SoÄž nad zlato Introducing an inclusive strategy for resilient development of the neglected regions in Slovakia
5 BUILDING SCALE
Katarina Zatkova Peterhouse, University of Cambridge June 2018
6.4m 2.6 m
Design principles The buildings are organized accoording to an accurately modulated grid, which spans in two directions. The primary grid based on the domestic dimensions (6.4m, 2.6m) defines the functions and the main building volumes. The secondary grid creates the base upon which a volume might be extended or contracted in accord with the functional requirements.
The load-bearing walls frame the main ‘service’ spaces. The intermediate spaces take on the ‘servant’ functions in the form of services, storage and circulation.
The elevations facing the piazza are rather closed, having only small openings. The walls around the courtyards and those facing the landscape open for the view and internal visual connections. In some cases, the walls extend as the ‘cuts in the landscape’ to strengthen the connection between inside and outside.
Small and enclosed courtyard
Opened long space, or a central atrium
Big and opened courtyard
Fluid opened space
Flexibility of the grid allows for the different spatial organizations to emerge.
Qualities of the internal spaces were tested through multiple models
4 6 4
25 Hydrotherapy and Wellness
Bath House and Fitness
Staircase to Salt Cave
Rest space/ Waiting
Administration and staff
Load-bearing rammed-earth walls
2.6 m 6.4m
The intention of the structural philosophy is to find an element able to repeat itself and apply the same structural principles to the vast and heterogeneous programme required by the brief. The rammed-earth wall chosen for this purpose utilises modern principles to traditional building techniques. Resulting high-density structure is organised on the basis of an accurately modulated grid. The load-bearing walls can be multiplied, extended or contracted in both directions to create all kinds of variations. It is this ambiguity that enables compositional flexibility resulting in highly perforated buildings. Within the primary structural system, a secondary layer of walls from the compressed earth blocks provides the flexibility to arrange the interior spaces according to the particular functions. The folded wooden roof structure manifests an apparently light and floating covering, which unifies different functions bellow. The roof creates a wooden landscape, that appears as a sculptural, protective canopy.
Roof development As the expressive canopy unifying the different buildings across the scheme, the design and development of the roof was one of the most significant structural and design concerns. The folded roof form is derived from an analysis of Slovak rural typologies, where a simple wooden roof sits on the heavy masonry walls.
The Bath House elevation The house-like elevation refers to the domestic setting of the village. The plinth, an opened elevated entrance and the towers manifest the features of a public institution.
Section AAâ€™ Various level heights create an internal landscape, from which the earth walls emerge.
Section CCâ€™ The wooden roof refers to the construction of the evaporation wall that is integrated in the kupeleâ€™s linear layout.
45 -55 °C 32°C
Geothermal water Warm spaces Heat exchanger
Along the main plant room, the services are located in the intermediate ‘servant’ spaces
HEATING Leisure centres and pools are one of the most energy intensive buildings to operate. Approximately 70% of the energy is attributed to the pool halls and adjoining changing areas. The proposal of kúpele utilizes geothermal water as the primary heat source. A deep borehole and a central heat exchanger are situated in a separate building outside of the main proposal, from where is water distributed to the heat exchangers in the individual buildings. Geothermal water of different temperatures contained in the pool functions also as a thermal mass.
Note on environmental principles: All individual buildings of the proposal follow the same environmental principles. The Bath House and Hydrotherapy, as the most complex buildings, manifest the main environmental strategies.
Courtyards Mechanical ventilation
VENTILATION All spaces can be naturally ventilated through the internal courtyards, vents in the roof, and the windows. According to the requirements within Part F of the building regulations - Ventilationand CIBSE Guide B2005, the pool areas and the sweat chambers will, however, require mechanical ventilation system, which will control temperature and relative humidity, maintain comfort conditions for bathers, prevent condensation on surfaces, and dilute pollutants. Air temperature should be maintained approximately 1Â°C above pool water temperature to prevent evaporation.
LIGHT The courtyards bring natural light into the deep floor plan. The volumes of the buildings are being shifted to maximise the surfaces exposed to the natural light. The size and orientation of the windows depends on individual functions (e.g. the northfacing windows in the ateliers).
WATER COLLECTION Geothermal water that has been used for bathing, heating and agricultural production is after cooling down cleaned and reinjected back to the Earthâ€™s surface.
Rainwater channels Greywater and wastewater Recycled greywater
Rainwater