影,作為一種新的審美語


Great ‘auteur’ photographers emerged from both the developed and ‘developing’ world, and during this politically volatile time,

photographers such as Li Zhensheng and Ernest Cole often risked their lives to capture images that would tell the story of common suffering and of their own lives in such harsh circumstances.

Ernest Cole (1940 - 1990) Handcuffed blacks were arrested for being in white area illegally, 1967 From House of Bondage © The Ernest Cole Family Trust The Hasselblad Foundation Collection

Li’s photographs, some of which have never been revealed in public,

發達國家和“發展中”國家都會出現風格獨特的偉大攝影師,在這

(1966-76). The photographs were taken for the Heilongiiang Daily, a

(Ernest Cole),攝影師們經常是冒著生命危險去捕捉影像,來講

recorded China during Mao’s strict reign during the Cultural Revolution newspaper in the North East of China, on the border with Russia. After

photographing in secret, he concealed the negatives by burying them

個政治動盪的時期,譬如中國的李振聲和南非的俄內斯特 · 科爾 述平民受難的故事,以及在如此惡劣的情況下自己的生活。

under his mud floor. The astonishing discovery of 30,000 negatives

李振聲的圖片,記錄了在文革期間(1966-1976年)的社會狀

the most complete visual record known of this extraordinary period of

所拍攝的,這家報社在中國的東北,比鄰俄羅斯。在秘密拍攝後,

only came to light in the West, at the end of the 20th Century and is human history.

Ernest Cole’s (1940-90) recently discovered collection of vintage prints is shown for the first time in Britain in this exhibition. At the time of

態,其中一些從未在公眾面前露面。這些照片是為《黑龍江日報》 他將這些照片的底片掩埋在了自家的泥土地裡。在二十世紀末期, 這驚人的三萬張底片在西方曝光,這是人類歷史上對這一特殊時期 的最完整的視覺紀錄。

segregation in South Africa, Cole persuaded the Race Classification

此次近期發現的俄內斯特 · 科爾(1940-90)的老式照片收藏是首

practice as a photographer at a time when many black photographers

會他不是“黑人”,而是“有色人種”,所以,在那個黑人攝影師飽受

Board that he was not ‘black’ but ‘coloured’ and was therefore able to

were persecuted and imprisoned. After documenting what it was like to be black under apartheid, Cole then escaped South Africa on 9th May

1966 to live in exile in New York; this enabled him to publish House of Bondage, 1967, an indelible record of being black under apartheid in South Africa. Cole never returned home and died in poverty.

‘Everything was moving’ - Photography from the 60s and 70s tells the

photographer’s story during a fractious and pivotal time in world affairs.

次在英國展出。在南非的種族隔離時期,科爾說服了種族分類董事 迫害和監禁的時期,他能够作為一名攝影師拍攝。在紀錄了種族隔 離下的黑人生活情境後,科爾於1966年5月9日逃離南非在紐約過 著流亡的生活,這使他能夠在1967年出版《奴役的房子(House of Bondage)》,一本不可磨滅的關於南非黑人生活的實錄。科爾從 未回國,並在貧困中死去。 《一切都在改變──六十到七十年代的攝影》講述了在那個混亂並 關鍵的世界背景下,一個又一個攝影師的故事。


Bharti Kher 巴蒂 · 克爾 個人作品展

TEXT BY 文字提供 x ART . ZIP

IMAGES COURTESY OF 圖片提供 x

THE PARASOL UNIT FOUNDATION FOR CONTEMPORARY ART PARASOL UNIT 當代藝術基金會

Bharti Kher is one of India’s best-known contemporary artists.

巴蒂 · 克爾(Bharti Kher)是印度最知名

installations transform and reinterpret the identity and meaning

克爾的繪畫、雕塑和裝置相互轉化並重

With a diverse practice, Kher’s paintings, sculptures and

of subject or matter, whether it is an everyday inanimate object or a natural life form.

的當代藝術家之一。在不同的實踐中, 新詮釋事物的本體和意義,不論是日常 無生命的物體抑或是自然生命的形式。

Although born in the UK and trained in Fine Art in Newcastle,

克爾出生在英國並在紐卡斯爾接受了藝

to the West as one amongst an exciting new generation of

如今她作為從印度出現的新一代當代藝

Kher has resided in India since 1992 and has been re-introduced contemporary artists to emerge from India today.

術教育,在1992年回到印度定居至今, 術家被重新介紹到西方。

The Parasol Unit Foundation for Contemporary Art is presenting

Parasol Unit 當代藝術基金會舉辦克爾

artist’s sculptural pieces.

於藝術家的雕塑作品。

Kher’s first UK public solo exhibition, which focuses on the

的英國首次個人展覽展,此次個展著眼

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小貼示

Exhibition 展 出 時 間 :

14.09.2012 – 11.11.2012


By using everyday motifs and artifacts, Kher forces us to re-configure what we

通過運用日常生活中的圖案和物品,克爾迫使觀眾重新組合

readings on its head, to form a different dialogue with the artwork. An example

式排列組合並使我們震驚,從而通過藝術作品形成一個不同

know of the recognizable form and its narrative, surprising us by turning our of this is the 9 foot tall fiberglass tree ‘Solarium Series I, 2007-2010. Viewed from a distance the tree appears to be normal with small leaves. On closer inspection, the leaves are constructed from miniature heads of fantastical creatures; thus inviting us into another world.

我們所熟知的形式及敘事方式,將觀眾的閱讀習慣以她的方 的對話。比如她2007-2010年的九英尺高的玻璃纖維樹作品 《日光浴系列一(Solarium Series I)》。遠觀,這棵樹有許 多小葉子,與正常的樹別無它樣。但近觀,這些樹葉是由微 型幻想生物的頭組成的,從而帶領我們進入了另一個世界。

‘The Skin Speaks a Language Not Its Own’, 2006, is an archetypal piece by Kher

其2006年的作品《皮膚說外星語(The

covered in thousands of white sperm-shaped bindis. The elephant, a highly

成的一件作品。一只真實大小的玻璃纖維大象,由成千上萬

that merges animal and artefact. A life size fibreglass elephant is represented, regarded animal in India, representing strength and stature, and the bindi,

a traditional Indian head decoration representing a ‘third eye’ that connects

to the spiritual world, are opposites in scale. The bindi is a signatory mark of

the artist and an object that she regularly employs, although, a small symbol, it bears great significance, and on the elephant its significance is magnified through its sheer number; the weight of the animal is counterbalanced. It

has been commented that the piece is a metaphor for India, herself, either

collapsing under the economic slump or about to emerge strong as one of the BRIC countries.

Skin

Speaks

a

Language Not Its Own)》,是克爾用動物和人工製品拼合 白色精子形狀的bindi(印度人眉心的裝飾,點狀或用珠寶 裝飾)組成。大象在印度是倍受尊重的動物,代表力量與地 位,bindi是印度人頭部的裝飾,代表與精神世界聯繫的“第 三隻眼”,這兩者在大小上大相逕庭。bindi是藝術家俱有代 表性並經常使用的標誌和客體,如此之小的一個符號卻承載 了巨大的意義,並且在大象的身上它的意義通過純然的數量 被放大;而動物的重量卻被抵消。這件作品被認為是對於印 度的暗喻,無論是經濟不景氣下的塌陷或是即將稱為“金磚四 國”之一強。

The unique juxtaposition of Kher’s hybrid hyper-realistic and illusory sculptures

克爾獨特的超出現實的和虛幻相並置混合的雕塑,與神話和

enter, bridging two worlds, that of our everyday culture and that of the artist’s.

常文化與藝術家的兩個世界。

with mythologies and cultural narratives brings forth a new dimension for us to

The skin speaks a language not its own, 2006 Bindis on fibreglass Life size, 142 x 456.2 x 195 cm (56 x 179½ x 76¾ in) Private collection, Switzerland Photography: Bartholomew/Netphotograph

Solarum Series I, 2007–2010 Fibreglass, metal 274 x 335 x 304 cm (108 x 132 x 120 in) Ursula Hauser Collection, Switzerland Photography Stefan Altenburger Photography Zürich

Contents [detail], 2010 Bindis on 21 medical charts Each: 99.5 x 64.5 cm (39¼ x 25½ in) Private collection Photography Mike Bruce

文化的敘事性帶領我們進入一個全新的層面,架橋於我們日


London Design Festival Celebrates a Decade of Design 倫敦設計節十年慶典 TEXT BY 文字提供 x ART . ZIP

IMAGES COURTESY OF 圖片提供 x

LONDON DESIGN FESTIVAL 倫敦設計節

Mimicry Chairs by Nendo Design Studio


Prism at the V&A by Keiichi Matsuda

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Exhibition 展 出 時 間 :

14.09.2012 – 23.09.2012

“From our sleek and fabulous New Bus for London to the iconic golden beauty

“從我們時髦的倫敦新巴士到標誌性的倫敦奧運火炬,設

as well as its success and future prosperity. That is why I am delighted to be

成功和繁榮前景的重要組成部分。正因為如此,我非常

of the Olympic torch, the design industry is a crucial part of London’s vibrancy backing the London Design Festival, which is an unrivalled showcase of some of the best creative ideas from the UK and around the world.” - Boris Johnson, Mayor of London

計產業是倫敦充滿活力的象徵,同時也是倫敦創意產業 高興能夠支持倫敦設計節,這是一個無與倫比的機會來 展示英國和全世界最傑出的設計。” —倫敦市長鮑里斯 · 約翰遜(Boris Johnson)

This September, the London Design Festival, one of the most important events

今年九月,倫敦設計節迎來了它的十歲生日,當初由約

John Sorrell and Ben Evans, the Festival was originally designed to pay tribute

Evans)創立的倫敦設計節經過十年的發展,已經成為了

on the global design calendar, marks its tenth anniversary. Conceived by Sir to the capital’s creativity and innovation; ten years later, this aim has been

achieved beyond all expectations. “It is especially exciting to be staging the

10th London Design Festival in September during the year of the Olympics and

翰 · 索瑞爾爵士(Sir John Sorrell)和本 · 埃文斯(Ben 全球設計界最為重要的活動之一,它所取得的成就遠遠 超出了所有人的預期。

the Diamond Jubilee,” says John Sorrell. “Over the last 10 years, we have grown

“能在奧運年同時也是英女王登記60年慶典的時候迎來倫

better than ever as we join in the celebrations and put the spotlight on design.”

翰 · 索瑞爾爵士說,“今年的設計節將比以往任何一屆都要

the Festival across the world’s creative capital and this year, the Festival will be

Since 2003, the Festival has been responsible for showcasing a range of

敦設計節第十年慶典是一件讓人極為振奮的事情。”

更為出色。”

exciting and ambitious projects, from installations in London’s public spaces

自從2003年以來,倫敦設計節已經在各大畫廊和博物館

galleries. Year on year, the Festival has evolved and developed in terms of

間裝置到委托設計師項目,設計節為世界展示出了一批

to commissioned projects, highlighting emerging talent, in museums and

its partners and its audience with 2011 seeing over 300 separate events and

projects in London as part of the ten-day celebration. For 2012, a year when

the global spotlight is firmly on London, the Festival is delighted to present a

programme that will more than equal the quality, imagination and innovation that it has demonstrated for the last decade. “The London Design Festival

continues to present design in new ways to an ever expanding audience. We stay ahead by being different and more relevant each year,” says Ben Evans, Director of London Design Festival.

展示了一系列令人興奮的和雄心勃勃的項目,從公共空 又一批才華橫溢的新銳設計師。在去年為期10天的活動 期間,倫敦設計節與觀眾和合作夥伴們在倫敦發展出超 過300個獨立的設計項目和活動,而2012年,由於奧運會 和女王登基鑽禧慶典,全球的目光都會聚焦在倫敦這座 城市,倫敦設計節將會用創意和想象力為大家帶來比往 年更為出色的設計盛會。倫敦設計節總監本·埃文斯先生 表示“倫敦設計節將一如既往地用富有創意的方式為不斷 增加的觀眾展示傑出的設計。”


A House of Leaves 葉之屋 TEXT BY 文字提供 x ART . ZIP

IMAGES COURTESY OF 圖片提供 x

DAVID ROBERTS ART FOUNDATION 戴維 · 羅伯茨藝術基金

Gerhard Richter Fuji, 1996 Oil on alucobond Courtesy the artist and David Roberts Collection, London

In September 2012, four years after

opening a public space in London, David Roberts Art Foundation is moving to

new and larger premises in Mornington Crescent, with A HOUSE OF LEAVES,

curated by Vincent Honoré. This exhibition imagined as an experience of time:

the exhibition will change constantly,

the experience will never be the same,

with works being replaced by others to gradually alter the general context and

naturally evolve from one movement to the next.

A HOUSE OF LEAVES will provide the first

opportunity to discover the largest group

of works from DRAF’s collection, including major works by Ida Applebroog, Phyllida Barlow, Louise Bourgeois, Carol Bove,

Keith Coventry, Tony Cragg, Martin Creed,

Matthew Day Jackson, Thomas Houseago, Martin Kippenberger, John Latham, Bruce McLean, Roman Ondak, Anselm Reyle,

Wilhelm Sasnal, amongst others. Adding to this main group of works, artists have been commissioned to create special

interventions in the whole building, while

curators and researchers have been invited to deliver talks and texts.


在今年9月,戴維 · 羅伯茲藝術基金會搬入了坐落於倫敦北一區的 康母登區主街的新的展覽空間,新空間的開幕展是由基金創辦人 文森特 · 奧諾雷(Vincent Honoré)策劃的《葉之屋》展覽。展覽 提供了一種基於時間的體驗:展覽將會持續的產生變化,觀眾所 得到的觀展體驗也會千差萬別,隨著展覽作品的更迭,逐步地將 觀眾從一個藝術運動的上下文關係中帶入到下一個運動之中,從 而體會到藝術的演進過程和時間的遞進。 此次《葉之屋》也是戴維 · 羅伯茨藝術基金會第一次將其眾多重要 收藏品進行公開展示,其中包括了很多傑出的當代藝術家的作 品,包括伊達 · 阿普布魯格(Ida Applebroog), 菲利達 · 巴洛 (Phyllida Barlow),路易絲 · 布爾喬亞(Louise Bourgeois),卡 羅爾 · 博韋(Carol Bove),基思 · 考文垂(Keith Coventry),托 尼 · 克拉格(Tony Cragg),馬丁 · 科瑞德(Martin Creed),馬 修 · 德 · 傑克遜(Matthew Day Jackson),托馬斯 · 豪斯戈(Thomas Houseago),馬丁 · 基彭伯格(Martin Kippenberger),約翰 · 萊瑟姆(John Latham),布魯斯 · 麥克萊恩(Bruce McLean), 羅馬 · 昂代克(Roman Ondak),安瑟倫 · 瑞爾(Anselm Reyle), 威廉 · 薩斯諾(Wilhelm Sasnal)等, 除了這些藝術家的重要作 品外,很多藝術家也受邀為展覽場地定制了很多空間裝置作品, 同時在展覽進行期間很多策展人和藝術理論研究人員都被應邀舉 辦對談及講座,並帶來大量的文獻資料。

Tips

小貼示

Exhibition 展出時間 :

21.09.2012 - 23.02.2013

The title references US novelist Mark Z. Danielewski’s eponymous novel in which different storylines, told in different styles. The

story is centred around a house which keeps changing and in which the interior dimensions become larger than its exterior over time. Much like in Danielewski’s novel, A HOUSE OF

LEAVES borrows different languages, tells multiple narratives in different ways, and asks its viewer to become co-author in order to present a collective effort to define an art form – in

this instance the contemporary art museum, from its collection, displays, special commissions and loans, to its educational and interpretation system. This troubled museum we are creating

abandons any authoritarian voice. It reflects a trust and respect for the works the museum is responsible for, to the guests joining the project, and to the visitors engaging with it.

此次展覽的標題《葉之屋》是源自美國小說家馬克 · Z · 丹尼爾朗斯基(Mark Z. Danielewski)的同名小說,其在不同的時間線里採用不同的敘事風格, 小說中的故事圍 繞 一座不斷 變 化的房 子而展開,隨著時間的推移,房 子的 內部空間漸漸膨脹,從而超越了外部的空間。和小說一樣《葉之屋》借用不 同的語言,通 過多重敘 述 方式,並且讓 觀 眾也同時 參與到展 覽的共同創作 中來,進而以 共同的,多視 角的努力來 探討當代 藝 術美術館 從藝 術作品收 藏、展示、定制、租賃到博物館的教育與闡釋系統等方方面面的問題。

Phyllida Barlow RIG: untitled; coils. 2011 Steel bracket, tape 480 x 230 x 200 cm / 189 x 90 1/2 x 78 3/4 inch Installation view, ‘Phyllida Barlow. RIG’, Hauser & Wirth London, Piccadilly, 2011 © Phyllida Barlow Courtesy the artist and David Roberts Art Foundation Photo: Peter Mallet


Mel Bochner: If the Colour Changes 梅爾 · 波切內爾: 假如色彩改變了 TEXT BY 文字提供 x ART . ZIP

IMAGES COURTESY OF 圖片提供 x

WHITECHAPEL ART GALLERY 倫敦白教堂藝術畫廊

Mel Bochner No Thought Exits Without A Sustaining Support, 1970 Acrylic and chalk on wall 182.9x121.9 cm San Francisco Museum of Modern Art, bequest of J. D. Zellerbach, by exchange, 2009. 84 ©Mel Bochner

Mel Bochner is one of the founders of Conceptual Art. Emerging in the 1960s from a generation of American artists including Sol LeWitt, Eva Hesse and Robert Smithson, Bochner questioned the

importance of painting as a medium and at the time when painting seemed outmoded, he became a pioneer in the use of language in visual art.

Bochner evolved several of the exhibition strategies now taken for granted, including using the walls of the gallery as the subject of the work and

using photo documentation of ephemeral and

performance works, a language that has been widely adopted by following generations of artists.

梅爾 · 波切內爾(Mel Bochner)是觀念藝術的創始人之一。 20世紀60年代,美國出現了一批藝術家,包括索爾 · 萊維特 (Sol LeWitt)、伊娃 · 黑斯(Eva Hesse)以及羅伯特 · 史密 森(Robert

Smithson)。在那個油畫看起來似乎已經過時

的時代,波切內爾對於油畫作為一種媒介的重要性提出了質 疑,他成為了在視覺藝術運用獨特語言的先驅。 波切內爾發展出了多種展覽策略,比如使用畫廊的牆作為作 品的主體,運用即時表演藝術的照片作為文獻來展示,這些 藝術語言形式影響了後來的一代又一代藝術家們。


The Whitechapel Gallery presents Bochner’s first major British survey

白教堂畫廊此次舉辦波切內爾首次在英國的大型回顧展,追溯了波

to today, showing his fascination with language and colour. Amongst

色彩的著迷。在其直接繪製在牆上的大型裝置作品中,一件30米寬

exhibition, tracing nearly 50 years of Bochner’s work from the late 1960s the installations and large works painted directly onto the walls, a vast

30 metre-wide painting ‘Event Horizon’ 1998 adorns a gallery, the piece consists of pre-stretched canvases of various sizes along a wall, each

marked with a horizontal line and a number denoting its width in inches. Together, the lines appear to form a horizon.

One of Bochner’s ‘Measurement’ pieces lights up the staircase where lines of 48 inches are randomly scattered across the wall, alluding to

Marcel Duchamp’s last painting Nude Descending a Staircase. At the

top of the stairs one of Bochner’s guiding principles, No Thought Exists

Without A Sustaining Support (1970), is chalked directly on the wall, as if on a dripping blackboard.

切內爾自20世紀60年代至今的將近50年的作品,展示了他對語言和 的巨大繪畫作品《事件視界(Event Horizon)1998》使得畫廊熠熠 生輝,這件作品包含了不同尺幅的畫布,它們沿著牆面被繃好,每 幅畫布標記了水平線和表示畫布寬度的尺寸數字。這些畫布上的線 組合起來形成了一組巨型的水平線。 有一件作品讓樓梯間變得有趣,那就是《計量(Measurement)》 系列作品中的一幅,這件作品由一條48英寸的測量線組合並散落在 牆上,仿佛映射了杜尚的最後一幅作品《下樓梯的裸女》。在樓梯 頂部的是波切內爾的指導準則之一,也就是其1970年的作品《沒 有思想是存在於持續支持之外的(No Thought Exists Without A Sustaining Support)》,這件作品是粉筆直接寫在牆上的,牆面 如同一個滴水的黑板。

The exhibition also presents his recent ‘Thesaurus’ paintings, colourful

此次展覽同樣展出了他最近的《詞庫(Thesaurus)》系列繪

century language: from ‘awesome!’ and ‘groovy!’ to ‘gnarly!’ and ‘omg!’.

(Amazing!)》,這件作品由二十一世紀的語言組成:從“贊!”

word chains including the piece Amazing! (2011), which features a 21st As the eye reads the text, letters and words advance or recede according to the shade Bochner has painted them. The experience suddenly

becomes about colour itself, while their humour reveals a subtle politics.

畫,展現了五顏六色的字鏈。其中包括2011年的作品《驚人啊! 和“潮!”到“NB!”和“偶地神啊!”。當人眼閱讀這些文字、字母 和單詞時,人們會由於波切內爾的繪製的陰影產生忽前忽後的錯 覺。這種視覺經驗突然變成了色彩本身,而其中的幽默揭示了一 種微妙的政治。

Tips

小貼示

Exhibition 展 出 時 間 :

12.10.2012 - 30.12.2012

Mel Bochner Master of the Universe, 2010 Oil and acrylic on canvas (2 panels) Overal: 254x190.5 cm Collection Anita & Burton Reiner, Washington DC ©Mel Bochner


THE MIDDLE KINGDOM

中•國 WRITTEN BY 撰文 x MONICA CHUNG

TRANSLATED BY 翻譯 x SHORAN JIANG 姜嘯然

IMAGES COURTESY OF 圖片提供 x ISAAC JULIEN 艾薩克 • 朱利安

Award winning British artist and filmmaker Isaac Julien discusses making ‘Ten Thousand Waves’ and his experiences in China. Interview by Monica Chung. ----------

得獎英國藝術家兼電影製作人艾薩克 • 朱利安(Isaac Julien)談論其如何製作《萬 重浪(Ten Thousand Waves)》及他在中國的親身經歷。


I’ve promised, my little girl

許諾過,我的乖乖女

We’ll pick the fruits and sell them to pay for your school

摘果賣實送你上學

To come home when the tree blooms But the wind is cold

My back broken from bending over the sea Cockling, cockling in the quicksand The sea is rising to my chest

奈何這北風淒淒 腰彎背駝 每夜流沙裡拾貝淘生 洶湧的海潮淹沒我的眼睛

Wang Ping, ‘Small Boat’

─王屏 《紙船》

In 2006, the award winning British filmmaker Isaac Julien commissioned

2006年,英國獲獎電影製作人艾薩克 • 朱利安

to the tragic incident that befell twenty-three Chinese cockle pickers in

悲劇事件的回應:2004年2月5日,在英格蘭

the Chinese poet Wang Ping to write a poem. This was Isaac’s response Isaac Julien Red Chamber Room (Ten Thousand Waves) I 2010 Endura Ultra photograph I Diptych Left side: 180 x 230 cm IRight side: 180 x 230 cm Courtesy of the artist and Victoria Miro Gallery, London

龍眼花綻放時,媽媽回家

Morecambe Bay in the northwest of England; cut off by high tides, the workers were drowned on the evening of February 5th 2004.

委託中國詩人王屏作詩。 這是艾薩克對於那場 西北部莫克姆灣(Morecambe Bay),23名中國 拾貝者不幸被捲入洶湧的潮水中,全部喪生。

Ping’s poem ‘Small Boat’ became the genesis for Julien’s ‘Ten

朱利安的電影《萬重浪》正是從王屏的詩歌《紙

installation, that holds the Morecambe Bay tragedy at its centre,

年莫克姆灣悲劇為主線,穿插著中國文化中標誌

Thousand Waves’. This widely acclaimed nine-screen video

intertwines Chinese cultural icons with mythic imagery, drawing on events both past and present in China.

船》開始的。這個好評如潮的九屏映像裝置以當 式的神話意象,回顧著中國的過去與現在。


20 July 2011 - just before Isaac sets off for a summer vacation, we

2011年7月20日,就在艾薩克準備出發去度假

Waves’ and more…

《萬重浪》以及更多背後的故事。

have tea in his Bloomsbury apartment, to discuss ‘Ten Thousand

MC for Monica Chung IJ for Isaac Julien

MC: What inspired you to make ‘Ten Thousand Waves’? IJ: It was because of the Morecambe Bay tragedy - I just thought, wow, they came from so far in search of a better life and this

之前,我們有幸在他的 公寓裡討論他的作品

MC:是甚麼啓發你拍《萬重浪》的呢? IJ:因為莫克姆灣的那次悲劇吧,當時我就 想,天啊,他們從這麼大老遠來到這裡就為 了能有更好的生活,這不禁讓我想起了我的父 母,他們來到這裡也是為了尋求更好的生活。

really rang with me because my parents came for a better life.

MC:對你來說並不是因為他們的國籍才引起

MC: It didn’t make a difference to you then, their nationality? It

更好的機會與更多的財富?

was because of the long journey they had made, in search of

你的興趣? 只是因為他們的長途跋涉為了尋求

better opportunities and fortune?

IJ:當然,這就是原因,所以從某種意義上

IJ: Absolutely, that’s why, in a way, China found me. Forget White

材。白立方畫廊(White Cube Gallery)或那

Cube and all of the fashioning, it wasn’t to do with that. (White

Cube, the London contemporary art gallery recently announced its plans to open a gallery in Hong Kong).

說,是中國找到了我,而不是我故意找中國題 些中國藝術風潮,他們的初衷肯定不是這樣 的。(白立方畫廊,倫敦當代藝術畫廊,最近 宣布他們要在香港開設新畫廊)。

MC: Since you mentioned your parents, how do you understand

MC:既然你提到了你的父母,你是怎麼理解

IJ: I think in West Indian culture, you have access to it – but a

IJ:我想你應該有機會接觸到是西印度文化,

access to it - that is not in a formal sense, but more associative -

關的那部份。你有機會接觸到的──但不是正

your own heritage and ancestry?

part of it is also cut off, that part connected to slavery. You have more in the kind of manner where it’s not written down and oral. I’m very aware that what I’m doing is very much about the idea

of looking at movement, and that it is in the movement that one has the identity - that there’s one’s identity. All of those things gravitate further and move me towards that sort of work.

你們的傳承和先輩的呢?

但是其中一部分已經不存在了,就是與奴隸有 式的,更多的是聯想的部分,更多是口述的, 並沒有被記載下來的。我很清楚我正在做的是 對一種運動的審視,而在這種運動裡人都會有 一種特殊的身份。所有的這些讓我更感興趣, 也導致了我做出這類型的作品。

MC: So what was it like being a West Indian man in China? Did

MC:那麼作為一個在中國的西印度人感覺如何?

IJ: It took me a long time to familiarise myself with China because

IJ:我花了很長時間讓自己熟悉中國,我確實

of Chinese culture in England but you know that’s not the

不同的版本,但你知道,這畢竟不是國家文

you know anything about China before you first went?

I didn’t really know the place whatsoever. There are versions

country. I’m very familiar with China as a diaspora - there is a

strong Chinese diaspora in the West Indies. Also, whether I’m in Moscow, Eastern Europe, or parts of the States, there will always be a certain experience that you’re going to have. I have to say

my experience in China was pretty amazing; what I think when I go there is that if there’s a curiosity in me, I can accept it. When I go to Moscow, there’s a certain curiosity I can’t accept, that’s

literally saying to you ‘vanish!’ - I’m talking about an aggressivity and I didn’t have that in China - ever. There’s a white ghost, and

你第一次前往中國之前對中國有什麼認識嗎?

對中國知之甚少。關於中國文化,英國有很多 化。我認知的中國是一個人民散居世界各地的 國度,在西印度就有很大一批中國人。而且, 不論我在莫斯科,東歐,還是美國,和當地的 華人接觸是不可避免的。我不得不說我在中國 的經歷確實很棒。當我到中國的時候,我想人 們對我有種好奇,而這種好奇我是可以接受 的。但當我去莫斯科的時候,那些對我的好奇 卻讓我接受不了,仿佛對我說“快滾開!”。我 想那是一種攻擊感,但在中國卻沒有。他們是


‘The Tale of Yishan Island’ Illustration from “Tian hou sheng mu shi ji tu zhi” “Tianjin tian hou gong xing hui tu” he ji/ [Zhongguo li shi bo wu guan bian; zhu bian, zhuan wen Xu Qingsong, Guo Xiulan]. Courtesy of Hong Kong Peace Book Co. Ltd.

I’m a black ghost, and I’m just going to take it for granted that I

白鬼,我是黑鬼,這是理所當然的,我不會假

MC: Was the challenge of making a film about a sensitive incident

MC:作為一個英國電影導演,製作這部關係

auteur? Was showing the piece to the native Chinese in their

是你更擔心這部作品在中國本土放映?

am - and I’m not going to pretend.

concerning Chinese nationals abroad daunting for a British homeland even more of a concern?

IJ: Of course. I think that’s why it took me so long to make

it, because I didn’t feel confident. I think I slowly built up the

confidence. It took a longer period to make than other works because of my unfamiliarity - then I began to feel my way

through, in my various collaborations with people who I met

on the journey through making it - in a way I was being guided, because it was slower.

As we’re settling in, Isaac’s assistant brings in four full archive

boxes, and I’m informed that three years of research went into the project before filming even started.

IJ: There is so much research, this whole thesis which I wrote. As well (Isaac shows me the book) ‘Cosmologies of Credit:

Transnational Mobility and the Politics of Destination in China’

by Julie Y Chu, I came across it when I was in Santa Cruz. We also

惺惺地裝作我不是。

中國海外僑民敏感事件的電影是個挑戰吧?還

IJ:這絕對是一個挑戰。我覺得這也是為甚麼 我花了這麼長時間來製作,因為我沒有信心。 我覺的我的信心是慢慢建立起來的。正因為不 熟悉,相較於我其他作品,在這部影片上我花 了更長的時間。在製作時與不同人的合作讓我 開始駕輕就熟──我是被引導的,所以放慢了 腳步。 我們繼續聊著,艾薩克的助手搬來了四個滿滿 的箱子,裡面裝的全是影片開拍以前花了三年 時間而做的調 查 文件。 IJ:我寫這個整個論題做了大量的研究,(艾 薩克拿出了一本書)譬如這本Julie Y Chu的 《Cosmologies of Credit: Transnational Mobility and the Politics of Destination in China》。我在 聖克魯什看到了這本書,而我們在開機之前也


did tons of visual research before we shot anything. These sorts

作了大量的視覺研究。這些照片,(說著艾薩

costumes), I took them for two years, that was before I shot

我花了兩年時間來拍這些照片,然後是戲服的

of photographs (Isaac shows me Polaroid shots of traditional anything, and then a lot of visual research on costumes, the

recreation of Zhao Tao’s character from The Goddess and you know…Maggie Still, who I collaborated with on the film as a

producer, she’s got a company called Xanadu, and they’ve been making works in China for over 15 years – basically she works

exclusively on projects in China, and in a way, she negotiated a lot of things for me.

MC: Tell us more about how the project developed? IJ: I started going to China in 2006. I met Wang Ping, when I

was teaching at Pittsburgh, she was a professor of English at

Macalaster University. She gave a poetry reading and I thought

I’ve got to get her to work on this project. In 2006, I brought her to Morecambe Bay along with Colin McCabe (the British writer

and film producer). One year later, in 2007 I received the poem

called ‘Small Boat’. By the time shooting came, we had of course done a lot more research and that’s when we discovered the

Mazu legend – which is how we chose the initial island. We then went to the Guangxi province - a kind of mythical space - not

that it was exactly like the Fujian province but it basically had that sense of mythologised landscape. I then invited Wang Ping to

克拿出了拍立得拍的傳統服飾), 在開機之前 視覺研究。我從媽祖形象中再創造了趙濤的角 色 。瑪吉 • 斯笛爾(Maggie Still)是我合作 的製片人,她的公司叫Xanadu,他們已經有 超過15年在中國製作影片的經驗,基本上她只 做在關於中國的項目。從某種程度上說,她為 我協調了許多事情。 MC:跟我們講講這個項目是怎麼發展起來的? IJ:2006年我前往中國。當我在匹茲堡教書 的時候我認識了王屏,她是麥卡拉斯特大學 (Macalaster University)的英文教授。當時 她給了我一本詩集,我讀後覺得我必須邀請她 參與這個項目。2006年,我帶她和科林 • 邁凱布 (Colin McCable,英國作家兼電影製片人) 來到了莫克姆灣。一年後,也就是2007年, 我收到《紙船》這首詩歌。隨著開機時間的鄰 近,我們做了更多的研究工作直到我們發現了 媽祖的傳說,這也是為什麼我們會選擇島作為 拍攝場地 。之後,我們去了廣西省──一個神 話般的地方──不光是因為它極像福建省,而 是那裡有一種神話般的景致。再之後,我邀請

Isaac Julien Maiden of Silence (Ten Thousand Waves) I 2010 Endura Ultra photograph I 180 x 240 cm Courtesy of the artist and Victoria Miro Gallery, London


write the second poem that was a Mazu poem, and in a way that

王屏寫了第二首關於媽祖的詩歌,這詩歌也是

Isaac pulled off a coup by bringing the Chinese screen siren

艾薩克的另一驚人之舉是把已經宣布息影的張

the legendary and revered Goddess of the Sea. He first came

色。關於媽祖的傳說,他第一次是在倫敦大英

poem would be written to the film.

Maggie Cheung out of retirement to play the lead role of Mazu, across her myth when doing research about the Fujian province at The British Museum in London. She was worshipped during

the Ming dynasty, and still maintains a huge following around the world today, particularly in South East Asia and China.

MC: Why cast an established figure like Maggie Cheung instead of a young up and coming actress to play these historical roles?

IJ: For me, someone like Maggie Cheung is a true screen goddess, and so her playing of Mazu already resonates. MC: Did the Chinese think that too? IJ: Absolutely, one of the things that was really interesting about showing the work and what the crew were really excited about,

was the fact that someone like Maggie Cheung would work on a project like this - so it gave a certain kind of resonance to it. MC: Has she appeared in any other art projects? IJ: I guess all the stuff with Wong Kar Wei – they were very art

film-based works - she was interested in this because it was an entry into another sort of space. She came to Frieze, and we

actually showed the work at the Venice film festival, which she also attended.

That was a bit like a re-entry into the film world for her. She then came to the Shanghai film opening, when it was at

ShanghART gallery - so, I think in a way, there was this curiosity and interest in the art world. Then she said to me ‘Well Isaac, I’ve retired from making films’ so in a way it was very unusual

since everyone I spoke to said ‘you’re never going to get Maggie Cheung, forget it.’

The other female role that we see is the portrayal of a ‘lady of

the night’ played by the young Chinese actress Zhao Tao. Tao’s

character is based on the main character in the seminal Chinese

film ‘The Goddess’ filmed in 1934, a classic and tragic tale of love

and sacrifice. However, in ‘Ten Thousand Waves’ Tao’s depiction

為了電影創作的。

曼玉請來出演’媽祖’這個傳說中海上女神的角 博物館做關於福建省研究的時候了解到的。媽 祖在明朝時被人們供奉,至今在全世界尤其是 東南亞地區和中國仍有大批信眾。 MC:為甚麼選擇大家熟悉的張曼玉來出演這 個歷史角色,而不挑 一個新面孔? IJ:對我來說,張曼玉已經是銀幕女神了,所 以讓她出演媽祖再合適不過了。 MC:中國人也這麼認為嗎? IJ:絕對是的,看到觀眾和工作人員的興奮程 度,我就能斷定請對人了 。 MC:張曼玉有參與過其它藝術項目嗎? IJ:我想是她和王家衛的電影算是吧,王家 衛的作品是非常有藝術性的──她之所以對 這個項目感興趣,也許是因為這是進入藝術 範疇的一個新入口吧。她有出席Frieze藝博 會,而我們在威尼斯電影節展影的時候她也 出席了。 對於她來說,這次合作像是再次進 入電影界吧。她之後還到ShanghART香格納 畫廊參加上海電影節的開幕式。所以,我覺 得在某種程度上,藝術吸引著她,引起她的 興趣吧。之後她還對我說:“艾薩克,我已經 息影了啊。”所以可以說我能請到她是非常不 尋常的,之前朋友們經常對我說:“你永遠請 不到張曼玉,別想了。” 影片中另一個女性角色由中國年輕女演員趙濤 所飾演的夜夫人。這個角色是基於1934年具有 重要影響的電影《神女》中的主要形象,一個 關於愛情與犧牲的經典悲劇。然而,在《萬重 浪》中,趙濤所飾演的這個深入民心的女性形 象是 艾薩克對這個角色的一個闡釋,那是一個 編織著過去和現在的多緯度的詮釋。

of the solitary heroine was Isaac’s own interpretation of Tao’s

IJ:對我來說趙濤的角色當然是一個夜夫人,

icon, and brings together a multi-dimensional interpretation that

神”,這些場景和電影腳本也是她飾演這個角

role as a contemporary actress playing a recognizable Chinese weaves between the past and present.

但是在她的角色表演形式上她表現得更像“女 色的一個方式,但是她的角色也是被莫克姆灣


IJ: I should just say that the Zhao Tao character for me, is someone

悲劇縈繞著──這是說不出來的一種感覺,她

played more like ‘The Goddess’, and these scenes and scenarios are

有親人在莫克姆灣的悲劇中喪生。但這些都沒

who is of course a lady of the night - but in her character she is

a way of her acting and performing that character - but she’s also a character that is haunted by the Morecambe Bay tragedy - I mean it’s not really explained, but she’s a contemporary character that’s

是一個當代角色但演著過去的人物,也許她也 有直接說明,她也沒有提及這些。這些就是我 對這個角色的看法。

playing this character from the past - and perhaps has a relative

巧合的是,張曼玉在1992年拍攝的傳記影片《阮

not really out about it, and she’s not really talking about it. That’s a

女主角。阮伶玉是中國30年代首屈一指的電影

that may have died in the Morecambe Bay tragedy. However she’s little bit how I see her character.

Coincidentally, Maggie Cheung played the role of Ruan Lingyu,

伶玉》中扮演的阮伶玉正是當年《神女》中的 女演員,但在她24歲時她選擇了自殺來結束自 己的生命。

the young actress who played the original ‘lady of the night’ in

MC:和趙濤對戲的那個付錢的客人正是中國

was the first Chinese screen siren in the thirties but sadly took her

演這個角色的?

The Goddess, in the biopic ‘Centre Stage’ filmed in 1992. Lingyu own life at the age of 24.

MC: Playing opposite Zhao Tao’s character, we see the cameo

role of a paying client played by the Chinese film and video artist Yang Fudong. What was your decision in casting him?

IJ: I think this work is a bit of a homage to Yang Fudong; it’s a sort of conversation between someone who’s working with

moving image, and also making multi-screen works - it’s like a

sort of acknowledgment of that. Also, Yang Fudong and I have

been involved in conversation in terms of display and presenting works; the language of multi-screen installation, which I think is

影像藝術家楊福東。你當時是如何決定由他來

IJ:我覺得這部作品是對楊福東的一個敬意, 這似乎是一種和同行對話,他也是在做影像和 多屏幕作品的藝術家,我覺得這是一種對對方 的贊許。同時,楊福東和我對於如何展現作品 也進行了探討;多屏幕裝置的語言,我覺得是 一種別樣的電影,或者說是,一種別樣的影像 藝術。我覺得就處於某種全球藝術而言,跨國 經驗裡也會有某種特定的審美趣味,從這而 衍生出來的一系列事件包括了馬克 • 納殊(Mark Nash) 1、張頌仁和高士明一起被邀請策劃廣 州三年展。


a different cinema, if you like, or a different video art. I think in

MC:這是你第一次和楊福東合作?

that we inhabit, there’s a certain aesthetic interest, and one of

IJ:是的,馬克之前和楊福東在第11屆卡塞爾

invited to participate in a panel for the Gwangu Biennial, along

馬克邀請楊福東參展──這是過去十年間的一

the transnational sense in terms of the kind of global art world the things which developed from this was that Mark Nash1 was with Johnson Chang and Gao Shiming.

MC: Is it the first time you have worked with Yang Fudong? IJ: Yes, it is, I mean Mark worked with Yang Fudong on

Documenta 11, because Mark had invited him to be in

Documenta 11 - so that was part of a conversation of the

last decade, of our interests in Yang Fudong, Chinese and contemporary art, and so on.

In addition to the three main leads in ‘Ten Thousand Waves’,

acknowledgement must be made to the powerful narration by

British born Chinese actor, Benedict Wong, who recites extracts from Ping’s poem over images of the enveloping sea. Isaac Julien Green Screen Goddess Triptych (Ten Thousand Waves) I 2010 Endura Ultra photograph I 180 x 240 cm Courtesy of the artist and Victoria Miro Gallery, London

文獻展(Documenta 11)中有過合作,因為 種對話,一種對楊福東,對中國,對當代藝術 等等的對話。 除了《萬重浪》中三位核心人物之後,還有一 位不得不感謝的人就是在英國出生的華裔演員 本尼迪克特 • 王(Benedict Wong),是他給 浪濤疊起的海的畫面配上出色的詩朗誦,這首 詩正是王屏的詩。 如果還沒有看過這個裝置,你很容易錯誤地想 像出這樣一個故事,一位遠古女神默默看著 大海,眼睜睜看著那些莫克姆灣慘劇的受害者 們。那種對中國過去與現在的呈現,在電影裡 一種對’女神引用的默許。然而,艾薩克卻通過 揭 示 張 曼 玉 在 綠 屏 2前 吊 著 鋼 絲 的 場 景 , 解 構

If you have not yet seen the installation, one could mistakenly

了媽祖的飛行,打破了這種電影表現藝術。

the sea, looks down upon the victims of the Morecambe Bay

MC:你是想通過這樣的方式來瓦解神話和信

imagine a narrative in which an ancient goddess, watching over tragedy, and represents both a past and present China, with a nod to Chinese cinema through references to ‘The Goddess’. However, Isaac breaks up the rich cinematography with

sequences that deconstruct Mazu flying, by revealing Maggie

念? IJ:我覺得神話在某種程度上是有缺陷的,不 是嗎?我覺得通過視覺解構來呈現這種缺陷很


Cheung suspended by wires against a green screen2.

有意思,譬如說,這樣飛行的畫面是通過技術

MC: Are you trying to dispel the myths and the notion of faith by

式,它是作用於其他次元之上的。

doing this?

IJ: I think that myths are waning in a way, aren’t they? I think it’s

interesting to reveal through visual deconstruction. For instance,

in the way the flying sequences were constructed by showing the labour that’s attached to a technique, and it’s also a way of trying to reveal the means of production - so I think also there is that

勞動而得到的,而且這也是揭示製作的一種方

MC:這是對於中國主流電影,例如風靡西方 的武打電影的一個批注嗎? IJ:準確地說是有這方面原因的,在某種程度 上,這是作品的影像藝術部份。

aspect, but it works on this other meta level.

MC:為甚麼把這部份與其他部份區分開?

MC: Is it a comment on the Chinese movie genre in mainstream

IJ:這是我對於擴延電影(Expanded

cinema, the Chinese ‘Hit’ movies that we love in the West?

IJ: Yes, precisely, there is that, and in a way, it’s the video art section of the work.

Cinema) 3 的自己版本,《擴延電影》這本書 講了很多七八十年代的權利,但是並沒談到90 年代,當然更別說是2000年後了,而我這部作 品並不是擴延電影所說的那個類型──比如, 這部作品不是白種男人製作的,不是以一個

MC: Why distinguish this section from the rest?

異性戀者的角度來敘述。我覺得當時關於動態

IJ: Well you know, it’s my version of Expanded Cinema , I think 3

there are a lot of rights on Expanded Cinema that talks about 70’s and the 80’s that doesn’t talk about the 90’s, or certainly anything

about the 2000’s because this work is not like Expanded Cinema of that genre - it’s not made by somebody who is white, for example,

影像的爭論太歐洲中心論了。這也是我在製作 這部電影時令我享受其中的原因,我不是歐洲 人,也不是歐洲黑人。我覺得這種跨國文化的 美學對話很有意思,我所運用的是技術和形式 是和西方也在用的是一種對比 。

and male, in that kind of heterosexual sense. I think a lot of these

另一個關於這個裝置作品不得不提的地方就

of the other things I’ve enjoyed about making this work, not that

候,各種順序分割的影片同時在九個屏幕播

debates around the moving image are so euro-centric. That’s one I’m not European or black European. I think it’s interesting to have that cross-cultural transnational aesthetic conversation, where

you’re utilizing technologies and formats, and at the same time doing that in correlation to somewhere else than the West.

是這部作品的表現形式。當觀看這部影片的時 放,觀眾就這樣被引至各個方向。通過這種形 式,艾薩克“編排了觀眾並使其行走於空間內”。 這使得與觀眾的對話和敘事產生了更好的互動 感,同時,觀眾也更有身臨其境的體驗。

Another aspect of the installation that one should mention is the

MC:你在著名的上海電影製片廠拍攝《萬重

environment, different sequences of the film play simultaneously

他知名製片廠合作相比,你這次的合作經歷如

performative nature of the piece. When viewing the piece in its own on the nine screens, thus pulling the audience in different

directions. By doing this, Isaac is ‘choreographing the spectator‘ and

浪》,這是中國最大的電影製片廠之一。和其 何呢?

wants the audience to move in the space. This makes the dialogue

IJ:那裡的技術人員真是太棒了⋯⋯超級棒!

it an altogether more immersive experience.

為他們對於製作圖像和對於這個項目都是全情

and narrative more discursive with the audience, as well as making

MC: You shot ‘Ten Thousand Waves’ at the prestigious Shanghai Film Studios, one of the largest film studios in China. How did

the experience of working there compare to other established

這就是為甚麼我說像製作奧運開幕式一樣,因 投入的。這樣的預算,這樣的感性,專注,兢 兢業業的工作風氣,我想這是一種中國精神, 在西方這簡直是難以達到的。

film studios?

MC:那你以後還會回到中國做其他的作品嗎?

IJ: The technicians were amazing…fantastic! That’s why I said it’s

IJ:那是當然的,這一點毋庸置疑──比如,和

like the Olympic Games, because of the commitment to making

攝像師趙曉實一起工作,我不會普通話,他也不


images and to this work. I think its Chineseness is in that. This

懂英語。我記得我們拍攝書法這個開場的時候,

the sensitivities, the specificities and the work ethic.

口,他就會往左移。還有一次,我們拍攝山的場

would be difficult to achieve in the West, in terms of the budget,

MC: Would you go back to China to make other pieces? IJ: Absolutely, without a shadow of a doubt - working with Zhao Xiaoshi the cinematographer for example; I spoke no Mandarin

我腦海裡想的是“應該往左一點”。還沒等我開 景,我心想,“我們應該往右移”,果然,沒一會 兒,他開始移動到右邊去。這件事告訴我,別人 也會更實驗性的做法,而我也可以從不同的角度 來看待作品。

and he spoke no English. I remember when we were shooting

MC:他們從你身上學到了很多東西吧?

say, ‘I think we should move it to the left’. With no prompt from

IJ:我從他們身上學到了很多東西。

we were shooting the mountain – I thought to myself, we should

MC:你是如何比較《萬重浪》和你其它裝置

the opening frame of The Calligrapher, and in my mind, I would me, he would just move it the left. On another occasion, when pan it to the right’ and sure enough, within a few seconds, he panned it to the right. It tells you something about someone who has a more experimental approach and is able to view it from a different angle.

MC: Did they learn a lot from you? IJ: I learned a lot from them. MC: How does ‘Ten Thousand Waves’ compare to your other installations?

IJ: I wanted to make a piece of work which was going to be different from my other works; I realise that to quite a lot of

people, to copy is to pay homage, that people are making three

screen and five screen works - but I felt that a piece that is a nine screen work is more ambitious, not because of its’ nine screens, but more of how can you synchronise that.

MC: Thinking back to the Morecambe Bay victims, have you actually visited Fujian, where they came from?

IJ: I did go to the Fujian province, and I visited their town. We

weren’t actually allowed to film there because as soon as they see a foreign TV /film crew, they think ‘Oh you want to do something

作品的? IJ:我是想做一部和我其它作品不同的東西 來;我發現對於許多做三屏或五屏的人來說, 複製是一種贊許,但是我覺得九屏的作品是更 加艱鉅和充滿野心的,並不是因為它的九個屏 幕,而是如何展現這種同步放映的方式。 MC:我們談回莫克姆灣海難的遇難者,你有 沒有真的去他們的老家福建看看? IJ:我確實去了福建省,也拜訪了他們的小鎮。 但我並不能在那裡拍攝,因為只要人們一看見外 國電視電影拍攝團,他們就會不由自主地認為 “你們是想拍關於莫克姆灣的事吧?”但是去那裡 的經歷確實令人難忘,當我到了那個地方看看才 真正了解為甚麼那些遇難者會來英國了。 MC:你對那裡的印象如何? IJ:在我眼裡,它就是西印度的另一個版本, 你知道我的意思吧?人們生活在這種鄉 下地

Tips

小貼示

about Morecambe Bay?’ But it was really fantastic to go there,

since once I had visited the place, I thought, ok, I know why they (the victims) came.

MC: What was your impression of the place?

Isaac Julien is represented by Victoria Miro,

London; Metro Pictures, New York; Galeria

Helga de Alvear, Madrid; Roslyn Oxley, Australia; Almine Rech, Brussels.

IJ: In my eyes, it was like versions of the West Indies, do you see

艾薩克 • 朱利安的作品由Victoria Miro畫廊(倫敦)、

to the economic development zone. Also, the thing about people

畫廊(馬德里)、Roslyn

what I mean? That people are in this kind of rural area, they can’t get in the Fujian province is that this is where Admiral Ho probably set off from, and so that’s the powerful thing about diaspora Chinese

Metro Pictures畫廊(紐約)、Galeria Helga de Alvear Oxley畫廊(澳大利亞)及

Almine Rech畫廊(布魯塞爾)代理。


culture, the moving - this is something that would have been done

區,他們無法變成經濟開發區。同時,福建大

area for thousands of years, in a way it’s more to do with the way

外移民最有厲害的地方。遷徙──這恐怕是最

ordinarily, so the fact that people have been moving from this

that we set up the borders. I think Nick Broomfield’s film4 is very

interesting, it’s a very important document and not at all gruesome, and is showing the hardship - the thing is, in this work, it’s not like a documentary, it’s more like a homage. I don’t mean to use the

概是鄭和下西洋的出發地吧,所以這裡是中國出 平常的事情了,所以這裡的人們從這個地方出 發移居他地已經有些上千年的歷史了。某種程 度上,這與邊境的設立有關。我認為尼克 • 布魯 姆菲爾(Nick Broomfield)4的電影很有意思,

word homage, it’s more like saying, if someone like Billy Holiday

這是一部很重要的紀錄片,其實並不可怕,它

is a little about. This is meant to be from their point of view, they’re

一部紀錄片,它更像一部頌揚的片子。我不是有

talks about lynching, it’s a beautiful song, that’s also what this work dead, and they’re speaking to Mazu.

The reference to distant travel and the idea of ‘new frontiers’

and exploration make me think again about Isaac’s roots, and

I ask him whether he has made anything autobiographical. He

展示了那種艱難──事實是,這部影片並不像 意用頌揚這個詞,就好比是比莉 • 荷莉戴(Billy Holiday)談論私刑,那是一首美麗的歌謠,那 部片子也有這樣的意思。這是從這些已經逝去的 人的角度來敘述他們和媽祖的對話。

refers to one of his earlier pieces, ‘Paradise Omeros’ (made for

關於長途旅行、“新領域”和探索的觀點使我再次

this piece and ‘Ten Thousand Waves’.

作品。他提到了他早期的一部作品,《奧梅羅

Documenta 2002) and mentions that there are parallels between

‘Paradise Omeros’ is set in London in the 60’s and the Caribbean island of St Lucia in the present day. It depicts travel from the

想到艾薩克的根源,我問他有沒有做過自傳的 天堂(Paradise

Omeros)》(為Documenta

2002而做)並提到了這部作品和《萬重浪》之 間的對比還有一些相似之處。

Isaac Julien Mise‐en‐scene (Ten Thousand Waves) I 2010 Endura Ultra photograph I Diptych Left side: 180 x 230 cm IRight side: 218 cm x 180 cm Courtesy of the artist and Victoria Miro Gallery, London


distant shores of the West Indies to England, and the cultural

《奧梅羅天堂》以倫敦60年代和現在的加勒

imagery between the two film installations, with the recurrent

印度群島到英格蘭的旅途,以及“移民”的文化

displacement of the ‘immigrant’. There are similarities in the visual imagery of the sea, the spoken verses of Walcott’s poetry, and the recital of Wang Ping’s poem that convey being alone,

the dislocation and longing to be back home in the familiar.

Another aspect that Isaac is keen to point out that connects him

比島嶼聖盧西亞為背景。它描繪了從遙遠的西 置換。這兩部影像裝置在視覺圖像上有相似之 處,比如重複出現的大海圖像,還有誦讀沃爾 科特(Walcott)的詩歌,與朗誦王屏的詩歌 所傳達的孤獨感,那種離鄉 別井並渴望歸家

personally to the ‘Ten Thousand Waves’ is the music composed

的心情。另一點艾薩克想要強調的是讓他個人

Anglo-Chinese collaborative relationship between them. Jah

創作並與中國交響樂團共同演奏的音樂,還用

and played by Jah Wobble, the Chinese Dub Orchestra, and the Wobble is the English bass guitarist and composer; his wife, is

the Chinese guzheng player, Zi Lan Liao, and Isaac describes their partnership and fusion of traditional Chinese music and dub as ’

Anglo-Chinese creole’ - it is within this ‘creolisation’ in the music that he sees part of himself.

Being a ‘black ghost’ is probably something that Isaac has always

與《萬重浪》有緊密聯繫的是由Jah

Wobble

他們這種安格魯與中國之間的協作關係。Jah Wobble是英國低音吉他手和作曲家,他的妻 子廖子嵐是一位古箏演奏家,艾薩克形容他們 的夥伴關係,中國傳統音樂與貝斯的融合為 “安中混血兒”,也正是在這種音樂的“混血” 中,艾薩克想到了某個自己。

had to deal with, and it has often been represented in his oeuvre.

作為一個“黑鬼”可能是艾薩克要經常面對的問

distance, isolation, the fight of the individual and race; studying in

電影作品經常涉及邊界、文化差距、隔離,個

His filmography suggests recurrent themes of borders, cultural

what was then the celebrated St Martin’s School of Art before its

題,而且這也經常表現於他的作品之中。他的 體抗爭,種族,還有他在聖馬丁藝術學院學習


amalgamation with Central School of Art & Design.

時的題材(聖馬丁藝術學院後與中央藝術設計

MC: What was it like for you being in the minority as a black

CSM)。

student in Thatcher’s London of the seventies and eighties, and did it influence your earlier pieces?

MC:在七八十年代,撒切爾夫人執政時期的

IJ: Sometimes it was a bit alienating, I must say.

的?這對你早期的作品有影響嗎?

倫敦只有少數黑人學生,當時的情況是怎麼樣

MC: Did that alienation influence some of your earlier pieces?

IJ:我得說那時候我覺得有些被疏遠。

IJ: I think it did. I’ve always felt that it was really important

MC:那這種被疏遠的感覺有沒有影響你早期

for me to make work, and to be there, on par with all my

contemporaries, and there’s no way I was going to take a back

的作品?

seat. It’s really important to be there, right on the front line, in

IJ:我覺得有。我總是覺得做作品很重要,要

to break through. You also had the Brixton riots of the 80’s 5, and

線,在一個先鋒的位置上。那時候很困難,你

an avant-garde position. It was difficult back then. You’re trying

because there were too many excluded voices from various kinds of spaces, there was an encouragement - a political will - so I

think I was part of that crest where there was an opening up, of course it soon closed back down.

MC: Has film and video art changed much over the past twenty years? Since the days when you first started?

IJ: Well, I think you’ve always had Expanded Cinema. There’s

看齊同輩,我不能落後於人。我必須在最前 需要盡全力打破當時的固有成見。還記得當時 80年代的Brixton Riot(布里克斯頓暴亂) 5 , 周圍都有很多排外的聲音,而我則把它看作一 種前進的動力,一種政治意願,所以我當時應 該屬於那一部分,當然很快就不會這樣了。 MC:在過去二十年間,電影與影像藝術發生了很 大的變化大嗎?從你開始拍攝電影的時候算起?

always been an interest in that. It wasn’t part of the art world,

IJ:我覺得大眾一直對“擴延電影”有興趣吧,

interesting is that they talk about Expanded Cinema Now 6, and

中產生的。我覺得有意思的是現在當人們談論“

although it was happening in a version of it. What I think is

there’s nothing about ‘Ten Thousand Waves’ in it, and maybe

they made that book before, but I think that’s so typical of the euro-centricity.

那不是世界藝術的一個範疇,儘管它是從藝術 擴延電影” 6 的時候並不會把《萬重浪》包括在 內,或許編寫這本書以前《萬重浪》還沒有完 成吧,不過我覺得這真是典型的歐洲中心論。

MC: What do you think of the current wave of interest from the

MC:你如何看待現在西方對中國當代藝術的

IJ: I think it’s connected to the market, it’s really interesting, I just

IJ:我覺得這與市場有關吧,這很有意思。

is connected a little bit to hippy culture, and they represent

會,這是一間與嬉皮文化有關的小畫廊,他

West in Chinese contemporary art?

had a meeting with the October gallery, a small gallery, which William Burroughs - all of the diaspora arts - and I went there and thought they do amazing things and were there long

before the fashioning, or what we now experience as a kind of global art circuit. One should hold a certain skepticism

about the kind of expediencies of work related to more newly acquainted aspect of contemporary art, and its embrace of Isaac Julien Yishan Island, Voyage (Ten Thousand Waves) I 2010 Endura Ultra photograph I 120 x 160 cm

學院合併後稱中央聖馬丁藝術設計學院,簡稱

Chinese culture, both through collecting and gallery interest

etc. I think in a way, it’s also part of acknowledging the fact that China will be the most important global culture - after all it’s

the Middle Kingdom, and that is very interesting in terms of The West dealing with it.

狂熱浪潮?

我剛剛在十月畫廊(October Gallery)開了 們代理威廉 • 巴勒斯(William Burroughs) 所有的散居藝術,我去那裡的時候覺得他們 在做很棒的事情,這遠遠不是隨波逐流,或 者說我們現在所經歷的全球藝術巡回。一個 人應該對於那些新認知的當代藝術作品的合 理性持一定的懷疑態度,這種懷疑態度同樣 適用在通過收藏和畫廊興趣上表現出來的對 於中國文化的接受。在某種程度上我想這也 是承認中國將會成為最重要的全球文化的這 個事實,畢竟它是“中央之國”,有趣的是西方 會如何應對這個泱泱大國吧。


MC: China is confident. Will it do what it chooses?

MC:中國很有信心,你覺得它選擇的做法可行嗎?

IJ: In a way, but I think it will have to re-think that a little bit! China

IJ:某種程度上可行吧,但我覺得中國需要重

culture - that’s what everyone is meant to be - Han. Everybody is

種以普通話文化為中心的文化──那也是每個

doesn’t really believe in cultural difference, it’s a Mandarin centric Han. All of these aspects have to be thought through differently. The afternoon has flown, I could sit and converse with Isaac for

新思考。中國並不真的相信文化差異,這是一 人必須持有的一種漢文化。每個人都是漢人。 我覺得這些方面都需要換個思考模式的。

the rest of the day, however, his studio staff need to tie up loose

時光飛逝,下午一晃就過去了。雖然我可以坐

question returns to the theme of journeys.

需要在休假之前完成一些收尾工作,所以我最

ends before they leave for the summer vacation – so my final

MC: What did you learn or gain through your own journey from the beginning to the end of making ‘Ten Thousand Waves’ in China? IJ: I think I got some familiarization with Chinese culture. China

下來與艾薩克一直聊下去,但是他的工作人員 後問題又回到了關於旅程的主題。 MC:在中國拍攝製作《萬重浪》,從開始到結束, 你的整個旅程讓你學到了或者說收穫到了什麼?

is a big place, so I still know nothing, but it’s something for me

IJ:我會說我熟悉了一部分中國文化。中國地大

engage both in Chinese culture in the arts of cinema and the art

情對於我來說就好像是美學之旅,同時也是種

like an aesthetic journey - both a critical ethnography, trying to

world, and it was also this trans-cultural rationalization. People in

the West always refer to China in economic terms, but they don’t really talk about it in terms of the cultural or aesthetic exchange - and what about the spiritual exchange? It is just this kind of

fiscal, financial exchange - so that’s one of the things that gets me thinking - but as I said, China chose me, I didn’t choose China. MC: Maybe Mazu called you? IJ: Maybe Mazu did call me! As I leave, I am left with the impression that we will keep

物博,所以我還是一無所知,但是也有一些事 族學的認知過程,試圖通過影像與藝術參與到 中國文化中,同時也是跨文化的合理化過程。 我覺得在西方經常從經濟角度談論中國,但是 不怎麼從文化和藝術的交流角度談論,還有那 些精神交流呢?只有那些財政、金融的交流 嗎?所以這是讓我思考的地方,不過正如我說 過的,是中國選擇了我,不是我選擇的中國。 MC:也許是媽祖召喚了你? IJ:也許真的是媽祖召喚了我!

returning to ‘Ten Thousand Waves’, an important piece that in

離開之際,我突然有感,日後《萬重浪》一定

be made by a British artist.

創作的、面向中國新文化觀眾的重要作品。

order to be presented to a new cultural audience in China, had to

1. Dr. Mark Nash is a curator, film historian and filmmaker who specialises in

contemporary fine art moving image practices, avant-garde and world cinema.

2. Green screen or Chroma key is a technique used in filmmaking for compositing two images together.

3. Expanded Cinema was written by Gene Youngblood (1970) and considered the

seminal book to consider video as an art form, influential in establishing the field of media arts.

4. Nick Broomfield is the English documentary filmmaker who set up the

Morecambe Bay Victims fund after making the award winning drama ‘Ghosts’ that focused on the Morecambe Bay tragedy.

5. The Brixton Riots was a confrontation between the Metropolitan Police and

protesters in Lambeth, South London that mainly took place between 10 and 12 April 1981 with the main riot on 11th April.

6. The Tate Modern published the new edition of Expanded Cinema Art, Performance, Film’ May 2011.

會不斷地被提及,這是一部必須由英國藝術家

1. 馬克·納什博士(Dr. Mark Nash)是一位策展人,電影史學家和電影製作 人,專門從事當代純藝術影像實踐及先鋒世界電影。 2. 綠屏,又稱色度控合成鍵(Green Screen,Chroma key),一種用於電 影製作中將二幀圖像或兩段影片合成一個畫面、一段影片的技術。 3. 《擴延電影(Expanded Cinema)》,作者基因 • 楊布拉德(Gene Youngblood)寫於1970年,這是一本開創性的著作,在書中,他認為影 像是一種藝術形式,這個觀點對於媒體藝術領域的建立具有重要影響作用。 4. 尼克 • 布魯姆菲爾(Nick Broomfield),英國紀錄片導演,在他製作獲獎 關於莫克姆灣慘劇的電視片《靈魂(Ghosts)》後,創建了莫克姆灣遇難者 基金。 5. 布里克斯頓暴亂(Brixton Riots)指的是1981年4月11日至4月12日在南 倫敦蘭貝斯地區的一場警方與民眾的對抗,其中4月11日發生了最重大的暴 亂事件。 6.

泰特現代美術館在2011年五月出版的新一版的《擴展影院藝術,表演藝

術,電影》中並沒有收錄《萬重浪》。


Isaac Julien was born in 1960 in London, where he currently lives and works. After graduating from St Martins School of Art

in 1984, where he studied painting and fine art film, Isaac Julien founded Sankofa Film and Video Collective (1982–1992), and was

© Isaac Julien , ph otograph by T h orsten Hen n

a founding member of Normal Films in 1991.

Julien was nominated for the Turner Prize in 2001 for his films

The Long Road to Mazatlán (1999) and Vagabondia (2000). Earlier

艾薩克 • 朱利安1960年出生在倫敦,現在他依然在倫敦生活和工作。他曾

Soul Rebels (1991), which was awarded the Semaine de la critique

建了Sankofa電影和視頻合作社(1982-1992年),在1991年,他作為創

works include Frantz Fanon, Black Skin White Mask (1996), Young prize at the Cannes Film Festival the same year, and the acclaimed

poetic documentary Looking for Langston (1989), which also won several international awards. His work Paradise Omeros was presented as part of Documenta11 in Kassel (2002).

Currently, Julien is a professor of Media Art at Staatliche Hochschule fur

Gestaltung Karlsruhe, Germany. He was the recipient of the Performa Award (2008), the prestigious Eugene McDermott Award in the Arts (2001) and the Frameline Lifetime Achievement Award (2002).

In 2011 and 2012, Ten Thousand Waves, the nine-screen

installation went on world tour and was shown at important public institutions including The Museum of Contemporary Art,

San Diego (2012), Hayward Gallery, London; Bass Museum, Miami; ICA, Boston; Kunsthalle, Helsinki; and Sydney Biennale (2011).

Julien is represented in museum and private collections

throughout the world, including Tate; Museum of Modern Art,

經就讀於聖馬丁藝術學院,主修繪畫和藝術電影,1984年畢業後,他創 建者之一組建了“普通電影”製作公司。 2001年,朱利安的電影《通往馬薩特蘭的漫漫長路》(1999)和 《Vagabondia》(2000)獲得英國特納奬提名。此前的作品包括《弗朗 茨•法農,黑皮膚白麵具》(1996年),《年輕的靈魂反叛者》(1991 年)曾在同年獲得戛納電影節影評人獎,另外他的著名的充滿詩意的紀 錄片《尋找蘭斯頓》(1989)也獲得了很多國際獎項,其作品《天堂 Omeros》也曾在2002年第11屆卡塞爾文獻展中展出。 目前,朱利安在德國國家設計學院任媒體藝術教授。曾經獲得過著名的 尤金 • 麥克德莫特藝術獎(2001),Frameline終身成就奬(2002)以及 Performa奬(2008年)。 在2011年和2012年,《千重浪》這件九屏幕影像裝置,在世界範圍內進 行了巡回展出,其中包括很多非常重要的公共機構和當代藝術博物館,比 如聖地亞哥當代藝術博物館(2012),倫敦海沃德畫廊,邁阿密巴斯博物 館,波士頓當代藝術中心,赫爾辛基美術館和悉尼雙年展(2011)。

New York; Centre Pompidou; the Guggenheim Museum, in New

朱利安的作品被世界各地的博物館和私人藏家收藏,包括泰特當代藝術

Museum, in Munich.

慕尼黑布蘭德霍斯特博物館。

York; the Hirshhorn Museum, in Washington; and the Brandhorst

館,紐約當代藝術博物館,法國蓬皮杜藝術中心,紐約古根海姆博物館和


SONG DONG:

WASTE NOT 宋冬:

物盡其用 WRITTEN BY 撰文 x LIN SHANGTONG, HARRY LIU 林上童,劉競晨 EDITED BY 編輯 x TRISH LYONS 崔西 • 里昂, MONICA CHUNG PHOTOGRAPHY BY 攝影 x HARRY LIU 劉競晨

此次在英國倫敦巴比肯藝術中心曲型空間舉辦的《物盡其用》展覽是中國觀念藝術家宋冬在英國 舉辦的首次個人展覽,展覽展出了宋冬母親在50多年裡積攢的超過一萬件的日常生活用品或者說 是生活垃圾,藝術家宋冬通過這些看似破舊和雜亂的物品為觀眾們重鑄了一代人的共同記憶,也 表達了藝術家對於生活和藝術之間關係的理解和闡釋,此前《物盡其用》展覽曾經在中國北京、 韓國光州雙年展、德國柏林世界文化宮、英國沃爾索新美術館、紐約現代美術館、溫哥華美術館 巡迴展出。 與以往不同,由於巴比肯曲型空間展廳的特殊空間結構,使得宋冬打破了以往平鋪直敘式作品的 陳列方式,為了使觀眾能在展覽中更充分的體驗藝術家設置的線索和體驗,宋冬採用了中國傳統 園林的佈局方式,使觀者遊走於作品之中同時能近距離的與作品產生共鳴,做到錯落有致,一步 一景。正如策展人凱特布希所說:“物盡其用所展出的是中國大變革時期的肖像照,是一部中國 巨大變革之中的活生生的歷史記憶。”

----------

Waste Not was the UK debut solo exhibition by Chinese artist, Song Dong that took

place in the Curve in The Barbican Centre, London. The exhibition consisted of a single

installation comprising over 10,000 commonplace, domestic items of daily life that had been used and amassed by the artist’s mother (Zhao Xiangyuan) over fifty years. The

shabby and sometimes thread bare items were arranged throughout the curved space of the gallery along the lines of a Chinese traditional garden with serpentine pathways and

changes in scale serving to draw in the viewer, whilst re-casting the collective memory of an entire generation under Mao Tse-tung’s reign.

Waste Not (Details) 物盡其用(局部)


藝術家宋冬

Song Dong (b. 1966) started exhibiting

宋冬是中國90年代以來重要的觀念藝術家,他的作品形式非常多樣,包

includes installation, performance, and

括裝置,行為,新媒體等眾多媒介,但其作品的主要觀念都是圍繞着關 於生活和生命這樣既簡單又宏大的命題,對於宋冬來說,真正的藝術不 應該是放在畫廊裡被出售的,而應該是融入到生命和意識當中的一種體 驗和生活狀態,在他看來“生活就是藝術,藝術就是生活”。宋冬的藝術作 品形式各異,但很多重要作品都與其生活經歷和情感息息相關,而這些 藝術創作也使得他不斷地對生活和藝術產生新的認識,從而這些藝術創 作慢慢融入了他的生活成為他生活和藝術的組成部分,比如宋冬從上世 紀90年代開始的《水寫日記》,他每日把日記用毛筆和清水寫在一塊石 頭上面,然後水慢慢蒸發散去,所寫所記便慢慢逝去,周而複始,每日 如斯。宋冬最初以為這只是一個藝術作品,表達了他對於日常生活“不做 白不做,作了也白做,白做也得做”一種態度,但隨着作品的延續,那塊 天天承載他隱形日記的石頭卻成為了他生活和生命的一個部分,他說: “也許這塊石重量不大,但對我來說,它卻很沉很沉。”由於宋冬對於當下 社會的和生活的關注,使得他的作品當中充滿了平淡和樸實的智慧,在 他作品當中沒有什麼高科技,他總是從一個平凡的人的角度出來用他的 智慧發聲,對他來說,藝術並不是什麼高深莫測的學問,或者是驚天動 地的偉業,只不過是生活。

物盡其用 • 現場

讓倫敦震驚的中國『破爛兒』 我一直在背後看著他:就像無色無味無形的水一樣,流動在空間中,隱 現在人群裡。許多人都知道,宋冬常年以水在石上寫日記,水痕干時, 文字消失。而在我眼裡,那天,巴比肯就是一塊巨大的石頭,宋冬本人 是水,《物盡其用》則是他的筆,三者不分彼此,共同寫下一段歷史。 完成了一個新的循環。這樣的循環,過去曾有,未來還會有。 而到最後,筆會徹底忘記自己寫過些什麼,水再次回到空氣裡,石頭重 新進入大自然的懷抱……於是,言語死亡,秘密再生。 在倫敦巴比肯中心開展當日,各方記者走馬燈般地來了又去,排着隊採 訪《物盡其用》的創作者——中國當代藝術家宋冬。而宋冬始終微笑着 耐心回答每個人的問題。他的生活語言和他的藝術語言一樣真誠樸素, 卻包含着驚人的真相和巨大的力量。 “物盡其用”展覽在英國藝術界和媒體圈引起轟動。更有無數普通觀眾在 《物盡其用》面前默默地徜徉,好像突然見到過世已久的朋友或親人。 這件如此不加雕飾、如此具有文化和歷史特殊性的作品,直截了當地觸

new media with themes revolving around simple daily life. Song believes that art

should not be treated as a commodity, but as an experience that integrates life and consciousness. Song‘s artworks revolve

around different themes, but for the most part his work relates to his personal life

experiences and emotions. One such noted work is ‘Writing Diary with Water’ (1995 – ongoing) where Song uses a calligraphy

brush to write diary entries in water on a

particular block of stone, when the water

vaporizes, his diary disappears with it. The

block of stone has become a part of Song’s life, “although this block of stone does not weight much, to me, it is heavy.” For the

artist, art is neither mystical knowledge nor a virtuous career, but life itself.

At the entrance of Waste Not, an old

calendar falls on the date 18th October 2002. This is the day that Song Dong’s

father died of a heart attack. Since then, the calendar from the family home has

remained on this page. No one has torn

off this page to reveal the next day. From this point on, Mrs Zhao Xiangyuan’s

behaviour suddenly and dramatically

changed as she became locked in a selfenclosed world.

It was generally understood that Zhao Xiangyuan’s sudden mental collapse

was a response to her husband’s sudden death. However, it transpires that the

seeds were sown during her traumatic childhood. The grief for her husband simply triggered her symptoms.

動了成千上萬陌生人的心。

Zhao Xiangyuan was born into a wealthy

《物盡其用》之前的展出,都是在開闊性空間中,一萬多件“破爛兒”依

officer who was awarded an honour in the

次鋪排,一覽無遺。這回巴比肯的曲形空間,延展前進,人站在任何一 個點上,都只能看到整個空間的一小部分。這給了宋冬一個挑戰。他最 Waste Not (Details) 物盡其用(局部)

in China, in the 1990s. His broad practice

後借用了中國古典園林“一步一景”的理念,將展品分類,依次擺放。踏 進巴比肯曲形空間展廳的入口,映入眼簾的是化石般的洗衣皂、中西藥

family in 1938. Her father was a Kuomintang War of Resistance for saving an underground member of the Communist Party in

Chongqing. However, in 1953, Zhao’s father

was betrayed by a Kuomintang secret agent


盒、舊桌椅等;然後是堆積如山的瓶瓶罐罐鍋碗瓢盆乃至塑料快餐盒; 再往前走,是高高疊起來的包裝紙箱,宋冬將展品從中取出後,將空盒 子就地堆砌得高矮參差,權作假山,起到視覺隔斷的作用;“假山”後, 是多年前孩子們丟棄的玩具;曲形空間的中段,矗立着一座約五六米高 的建築構架,是用北京胡同裡宋冬老房子拆下的木頭和玻璃搭成的,其 下的地上,鋪排着各種型號和品牌的礦泉水瓶子、空油瓶;而展覽的最 後一景,則是由鞋子、布料、被裡、棉絮等組成的。 絡繹不絶的觀眾走進這個由一萬多件老舊生活物品組成的特殊“園林”, 在其中徜徉、拍照、沉思、回憶。一場多層次的無聲對話,在白色的曲 形空間裡交錯起伏。 這場對話,存在於人與人,物與物,記憶與遺忘,消費與節儉,毀滅與 治癒,文革與改革,東方與西方,時代與時代之間……

物盡其用 • 故事 林上童

爸,別擔心!我們和媽都挺好的。 《物盡其用》展覽入口處,一本舊日曆上顯示的日期是2002年10月18日…… 2002年,宋冬的父親突發心肌梗塞,在短短的幾分鐘後永遠地離開了家 人。一家人陷入了極度的痛苦之中。2002年10月18日,是宋冬的父親 下葬的日子。從此以後,宋家的這本日曆,就永遠停留在了這一頁,再 沒有人去撕下它。這一天,痛苦就像一把帶電的刀直刺他們的心臟,並 長久地滯留其中,整個家庭陷入巨大的悲痛中不能自拔。尤其是宋冬的 母親趙湘源女士,走進了一個自我的封閉世界,整個人的精神和行為, 突然發生了巨大變化。 趙湘源精神上的崩潰,就像她丈夫的身體崩潰一樣,看似突然。事實 上,那根崩潰的尖刺,早在經年前就種下了,在我們的內部,以物理或 者精神的方式,不動聲色、不可迴轉地生長着。直到某一個時刻,這哀 傷和絶望的尖刺,終於頂破了血肉肌膚,刺穿了我們看似完好的表皮, 赤裸裸地曝露在空氣裡…… 趙湘源1938年出生於一個富裕家庭,父親是國民黨軍官,在抗戰中立 過功,曾救過共產黨重慶地下黨成員。1953年她的父親被冤枉���國民黨 軍統特務。而被他救過的地下黨,為了明哲保身,一直拒絶出庭作證。 他被判刑七年,出獄後在北京紐扣廠當工人,直至退休。在他出獄後不 久,趙湘源的母親又因癌症在1961年去世,這給了趙湘源巨大的打擊。 時至著名的三年自然災害,整個家庭日益走向貧寒。也許正是這樣的生 活反差和歷史造成的家庭悲劇,在她幼小的心靈裡留下不可磨滅的陰 影。此時,宋冬的父親出現在了趙湘源的生活中,給了她很大幫助,她 悲痛欲碎的心得到了極大安慰。 節儉是中國人的美德,更是那個時代絶大多數中國家庭的生存之道,不 然如何活下去?多年來趙湘源存儲了大量的生活用品。“物盡其用”是她

and the underground member he had saved refused to testify in court. Her father was

sentenced to seven years imprisonment and

after his release he worked in a button factory in Beijing until retirement. Tragically, shortly

after his release from prison, in 1961, Zhao’s mother died from cancer, which came as a

tremendous blow to Zhao. This was followed by the Three Years of Great Chinese Famine

in which the entire family became poor. This succession of sad events left an indelible

shadow on Zhao’s young mind. It was at

this time, that Song Dong’s father appeared, providing great comfort to his mother.

Thrift is a common virtue of Chinese

people and became a means of survival and a way of life for most Chinese

families of that era. For many years, Zhao

Xiangyuan stored a large number of daily necessities. The installation Waste Not is not only a physical document of Zhao’s

life but also the portrait of a generation. During Song Dong’s childhood, Zhao

always bought bits of cloth so that she could make clothes. Purchasing bits of

fabric cost less then clothing coupons that were rationed by the government and

the panic of material scarcity led her to

save lots of material. As long as the object

could still be used, it was not to be thrown away. This mindset and humble lifestyle

has had a psychological impact on future

generations. The contrast between Zhao’s generation and that of Song’s could not be more severe. The survival instincts of a generation that had learned to save and not waste have been lost to the

present generation where opulence and obsolescence thrives. China’s economic rise in the global world and its shift in policy has unwittingly drawn a deep

divide between two generations and the

relationship between Song Dong and his parents was no exception to this.

From the time of the death of her husband, Zhao Xiangyuan began to keep obsolete

objects and items. This grew to become a

Waste Not (Details) 物盡其用(局部)


的生活準則,也是中國一代人的寫照。宋冬小的時候,趙湘源總是買布 頭拼湊起來做衣服,因為布頭可以不用政府配給的有限的布票。由於 對物質匱乏的恐慌,導致她攢了很多布頭,導致了這樣一種生活方式, 只要是可以存得住的東西都不許扔,物盡其用的思維和生活方式成了慣 性,但當物質豐富時這種慣性又成了生活的累贅。生活的巨變似乎是在 瞬間完成的,空間被這些等待“物盡其用”的物質所佔據。物質匱乏的恐 慌,對於下一 代來說,成了無用物質堆積的焦慮。這種生活觀念導致了 像宋冬這樣的下一代與父母之間的深深鴻溝。 丈夫去世後,趙湘源變得固執而封閉,她將多年來收集的舊物鋪滿在桌 上,地上。屋裡幾乎沒有插腳的地方。宋冬和姐姐幾次整理空間並扔掉 一些東西,卻引起她的不快。丈夫走了,屋子空了,她的心裡也空了, 她用飽含着多年生活記憶的舊物,填滿身邊的空間,躲在這個蠶繭一般 的私人世界裡,從中尋求着虛幻的安全與溫暖。 順者為孝,宋冬認為只要母親高興,便順她而去,但仍然讓母親吃好穿 好住好。所以他轉換了一個方式,展示她的生活,她的物質,她的生活 哲學,並與她共同使用“物盡其用”原則開始做“藝術”。其實藝術在這裡 已經不重要,重要的是能將母親從她封閉的悲痛中帶出來,哪怕是給她 這個封閉的空間一點縫隙。

hoarding obsession. Inside the house, there was no space, and throwaway items were

not discarded. Song Dong and his sister tried to organise all the items and even discarded some, which displeased their mother. With her husband gone, the empty room was unbearable. The items and detritus she

collected formed new memories for her,

filling the space around her as she hid in this cocooned private world, seeking an illusory safety and warmth.

In traditional Chinese culture, to respect

one’s parents’ lifestyle is filial piety. Song

Dong thought that as long as his mother was happy, she could do whatever she

liked. Therefore, he adapted his own life

and work, by sharing her life, her material

items and adopting her philosophy on life. He also started to make work with the ‘no

Waste Not (Details) 物盡其用(局部)


2005年,他們的作品《物盡其用》在北京展出,分為“衣食住用”四大 類,期待將物件、記憶和家庭倫理放置到當代中國的大背景當中進行 討論。 這些可能這輩子都用不上的物,終於都可以用上了。她很高興,對 兒子說:留着有用吧。展示只是看得見的一部分,重要的是在展覽 為趙湘源提供了一個場所,一個整理和回憶她的歷史的場所,也是 對今天以物質為基礎的社會的反思。趙湘源在這裡被推到一個藝術 家的位置,而宋冬以她的兒子和助手的雙重身份,幫她整理,幫她 裝修她的房子,使她生活得快樂。母子倆共同以藝術為媒介,共同 開始新的生活。 意料之外的事情發生了:這堆中國老百姓的“破爛兒”一發而不可收拾, 變成了一次巡迴世界的盛大展覽。 它先是獲得了韓國光州雙年展大獎,又成為了現身當代藝術聖地紐約 MOMA的第一件大型中國當代藝術作品。 在德國,在美國,在英國,在韓國,無數觀眾在《物盡其用》面前默 默地流下了眼淚,好像突然見到過世已久的朋友或親人。

waste’ principle. Art as he had understood it up to this point, was no longer

important, what mattered was drawing his mother out of her grief.

In 2005, Waste Not was exhibited at

Beijing Tokyo Art projects, 798 Factory,

Beijing. The work was divided into four major categories: something to wear, something to eat, somewhere to live

and something to use. The installation

allowed for a conversation around objects, memories and family ethics against the background of contemporary China.

The exhibition provided Zhao Xiangyuan a place to organize and recall her history and also became a reflection of today’s consumerist society. Zhao was pushed

into becoming an artist and Song Dong


一位普通的觀眾觀後想起了自己的母親:“我覺得自己突然能理解她 了。當母親忍痛放棄一捆捆破布頭的時候,心情和戰亂中的李清照丟失 一車車金石圖籍沒有兩樣。”瑣碎的日常廢物和巨大的紀念碑性被結合 在一起,模糊了現實生活和觀念藝術的邊界。 這件如此不加雕飾、如此具有文化和歷史特殊性的作品,直截了當地觸 動了成千上萬陌生人的心。 另一方面,在趙湘源一家對這些物品進行持續整理與回顧的過程中,他 們之間的親情不斷昇華,兩代人間本已近破裂的價值觀念得到了分享與 彌補,笑容重新回到了趙湘源的臉上。她說自己找到了第二次生命…… 幸福不久長。在“物盡其用”的展覽期間中,善良的趙湘源因為試圖去救 樹上一隻受傷的鳥而跌倒,鳥被聞訊趕來的家人們救活了,趙湘源卻不 幸故去。 這樣,她的孩子宋冬和宋慧成為了這些東西永遠的保管者,它們成為了 母親生命的承載物和回憶她的媒介。 這次在倫敦巴比肯的展覽,展示的是趙湘源收藏的“物盡其用”的物,展 覽也包括看不見的部分——趙湘源的家。展覽同時也是給宋冬在天上的 父親的。 巴比肯藝術中心門前安裝的霓虹燈寫着:“爸,別擔心!我們和媽都挺好的。” 離開倫敦的前一晚,宋冬在巴比肯門前的寒風中,反覆拍攝着這一行字。

played a role as her son and assistant to help her organize and decorate her house. The

mother and son started a new life together through the intercession of art.

Through the continuous process of packing and unpacking, arranging and displaying, organizing and reviewing each and every item and scrap that had been saved and

hoarded the bond between mother and son grew stronger. The cracked values between

generations had healed and Zhao Xiangyuan found a second life. Sadly, during the

installation of Waste Not in MoMA, New York, Zhao died from a fall whilst trying to save a

wounded bird. Thus her children, Song Dong and Song Hui became the custodians of the

items, which have come to be a continuation of their mother’s life and a tribute to her.

For those who had experienced the great change of China’s reform and opening

period, Song Dong’s Waste Not elicited much sympathy. In the era of material scarcity, the Chinese planned economy was distributed equally in every Chinese family with each

family owning the same items. The objects

in the installation were familiar to everyone’s childhood. Not only was the piece about the

love between a mother and son, it referred to something greater that was deeply rooted in

別樣聲音

the collective memory of China.

對於經歷過中國改革開放大變革時期的人來說,宋冬的《物盡其用》非 常能夠獲得觀者的共鳴,在那個物質匱乏的年代,計劃經濟餘溫未散之 季,中國人家庭都有着同樣的經歷,甚至在展覽中展出的許多物件兒都 曾經存在於當時每個人的生命力,也正是如此,宋冬的這件作品才在很 大程度上更易於被理解。而且在闡釋作品形成過程的時候,這種深植於 中國文化的深沉的母子之情和看似“儲物癖”病態的表象之下,是中國人 傳統文化和哲學觀念的反應。 此次在倫敦展出,由於觀者和藝術家之間存在的文化差異和知識結構的 不同,導致了很多來自西方的觀眾對於作品的理解存在“必要的”誤讀。 因為二戰後英國也經歷過物資匱乏的時期,從這個層面上來說,倫敦的 觀眾比較容易理解對於囤積物品的必要性,但從藝術家母親的行為出 發,實際上是存在一種病態的對囤積物品的強迫症,而且對於所陳列的 物品來說,由於沒有共同記憶和上下文關係,也很難使得倫敦的觀眾很 容易就能體會到作品中蘊含的含蓄的母子之間深情的理解和關愛。

Waste Not (Details) 物盡其用(局部)


MARGARITA GLUZBERG

HER DARK MATERIALS

瑪格麗塔•格魯茲玻格

暗黑之物 WRITTEN BY 撰文 x TRISH LYONS 崔西 • 里昂

TRANSLATED BY 翻譯 x SHORAN JIANG 姜嘯然

Born in Moscow, Margarita Gluzberg has lived and worked in London since 1979.

Her practice spans across drawing, performance, sound installation, photography

and moving image. Past solo exhibitions include Funk of Terror Into Psychic Bricks (2007), The Money Plot (2008), both at Paradise Row, London. With her most

recent project, Avenue des Gobelins, Paradise Row, 2012, she presented a new

body of analogue photographic work in the form of slide projection. Her ongoing sound project: The Captive Bird Society was performed at the MacVal Museum,

Paris and an expanded version was commissioned for the official programme of the Nuit Blanche in 2009. Gluzberg’s work has been included in group shows in

major European venues such as CAC, Vilnius; Rooseum, Malmo; Kunsthal KAdE, The Netherlands; Lunds Konsthall, Lund; and Baibakov Art Projects, Moscow ----------

生於莫斯科,瑪格麗塔 • 格魯茲玻格從1979年開始就生活於並在倫敦工作。她的藝術實踐 包括繪畫,表演,聲音裝置,攝影及動態影像。曾經兩次在倫敦的Paradise Row畫廊舉辦 個展──’Funk of Terror Into Psychic Bricks (2007)’和’The Money Plot (2008)’。2012 年,她在Paradise Row畫廊進行了她最新的項目’ Avenue des Gobelins’,運用幻燈片投射 方式來展現模擬攝影作品的新載體。仍在進行的聲音藝術項目’ The Captive Bird Society’ 曾於巴黎MacVal博物館展示,更於2009年受Nuit Blanche藝術節的委托為其官方項目進行 了擴延版本的創作。格魯茲玻格的作品已參展於各大歐洲展館的重要群展,例如維爾紐斯 的CAC,馬爾默的Rooseum,荷蘭的Kunsthal KAdE,倫德的Lunds Konsthall,莫斯科的 Baibakov Art Projects。


The Bare Bride (Consumystic) 2012 by Margarita Glutzberg is a special edition lithograph print created expressly for our issue of ART.ZIP.

The Consumystic series (2011) by Margarita Gluzberg is a selection of carefully double exposed and triple exposed images that are produced as platinum prints. By using the camera to act as the interface between the ever

changing seductive window displays of luxury commodities, Gluzberg creates a dual perspective for the viewer, that of the consumer and the desires of the voyeur.

瑪格麗塔 • 格魯茲玻格的《裸露的新娘》(Consumystic) 2012是她為ART.ZIP雜誌定制的一幅限量版畫印刷 作品。

瑪格麗塔 • 格魯茲玻格在2011年創作的Consumystic系列作品是採用了精心安排的雙重和三重曝光手段並以 鉑金印刷的一套攝影版畫作品。通過將相機作為在不斷變化的誘人的奢侈品陳列櫥窗前的媒介,藝術家創造 了一個雙重的視角,一個是來自於消費者的,另一個是來自於對偷窺的渴望。

Her Dark Materials 暗黑之物 Emma was stationed at her window (she was often there: the

window, in the provinces, replaces theatres and promenading).

-- Madame Bovany, Gustave Flaubent

艾瑪靠著窗子(她時常靠著窗子,在(巴黎)以外

的省,靠著窗口看熱鬧可以取代去劇院和散步 了)。

--《巴法利夫人》,福樓拜

Margarita Gluzberg has always been drawn to specific figures

瑪格麗塔 • 格魯茲玻格(Margarita Gluzberg)

which is hidden, even from themselves, to expose the chaos of

露真情的方式,甚至是這些人物對於自己的情

within fiction and the way in which a character can draw out that ordered life, or the gaping hole of desire. Gluzberg is thinking of the titular Emma in Gustave Flaubert’s novel, Madame Bovary.

Emma Bovary is a character who is consumed by desire which is expressed through her carefully chosen hats, silk parasols,

and her lace-trimmed handkerchiefs with which she dabs her

tears that well up as she becomes overwhelmed with a sense of longing; a longing to escape her lonely existence in a provincial town with a husband who is a provincial doctor. And all the while Emma looks to Paris because she thinks that what she is lacking is romantic love. She compensates for this lack by

borrowing money in order to buy home furnishings, fabrics and dresses. In her desire for romance, she becomes embroiled in

an affair and at one moment becomes consumed by guilt. She

realizes, ‘I am a sinner’ and that she ought to become religious so she can repent. She becomes focused on the kind of rosary she

will buy; its delicacy, its fine craftsmanship, its attention to detail until finally it is drained of all its spiritual value and turns into a

fashion accessory. Emma Bovary is a consumer of desire and the

經常被小說中特殊的角色所吸引,還有人物吐 感隱藏,將自己隱於或暴露於生活秩序的混亂 之下,抑或是暴露在慾望的空洞。格魯茲玻格 想的正是福樓拜(Gustave Flaubert)小說《包 法利夫人(Madame

Bovary)》中的那個艾瑪

(Emma)。艾���是一個被慾望消費的人物,這 體現在她精心挑選她的帽子、絲質陽傘,還有 她的蕾絲邊手帕,用來擦拭她強烈渴望的淚 水,那是她渴望逃離在外鄉孤獨,渴望逃離她 醫生丈夫的孤獨。艾瑪渴望巴黎,因為她認為 她所缺少的是浪漫的愛情。她借錢去買傢具、 面料和衣服而填補這種空虛。她對於浪漫的渴 求,使得她捲入婚外情並且被罪惡感吞噬得瞬 間而空虛。她意識到“我是個罪人”,而且她應 該信奉宗教來讓她懺悔。她就是她要買的天主 教念珠串:精美,做工精緻,細節精良,直到 最終耗盡所有的精神價值而稱為時尚配件。艾 瑪是慾望的消費者並且在消費過程中完全摧毀 了自己。這種消費模式對於格魯茲玻格的藝術


process of consumption completely destroys her. It is this mode of consumption that is significant to Gluzberg’s art. She has

coined the term ‘consumystic’ to describe the hybrid idea that

俱有重要意義。她自創了“consumystic”一詞, 以此來形容慾望、消費和神秘的混合概念。

conflates desire, consumption and the mystical.

總體看來,格魯茲玻格將“consumystic”融入

As an overarching idea, Gluzberg incorporates the ‘consumystic’

過不同媒介來追尋這個概念。比如,她的多重

into almost every title of work, and she chases it through different mediums. For example, her multiple exposure

photographs are made in terms of fashion seasons. She made

an eighty image projection entitled the Consumystic Autumn. There is now a Consumystic Winter, and she plans a Summer and Spring. She uses ‘consumystic’ to describe a state of

consumption and mysticism that she also recognizes in herself and her own ambiguous relationship with shopping. As if

possessed, a feeling comes upon her and she thinks that she

really needs something, like a pair of shoes, and like an addict

she does not care if she spends her last penny, because the pair of shoes is what she has always needed. She is in the realm of the mystical, or at least in a certain perception of the mystical inasmuch as it transcends reason. Or perhaps it is a kind of

hysteria, but Gluzberg chose the word mystical instead, because it seemed to fit her idea of it. Some people might attribute a more sinister word to what she means.

Gluzberg takes photographs in the twilight hour – she seeks

that moment in the day when objects are seen in a state of their

ultimate fictional desire; when streets darken and shop windows glow with objects that appear translucent. She walks around

Bond Street and Sloane Street and those streets that are known for their luxury brand shopping arcades and up-market department stores such as Harvey Nichols and Selfridges, or Harrods, which she describes as a kitsch nightmare but finds mesmerizing nonetheless. It is hard to know which places are actually

photographed because the film is double, and sometimes, triple

exposed. A filmstrip will record a number of places – a number of temporal spaces. It might be that one day she shoots one strip of

film and then a week later she will shoot again and double expose the strip – and maybe triple expose it half an hour later – in effect creating both a collage and a montage. It is as much a splicing

of time as a splicing of spaces, but they tend to be similar kinds of spaces designed for the consumer. She relies on moments

occurring where something happens; where maybe a saddle gets juxtaposed with some underwear and a light. It is a technique

that echoes the strategies of the surrealists, where the image is a

photographic montage and one idea merges with another as she makes the dream-state through branded shops.

She regards the photographs as both desiring objects and luxury commodities. She wants them to be echo chambers of desire

到了幾乎每張作品的標題中,並且,她同樣通 曝光照片是以時尚季的角度拍攝的。她製作了 80張圖片幻燈片系列並命名為《Consumystic 之秋》。現在又有了《Consumystic之冬》, 而且,她還計劃拍攝春夏系列。她使 用“consumystic”這一詞來描述消費和神秘的 狀態,這個狀態同樣也是她來認識自我以及自 己和購物的曖昧關係。一旦心血來潮的時候, 就好似著了魔,她覺得她非常需要某種東西, 比如一雙鞋,就好似上癮似的,她並不在乎是 否花掉了她最後一分錢,因為這雙鞋是她所需 要的。她處在神秘國度,或者說,至少是處於 某種神秘感覺,因為這種神秘已經超越理性。 或者也許是一種歇斯底里,但是格魯茲玻格選 擇了這個俱有心靈象徵意義的詞彙代替,因為 這個詞看起來是她所想。而關於她所表達的意 思,有些人也許會想到一個更險惡的詞彙。 格魯茲玻格通常在黃昏時拍攝她的作品──她 所想要的拍攝對象在這個時刻時看上去是處在 一個虛幻的頂級慾望狀態,這時,街景變暗, 櫥窗里的商品閃著耀眼的光芒,仿佛觸手可 及。她漫步在邦德街(Bond

Street)、斯隆

街(Sloane Street)和那些因奢侈品牌而著名 的街道,還有那些諸如哈維 • 尼蔻斯(Harvey Nichols)、塞爾富瑞治斯(Selfridges)、 哈羅斯(Harrods)的高級百貨公司,用她的 話來描述就好似是一個媚俗的夢魘但又仍然迷 人。照片的拍攝地很難得知,因為照片多是雙 重曝光,有時,甚至是三重曝光。底片所紀錄 的是若干空間──若干現實的空間。有可能, 她某天拍攝了一張照片,也許一周以後,她又 第二次曝光底片來再次拍攝──也許甚至在半 小時以後第三次曝光拍攝──這樣,她便同時 創造了拼貼和蒙太奇的效果。在拼接了時間的 同時,她又拼接了空間,這些時間與空間往往 是相似的地方,既為消費者設計的空間。她所 依靠的是那些發生事情的時刻;也許一個車座 與內衣還有光的並置。這是一種回應超現實主 義者們策略的的技法,這種技法使得圖片成為 攝影蒙太奇,也是她在試圖將品牌商店變成夢 境時,概念與他物的有機結合。 她將照片作為慾望的對象同時亦作為奢侈商


because it is important that the photographs produce the same

品。她希冀這些可以作為慾望的回音室,因為

object takes place through the chemical process of the emulsion.

要。對象的換位通過感光劑的化學過程發生。

kind of effect as the object of desire. The transposition of the

The enchantment for Gluzberg lies in the process and material of analogue film and its particular capacity to be a medium. Ink is

embedded into the paper in such a way that the emulsion folds and the blacks are literally transmitted into the platinum prints.

Likewise, in the direct transmission of the image that occurs in her unique 80 slide projection works in which the slides are cut-ups from the strips of processed film so that what is projected is the

actual film out of the camera. She calls this the transubstantiated effect in which conceptual matter is the photograph itself which

照片與“慾望的對象”所製造的效果相似尤為重 格魯茲玻格的魔法在於底片的製作過程,相似 材料的選擇,還有就是底片可以成為媒介的特 殊能力。墨水以感光劑摺疊和黑色導入箔紙的 方式嵌入紙張。同樣,在圖像直接轉換為她獨 特的80張幻燈片作品的時候,每一張圖片都是 直接從膠片切割下來製作而成的。她將這稱為“ 變質的”效果,觀念的內容就是照片本身,而照 片出演了作為“慾望對象”的符號。

act as an icon for the object of desire.

理想情況下,我們應該可以在一些純粹的或實

Ideally, we should be able to find self-transcendence in some

她對於奧爾德斯 • 赫胥黎(Aldous Huxley)

form of pure or applied religion, though Gluzberg shares the

view of Aldous Huxley, that in practice it seems unlikely that this

hoped for consummation will ever be realized. She is interested in the way that desire is invoked by a sparkling object and the relationship this has to a mystical experience. Consider the

lighting systems in shop windows and interiors, designed in

order to accentuate shine and sparkle; or high-end make-up

packaging, Chanel for example, with its luxurious black lacquer shine, in fact, even the cheaper kitsch version of make-up uses

sparkle. It is a fascination, like the mescaline trip descriptions in

用的宗教中找到自我超越,格魯茲玻格分享了 的觀點,既在實踐中,對於成就的希望永遠不 實現是不太可能的。慾望被閃閃發光的對象所 激發,而格魯茲玻格所感興趣的也正是這種與 之關聯的神秘經驗。想想看,櫥 窗的照明系 統和內部設計,就是為了突顯那種閃閃發亮 的效果;或者說那些高端的化妝品包裝,比如 夏奈兒的豪華黑漆光澤,事實上,所有甚至那 些廉價低俗的化妝品也都使用光澤感。這是一 種魔力,如同奧爾德斯 • 赫胥黎的《眾妙之門 (Doors of Perception)》中的對於酶斯卡

Aldous Huxley’s Doors of Perception, upon which he speculates

靈(一種致幻劑)之旅的描述,他對於那種神

material sense. He traces the kind of physiological aspects

的感覺。他追溯了生理方面的感覺,就是一個

about mystical experience particularly in the visual/physiological/ that one experiences in a state of either drug-induced or selfinduced mystical trance that often include the presence of

lights, multi-coloured lights, and change of light. He then goes

on to discuss how we construct a mythology around gems and attribute value to certain precious stones; emeralds found in

fairy tales, for example. Huxley wonders which came first, the

mystical experience or our seeking of precious stones from the

earth. Things that shine and sparkle and the mystical suggests to Gluzberg that the make-up package is a long removed attempt

at making the mystical which then in turn produces the mystical experience creating a sparkling cycle of material desire.

秘體驗的描述,尤其是那種視覺/生理/精神 人在藥物誘導或者是自我誘導的神秘恍惚狀態 下,通常都會出現光、多彩的光和變化的光。 之後,他討論了我們對於寶石或某些具有珍貴 價值的石頭是如何構建神話的;比如童話是如 何出於祖母綠之中。赫胥黎想知道哪個是先出 現的,是那些奇幻的體驗還是我們對於寶石的 追求。而對於格魯茲玻格來說,那些光澤熠熠 的事物和神秘的東西使她聯想到,長久以來化 妝品的包裝是一種消除神秘感的企圖,但反過 來它卻又製造了那些神秘的體驗,這種體驗創 造了物質慾望的金光熠熠的循環。

Similarly, a cycle of desire is reproduced in the want-and-need

同樣,慾望的循環是對於“想要-需要”往復循

through the beautiful and damned character of Clara in Octave

(Octave Mirbeau)的小說《秘密花園(The

looping rhythms of addiction. We witness one such cycle

Mirbeau’s novel, The Torture Garden. Once a week Clara visits

the torture garden, a secret garden filled with exotic flowers and hidden spaces where she and her lover watch at close range

acts of violence and torture played out. Clara is aroused in her voyeuristic desire for violence that is heightened by the smell of the intoxicating perfumes of flowers and the putrification

環。我們見證了這個循環在奧克塔夫 • 米爾博 Torture

Garden)》裡的那個外表美麗而內

心令人生畏的克拉拉(Clara)身上的體現。 克拉拉每週造訪一次酷刑花園,一個充滿異域 花朵和隱蔽空間的秘密花園,在那裡她和她的 情人在近距離觀看暴力和酷刑。在醉人的花香 和血肉的腐臭中,克拉拉喚醒了她的窺視暴力


of flesh. She is not alone in her particular taste that conflates

的慾望。對於她這種暴力與浪漫相混合的獨特喜

is a surreptitious mass hysteria. Afterwards, Clara slips away to an

刑花園。這是一個詭異的集體歇斯底里。後來,

violence and romance. Other women visit the torture garden. It

opium den-boat where she faints and lies in a trance for 24 hours. She disdains how she is affected by what she has experienced

and repents. But as the story ends we find her returning to the torture garden. It is an addictive cycle that Gluzberg likens to

the relationship between consumption and marketing. The aim of marketing is to get the consumer to buy and further, get the consumer to return to buy even more. It creates an illusion of

fulfillment for something that can never be fulfilled. Herein lies its secret. Its spell goes something like this: “This thing is beautiful

and perfect. You want it. You need it. It will make you feel better. You buy it. Why did I buy it? I shouldn’t have. I don’t have the money. It is just another thing. It does nothing for me.”

Although it is Clara’s voyeuristic desire for violence that is central to

好,她並不孤單。其他的女人也會來觀賞這個酷 克拉拉溜到一條鴉片船,在那裡,她昏昏噩噩, 神志恍惚地躺了24個小時。她鄙視以往經歷對於 她的影響,她後悔了。但是,在故事的結尾,她 還是回到了酷刑花園。同樣,這種令人沈迷的循 環也是格魯茲玻格對於消費和市場兩者關係的比 喻。市場的目的是讓消費者購買,並且進一步讓 消費者回來並且消費更多。它創造了一種對於某 種事物的滿足卻又永遠滿足不了的假象。秘密恰 就在於此。某件東西的咒語大都是這樣的:“這件 東西真是太美了,近乎完美。你想要它。你需要 它。它會讓你感覺更好。你買它吧。為什麼我要 買它?我不應該買的。我沒有錢。它僅僅是另一 件東西。它對我來說確實沒什麼用。”

the narrative of the book, there are fleeting moments of description

雖然整本書的敘事是圍繞者克拉拉對於暴力的窺淫

pearls draped across her back. Gluzberg picks up on this fashion

黃色絲質長襪、水貂修剪的袖口還有珍珠綴掛在她

of her clothing; yellow silk stockings, a cuff trimmed in mink,

sense seen in the characters of Emma and Clara, as indicative of

an awareness of the self as an image. Gluzberg believes it is often women who possess this awareness and that it can be used as a

tool, a way of using the body. Historically this was the prerogative of the courtesan, yet it is no different from what is today described as power dressing and it can be seen as way in which we fictionalize ourselves.

慾展開的,但其中也不乏對於她服裝的簡短描寫: 的後背。格魯茲玻格挑選了這些艾瑪和克拉拉的時 尚片段,作為圖像式的自我意識的陳述。格魯茲玻 格相信,正是女人才會擁有這種意識,並且這種意 識可以視作一種工具,一種運用身體的方式。從歷 史上看,這是妓女的特權,但它與今天我們所說的 從衣著體現權威不無區別,同樣,我們亦可以將它 理解為我們小說化自己的方式。

Gluzberg wants things to mesh, the fictional and the experiential,

格魯茲玻格想要各種事物都可以緊密配合:虛構

ambiguities that are difficult to discern and difficult to read. It is a

創造了難以識別和難以閱讀的曖昧。照片中的客

the splicing of spaces and times, images and angles, which create reflection of what is going on in her head about the objects in her

photographs, which is a slightly confused state of desire about these objects. She knows that she herself is implicated in these kind of

female states of desire, its exploitation, its self-inflicted agony. She is

not sure what it is exactly but she certainly knows she is not immune to it. Often she has been asked if her work is a Marxist critique. In

some ways it is critical in that it examines critically what this territory of desire and consumption is, but she does not provide an answer

because she is not sure what the answer is, because each time she walks past a Chanel shop she still looks at it with a certain longing.

和體驗,結合的空間與時間,圖像和視角,這些 體呈現的便是她腦海中所現,而對於這些客體, 慾望有些許困惑的狀態。她知道,她自己捲入了 這種女性的慾望當中,並在這種慾望當中被壓 榨,承受痛苦。她並不確定那到底是什麼,但是 她確定的是,對於此,她沒有免疫力。她時常被 問及她的作品是不是馬克思主義式的批判。在某 些方面,從檢驗何為慾望和消費的邊界而言,她 的作品是批判的,但是她並沒有提供一個答案, 她並不確定答案是什麼,因為她每次路過夏奈兒 品牌店的時候,她還是會心懷嚮往往裡張望。

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GEOFF DYER’S

SMALL WORLD 傑夫 • 戴爾的

《小世界》 TRANSLATED BY 翻譯 x Yu Chang 于暢

傑夫 • 戴爾,1958年生於英格蘭切爾滕納姆(Cheltenham),曾 就讀當地文法學校及牛津大學聖體學院(Corpus Christi College), 現居倫敦。 傑夫共撰寫過四部小說,包括Paris

Trance,The

Search,The

Colour of Memory,Jeff in Venice, Death in Varanas。他亦出 版過關於John Berger的評論研究Ways of Telling,兩本論文集 Anglo-English Attitudes和Working the Room,五本反流派書 籍But Beautiful, The Missing of the Somme, Out of Sheer Rage, Yoga For People Who Can’t Be Bothered To Do It和 The Ongoing Moment。他也編寫了John Berger:Selected Essays,與Margaret Sartor合編了What Was True: The Photographs and Notebooks of William Gedney. Anglo-English Attitudes論文集中的選登論文和Working the Room 裡的Otherwise Known as the Human Condition在2011年4月於美 國發表,並獲得國家書評獎(National Book Critics Circle Award for Criticism)。 他最新作品Zona於2012年春天在英國及美國出版,書中講述的是 Andrei Tarkovsky的電影Stalker(潛行者,攝於1979年)。 傑夫在2005年被選為英國皇家文學學會的會員。

Geoff Dyer, photographed by Matt Stuart


“It’s a small world” is an idiom that expresses ‘surprise’ that people or events

常言道:“世界真小 (It’s a small world)!”,萬事萬物在不同

In his essay ‘Small World’ Geoff Dyer looks at the world through photographs

在《小世界》裡,傑夫 • 戴爾通過反思照片的意義與旅行者

“sightseeing in particular and holidaying generally are often the opposite of

“觀光也好——或就整個旅遊活動來說,有時候並非是一

in different places are connected.

and the paradoxical relationship at the heart of the tourist experience;

fun – partly because of all the other tourists.”

This is a common experience that we share with one another, but what ‘sights’ are we seeing when we are sightseeing?

Dyer writes, “People go to places not to see the places but to obtain evidence

的地方仍有冥冥中的聯繫總讓人驚嘆。

心中的矛盾關係來審視世界,

種享受——而是受罪——一定程度上是由於其他遊客的存 在。” 這是一個“與人分享”的普遍經驗,但是我們在“觀光”旅遊時“ 觀”的到底是何種“光”呢?

– photographs of themselves – of having been there. Martin Parr takes things

傑夫寫道:”人們旅遊的真正樂趣不在於旅遊本身,而是製造

taking photographs.”

帕爾的圖片在邏輯上更深一層:拍攝那些正在拍照的人。”

a logical stage further: photographing people being photographed and

證據——為自己拍照證明自己到此一遊。比起普通的圖片,

From the earliest photographs of the Egyptian pyramids by Francis Frith in

從1856年最早通過弗朗西斯 • 弗裡斯(Francis Frith)的照片窺

the Orient; it can be found in Las Vegas, in the shape of the Luxor”, Dyer

一趟就行,那裡也有盧克索(Luxor)的金字塔。“戴爾揭示了一

1856 to a world where “one no longer has to travel to Egypt to experience reveals a world that we recognise but have never seen.

探埃及的金字塔,“到現在人們想體驗東方文化去拉斯維加斯 個我們知道但沒有真正看到的世界。

We are pleased to introduce for the first time to Chinese readers the English

我們很高興通過于暢為《小世界》作的翻譯來向中國讀者介

獵奇是攝影界一貫的傳統,這一傳統幾乎可以追溯到攝影機問世之初。在周遊歐洲大陸

馬丁 • 帕爾的《小世界》攝影系列既對旅遊業發展給人類帶

之後,早期攝影家們又把目光瞄準了“東方”。自19世紀50年代以來,弗朗西斯 • 弗里斯

來的雙重影響進行了總結,又對其未來發展前景進行了探

(Francis

Frith)等一批攝影家相繼拖着笨重的攝影機器,遠涉重洋,奔赴地中海西岸,乃

討。當中涉及的有些地方弗西斯等人以前也拍過(例如金字

至更遠的地方。就這樣,金字塔等各種異國風情的照片在歐洲漸漸流行開來,大大刺激

塔),但這些地方最終沒有像溫諾格蘭德那樣給人帶來興

了人們出行的慾望。這便是攝影的無窮吸引力和魅力所在——召喚人們身臨其境去感受

奮,而卻都變成了讓人失望而回的地方。記得那是1965年,

一番。當然,人們去旅遊的動機不僅限於此。雖說照片捕捉到的僅僅是冰山一角,但這些

父母帶著年僅七歲的我去倫敦一週游。期間有一天我們專門

景觀卻能在很大程度上左右遊客的行程,似沙漠中的綠洲,又似長途跋涉中遇到的客棧,

乘地鐵去希思羅機場參觀,我們並不是乘飛機出發去哪裡,

引導人們不斷地去探索,去發現。相對於普通的旅遊者,那些喜歡探險的旅遊者則更願意

只是純粹去看希思羅機場。對我們而言,機場不單單是一

到人煙稀少的地方去旅遊。然而當越來越多的人開始踏進這些原本不為人知的地方時,這

個送別親人朋友的地方,其本身就是個旅遊景點。911事件

些地方也就不可避免地會變成旅遊景點。華茲華斯(Wordsworth)的田園詩歌吸引了大批

後,普通出行者(商務艙或頭等艙乘客除外)的航空旅遊受

遊客到湖區遊玩,然而他對卻對此相當不滿,認為遊客的到來破壞了湖區的寧靜。同他一

到了極大的限制,更雪上加霜的是——確切的說,是更讓我

樣,探險旅遊者也對接踵而至追隨他們足跡的遊客頗有微詞,殊不知,他們自己才是破壞

們有負罪感的是——我們越來越清楚地認識到了發展旅遊業

原始生態和人文環境的始作俑者。

對生態環境造成的破壞,航空旅遊勢必會加劇全球變暖。這

writer, Geoff Dyer. ‘Small World’ has been translated by Yu Chang.

紹英國作家傑夫 • 戴爾。

樣看來費爾南多 • 佩索阿(Fernando Pessoa)選擇呆在家裡 當旅遊變得越來越便捷、輕鬆和廉價時,環境問題——或者我們可以稱之為旅遊綜合

哪兒也不去似乎是相當明智的:“究竟什麼是旅遊?旅遊有

徵——也就變得越來越嚴峻。不僅是環境問題,過去,只有那些熱衷冒險又富有智慧的

什麼用?哪裡的日落還不都是一樣的?何苦非要跑到君士坦

人才敢去埃及旅行,保羅 • 法瑟爾(Paul Fussell)在《去國外(Abroad)》一書中認為這樣高

丁堡去看日落呢?”

效率和模式化的飛機旅遊時代的到來——大約始於1957——是人類歷史上一個有趣的時 刻,標誌著人類從主動旅遊向被動旅遊的轉變。他的說法可能有一定的合理性,但不可否

旅遊當然不僅僅是為了去看日落。如果你去君士坦丁堡看日

認,飛機的確給人們的出行帶來了極大的便捷,正如蓋瑞 • 溫諾格蘭德(Garry Winogrand)

落——或是別的地方也好——你就會發現那裡的一切都和

六七十年代的機場系列攝影作品所展示的那樣,飛機旅遊時代的到來,大大增加了人們出

家裡是如此的不同。20世紀50年代,瑞士旅遊家羅伯特 • 弗

門旅遊的機會,極大地擴展了他們的視野。

蘭克(Robert Frank)遊歷美洲大陸,旨在記錄“美國文明的誕


生及其向全球的傳播。”弗蘭克的想法是對的:在長達

景點的一部分)。兩者所不同的是,那些名畫的偉大和

40年的攝影生涯中,帕爾也對這一現象深有體會,美

光環在冥思過程中還能幸存,但是在帕爾照片裡 “地點”

國的資本主義文明幾乎已經遍及全球的各個角落。(他

和“遊客”的組合卻只能互相貶值。我們可以說帕爾用的

的作品在這裡不再是鼓勵人們出行,恰恰相反,他認為

是隱晦的方式表達他的思想——或者說是較為溫和的

我們完全沒必要非去埃及旅遊——還得提心吊膽怕遇

方式——他對唐 • 德里羅(Don DeLillo)在《名人們(The

上恐怖襲擊——目的僅僅是為了感受東方文化;想體

Names)》 中的觀點極為推崇:旅遊就是變成傻瓜的過

驗東方文化去拉斯維加斯一趟就行,那裡也有盧克索

程。別人希望你是傻瓜。東道國的一切都是為傻瓜遊客

(Luxor)的金字塔。要想擺脫這種千篇一律的全球化景

量身定做的。在這裡你會茫然地到處瞎逛,眯着眼睛吃

象,尋求不一樣的體驗,我們就得去更遠的地方。

力地看地圖。你不知道如何跟人當地人打交道,你不知 道路線,不知道你的錢在這裡能買多少東西,你不知道

我們在感慨原始文明的被破壞時往往忘了,其實我們人

該吃什麼、怎麼吃,甚至不知道時間。變傻瓜就是旅遊

類自己才是這些破壞的罪魁禍首。無論你是去哪裡旅

的模式、標準和常態。

遊,那裡總會有各種各樣的服務在等着你——即使有 些並不太符合你個人的需求。幾年前我同妻子去齋沙默

同德里羅一樣,帕爾對這種變成傻瓜的過程是相當享

爾(Jaisalmer)(位於拉賈斯坦邦沙漠Rajasthan)旅遊,

受,既沒有感覺到受傷,也沒有從道德上對之進行批

妻子說這個地方像卡爾維諾(Calvino)式的具有與世隔絶

判。他愛死旅遊了,他能從這個過程中獲得很大的快感。

的曠世之美,令她難以忘懷。然而僅僅10年以後,齋沙 默爾竟變得面目全非了。空氣中到處瀰漫的是銅臭味,

讓批評家去解釋笑話是很困難的,同樣,我們也不能奢

活脫脫一個卡姆登集市(Camden

market)的翻版。

望讓攝影師去逗樂觀眾(這可能與圖片的可複製性有

正如原始印第安人會用土地換取其他部落的廉價首飾那

關;試想,有多少笑話能經得住無限的重複?)但攝影

樣,齋沙默爾人把自己寶貴的文化棄如敝屣,反而去追

師可以很有趣。世界上最有趣的攝影師應該是亨利 • 布

求那些毫無價值的庸俗之物——因而作為遊客,我們

列松·卡蒂埃(Henri Cartier-Bresson)(溫諾格蘭德稍

有種被欺騙的感覺。

遜於他),他如果嘗試彩照的話,大概也會用到一些同 帕爾類似的策略吧。然而具有諷刺意味的是,在1995

當然,並不是所有的旅遊景點都像齋沙默爾那樣徹底地

年巴黎舉行的《小世界》系列的首次展覽會上,卡蒂

商業化和旅遊化。但正如瑪麗 • 麥卡錫(Mary McCarthy)

埃·布列松對帕爾說了一句這樣的話“你一定是從另一個

在將近一個世紀之前寫的那樣:“我們不能說旅遊化的

星球來的”。通過觀察二人的作品我們不難發現,布勒

威尼斯就不是真正的威尼斯了,其他旅遊城市——羅

松和帕爾這兩個來自“兩個星球”的攝影師在某些方面有

馬、佛羅倫薩、那不勒斯也是一樣。旅遊化的威尼斯才

着驚人的一致。帕爾從看似隨機的色彩選擇中發現了如

是真正的威尼斯……威尼斯本身就像明信片裡那樣多姿

何表達韻律和雙關意義的方法,而布列松則用圖片的幾

多彩,引人入勝。”

何結構將這些意義表達了出來。

威尼斯也許是一個極端的例子。在羅馬或佛羅倫薩,遊

帕爾攝影的成功是建立在諷刺照片中人物的基礎之上的

客大概會感到安慰,因為很多人跟自己一樣做著同樣

嗎?這樣做合理嗎?想想戰地記者們常發回的那些專

的事,觀光、拍照等等。令人懊惱的是,一餐館專門推

門捕捉死亡、殘廢和人在水深火熱裡掙扎之類的特寫,

出 “遊客菜單”但卻大受歡迎。冒著被指責為種族歧視者

帕爾的小嘲諷往往會被忽略(說起戰爭,可別忘記了,

的危險,馬丁 • 埃米斯(Martin Amis)戲謔地稱日本

帕爾工作的地方都是一些廣為人知的景點,也就是越南

人為“照相狂日本佬”。用他的話來說——日本遊客對拍

人所說的停火區,他是享有豁免權的)那些有幸被拍進

照的熱情令人咂舌,他們旅遊的真正樂趣不在於旅遊本

照片里的人在看到這些照片時會一眼認出他們自己吧。

身,而是製造證據——為自己拍照——證明自己到此

雖然他們是自願花錢出來的,但觀光也好——或就整

一遊。(這麼說,我似乎又把我自己放到了一個文化制

個旅遊活動來說,有時候並非是一種享受——而是受

高點,以優越的價值觀和洞察力自居,去批判他國文化

罪——一定程度上是由於其他遊客的存在(正如司機

了)。

會抱怨堵車一樣,敏感的遊客也常常會發牢騷“這個地 方遊客太多了”)。還有就是旅遊花費了,即使你去相

比起普通的圖片,帕爾的圖片在邏輯上更深一層:拍攝

對廉價的景點,也難免花錢如流水。雖都過去快40年

那些正在拍照的人。在這一點上,《小世界》系列和

了,但我父親至今仍然對杜莎夫人蠟像館門口那昂貴的

托馬斯 • 斯特魯斯(Thomas Struth)的大畫幅系列可以一

巧克力脆皮雪糕耿耿於懷,當時差點就忍痛買了。就這

比,我們通過斯特魯斯的圖片看遊客的同時他們也在看

點來說,父親同戴維 • 赫伯特 • 勞倫斯(D.H. Lawrence)

名畫(我們往往忽略了,其實這樣滿是遊客的場景也是

挺像的,後者在《大海與撒丁島(Sea and Sardinia)》

‘Acropolis, Athens, Greece’ ©Martin Parr Magnum Photos


一書中對(旅遊時)被宰憤怒不已——“我討厭死里

乎絲毫阻擋不了人們出行的熱情。菲利普 • 拉金(Philip

拉(liras,意大利貨幣)這個詞了。到處聽到的都是里

Larkin,英國現代詩人)對旅遊並不見得有多喜歡,但他

拉——里拉——里拉——除此之外就沒有別的。那個

卻會每年帶著母親去英格蘭度假一週(他對“國外”景點

到處是柏樹和橘樹,浪漫又詩意的意大利已經不復存在

不大信任)。由此他提出一種新的理論,他認為“度假”

了。意大利快被里拉堵窒息了:破爛、倒人胃口的錢發

是從中世紀的朝聖演變而來的,由於平日裡的生活過於

出濃重的骯髒氣味,像油膩的煙一樣難聞。”

幸福和舒適,人們選擇“度假”以作為一種贖罪。

你別無選擇:無論是自助旅遊還是跟團旅遊,只要你

這就是《小世界》圖片裡所呈現的現代社會形態:旅

是去旅遊,就得不停地掏腰包。說來也怪,旅行中常

遊——一種沒有信仰的朝聖苦旅。或許,明年我真的

常會碰到的譬如排長隊、倒時差、噁心反胃等麻煩似

可以考慮去麥加看看。


T R A N S L A T E D B Y

翻譯

書法

C A L L I G R A P H Y B Y

x

x

Y U C H A N G

于暢

姜嘯然

S H O R A N J I A N G


AUTHENTICITY IN ART AND LAW:

A QUESTION OF ATTRIBUTION OR AUTHORIZATION? 藝術和法律的真實性:

是歸屬問題還 是認證問題? WRITTEN BY 撰文 x DANIEL McCLEAN 丹尼爾 • 麥可林 TRANSLATED BY 翻譯 x YU CHANG 于暢

IMAGES COURTESY OF 圖片提供 x ART.ZIP

Daniel McClean is a lawyer specialising in Art and Cultural Property

Law and Intellectual Property Law at the London based law firm,

Finers Stephens Innocent LLP. He is also an independent curator and was co-curator with SUPERFLEX of the exhibition ‘In-Between Minimalisms’ and the project ‘FREE SOL LEWITT’ at the Van Abbemuseum, Eindhoven, 2010.

丹尼爾 • 麥克林,專攻藝術文化產權法和知識產權法,現任倫敦 Finers Stephens Innocent LLP律師事務所的律師,同時也是

獨立策展人。2010年,他與荷蘭藝術家組織Superflex在艾恩 德霍芬(Eindhoven)的Van

Abbemuseum博物館聯合策劃

了展覽“In-Between Minimalisms(極簡主義之間)”和“Free Sol LeWitt”項目。


Warhol self-portrait, 1964


“’The attribution of works of art to particular artists is often a matter of great controversy and increasingly

difficult as time goes on. If the plaintiff is right in saying that he is entitled, perhaps years after the purchase, to

raise the question whether in truth a particular painting was rightly attributed to a particular artist, most costly and difficult litigation may result. There may turn out to be divergent views on the part of artists and critics of great eminence, and the prevailing view at one date may be quite different from that which prevails at a later date”. Judge Evershed M.R. (1)

“I suppose you could call the paintings, prints, but the material used for the paintings was canvas… Anyone can do them”, Andy Warhol (2) ----------

“特別藝術家作品的歸屬問題,往往具有很大的爭議,並且隨著時間的推移,歸屬會越來越困難。即使原告說他對某一藝術作品 有擁有權,且說的有理有據,然而,也許在購買數年後,要證實某一繪畫是出於某一藝術家之手,將需要非常昂貴和困難的訴 訟。偉大卓越的藝術家和評論家們可能會有意見分歧,並且,昔日普遍被接受的觀點有可能與日後盛行的觀點迥然不同”。── 埃弗謝德(Evershed M.R.)法官 (1) “我想你可以稱之為油畫,版畫,但這些繪畫所用的材料是帆布……任何人都可以畫”。——安迪 • 沃霍爾(Andy Warhol)(2)

Introduction

引言

The identity of an artwork’s creator is essential to how it is judged

在西方藝術體系甚至是文化體系中,藝術品的

system as well as in culture at large. If an artwork turns out to

斷都是至關重要的。比如說,一件藝術品被證

both aesthetically and economically within the Western art

be a forgery or to have been misattributed to another artist -for instance, its value generally decreases dramatically, even if its intrinsic nature is unchanged.

創作者的身份對於藝術品的審美性和價值性判 明是贋品抑或被認為是另一位藝術家的作品, 一般而言,它將會戲劇性地貶值,縱使其內在 的屬性沒有改變。

The notion that an artwork’s authenticity is essential to its

藝術品的真實性與其價值(“對‘原件’的狂熱”,

Benjamin) is relatively recent in Western culture (3). While the

描述到)有著密切關系,這一概念是近期在西

value (the “cult of the ‘original’,” as astutely described by Walter identity of the artist became increasingly important in Western

瓦爾特 • 本雅明(Walter Benjamin)犀利地 方文化中得以彰顯的(3)。盡管西方藝術家的身

art from the Renaissance onward, it was only with nineteenth-

份從文藝復興時期起就變得越來越重要,但只

“work” and their indissoluble link began to take hold universally.

與其“作品”之間不可分割的聯系才普遍的為人

century Romanticism that the categories of individual “artist” and Indeed it was during this period that artists signed their work for the first time on a large scale (4).

有到了十九世紀浪漫主義時期,個別“藝術家” 們所接受。的確,就是在此期間,藝術家們首 次大規模地簽署他們的作品

(4)

Authenticity is based upon two main assumptions: first, there

藝術品的真實性是基於兩個主要的假設:第

a unique object that is the expression of this artist. Setting

它是該藝術家表達思想的一個獨特的對象。

is an individual creator or artist; and second, the artwork is

aside questionable, ‘Romantic’ assumptions about ‘individual’ authorship, it is the problematic task of those entrusted with

authentication to ensure that the link between the originating author and the artwork is a true one and that the work

has remained faithful to the artist’s intention over time. To

一,它出於個人創作者或藝術家之手;第二, 姑且不談對於“個體”作者身份“不切實際”的假 設,這些問題是令人質疑的:被委托人認定原 作者與某一藝術品的關聯;鑒定藝術品是真 品;認定藝術品在漫長的時間裡依舊忠實地反 映藝術創作者的意圖。鑒定藝術品,需要辨別


authenticate an artwork it is necessary to distinguish the “original”

正品和“非法”品,例如是否是“未經過授權”的

also necessary to differentiate the “original” from, for example, a

當的作品區別開來。 然而,以上情況在具體操

from “illegitimate” works, such as an unauthorized copy; it is

damaged or wrongfully interpreted work. Yet in practice there is

often no clear division between these conditions: authenticity is a matter of degree .

復制品,同時,也要將正品與損壞品或詮釋不 作中往往沒有明確的界線:真實性是程度的問 題 (5) 。

(5)

In contemporary art, the task of authentication has become

even more complicated since notions of both author and work have been dramatically transformed. Many “original” artworks

circulate in the form of limited-edition multiples (particularly in

the mediums of video, photography, and sculpture) and as artists’ proofs rather than “unique” single artworks. Those following the

在當代藝術中,由於作者和作品者這兩個概念 經歷了巨變,鑒定任務也就變得越加復雜。許 多“原”作品以限量版的形式流傳著(尤其是以 影像,攝影和雕塑的作為媒介),並且只是 以藝術家的證明,而不是以“獨一無二”的單一 藝術品的形式流通著。馬塞爾 • 杜尚(Marcel Duchamp)開啟了現成物品藝術(從安迪 • 沃

tradition initiated by Marcel Duchamp’s readymade (from Andy

霍爾到達明安 • 赫斯特(Damien Hirst)和傑

fabrication by others and are intentionally reproduced numerous

傳承;這一做法使人很容易想到偽造、想到那

Warhol to Damien Hirst and Jeff Koons) are explicitly tied to

times with minor variations. In these cases, what distinguishes the original from an unauthorized copy?

夫 • 昆斯(Jeff Koons))的先河,並得到了 些僅做出微小改變的多次故意復制。就這類情 況而言,如何將未經授權的副本與原件區別開 來呢?

Often the boundaries between the “artwork” and its

environment are unstable (for example, film and video

通常,“藝術品”與其環境之間的界限往往並不

artworks. It may be unclear, for instance, after an artist’s death

甚至是地點特定的藝術品。例如,很難說一位

documentations of artistic performances) and site-specific

whether he or she intended such materials to be classified as

the “artwork,” making authentication nearly impossible. Finally, the radical separation envisaged in conceptual and minimal art between the artwork and its execution in the form of

instructions leaves the possibility of it being executed by the owner in a way that conflicts with the artist’s intention and/

or authorization. This issue has been at the center of disputes

between collector Giuseppe Panza and artists Carl Andre and

Donald Judd over his re-fabrication of their works based upon drawings and plans which he had acquired from them . (6)

Authentication Traditionally it is the artist who first bears witness and testifies

穩定(例如,電影和行為表演的影像記錄), 藝術家生前希望這類材料在其死後被歸為“藝術 品”,這使得鑒定幾乎是不可能的了。最後,在 概念和極簡藝術中,藝術品及按其說明的執行 之間可以想象的劇烈分歧使得擁有者對其的操 作執行很可能與作者的創作意圖或認定功能相 悖。這一問題也成為收藏家朱塞佩 • 潘沙 (Giuseppe Panza)和藝術家卡爾 • 安德烈 (Carl Andre)和唐納德 • 賈德(Donald Judd) 就對藝術品的仿造上爭論的中心,前者從後者 那裡獲得到他們的圖紙和計劃,並以此來偽造 他們的藝術品 (6) 。

鑒定

to the creation and completion of the artwork, as asserted and

傳統上,藝術家是第一個見證並證明作品的創

its surface. However, in contemporary art, in the aftermath of

的簽名來表明和證實自己的作品。然而,在

verified through his or her signature directly impressed onto

minimalism and conceptual art, certificates of authenticity have

become more widely used. The certificate is signed by the artist and issued to accompany the artwork, whether it consists of an object, various material elements, or a set of instructions. Certificates usually describe the artwork in terms of author,

medium, date, and whether it is unique or one of limited edition. Often the certificate is linked to the instructions for the artwork in the same document as in the case of the “Candy” and paper “Stack” works of Felix Gonzalez-Torres.

作和完成的人,他通過自己直接在藝術品表面 當代藝術裡,受極簡主義和觀念藝術的影響, 真品證書已越來越被廣泛的應用,證書由藝術 家簽署,並與藝術品一起發出,不論一件藝術 品,還是多種多樣的材質或是一套說明。證書 通常標明藝術作品的作者,創作材料與日期, 絕版或者是限量版之一。證書往往與說明書在 同一文件中,如同費利克斯 • 岡薩雷斯(Felix Gonzalez-Torres)的《糖果(Candy)》和 紙質《棧(Stack)》作品。


Once an artwork circulates in the public realm, the authentication

藝術品一旦進入公共領域流通,其驗證任務通

art historians, and appraisers) to determine, although living artists

人,藝術史學家和估價員)來執行,當然往往

task is usually left to art-market professionals (dealers, curators, are often consulted. In practice many attributions, particularly

those by institutions such as an artist’s estate or authentication committee, assume such authority in the art market that an

artwork cannot be ascribed authorship or sold without them.

Consider the role of the Wildenstein family in the authentication of Impressionist works

(7)

or the control of the Andy Warhol

常由藝術市場上的專業人士(經銷商,策展 也會咨詢還在世的藝術家們。在實踐中,許多 歸屬,尤其是那些由諸如藝術家的機構或認證 委員會等機構做出的,認為藝術市場上的這 種權威是藝術品作者的認定和作品的售出的依 據。想想威爾頓斯坦家族在印象派作品鑒定中 發揮的角色 (7),以及安迪 • 沃霍爾認證委員會

Authentication Board over the eponymous Pop artist’s oeuvre .

在不相伯仲的波普藝術家作品中的控制作用(8)。

The criteria by which art-market professionals authenticate

藝術市場上的專業人士所采用的鑒定標準既透

assess authorship through various techniques, such as examining

來評估作品,諸如作品的出處(所有權和展覽

(8)

Yet how is the authority of such decisions to be challenged?

artworks are both transparent and opaque (9). They typically

the artwork’s provenance (ownership and exhibition history)

and conducting scientific analysis including carbon-dating of

materials and signature verification. Experts also rely on critical

documentation like monographs, exhibition/auction catalogues, and above all the artist’s catalogue raisonné, usually compiled in collaboration with the artist or estate. If an artwork does

not feature in the artist’s catalogue raisonné, there is a strong

presumption that authorship cannot be ascribed. Consider, for instance, the definitive role of Christian Zervos’s Pablo Picasso

然而,如何挑戰這類決定的權威性呢?

明,又是含糊的 (9) 。通常,他們通過各種技術 史),並進行科學的分析,包括利用對於材料 的碳定年法鑒別和驗證簽名。專家們還需要一 些關鍵文件,如專著,展覽和拍賣目錄,最重 要的是藝術家的目錄全集,這種全集通常是與 藝術家本人或商行機構合編而成的。如果一件 藝術品沒有收錄在藝術家的目錄全集裡,我們 可以有力地推定其作者身份不能確定歸屬。想 想克里斯汀 • 徒澤爾沃(Christian Zervos)的 畢加索目錄全集(Pablo Picasso) (10) 在鑒定

catalogue raisonné (10) in the authentication of that artist’s works.

藝術作品過程中所起到的決定性作用。

Nevertheless the art expert’s subjective aesthetic judgment of

不過,藝術專家對作品真實性的主觀審美判斷

remains fundamental to questions of attribution. Connoisseurship

的,這一判斷對於歸屬問題是根本性的。鑒賞

authenticity based on a formal knowledge of an artist’s oeuvre

is closely aligned with intuition: the connoisseur’s impression of an object’s authenticity is by definition seemingly immune to

rational or objective analysis. However, in many instances such judgment will prevail even when scientific evidence and the

facts of provenance suggest the contrary, leaving the owner of

a discredited artwork without an apparent remedy unless legal measures are sought

.

是基於對某位藝術家的畢生之作的知識而作出 與直覺密切相關:表面上,鑒賞家對作品真實 性的印象看與理性或客觀分析無關。然而,在 許多情況下,這種主觀意見仍具有很強的說服 力,即使科學證據和出處的事實都與之相反, 使得未被證實的作品持有者束手無策,而不得 不訴諸於法律措施 (11) 。

(11)

The question of how works of art are attributed raises difficult legal issues, particularly regarding what liability is assumed by those

who determine authorship. At the heart of the question lies the

interface between two systems of jurisprudence, those of art and law, each with its own criteria, values, and codes. While the legal

structure would seem to govern and regulate the art market like other aspects of society, the law is generally ambivalent toward intervening within the art system on questions of authenticity

At the root of this ambivalence is the belief that art is based upon subjective (aesthetic) judgment and that opinions concerning authenticity are necessarily prone to error as per Judge

藝術作品如何歸屬的問題招致了復雜的法律問 題,尤以那些確定作品作者的人應當承擔什麽 責任為甚。問題的核心在於法學兩大系統的交 界,即藝術和法律體系都有自己的標準、價值 觀和準則。雖然法律架構看似可以指導和規範 藝術品市場,一如其規範社會的其他方面,但 當涉及藝術體系中的真實性問題時,法律一般 以自相矛盾的方式介入。 這一矛盾的根源是在於:藝術源於主觀(審 美)判斷,且關於真實性的看法又容易有誤, 正如埃弗謝德法官如���說。與此同時,法律也 約束著商品的銷售和所有權的言語表達(例如,


Evershed’s comments above. At the same time the law governs

通過合同法),以及如何提供意見(例如,通

goods (for example, through the law of contract) and to the

系,在某些情況下,它可以為失利的一方提供

how language is used in relation to the sale and ownership of giving of advice (for example, through professional duties of

care). Law does regulate the art system, and in certain situations it can provide remedies to disappointed parties.

This essay addresses three main areas of conflict within the field

過專業的謹慎責任)。法律確實規範著藝術體 補救措施。 本文旨在解決認證領域中的三大主要沖突以及 法律回應:

of authentication, along with the law’s response:

一是描述虛假的藝術品:那些對藝術品做虛假

First, the falsely described artwork: What legal liability do those

二是消極認證:那些沒有明確標準卻不願對藝

who falsely describe artworks assume?

Second, negative authentication: What liability do those who refuse to authenticate artworks positively, without clear criteria, assume? Third, the withdrawal of authorship: What happens if an artist

withdraws or threatens to withdraw authorship from an artwork? As we will see, if false attribution of artworks remains a perennial issue in the art system, a new set of problems emerges, linked

to the authority of the institutions that certify artworks and the

描述的人應當承擔什麽樣的法律責任? 術品給予正面認證的人應當承擔怎樣的責任? 三是署名權的撤銷:若藝術家撤回或威脅撤回 藝術作品的署名權,該怎麽辦? 我們知道,如果藝術品的錯誤歸屬問題在藝術體 系長期得不到解決,一連串新的問題就會隨之而 來,這與藝術品認證機構的權威性和藝術家可能 會撤銷署名權有關。第三個問題反映出在藝術體 系認知藝術家和藝術品的範疇以及兩者之間的關 系中那些隨著時間推移而產生的重大轉變。

artist’s potential withdrawal of authorship from the artwork.

對真實性下定論,法院往往必須依據藝術專家

system understands the categories of artist and artwork as well as

據發生的可能性來判定藝術品是否是正品。在

The final problem reflects major transformations in how the art their relationship over time.

To provide decisions regarding authenticity, the courts must often rely upon opinions provided by art experts who give

evidence in the courtroom. The courts evaluate this evidence

在法庭上提供的意見。法院評估這一證據並根 某些情況下,糾紛當事人可以提供的證據來支 持或反對某個特定的歸屬。然而,藝術品真實 性的法律裁定對於藝術市場有多大影響還有待 於討論。

to decide on the balance of probabilities whether or not an

1、虛假描述的藝 術 品

provide evidence in support of or against a particular attribution.

藝術品實際上可能並不是它被描述的樣子,這

the art market is an open question.

是贗品和被錯誤歸屬作者的藝術品。

artwork is authentic. In some cases the parties in a dispute may

However, how much legal determinations of authenticity impact

一問題一直困擾著藝術界。原作品的兩大天敵

1. The Falsely Described Artwork

贗品被生產和出售出來,打著某某署名,某

The art system is haunted by the possibility that an artwork may

的幌子來以假亂真。它們可能是現存真品的復

not actually be as it is described. The two principal enemies of the original are the fake and the misattributed artwork.

Fakes are produced and distributed with the fraudulent intention of deceiving as to the authorship, date, period, or school of the

artwork. The fake may be a replica of an existing work, a pastiche in the style of a certain artist, or even a deceptive addition to

年、某一時期的作品,或者某一藝術流派作品 制品,也可能是對某一藝術家風格的模仿品, 或是在正品上欺騙性地添加(例如在一幅繪畫 上虛假的簽名)。藝術史上充斥著假貨,其 中的許多甚至蒙混了知名的藝術專家們。最 臭名昭著的贗品制造者莫過於漢斯•凡•米傑瑞 (Hans Van Meegeren)(1889-1947),他 因偽造維米爾的作品(Vermeer) (12) 而聲名遠

an authentic artwork (fake initials inscribed on a painting, for

揚。有人控告說二戰後他在荷蘭的監獄裡與納

have deceived even reputable art experts. One of the most

也因此被迫證明他的清白。

instance). The history of art is replete with fakes, many of which

粹分子合作了一幅“假的”維米爾的作品,而他


notorious practitioners was Hans Van Meegeren (1889–1947),

相比之下,錯誤的歸屬雖不具有欺詐的目的,

forced to establish his innocence when accused of collaborating

的復制品會與繪畫原作品相混淆。由此帶來

renowned for his forgeries of Vermeer (12). He was most famously

with the Nazis in Holland after the end of World War II by painting a “fake” Vermeer while in prison.

In contrast, misattributions are artworks that are not created with the intention to deceive but have induced error over time; for example,

但時間一長就會導致魚目混雜;比如說,原作 的錯誤是雙向的,即專家會將藝術品錯誤的歸 屬,這反過來會導致正品也被錯誤的歸屬,通 常被歸為鮮為人知的藝術家的作品,這種現象 稱為“待發掘的默默無聞者”。

the copy of an original painting that is confused for the original.

法律以不同的方式處理對藝術品的虛假說明。

wrongly attribute originality to a work and conversely failing to spot

銷售偽造品具有欺詐意圖

Misattributions can create errors both ways, causing an expert to

an original by attributing it to another, usually lesser known artist, a phenomenon known as the “sleeper.”

The law deals with false descriptions of artworks in different ways. At one end of the spectrum, the maker may be punished by the state through criminal sanctions for selling a forgery, if it can be proved that this has been done with the fraudulent intent to deceive (13).

At the other end, in many countries artists are granted moral rights of authorship that enables them to publicly be acknowledged as

authors of artworks and to correct false attributions of authorship

as well as to object to derogatory treatments that impact upon the artwork itself

(14)

. Artists can also control unauthorized reproduction

through copyright law. This is not an important mechanism for

artists when dealing with fakes, although copyright helps artists

regulate how their works are reproduced in culture, particularly in commercial contexts.

The most important legal remedy available to buyers of artworks, and in some instances to sellers, lies in the contract. In theory a

disappointed buyer can claim damages from a seller for a wrongly described artwork as a breach of contract, providing the claim is

brought within a specific period of time as defined by the law. Yet in

重則是州對不法分子予以刑事制裁,前提是其 ;輕則是在許多國

(13)

家裡,藝術家被授予署名的道德權利,這使得 他們被公開認定為藝術品的創作者,有權糾正 虛假的著作權歸屬,以及有權反對可能會影響 藝術品的不當處理 (14)。藝術家也可以通過著 作權法來控制未經授權的復制。雖然版權有助 於藝術家調節自己的作品在文化背景中(特別 是在商業背景下)如何被復制,但這不是藝術 家打假所利用的重要機制。 藝術品的買家,在某些情況下也包括賣家可訴 諸的最重要的法律補救方法寫在合同中。理論 上,失望的買家在法律規定的期限內,可以 將賣方對藝術品的虛假說明視為違約而提出索 賠。然而,在實踐中,此類索賠的法律可行性 是不確定的,這取決於買賣雙方在交易時是如 何理解藝術品的說明的;換句話說,要看賣方 的描述與其承諾或“保證書”的條件是否相符, 還是只是一個沒有法律約束力的觀點表達而 已。不同司法管轄區的判例法(包括普通法和 民法)規定了法院應依據銷售的基本事實對兩 種情況作出不同的判決。

practice the legal viability of such claims is uncertain. Much depends

英格蘭的普通法法院傳統上一直將賣方所做的

the artwork at the time of sale; in other words, whether the seller’s

束力的條款說明:“法院應該極其謹慎地給予

on how both parties have understood the description to apply to

description amounts to a promise or a “warranty” that the artist of

the work is as it is described, or whether the seller’s description was merely an expression of opinion without legally binding force. The

case law of different jurisdictions (including common and civil law) reflects how the courts, depending on the facts of the underlying sale, can reach either conclusion.

In England the common law courts have traditionally regarded

歸屬判斷視為意見的表達,而不是具有法律約 任何歸屬的合同效力”,一位著名的法官這樣 說 (15) 。其理據在於對藝術品,尤其是對大師 們的繪畫的歸屬,本身就具有不確定性和分歧 性,除非另有明文規定,否則藝術品的交易雙 方必須接受那些只適用於藝術品而不適用於其 它一般商品的說明。因此,買方在不同程度上 需要對藝術品的作者和出處進行調查。

attributions made by sellers as being expressions of opinion rather

“買方提防”(買者自負)這一原則在德雷克

exceedingly wary of giving any attribution contractual effect,” in the

一案中就有體現。這一案件是一位失望的美國

of artworks, particularly old master paintings, are inherently uncertain

阿格諾。原告用1百萬英鎊於該畫廊買下了被

than as legally binding terms of description: “The court ought to be

words of one famous judge (15). The rationale for this is that attributions

(Drake)對阿格諾(Agnews)(2004) (16) 收藏家狀告總部設在倫敦的老牌藝術大師畫廊


and open to divergence, and that parties in an art transaction must

判斷為凡 • 戴克(Van Dyck)的作品。然而,

artworks are not like those applying to other normal types of goods.

是通過代理商進行交易的,且法庭認為該代理

accept, unless it is expressly provided otherwise, that descriptions of Accordingly buyers should to differing degrees conduct their own investigations into an artwork’s authorship and provenance.

This principle known as “let the buyer beware” (caveat emptor) is reflected in the case of Drake v.. Agnews (2004) (16). Here a

disappointed American collector sued the London-based old master

gallery Agnews. The plaintiff had acquired a painting from the gallery

德雷克的歸屬判斷是不可信的,因為這一作品 比像德雷克這種收藏家更為專業,所以親自調

查 是很必要。阿格諾提過一些權威專家認為 該繪畫不是凡 • 戴克的作品,而代理人卻未將 這一重要信息告知收藏家。這證實了畫廊的聲 稱,即它僅是在銷售時提供一個“意見”,而不 是一個如其所描述的承諾。

for £1 million that was attributed to Van Dyck. This later turned out to

德雷克案是英國法院對買家作出不利判決的案

The painting had been bought through an agent who was deemed

他 補 救 措 施 ,如 誤 解( 雙 方都 誤 解了合 同 的主

be an unlikely attribution, yet Drake was unsuccessful with his claim. by the court to have greater expertise in the field than a normal

collector, such as Drake, and therefore should have undertaken his

own enquiries. The agent had also withheld from the collector crucial information supplied by Agnews suggesting that some important experts viewed the painting as not being by Van Dyck. This aided

the gallery’s claim that it had offered an “opinion” at the time of sale rather than a warranty that the goods were as they were described. The Drake case is one of a whole list for which the English courts

have ruled against buyers. Likewise the courts have been reluctant

to find other remedies related to contracts, including mistake (that

例之一。同樣,法院一直不願意根據合同找出其 題 )和失 真陳 述( 賣 方所 做的陳 述 誘 導了買 方 訂立合同)。例如,在利夫(Leaf)狀告國際畫廊 (International

Galleries) (1950)(17)一案中,

首席法官丹寧(Denning)認為從法律上而言, 買方和賣方在“主題”上都沒有誤解,盡管作品被 誤認為是約翰 • 康斯特布爾(John Constable) 所作,但 買 方仍 舊擁有了吸 人眼球的索爾茲伯 裡大教堂圖。又如,在哈林哥頓-林柴斯特畫廊 (Harlingdon and Leincester Galleries)與克里 斯托弗•赫爾美術館(Christopher Hull Fine Art) (1989)(18)一案中,法院認為買家把一錯誤歸屬

both parties were mutually mistaken as to the subject matter of the

的繪畫售給加布里埃萊 • 蒙特不屬於失真陳述

seller induced the buyer to enter into the contract). In the case of

商)並沒有依據購買時的歸屬進行判斷。

contract) and misrepresentation (that representations made by the

Leaf v. International Galleries (1950)(17), for example, a leading judge,

(或基於描述的出售),因為買方(也是一經銷

Lord Denning, said that there had been no mistake by the seller or

當這一點在銷售合同中已明確達成一致時,

wrongly attributed to John Constable because the buyer still had

德 • 巴爾卡尼(De Balkany)上訴克里斯蒂 •

the buyer as to the “subject matter” in a legal sense of a painting

in his possession a visually appealing picture of Salisbury Cathedral! In Harlingdon and Leincester Galleries v. Christopher Hull Fine Art (1989) , the wrongful attribution of a painting by the seller to (18)

Gabriele Münter was held by the court not to be a misrepresentation (or a sale by description) because the buyer (also a dealer) had not relied upon the attribution at the time of purchase.

The English courts have been more willing to find contractual

liability on the part of sellers when this has been expressly agreed upon in the sale contract. In De Balkany v. Christie Manson &

英國法院便傾向於尋找賣方的合同責任。在 曼森和伍茲(Christie Manson & Woods) (1997) (19) 一案中,法院認為根據合同,佳 士得(Christie’s)應當對買方承擔責任,因為

這一作品在目錄中被描述為埃貢 • 席勒(Egon

Schiele)的作品,且合同條款規定若發現蓄意 偽造可退貨。法院還發現該作品是席勒的作 品,但已被另外一位藝術家添加塗改並了埃 貢•席勒名字的縮寫;佳士得未能證明該繪畫 在合同的條款下不是偽造的。

Woods (1997)(19), the court found that the auctioneer, Christie’s,

在判斷藝術品時,專家(尤其是拍賣商們)可能

described in the catalogue as being by Egon Schiele under a

(Luxmoore May)狀告麥森哥爾(Messenger)

was contractually liable to the buyer of a forged painting wrongly specific condition in its terms and conditions that it would refund the purchase price in the case of a deliberate forgery. The court

found that the underlying painting was by Schiele but had been

overpainted by another artist, who had added fraudulently Schiele’s initials to it. Christie’s failed to establish that the painting was not a

會承擔專業的謹慎責任。在勒克斯穆爾 • 梅 (1989) (20) 一案中,一英國法院認為,拍賣行 代表賣方對具體的藝術品進行拍賣估價應對買方 承擔謹慎責任,應當合理地行使專業技能和技 巧。在這一案件中,拍賣行沒有判認出兩幅獵狐 繪���是著名動物畫家喬治 • 斯塔布斯(George


forgery within its terms and conditions.

Stubbs)的作品。然而,鑒於它只是一個省級

It is possible that when valuing artworks, experts (particularly

比(Sotheby’s)等一流的拍賣行,所以並沒有

auctioneers) may assume professional duties of care. In Luxmoore May v. Messenger (1989) , an English court held that an auction house (20)

拍賣行,專業謹慎的標準遠低於像佳士得和蘇富 對其所犯的錯誤承擔責任。相反,拍賣行在拍 賣時需要對藝術品或價值不菲的人造品的購買

valuing specific artworks on behalf of a seller owed a professional

者負謹慎的責任。在泰勒(Taylor)訴告湯姆森

valuation. Here the auctioneer had failed to identify two paintings

訴法院認為佳士得拍賣行在判斷一古甕(很有可

duty of care to the seller to exercise reasonable skill and care in the of foxhounds as authored by the well-known animal painter George

Stubbs. However, as a provincial auction house it was not held liable for its failure since the applicable standard of care is lower than for a leading auctioneer such as Christie’s or Sotheby’s. Conversely an

auction house may owe a duty of care to the buyer of an artwork or

valuable artefact at auction. In Taylor v. Thomson & Christie’s (2004)(21),

the Court of Appeal held that Christie’s owed a duty of care to exercise

(Thomson)和佳士得(2004)(21) 一案中,上 能是十九世紀的而不是像描述的那樣,說它是十 八世紀路易十五統治時期的古董)需要對交涉方 負謹慎責任,以合理的專業技能對交易品進行精 確的估價。依據事實,法院認為佳士得沒有盡職 盡責;然而,拍賣行在提供歸屬信息時是否對買 方承擔一般謹慎責任還是個未知問題。

reasonable skill and care to a buyer with whom they had entered into

藝術作品的真實性及其描述之間的不定關系表

urn (it was likely to be from the nineteenth rather than the eighteenth

場上的法律進行交易,而是更多地依據交易過

a special relationship to provide an accurate valuation when dating an century, and not from the Louis XV period, as described). On the facts, the court held that Christie’s had discharged its duty; however, it was

left open as to whether auction houses owed a general duty of care to buyers at auction when providing attributions.

The slippery relationship between the authenticity of the artwork and its description illustrates how difficult it is for buyers, and

sometimes sellers, to rely upon the law in the art market. Much

turns on the specific circumstances of the transaction (including the identity of the parties – whether both are art experts or art dealers

for example) and particularly what was written and said at the time of the sale.

Whether issued by an artist or an expert third party, the certificate

明,買家,有時也包括賣家,很難依據藝術市 程中的具體情況(包括交易方的身份,例如雙 方是否均是藝術專家或藝術經銷商),尤其是 需要依靠交易時的所說所寫。 真實性證書不論是由藝術家本人還是由第三方 專家出具,都似乎給予收藏家更大的確定性, 但這完全取決於其上的說明。如果證書明文 提供了作品的歸屬,那麽它更接近於一項具有 法律約束力的承諾或保證,尤其是有藝術家 的簽名。然而,即使有證書,賣方也可能會逃 避責任,說自己在交易前已經向買方透露了 充足的信息以使自己所提供的保證含混不清。 在美國上演的羅格斯(Rogarth)上訴西伯曼 ( S i e b e r m a n n ) ( 1 9 9 7 ) ( 美 國 ) (22)一 案

of authenticity would seem to offer collectors greater certainty,

裡,買方無法撤銷其購買,因為賣方在銷售法

provides an attribution, then it is more likely to amount to a legally

(Francis Bacon)的作品。

but this hinges on precisely what is stated. If a certificate expressly binding promise or warranty, particularly if the artist signs it. Yet

案中已經說明這一繪畫歸屬為弗朗西斯 • 培根

even with a certificate a seller might avoid liability if they can

當前,藝術市場對於真實證明的描述所產生的

buyer prior to the sale to cast doubt on the warranty provided.

需要進行法律改革。立法者和法官是否準備了

demonstrate that they had disclosed sufficient information to the See the US case of Rogarth v. Siebermann (1997)(US)(22), in which

a buyer was unable to rescind the sale of a painting attributed to

Francis Bacon in the bill of sale because of prior disclosure the seller had made to the buyer about the work.

The current lack of certainty in the art market about the

合同效力還缺少肯定性,這表明藝術市場迫切 措施為各方(尤其是買方)提供更大的確定性 和更廣泛的補救措施,仍需拭目以待,但在藝 術市場上規範地使用真實性的證書(尤其是由 藝術家發出的)為這一問題的解決提供了一個 可行、有效的方法。

contractual effect of descriptions of authenticity suggests that

需要註意的是,當一方明知不是正品卻故意

and judges are prepared to take these steps to offer greater

事和合同責任。因此,2009年才發生了蓬托

this is in urgent need of legal reform. Whether or not legislators certainty and wider remedies to parties (particularly buyers)

發放證書的行為屬於欺詐性虛報,將承擔刑 斯 • 胡爾墩(Pontus Hulten) (23) 一事。曾


remains to be seen but the standardised use of certificates of

為現代藝術博物館(Moderna Museet)的

provides a potentially useful means of achieving this.

洛盒子(Brillo

authenticity in the art market (particularly when issued by artists)

It is important to remember that a party who deliberately certifies a fake as being an authentic artwork will be contractually, as

well as criminally, liable for fraudulent misrepresentation. Thus it transpired in 2009 that Pontus Hulten (23), former director of the

Moderna Museet, in Stockholm, supplied fabricated Brillo Boxes attributed to Andy Warhol and backdated to 1968, along with Andy Warhol Authentication Board certificates of authenticity

前任主任,他在斯德哥霍摩提供關於《布里 Boxes)》的復制品,該作

品被判認為安迪 • 沃霍爾的作品,可追溯至 1968年,他還用安迪 • 沃霍爾真實認證委員 會頒發的證書來證明這些作品為正品。倘若 這一欺詐行為是在他生前被發現的,他可能 早就需要對他銷售這些作品的經銷商承擔合 同索賠,並接受刑事起訴。

to assert the copies as originals. Had the fraud been discovered

2、認證的否決

contractual claims from the dealers he sold the copies to, as well

構的意見具有絕對的權威性,可以有效地造就

before his death, Hulten would potentially have been exposed to as to criminal prosecution.

2. The Denial of Authenticity In the art market, the opinions of artists’ authentication committees

在藝術品市場上,藝術家認證委員會和認證機 或毀掉一件藝術品的價值。諸如法國這樣的國 家,藝術家的繼承人有合法權利證實或否認藝 術品的真實性,從而加強了這一權威性 (24) 。 然而,當這一權威被擅自行使且無視科學的證 據和出處時,該怎麽辦?

and estates can carry overwhelming authority, effectively making or

由此而引發糾紛的一個典型例子就是人們對

have a legal right to confirm or deny authenticity of artworks, thereby

Art Authentication Board)的認證程序及其

breaking the value of an artwork. In countries like France, artists’ heirs cementing this authority (24). Yet what happens when this authority

seems to have been exercised arbitrarily in defiance of scientific evidence and provenance?

The controversies surrounding the authentication procedures of the Andy Warhol Art Authentication Board and its apparent lack

of transparency are a striking example of the types of dispute that

can arise. The Warhol board has the invidious task of regulating the authenticity of the artist’s oeuvre, made difficult by the ease with

which Warhol works can be fabricated (as seen in the Pontus Hulten controversy). In fact Warhol’s work is based upon the industrial-style reproduction and repetition of images, and even the questioning of the regime of artistic originality, including the delegation of

artistic production to his assistants, for example, Gerard Malanga. In

安迪 • 沃霍爾藝術認證委員會(Andy Warhol 明顯缺乏透明度的爭論。在2012年年初,安迪• 沃霍爾視覺藝術基金會,經歷了爭議的反復困 擾後,決定解散董事會。沃霍爾董事會校正藝 術家全部作品的真實性,這一招人憎恨的工作 因其可仿造藝術品(如我們在蓬托斯 • 胡爾墩 一事中所看到的)而變得難上加難。事實上, 沃霍爾的作品是根據工業式的復制和圖象的 再現而進行創作的;甚至其藝術獨創性都招質 疑,這包括他將藝術創作分派給助手們,如傑 拉德 • 馬蘭加(Gerard Malanga)。此外,沃 霍爾本人的驗證方式就是前後不一的,有時他 會簽署自己的作品,有時他卻頒發證書,偶爾 他是既不發證也不簽署自己的作品 (25) 。

addition, Warhol’s own practice of authentication was inconsistent;

沃霍爾董事會旨在通過調查藝術品的真實性和出

while on occasion he did not certify or sign his works at all (25).

的市場提供確定性。它的決定變得如此重要以至

he sometimes signed his works and in other cases issued certificates,

The Warhol board aims to provide certainty in this difficult market by

investigating the authenticity and provenance of works submitted to

處,以及為沃霍爾的原創辦法證書來為這一艱難 於即使是沃霍爾的重要和寶貴作品,若賣方未獲 得經其認證,也很難在市場上出售成功。

it and by certifying those works that it deems to be original Warhols. Its

2009年,心懷不滿的英國收藏家喬 • 西蒙韋蘭

owner to sell, at least an important and valuable work by Warhol, in the

鑒定委員會和基金會(Andy

determinations have become so important that it is very difficult for an market without its certification.

In 2009 a disgruntled English collector, Joe Simon-Wheelan, issued anti-trust proceedings for unlawful restraint of trade in the New

(Joe Simon-Wheelan)因安迪 • 沃霍爾藝術 Warhol

Art

Authentication Board and Foundation)的 壟斷和濫用職權向紐約法院提出了反不法貿易 管制的訴訟 (26) 。韋蘭向董事會提交了絲網印


York courts against the Andy Warhol Art Authentication Board and

刷作品《紅色自畫像(Red

had submitted to the board the silk-screen painting Red Self-

已由沃霍爾簽名,其出處也證明它是沃霍爾的

Foundation for abuse of their position as a monopoly (26). Wheelan

Portrait (1985), which it refused to positively authenticate. The work

had been signed by Warhol, and its provenance established a direct link with the artist; it had even been authenticated by the Warhol

board in 1987. Controversially, the board does not provide reasons for its decisions, maintaining that such transparency only assists

those who want to fake Warhol’s work. It did not do so in this case,

and it destroyed Wheelan’s artwork by imprinting “DENIED ” in large

Self-Portrait)》

(1985年),但董事會拒絕予以證實。該印畫 作品,並於1987年獲得了沃霍爾委員會的認 證。有爭議的是,董事會對其決定沒有提供理 由,聲稱這類透明度只會助長那些企圖偽造沃 霍爾作品的人。在這一案件中,委員會沒有給 予積極驗證,並且它在作品背面印上大大的 “否決”的做法,摧毀了韋蘭的藝術作品。

letters on its back.

藝術品持有者也很難訴諸於其他法律渠道,

It is also difficult for owners of artworks to rely upon other legal

控告他們詆毀或貶低有爭議的作品。在哈恩

courses of action. One route is to claim that the authentication board or art expert have slandered or disparaged the goods in

question. In Hahn v Duveen (1929) (27) the claimant, Mrs Andreé Hahn sued the eminent Leonardo da Vinci scholar and dealer,

Sir Joseph Duveen in the US courts after the latter had described the claimant’s painting to a news reporter as being a ‘copy’ of a Da Vinci - the original being in the Louvre. Duveen settled with the claimant for fear of establishing a dangerous precedent.

Yet to succeed here a claimant must show that the defendant’s

statement has been made maliciously or at least recklessly with

regard to the truth. In addition, the claimant must establish that

“special damage” has been caused to the economic value of the

其中一條就是申訴認證委員會或藝術專家, (Hahn)訴告杜維恩(Duveen)(1929) (27) 一案中,申訴人安德烈 • 哈恩夫人(Andreé Hahn)向美國法院起訴著名的達芬奇學者和 經銷商約瑟夫 • 杜維恩(Joseph Duveen), 因為後者向記者透露申訴人的繪畫是達芬奇作 品的副本,原畫藏在盧浮宮。杜維恩擔心這一 案件會成為可怕的先例,遂向索賠人做了妥 協。然而,若想勝訴,申訴人必須表明被告的 言論是惡意的或至少是與事實大相徑庭的。此 外,申訴人還必須聲明該言論對藝術品的價值 造成了“特別損害”。

goods as a result of the statement.

實際上,藝術品擁有者需要證明認證委員會

In effect, an art owner would need to demonstrate that the

見。這一點很難辦到,尤其是當法院向藝術

authentication committee or expert held an opinion about the

artwork that no reasonable person could hold. This is a very difficult task, particularly if a court gives latitude to the connoisseurship of

the committee’s art experts. Proving loss or special damage—that is, the inability of the owner to sell the artwork on the market—is not

straightforward either, as the US case of Kirby v. Wildenstein (1992) (28)

demonstrates. Here the court rejected evidence from Christie’s

that Daniel Wildenstein’s negative attribution of a painting led to a dramatic decrease in its value by requiring the claimant to specify actual people who were unwilling to purchase the painting at

或專家對藝術品的持有他人不能給予的意 委員會的專家們授予了鑒賞自主權時。想證 明損失或特別損害,即持有者無法將藝術 品在市場上售出,也沒那麼簡單,美國柯比 (Kirby)上訴威爾頓斯坦(Wildenstein)

( 1 9 9 2 ) (28) 一 案 就 說 明 了 這 一 點 。 在 這 個

案件裡,法院駁回了佳士得的證據,即丹尼

爾 • 威爾頓斯坦對一幅畫的消極歸屬認定導 致其價值暴跌,並要求申訴人指出那些因此 而不願意購買的人。

auction as a result.

最後,許多認證委員會確保自己與持有者簽

Finally, many authentication committees ensure that they enter

波洛克-克拉斯納基金會的董事會采用這種協

into “hold harmless” agreements with owners. In 2002 the New York State courts upheld such an agreement used by the authentication board of the Pollock-Krasner Foundation (29), preventing an owner

立“免受損害”協議。2002年,紐約州法院支持 議 (29),以防止藝術品持有者因對基金會消極的 判斷而申訴其在合同中放棄這一權利。

dissatisfied with its negative attribution from claiming against the

以上案例反映出藝術品持有者在運用法律來挑

such rights.

法院依據審判中藝術專家們給出的評價來判定

foundation on the basis that he had contractually agreed to waive The cases discussed above reflect the difficulties that owners of

artworks experience in using the law to challenge the machinery

戰藝術界運轉機制過���中所經歷的困難。即使 某一藝術品是真的,至於藝術界是否會參考法 院的判斷還是個未知。


of the art world. Even if a court finds an artwork to be authentic

美國格林伯格(Greenberg

a trial, it is uncertain how far the art world will take a court’s

和L&R • 恩特威斯爾(L & R Entwistle)一案

on the basis of evidence it evaluates from art experts during decision into account.

The US case of Greenberg Galleries et al. v. Patricia Baumann and L & R Entwistle (1985)

(30)

indicates the limits of the law in regulating

the art world. In this case a group of art dealers sought to reject

an Alexander Calder mobile, Rio Nero (1959), and claim damages

from the dealer who had sold it on the basis that the work was not

genuine. The claimants accepted the provenance of the artwork to be flawless but provided expert evidence from Klaus Perls (Calder’s exclusive US dealer for twenty-five years) based on his “knowledge and feelings” of Calder’s work that the work in question was not in fact genuine.

During the trial, the defendant relied upon counterevidence provided by another Calder expert, Linda Silverman (though not as eminent

as Perls). They also established that the signature on the base of the

mobile was almost certainly made by Calder. The court found in the seller’s favour but concluded that the Calder mobile had been re-

assmbled so badly it did not correspond with the archival photograph documenting it. Despite the court’s verdict, the mobile has not been included in the Calder catalogue raisonné, and the dealers who bought it have apparently been unable to resell it since

.

(31)

3. The Withdrawal of Authorship The threat that an artist may withdraw authorship from an

artwork is a relatively recent phenomenon. In one sense it is

tied to the development of artists’ moral rights of authorship as

reflected in different national laws. In France artists are expressly provided with the right to “repent” authorship from the artwork,

though this is rarely used in practice (32). In another sense it is tied to the desire of artists to control the artwork after it has been sold, as well as to the artists’ political struggle with museums

and the commercial art market. In the notes accompanying their programmatic “Artist’s Contract” (1971), Seth Siegelaub and Bob

Projansky advise artists to withdraw authenticity from their work

if it is not sold and resold by future collectors in accordance with

Galleries)等畫

廊狀告帕特里夏 • 鮑曼(Patricia Baumann) (1985) (30) 揭示了法律在規範藝術領域時的 局限。在這一案件中,幾家藝術品經銷商試圖 退還亞歷山大 • 卡爾德(Alexander Calder) 的裝置作品《里約 • 尼祿 (Rio Nero) 》(1959), 並因是贗品而向交易方要求賠償損失。索賠人 承認作品的出處是無誤的,但以專家克勞斯 • 皮 爾斯(Klaus Perls)(卡爾德在美國合作了二 十五年的獨家經銷商)對考爾德作品的“了解 和感覺”證明有疑議的作品事實上不是真品。 在庭審中,被告依靠另一位卡爾德的專家琳達 • 西 爾弗曼(Linda Silverman)(雖然不如皮爾斯 有名)提供反證。他們斷定作品底座上的名字 幾乎可以肯定是卡爾德所簽。法院雖然支持賣 方,但它卻判決卡爾德裝置作品已被重組的如 此糟糕,以至於它已經與檔案照片所記錄的不 相符了。這一判決,使得這一作品沒有被列入 卡爾德的目錄全集中,並且自此之後經銷商顯 然已無法將之轉賣了 (31) 。

3、撤銷署名權 藝術家可撤銷對其作品的署名權是最近相對較 新的一個現象。在某種意義上說,它與藝術家 所享有署名的道德權利的發展有關,這也反映 在不同國家的法律中。法國明文規定藝術家可 以對其作品的署名進行“悔改”,盡管他們很少 會 付 諸 於 實 踐 ( 32 ) 。 在 另 一 種 意 義 上 , 它 與 藝 術家們與博物館和商業藝術市場所開展的政治 鬥爭有關,也與藝術家們在藝術品已出手後 欲要控制自己的作品也有關系。綱領性“藝術 家的合同”(1971年)的註解中說,賽斯 • 賽格 羅(Seth Siegelaub)伯和鮑勃 • 普勞簡斯基 (Bob

Projansky)建議藝人收回他們對自己

作品的認證,若未來收藏家沒有按照合同上逐 漸更新的條款進行出售或者再轉手 (33) 。

the progressive rules of the contract (33).

在兩種特殊的情況下,會發生署名權被撤銷:一

There are two situations in particular where the withdrawal of

證書被盜時;二是當藝術家與收藏家發生糾紛

authorship arises: first, a certificate of authenticity issued by the

artist to accompany the artwork is lost by a collector or is stolen;

second, the artist enters into a dispute with a collector, for example, concerning the artwork’s fabrication or payment.

With the rise of conceptual and minimal art (and the absence of

the artist’s trace on the artwork), the certificate of authenticity has

是當收藏家丟失了藝術家頒發的真實證書或者該 時,比如對於藝術品的制作費用和制作狀態。這 便是最近藝術品經銷商馬克 • 強寇和藝術家卡迪 • 諾蘭德(見下文)之間發生糾紛的癥結之所在。 隨著概念和極簡藝術(加上藝術家缺少對自 己做作品的追蹤)的崛起,證實證書已成為


become a vital legal type of instrument both for artists to assert

藝術家用來證明自己具有署名權和收藏家用

accident that artists like Carl Andre, Daniel Buren, Hans Haacke and

書。藝術家們像卡爾 • 安德烈(Carl Andre)、

authorship and for collectors to verify ownership of artworks. It is no Lawrence Weiner have constructed highly organized administrative systems around the issuing and replacement of their certificates

(along with the numbering and cataloging of their works). Indeed

Andre has gone one step further by creating a registry of his artworks that records changes in ownership as well as cataloging them (34).

It seems logical that certificates should be used widely in conceptual and minimal art, where a dematerialized work often consists of a set

來證明自己具有所有權的一個重要的法律文 丹尼爾 • 布倫(Daniel Buren)、漢斯 • 哈克 (Hans Haacke)和勞倫斯 • 韋納(Lawrence Weiner)已對證書的簽發和更改(連同對他們 作品的編號和編目)建立了高度組織化的管理 系統,這並非偶然。事實上,安德烈已經進一 步為其作品創建了註冊表,用來編目並記錄自 己作品所有權的變更 (34) 。

of written instructions or drawings on paper—for example, the wall

對於概念和極簡藝術而言,證書應廣泛使用,

of prefabricated ready-made parts (for example, Dan Flavin’s light

包含一系列書面文書或圖示,如索爾 • 勒維特

drawings of Sol LeWitt—authorizing the owner to fulfill the work, or installations) whose construction is delegated to others. In these

circumstances, what else can guarantee that an artwork is an original and not a fake or an unauthorized copy?

If the certificate helps to underwrite the authorship and value of a contemporary artwork, it also in a sense represents a sublimation

of the authorship function into a form of property (the correlative

似乎是合乎邏輯的,因為非物質性藝術品通常 (Sol

LeWitt)的墻上繪畫;這使得擁有者有權

完善作品,或者使預先做好的部分(如丹 • 弗萊 文(Dan Flavin)的燈光裝置作品)由他人組 織起來。在這些情況下,除了證書外,還有什 麽可以確保一藝術品是正品,不是贗品或未經 授權的副本呢?

assertion “This is an artwork” identified by Duchamp in his

如果證書有助於承擔當代藝術作品的著作權和

independently of the work or at least of its nature as an object. Rather

名功能向所有權形式的一種升華(杜尚對其現

readymades), the act of designation of the artwork, which can circulate than leading to the removal of the author or artist from involvement in the work, however, the certificate implicates the artist over time.

If the owner of the conceptual artwork does not possess a certificate of authenticity, then it is practically impossible for that owner to sell

it, particularly at auction. Paradoxically this may apply even when an

價值的責任,那麽在某種意義上它也象征著署 成品作過相關斷言:“這是一件藝術品”),對 作品的這一指定行為能夠脫離作品或者至少是 脫離作為物體的性質而流通。這並不會使作者 或者藝術家遠離其作品,相反,證書會一直包 含藝術家是誰。

owner can establish in all other respects that the artwork is “original,”

如果概念藝術品的所有者沒有真實性的證書,

(the work’s instructions, material elements, or objects) then depends

會上;更讓人匪夷所思的是,即使他在其他各

in terms of its creation and provenance. The owner of the artwork on the artist, gallery, or estate to issue a replacement. Most artists

and their galleries are willing to oblige, particularly if they know the

collector personally. (Despite its global reach, the art world consists of a restricted group of dealers and collectors.) Yet in certain situations they may refuse. Joseph Kosuth refuses to reissue certificates if they are lost or stolen, and Gordon Matta-Clark famously warned on his

certificates that they would not be replaced (35). What can the owner of the artwork do in such circumstances?

Once again the legal system is pitted against the machinery of the art world. It is doubtful whether a collector could legally force an artist to issue a replacement certificate unless it has been expressly agreed in writing. One possible remedy for an owner lies in breach of contract,

那麽他幾乎是不可能賣掉它的,尤其是在拍賣 方面都能確定該藝術品是“真的”,包括它的創 作和出處,也不可能將之售出。然後,藝術品 的持有者(藝術品的說明、材料或實物)需要 藝術家、畫廊或商行對證書進行更換。大多數 藝術家和他們的畫廊都願意幫助更改,尤其是 他們與收藏家有私人交情時。(盡管藝術界具 有全球影響力,但藝術品的經銷商和收藏家 卻是有限的)。然而,在某些情況下,他們 可能會拒絕。在證書丟失或被盜的情況,約瑟 夫 • 克蘇斯(Joseph Kosuth)是拒絕補發證 書的;戈登 • 馬塔-克拉克(Gordon MattaClark)在他簽發的證書上就有他有名地警告 說他的證書是不會變動的 (35) 。在這種情況下,

although the collector may not be in a contractual relationship with

藝術品的所有者能做什麽呢?

a contractual relationship with the artist, it is not clear on what basis

法律制度再次與藝術界的機制相對抗。除非具

the artist (the owner could be a third party). Even if the owner were in


it could be implied that a replacement certificate must be provided

有明確的書面同意,否則收藏家很難以合法

in case of loss or theft.

個可行的補救辦法就是違反合同,盡管收藏家

since artists are generally not generally required to replace artworks

Another potential remedy lies in the tort of slandering goods or product disparagement, as discussed earlier. The difficulty here,

aside from other problems with making this type of legal claim, is to show that the refusal to replace the certificate amounted to a

的方式強制藝術家補發證書。對於持有者的一 未必與藝術家(持有人可能是第三方)簽立合 同。在證書的丟失或被盜的情況下,藝術家一 般都不會給予補發,所以在何種條件才會補發 證書還不清楚。

negative statement about the artwork in the first place. In contrast

另一個可行的補救辦法就是對詆毀或貶低藝術

authenticity, it is hard to see how such an action could legally

律索賠的問題,這類因拒絕驗證而引發法律索

to an artist’s authentication board, which might expressly deny

amount to the making of an actionable statement, even if such a refusal effectively amounts to a denial of authenticity.

The potential power of artists to withdraw authorship from their

works, and the related struggle between the artist and collector was recognized by Robert Morris in his seminal Document (1963), which

品的行為進行侵權,如上面所述。除了這類法 賠所產生的困難表明,拒絕更換證書無異於是 對藝術品的否定。相比之下,盡管藝術家委員 會可能會明確否認藝術品的真實性,但很難說 其做法會產生法律意義上的可執行聲明,即使 這樣的拒絕能有效地否定藝術品的真實性。

contained the famous “Statement of Aesthetic Withdrawal.” Morris’s

羅伯特 • 莫里斯(Robert Morris)在其開創

Johnson to pay him for the earlier work Litanies. In this work the artist

出藝術家具有撤銷對其藝術品署名的潛在的權

work was conceived as a response to the failure of collector Philip

presented the statement typed on notarized paper alongside a lead sheet on which was inscribed the image of a lock and keys. Morris

playfully purports using legal procedures to withdraw all “aesthetic content” (and in a sense authorship) from his earlier work.

Morris’s work presages the disputes more than a decade later between Panza and Judd

(36)

. In 1974 the artist sold plans of

fourteen works to the collector through the Leo Castelli Gallery, in New York, seemingly along with the certificates and contractual

rights (which gave considerable interpretive latitude) to construct

性作品《文件(Document)》(1963)中指 利,以及與之相關的藝術家和收藏家之間的鬥 爭;書中還包括著名的“關於美學撤銷的聲明”。 收藏家菲利普 • 約翰遜(Philip Johnson)沒 有支付他的早期作品《連禱文(Litanies)》, 所以《文件》被認為是莫里斯作出的回應。這 件作品中,他在公證紙上寫出聲明,並以鎖和 鑰匙的圖案作為開篇頁;他詼諧地利用法律程 序來撤銷其早期作品的一切“審美內容”(在一 定意義上就是撤銷署名權)。

and reconstruct the works at Panza’s expense. In 1990 a dispute

莫里斯的作品預示了十余年後潘沙(Panza)

the work Galvanized Wall, which Panza included in an exhibition

藝術家通過紐約的里奧•卡斯特里畫廊(Leo

(March 1990): “The Fall 1989 show of sculpture at Ace Gallery in

了收藏家,似乎附帶著證書和合同。合同中規

arose between Judd and Panza over the collector’s fabrication of at Ace Gallery. Judd denounced the installation in Art in America Los Angeles exhibited an installation wrongly attributed to Donald Judd. Fabrication of the piece was authorized by Guiseppe Panza without the approval or permission of Donald Judd.” Despite

Judd’s alleged withdrawal of authorship, Panza did not take any

legal action, though he did note that in future he would wish to have such disputes arbitrated independently by lawyers

(37)

. More

significantly, Judd’s protest did not prevent the work later entering into the Guggenheim collection as attributed to Judd, along with other works from Panza’s collection.

The dispute between Judd and Panza demonstrates the limits

of dematerialization of an artwork, or at least its accompanying

rhetoric: artworks cannot be simply assigned as a set of legal rights and instructions accompanied by a certificate of authenticity to be

和 賈 德 ( J u d d ) (36)之 間 的 糾 紛 。 1 9 7 4 年 , Castelli Gallery)將十四幅作品的平面圖售給 定了由潘沙出資來建造和改造作品的權利(這 就給予了很大的解釋權限)。1990年,賈德 和潘沙因收藏家偽造《電鍍墻(Galvanized Wall)》而產生了糾紛,潘沙將這一偽造品展 列在王牌畫廊(Ace

Gallery)裡;賈德在《

美國藝術(Art in America)》(1990年3月 刊)裡公開譴責道:“1989年秋季在洛杉磯王 牌畫廊中,一座雕塑品被錯誤的認定為唐納德 • 賈德的作品,它是未經過唐納德 • 賈德的同意 而由朱塞佩 • 潘沙授權仿造而成的。”盡管賈 德是在撤銷署名權,潘沙並沒有采取任何法律 行動,雖然他已經意識到未來他希望這類糾紛 能 有 律 師 進 行 獨 立 的 仲 裁 ( 37 ) 。 更 重 要 的 是 , 賈德的抗議並未阻止這一被歸屬為他自己的


executed independently by collectors. At some point the artist’s authorization is required, or at least desired, in relation to the material manifestation of the work. For artists like Carl Andre,

the materiality of his work is and has always been fundamental the work is not simply an ‘idea’.

(38)

Furthermore, artworks that

depend upon a relationship to their surrounding space also depend upon the continuous involvement of the artist.

(39)

Even

in the case of artworks that seem to allow interpretative latitude, the collector almost always consults the artist to ensure that it is installed as intended, thus validating it as an original work. This is reflected in LeWitt’s wall drawings, which are almost always installed by his former assistants at the request of collectors.

作品和潘沙的其他收藏品進入古根海姆博物館 (Guggenheim)。 賈德和潘沙之間的爭端暴露出藝術品的非物質 化的局限,至少暴露出它所附帶的修辭效果: 不能簡單地將藝術品指定為一些合法權益和說 明,連同證書一塊交給收藏家,由他們獨立執 行。在某種程度上,藝術家的授權是必要的, 至少藝術家希望其作品有物質形式的表現。對 於像卡爾 • 安德烈等藝術家而言,藝術品的物 質化使得他的作品不再僅僅是一個“想法”,而 是 將 之 變 成 並 且 一 直 是 重 要 的 代 表 作 。 (38)此

LeWitt for whom the “idea” famously “becomes the machine

外,那些離不開周圍空間的藝術品也需要藝術

instructions were not the work and therefore should not be

情況下,收藏家也無不總是在咨詢藝術家以確

displayed alongside his executed Wall Drawings. “The plan

它就是正品。這一點反映在萊維特的墻畫中,

that makes the art” was also adamant that the certificate and displayed as the ‘work’ although his instructions could be

exists an idea but needs to be put into its optimum form. Ideas of wall drawings alone are contradictions of the idea of wall drawings” (40).

The ongoing relationship between collectors and artists of conceptual art suggests that notions of the work and its

authenticity must remain open and fluid as the artist or an

authorized agent are involved in the reinstallation of the artwork

家的不斷參與。 (39) 即使在藝術品有解釋權限的 保藝術品如藝術家的意圖來裝置,從而能證實 它幾乎一直是收藏家請他的前助手來裝置的。 萊維特的“觀點”很有名地“變成生產藝術品的機 器”,他本人也堅定地認為證書和說明文書都 不是藝術品,因此不能當“作品”來展示,盡管 他的文書與墻畫被一同展出。“平面圖中所含 有的觀點需要以最佳形式展現出來。墻畫中的 一些觀點與墻畫的本意是相悖的” (40) 。

over time. This is seen in so-called recent ‘performative’ art related

收藏家和概念藝術家之間的不定關系表明,作

remains heavily involved in the future public exhibition of his

因為藝術家或授權代理人會不斷地參與在作品

practices, for example, the work of Tino Sehgal where the artist dematerialised works or ‘constructed situations’ following their sale and transfer. Unlike a conventional painting or sculpture,

which is made by the artist and then signed and released into the world, such contemporary artworks are in a process of continual

reformation that requires a fundamental authorization each time they materialize.

However, if the certificate points to the centrality of the

品的概念和它的真實性必須保持開放、動態, 的再現中來。這體現在近來所謂的“表述行為”藝 術實踐中,例如,蒂諾 • 賽格爾的作品在出售 和轉售後,他依舊積極地參與到其作品的非物 質化公共展出或“重現情景”中去。與傳統繪畫或 雕塑的由藝術家制作並簽名再轉至他人手中不 同,這類當代藝術品處於不斷革新的過程中, 每次都需要獲得授權方能轉換成物質形式。

authorization function, it cannot be relied upon as a signature

但是,如果證書是以授權功能為核心的,那麽

its bureaucratic and legal appearance, the artist’s certificate of

此,盡管證書看起來具有官僚色彩和法律意

referring back to an object that is complete and closed. So despite authenticity does not provide certainty; it offers only a promise that, like its object, is contingent. With this promise it is the personal relations founded upon trust between artist and collector that count more than the law.

它就不能用來當簽名去證明作品已經完成。因 義,藝術家簽發的真實性證書並不能增加確定 性,它只是一個承諾而已,就像其實物一樣, 是因情況而異的。有了這個承諾,藝術家和收 藏家在信任的基礎上建立個人關系,這一關系 比法律還重要。


Authenticity in Art and Law: A Question of Attribution or Authorization? By Daniel McClean was originally commissioned by Susan Hapgood and Cornelia Lauf for the publication ‘In Deed: Certificates of Authenticity in Contemporary Art’ (2011). 1st

edition was Roma Publications, Amsterdam, in co-production with SBKM/De Vleeshal, Middelburg.

該文章原本由Susan Hapgood和Cornelia Lauf委托Daniel McClean撰寫,並登於 2011年出版的In Deed: Certificates of Authenticity in Contemporary Art,第一版 由阿姆斯特丹的Roma Publications,米德爾堡的SBKM/De Vleeshal聯合出版。


Footnotes

1. Per Evershed M.R. at p.94 in Leaf v International Galleries [1950] 2.K.B. (CA).

7. See the claims of the English collector, David Joel and the refusal of the Wildenstein family to authenticate his painting as being created by Claude Monet: http://

13. See section 1 of the UK’s Forgery and Counterfeiting Act (1981) for example.

www.bbc.co.uk/news/entertainment-arts-13785393.

14. The main three moral rights of authorship are:

January/February 1971, p.127.

8. See the collector, Joe-Simon Wheelan’s dispute with

work; (2) the right to object to false attribution of the

3. Walter Benjamin, ‘The Work of Art in the Age of

Board: Simon-Wheelan v Andy Warhol Foundation

2. Andy Warhol in (Gerard Malanga) ‘Conversation

with Andy Warhol’, Print Collector’s Newsletter, No.1

Mechanical Reproduction’ (1934) in ‘Walter Benjamin:

Illuminations: Essays and Reflections’, Hannah Arendt (ed.), Schoken Books, New York (1969)(1st edition), pp.217-251.

4. Bert Demarsin and Eltjo J.H. Scharge, Chapter 19, ‘Great Expectations and Bitter Disappointments: A Comparative Legal Study into Problems of Authenticity

and Mistake in the Art Trade’, in ‘Art & Law’, Demarsin,

Scharge, Tilleman & Verbeke (ed.), Hart Publishing, Belgium (2008), esp. pp.560 to 569. 5. Ibid. pp.560 to 569. 6. Martha Buskirk, Chapter 1, ‘Authorship and Authority’ in ‘The Contingent Object of Contemporary Art’, MIT

Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts, London (2003) pp. 22-53.

the Andy Warhol Foundation and its Authentication

For The Visual Arts, Inc., No.07 Civ 6423 (LTS), 2009 WL 145177, 2009 US.Dis.t LEXIS 44242 (S.D.N.Y. May 26 2009) .

9. See, Ronald D. Spencer, ‘Authentication in Court’, in

‘The Expert versus the Object: Judging Fakes and False Attributions in the Visual Arts’, Ronald Spencer (ed.), Oxford Univ. Press (2004), pp.189-225.

10. Peter Kraus, ‘The Role of the Catalogue Raisonne´ in the Art Market’ in Ronald Spencer, op.cit, pp. 63-77, especially, p.70.

11. Francis V.O’Connor, ‘Authenticating the Attribution

of Art: Connoisseurship and the Law in the Judging of Forgeries and Copies, and False Attributions’ in Ronald

(1) the right to be identified as the author of the artwork; and (3) the right to object to ‘derogatory treatments’ of the work are reflected in Article 6 bis of the Berne Convention for the Protection of Literary

and Artistic Works (1888): “Independently of the author’s economic rights, and even after the transfer

of the said rights, the author shall have the right to claim authorship of the work and to object to any distortion, mutilation or other modification of, or other

derogatory action in relation to, the said work, which would be prejudicial to his honor or reputation.”.The Berne Convention is an international legal convention

ratified by many different signatory states, including

the UK and US who have incorporated moral rights into their legislation as well as civil law countries such

as France and Germany who have strong national

traditions of protecting authors’ (including artists’) moral rights.

Spencer, op.cit, pp. 3-27.

15. See Nourse L.J. in Harlingdon and Leinster

12. Richard Shone, ‘Copies and Translations’ in ‘Dear

1.Q.B. 564 (CA) at p.578.

Images: Art, Copyright and Culture’, Daniel McClean

and Karsten Schubert (ed.) Ridinghouse/ICA, London (2002) p.354.

Enterprises Ltd v Christopher Hull Fine Art Ltd [1985]

16. Richard Drake v Thos Agnews & Sons Ltd [2002] WL 237113.


17. Per Denning L.J. in Leaf v International Galleries

26.

18. Harlingdon and Leinster Enterprises Ltd v

27. Hahn v Duveen 133 Misc. 871, 872; 234 N.Y.S. 185

19. De Balkany v Christie Manson & Woods Ltd [1997]

28. Kirby v Wildenstein 784 FSupp.1112 (SDNY, 1992).

[1950] 2.K.B. (CA) at pp.87-91.

Christopher Hull Fine Art Ltd [1985] 1.Q.B. 564 (CA).

Tr L 163, The Independent 19 January 1995 (Transcript). 20. Luxmoore-May v Messenger May Baverstock [1990] 1.W.L.R. 1009.

21. Taylor v Thomson & Christie Manson & Woods Ltd [2005] EWCA Civ 555 (CA).

22. Rogarth v Siebermann F.3d (1997 WL 703455 2d.

Joe Simon-Wheelan v The Andy Warhol

Foundation For The Visual Arts,(2009), op.cit.

(Sup.Ct.N.Y.Co.1929).

29.

Lariviere

v

E.V.

Thaw,

the

Pollock-Krasner

Authentication Board, et al (2000) N.Y. SlipOp. 5000.

30. Greenberg Gallery Inc v Baumann, 817, F. Supp. 167 (D.D.C. 1993) affirmed (1994 U.S. App. LEXIS 27517). 31. Spencer, op.cit. pp.196-198.

Cir).

32. French Law No.570-298 of March 11, 1957. See also

23. See ‘Warhol Brillo boxes downgraded to “copies”’,

(First Part) July 10 1946, reported in 16 Liturgical Arts

in The Art Newspaper, October 2010.

the case of Roualt v Vollard, Civil Court of the Seine No 3., p.91 (May, 1948).

24. French Law No.570-298 of March 11, 1957. See

33. See Seth Siegelaub, Poster (24 February 1971) with

in French Law’, in Spencer, op.cit. pp.227-241.

Rights Transfer and Sale Agreement’ (1971) co-drafted

discussion of Van Kirk Rees, ‘Establishing Authenticity

25. See Andrew Wilson, ‘This Is Not By Me’: Andy Warhol and the Question of Authorship’ in McClean & Schubert (ed) op.cit. pp. 375-385.

explanation on how to use ‘The Artist’s Reserved with Bob Projansky. See the ‘Enforcement’ section of the Poster.

34. http://www.carlandre.net/Certificates.html (‘the Carl Andre Website’).

35. This information was provided to me by the cocurators of the exhibition ‘In-Deed: Certificates of

Authenticity in Art’ (2011), Cornelia Lauf and Susan Hapgood.

36. Martha Buskirk, op.cit, Chapter 1, esp. pp.34-38 , 40-42.

37. Ibid. p.42. 38. For Andre the materiality of the work is fundamental and he refuses to allow his works to be

re-fabricated if they have been lost or stolen. See on

the Carl Andre Website, ‘POLICY REGARDING LOST WORKS’ “In the event that a sculpture is lost, misplaced

or stolen in its entirety, neither Carl Andre nor the Carl Andre and Melissa L. Kretschmer Foundation will give consent to the replacement of the work, regardless

of the existence of the original certificate. However, Andre does allow some replacements of damaged

material elements of his work, see ‘CONDITIONS FOR THE REPLACEMENT OF MATERIALS’.

39. See Buskirk’s discussion in particular, op.cit p.41. 40. Sol Lewitt quoted in Buskirk, ibid. p.45.


SARAH’S JOURNEY 莎拉之旅

收藏藝術 收藏人生 WRITTEN BY 撰文 x SARAH ELSON 莎拉 • 艾爾森 TRANSLATED BY 翻譯 x SHORAN JIANG 姜嘯然

IMAGES COURTESY OF 圖片提供 x SARAH ELSON 莎拉• 艾爾森 PHOTOGRAPHER 攝影師 x SYNDI HUANG 黃煥欣

Art collector and advisor, Sarah Elson shares with ArtZip her experiences as a young foreigner in Beijing and eventually settling in London. ----------

藝術收藏家與顧問,莎拉 • 艾爾森與ART.ZIP讀者分享其年輕時 旅居北京而最終定居倫敦的故事。


While people tend to identify art as a window on the world

人們總是傾向把藝術定義為一個超出我們自身

given me a way in. Without it, my own life journey would have

到了進入這個窗口的道路。沒有它,我的生命

beyond us, which it is, my life-long engagement with art has

been more disparate and impersonal, missing critical moments of challenge, experience, enlightenment and joy.

世界的窗口,而我投身於藝術的經歷則讓我找 歷程就會迥然不同,沒有感情,沒有挑戰,沒 有閱歷,沒有啓示,亦沒有喜悅。

In 1984, I graduated from Princeton University, an art history

1984年,我從普林斯頓大學畢業,專攻的藝術

a year’s contract to teach English at Beijing Normal University.

簽下了為期一年的任教合同,在北京師範大學

major with no clear career path calling me. So, I signed up to I travelled to China knowing no Chinese language and no

Chinese people. Tucked away in my little cinder block flat

in Worker’s Housing Building number 20, I was as outside as an outsider could be. But my passion for art inspired me to

navigate through crowds of Mao-suit clad bodies atop my Flying Phoenix bicycle and seek out the Central Academy of Art, where I began meeting the friends who invited me warmly into their community. The artists there, though grounded in officially-

sanctioned styles like Socialist Realism, were more bohemian than many Chinese and were less wary about engaging with

foreigners. Here among artists I was not just a ready source of English-language practice or an easy conduit to hard to come

by foreign yuan, I was their window to a world of new thinking. I got involved with members of the by-then disbanded “Stars

Group,” (Xingxing), including the founder Ma Desheng whose appropriation of Western avant-garde styles appeared in inky and sensuous landscapes that he playfully would describe as

史專業並沒有給我指明職業道路。於是乎,我 教授英語。我不遠萬里來到中國,不懂中文, 也沒有中國朋友。躲在員工宿舍20號的我, 把自己變得比局外人更局外人。但是對藝術的 熱情激勵著我,騎在鳳凰自行車上,穿梭於被 中山裝包裹的人海當中。在中央美術學院,我 遇到了那些朋友們,他們熱情邀我進到了他們 的圈子。那裡的藝術家,雖然被官方定義為社 會寫實主義,但比其他許多中國人他們更加不 羈,與外國人交往也不那麼警惕。這裡,在這 些藝術家當中,我不只是一個現成的練習英語 的對象,也不單是一個來之不易的外幣渠道, 更多的,我是他們打開思維新世界的窗口。我 有幸認識了幾位“星星畫會”的成員,包括創始人 馬德升,他把西方前衛風格挪用到美感十足的 水墨風景畫中,他常逗趣地形容這些是“你看不 見我卻願意去的地方”。

“places you don’t see and I like to go.”

回到美國後,我選擇了紐約哥倫比亞大學的藝

On my return to the United States, I entered the Art History

學術派藝術是荒涼的,至少可以如是說。對���

PhD program at Columbia University in New York. It was the

late 1980s and the academic art world was inhospitable to say the least. Competition for internships, graduate assistantships, grants and professors’ accolades was heated. One needed

to quickly establish a theoretical position, such as pursuing a

Marxist interpretation of American Hudson River School painting or grounding my analysis of nineteenth century landscapes in semiotics and sign theory. I persevered, churning out papers

linking the most contemporary ‘language’ of art with the current affairs of the moment, culminating in a comparison of Jenny

Holzer’s “Truisms” and the Presidential campaign speeches of master orator Jesse Jackson. But I had a hard time convincing

my professor or myself that I was a true believer in the “new art

history,” and took refuge in engaging with a whole other world of audiences eager to learn from a knowledgeable art historian who could also explain things without the jargon I myself had

been struggling to master at school. A fellow graduate student

術史博士課程。那時正值20世紀80年代晚期, 實習機會、研究生助學金、獎學金和教授榮譽 獎的競爭確是白熱化的。任何人都需要快速建 立起理論框架,譬如美國哈得遜河畫派的馬克 思主義解讀,或者在符號學理論的基礎上分析 19世紀風景畫。我堅持把藝術最當代的語言和 當下時事聯繫在一起,最終選擇把珍妮 • 豪爾澤 (Jenny

Holzer)的《常理(Truisms)》和大演

說家傑西•傑克遜(Jesse Jackson)的競選演說作 了比較。但說服我的教授或說服我自己,我是 “新藝術史”的真正信徒,是一個艱難的過程,與 另一個世界的,從博知的,連解釋都不需要術 語的藝術史學家渴求知識的觀眾交戰,我找到 了自己的一隅,並在學校努力奮鬥。一位同行 研究生介紹我認識大都會博物館教育主管,從 而我得到了帶領參觀者遊走於那龐大且非凡的 收藏品的工作。

introduced me to the Head of Education at the Metropolitan

我熱愛這種藝術與觀眾緊密聯繫的工作,在完

vast and extraordinary collections.

作。直到我丈夫工作的原因把我帶到了倫敦,

Museum where I was hired to lead groups of visitors around its

成了我的學位課程的幾年後,我仍從事這份工


I loved engaging audiences with art, and following the

我便通過講課讓許多人對各式各樣的藏品和展

next years. When my husband’s job took us to London, I was able

(Sir John Soane)博物館,再到倫敦東區畫廊

completion of my degree course, that became my job over the

to develop a following of people interested in lectures on various collections and exhibitions in London from The National Gallery

to Sir John Soane’s Museum to London’s East End Gallery scene. Simultaneously, I developed the courage to begin collecting art

myself, with a focus on the more affordable contemporary pieces. I began by purchasing photo-based work, introduced to me by a

覽產生了興趣,從國家畫廊,到約翰•索恩爵士 等等。與此同時,我開始鼓足勇氣為自己收藏 藝術品,主要是那些能負擔得起的當代作品。 我開始購買以照片為主的作品,這個經驗也是 由一個專門收集限量版的照片的專家朋友介紹 而來。

friend with expertise in editions.

在20世紀90年代中期,我為自己變成倫敦當代

In the mid-1990’s, I became frustrated with being on the fringes of

三個孩子出生前不久,我與志同道合的朋友一

the burgeoning contemporary art scene in London. Soon before the birth of my third child, I partnered with a like-minded friend

to establish an art advising business called Galatea Contemporary Art Advisors. At that time, we were trailblazers in the field

and very noticeable - my partner Christine’s continental style,

exuberant warmth and idiosyncratic Swiss French accent made a memorable juxtaposition to my own more cerebral presentation of Ivy League American efficiency. We learned quite quickly that

the galleries whose artists we personally loved and were willing to champion were open to paying us a commission on sales to new clients. Indeed, collectors of contemporary art in London were

still such a rarity at that time that British gallerists welcomed us

藝術的邊緣群體而感到有些沮喪。但在我的第 起建立了葛拉蒂亞(Galatea)當代藝術諮詢 公司並開展了藝術顧問業務。我們當時作為這 個領域的開拓者格外引人注目,我的合作夥伴 克麗斯丁(Christine)的歐式作風,活力四射 的熱情以及極具風格的瑞典法國口音,與我的 睿智表現形式及美式長青藤聯盟式的效率相得 益彰。我們迅速了解到,只要我們能找到新買 家,那些代理我們所喜愛的藝術家的畫廊都願 意付給我們傭金。事實上,倫敦當代藝術的藏 家們在那個時期仍然是少之又少,因此英國畫 廊極熱情地歡迎我們為他們帶來新客戶。

enthusiastically every time we arrived with an eager client in tow.

在葛拉蒂亞當代藝術諮詢公司運行了第十個年

Galatea had a ten-year run before Christine became ill and

們在創意項目領域建立了很好聲譽。我們拓展

during that time we built a reputation for innovative and creative projects. We broke into all sorts of new areas organizing social

and educational art events, giving lectures, orchestrating tours of artists’ studios, whatever we could create to encourage our

clients to develop their knowledge and expertise to make wise purchase decisions. We had an incredible breakthrough when

we secured a contract to commission twenty new works of art for a European anti-smoking campaign for the World Health

Organisation. Explaining contemporary art to NGO bureaucrats

turned out to be more Dada than Realism, but the result was an exhibition of work from artists including Thomas Ruff, Miroslav Balka, Gavin Turk and Jean Bustamante that began at the

Whitechapel Gallery in London and traveled across Europe.

頭的時候,克麗斯丁病倒了。在這十年中,我 各種新領域來組織社會及藝術教育活動,四處 講學,安排參觀藝術家工作室等活動,通過這 樣來幫助提高客戶的專業知識從而做出更明智 的購買決策。我們還有過一個令人難以置信的 突破,就是我們贏得了為世界衛生組織歐洲反 吸煙運動提供20件藝術品的委託項目。為非政 府機構的官僚們解釋何謂當代藝術,結果是更 達達主義而不是現實主義,而最終,一個囊括 托馬斯魯夫(Thomas 爾卡(Miroslaw

Ruff)、米羅斯瓦夫巴

Balka)、加文特克(Gavin

Turk)和讓布斯塔曼特(Jean Bustamante)等 藝術家的展覽在倫敦白教堂畫廊開展,並在整 個歐洲巡展。

More recently, having established my roots in London after nearly

最近,在倫敦立足近20年之後,這個慷慨歡

city that has so graciously welcomed me. Once again I found that

望。再一次,我發現,藝術圈給了我一個進入

twenty years, I felt a strong desire to do something more for the

the art community offered me entry into a world of philanthropy

and social impact. I now devote my time and energy to supporting and promoting the work of several non profit art organizations. As a Trustee of the Contemporary Art Society, for example, I’m

involved in fund-raising for an organization that has been buying

迎我的城市,我有一種為它做點事情的強烈願 慈善事業和影響社會的入口。我現在的時間和 精力都投入到了支持和促進一些非盈利的藝術 機構的工作當中。作為當代藝術協會的受託人 之一,我為一個藝術機構募集資金,而這個機 構已經在全英國為公共收藏購買藝術品有超過


art for public collections throughout the United Kingdom for over 100

100年的歷史。讓人振奮和滿足的是,我的

improve the quality of the experience that audiences throughout

的參觀體驗。我也是Bow藝術基金的委託人

years. It’s invigorating and satisfying to know that my efforts directly

the country have when they enter a museum. I am also a Trustee of The Bow Arts Trust which provides low-rent studio space to artists and manages a network of work-study relationships with local

primary and secondary schools where art can be incorporated into

the curriculum in creative ways. The Trust is dedicated to improving local art opportunities and education, specifically in the financiallydisadvantaged borough of Tower Hamlets in East London.

And throughout this amazing journey, I have continued my own intimate connection with artworks and the artists who create

them through building a collection for myself. With my husband’s support – both moral and financial – we have amassed a very

personal body of works for our family home. If one spends enough time at it, eventually one becomes known as “a collector,” and

with that label comes a huge number of invitations to a variety of

“exclusive” events presented as private views (known as PVs), private previews (even more exclusive), private opening parties, private

opening dinners (again, more rarefied), collectors circles, patronage schemes and special committees. For the Art Insider, or Collector, these events are where one learns which art fairs to attend, and

then what to see when pitching up at the fair in Istanbul, Shanghai,

Dubai or Miami. It is within these inside circles that one gets a sense for the trends, the gossip, the upcoming talent, and the inside track on key gallerists, artists, dealers, curators and collectors.

努力直接提高了全國觀眾走進某家博物館時 之一,這個藝術基金主要為藝術家提供租金 低廉的工作室以及為當地小學和中學提供工 作學習的網絡,從而使藝術以各種創意方式 納入學校課程。這個基金致力於提高本地的 藝術機會和教育,特別是在經濟有欠發達的 東倫敦塔橋區(Tower Hamlets)。 在整個難能可貴的歷程中,我繼續我和藝術 品以及藝術家們的密切聯繫,也因為他們使 我擁有了自己的私人藏品系列。無論在精神 上還是物質上,丈夫的大力支持為我們的家 積累了一系列私人藏品。只要花上足夠多的 時間,這個人就可以成為一位“收藏家”,有 了這個頭銜,各種大量的“獨家奢華”活動的 邀請接踵而至,比如預展,更私密的私人預 覽,開幕酒會,私人晚宴,收藏家交流,贊 助計劃以及專門的委員會邀請。對於藝術圈 或是藏家,通過這些活動可以知道哪些藝術 博覽會值得參加,而後便飛往各地去參加博 覽會,伊斯坦布爾,上海,迪拜,或是邁阿 密。正是在這個圈子裡,一個人可以知道 藝術走向,八卦,未來之星,抑或是關鍵畫 廊,藝術家,藝術品商人,策展人還有收藏 家的內部消息。

My active engagement with art over the years has given me so

我多年來積極投身藝術的經歷給與我了很

I was able to find a virtual home in the art world. It is a hospitable

至極的是在藝術世界裡我找到了一個虛擬的

much: insight, friends, even an identity. I feel very fortunate that environment where generosity, curiosity and creativity thrive.

Wherever these qualities exist I know I can always find a place to call my own.

多:洞察力,朋友,甚至是身份認同。慶幸 家。這是一個慷慨、好奇心與創造力蓬勃的 宜人環境,正是有這些特質存在的地方我才 找到了一個屬於我自己的世界。

Sarah Elson is an art historian who collects, writes and offers instructive forums for education about

contemporary art. She serves on several advisory committees including the Princeton University Art Museum, where she and her husband established an International Artist in Residence Program. In addition to this, she

also serves on the boards of the Contemporary Art Society, London, Penland School of Crafts in North Carolina, the Friends of the National Museum of Women in the Arts, UK, and Bow Arts Trust, London. ----------

莎拉 • 艾爾森是一位藝術史學家,收藏當代藝術品的同時,為發展藝術教育而撰寫文稿並舉辦相關學術論壇。莎拉亦為眾 多顧問委員會出力,其中包括倫敦當代藝術協會、北卡羅利納的Penland School of Crafts、英國the Friends of the National Museum of Women in the Arts、倫敦Bow Arts Trust,還有普林斯大學藝術博物館,並在那與其丈夫創辦了一 個”國際民間藝術家(International Artist in Residence)”項目。

Sar ah i n B e i j i n g , 1984


HELEN COUCHMAN 海倫 • 考斯曼 A PHOTOGRAPHIC DIARY BY 攝影日記 x HELEN COUCHMAN 海倫•考斯曼


As a lone traveller, the English artist Helen Couchman arrived in Beijing via Moscow on the Trans-Mongolian railway in 2006. She arrived into a city that was as familiar to her as it was

foreign. Taking a small flat near Gulou, she has since made Beijing her home, making work in

her flat and using studios around Beijing and in the UK as needs must. In the spirit of the flaneur, Couchman often finds herself walking through Beijing at night, lost in the city that found her. Couchman sent us the following photographic essay from Beijing, arranged “as I would pin

images up on my studio wall as I work; to serve as references for my drawings and printmaking”. Couchman’s solo exhibitions include Mrs West’s Hats, First Floor Gallery, Yerevan, Armenia

(2004) Gift, Third Floor Contemporary, Beijing (2006) and There was no single reason for me to be there at first, a site specific piece for The Photographer’s Gallery, London (1999).

She has contributed to a number of group exhibitions, including The Artful Scriptorium,Climate Gallery, New York, (2010), There and Everywhere, Transition Gallery, London (2009), China in Motion, Phase 2, London (2008), Solutions for a Modern City, Hong Kong (2008). www.helencouchman.com ----------

作為一名獨行者,藝術家海倫 • 考斯曼於2006年經由西伯利亞鐵路從莫斯科抵達北京。這個城市對於考 斯曼來說既熟悉又陌生。在鼓樓附近租下了一個小公寓,考斯曼已經把北京當成自己的家一樣,在自己 的公寓或附近的工作室進行藝術創作,必要時才回英國。本著浪蕩子的精神,考斯曼常常在晚上游走北 京,讓自己迷失於這個城市。考斯曼把這些來自北京的攝影日記贈予我們,並說,這些照片她都釘在北 京的工作室的牆上,平日用於繪畫與版畫上的參考。 考斯曼的個人展覽包括1999年在倫敦the Photographer’s Gallery的定點作品“There was no single reason for me to be there at first”;2004年,名為“Mrs West’s Hats”的個展在亞美尼亞埃里溫的First Floor Gallery舉辦;2006年,“Gift”個展在北京Third Floor Contemporary舉行。 其他參與群展包括: 2008,香港,Solutions for a Modern City 2008,倫敦,China in Motion, Phase 2 2009,倫敦,There and Everywhere, Transition Gallery 2010,紐約,The Artful Scriptorium, Climate Gallery


FIVE MINUTES WITH SONG DONG 與宋冬的五分鐘 WRITTEN BY 撰文 x LIN SHANGTONG 林上童 EDITED BY 編輯 x TRISH LYONS 崔西 • 里昂

PHOTOGRAPHED BY 圖片 x HARRY LIU 劉競晨

Lin Shangtong (LS): Do you like London?

from the 1970s it was her denim work

We have a sofa that cost us only 30 yuan.

is my first overseas city.

and paint. She still could not bear to throw

made the sofa the only one of its kind

Song Dong (SD): Yes, maybe because this

LS: Among your artworks, is Waste Not important to you?

SD: Yes. There are two others, Writing

Diary with Water and Touching My Father. LS: You mentioned the word Trust. Can you explain it further?

SD: Trust is the most important and most

valuable thing between people. Without trust,

outfit. It was shabby and covered with oil

it away. So she made it into her own jacket by sewing it inside out and covering the

holes with pockets. At the opening of the exhibition I wore this jacket, and it was commented upon as being ‘cool’ and

the plastic and foam food packaging for. for stray cats and dogs; she loved small animals very much.

SD: Art is in everywhere, life is art and art

LS: Is there anything that you can share with our readers?

SD: Don’t waste. If you waste everything,

the day will soon come when there will be nothing left. 1

SD: No. There is too much stuff, every time

LS: In your own life, do you uphold the

installing Waste Not in San Francisco, we

SD: Yes, my home is still very simple. Our

found a piece of my mother’s clothing

playing for my daughter, and she loves it.

is life.

when I wore her 30 year-old denim jacket.

SD: She used these as dishes to hold food

we sort, we make new discoveries. When

wardrobe to make a space for sleeping and

made of denim. I felt she was close to me

family and me becomes more solid.

Not, and tell the story behind them?

it is expensive. I have also used an old

LS: Say something about art!

jeans originated, the first working clothes

LS: I can’t imagine what your mother used

LS: Can you recognize every piece in Waste

in the world. From this point of view,

‘fashionable’. San Francisco is where Levi

incidents such as Xiao Yue Yue1 occur. Each

time Waste Not is made the trust between my

My wife covered it in used clothing. This

principle of ‘waste not’?

furniture is bought from flea markets.

In October 2011, two year-old toddler Xiao Yue Yue was

struck down by a van in Foshan City, Guangdong. She was left on the road to die as over 18 pedestrians walked past without stopping to help her. This tragic incident was caught on CCTV and made news around the world.


林上童:喜歡倫敦麼?

宋冬:喜歡,也許因為我第一次出國就是到倫敦。 林:眾多作品中,“物盡其用”對你來說是最重 要的嗎?

宋:是。另外還有兩個,“水寫日記”和“撫摸父親”。

兜布補破洞,一針一線地逢成夾克自己穿。 我在開幕式上穿上了這件“物盡其用”的夾 克。大家說我真“酷”真“時尚”。舊金山是牛 仔服的發源地,現在名牌牛仔服的設計很像 我母親30多年前改造的衣服。我穿著母親的 衣服,就覺得她緊貼著我。

林:剛剛你在回答記者提問時,數次提到信任

林:我實在想不出,您母親當初收集這些泡沫

宋:信任是人與人之間最重要,最寶貴的因

宋:用這個盛食物來喂流浪貓狗,她非常愛

一詞,能進一步解釋一下嗎?

素。在一個信任嚴重缺失的環境裡,就會發生

類似去年的小悅悅事件 1……而每次共同籌備“ 物盡其用”展覽,都使得我和家人之間的信任 更多更牢固。 林:你能認得“物盡其用”展覽中的每樣東西, 並講出它們背後的故事嗎?

宋:不能。東西太多了,每次整理都會有新

林:說點什麼送給我們的讀者好嗎?

宋:別浪費了。這麼浪費下去,沒有任何東西 可浪費的一天,會很快到來。

小動物。

林:你現在自己的生活中也秉持“物盡其用”的 原則麼?

宋:是的,我現在的家還是簡潔樸素。我們的

傢俱都是從舊貨市場買的,再自己改造成有意 思的傢俱,有一個沙發,買的時候才花30多 塊錢,妻子用舊衣服把它包了,成了世界上的 唯一,從這個意義上來說,它很昂貴。我還用

親上世紀70年代的一件衣服。那是她在下

舊的大衣櫃給孩子做了一個可以睡覺玩耍的空

放勞動時穿過的“勞動布”工作服。當時這件

間,她很喜歡。

扔,要物盡其用,就把衣服裡兒當面兒,用

是生活。

和塑料快餐盒,能派上什麼用場?

發現。就像上次在舊金山展覽時,找到了母

工作服已很破舊且沾滿油漆,她肯定捨不得

宋:藝術無處不在,生活就是藝術,藝術就

1

2 0 1 1 年 1 0月,兩 歲 大 的 女 童 小 悅 悅 在 廣 東 省 佛 山 市 被 貨 車

撞到後趟在地上,18名行人經過卻無人上前救助,最終小悅悅

林:隨便說點什麼關於藝術的吧!

不幸離世。該事件被監控錄像機拍下並被世界各地媒體報道。



ART.ZIP issue 5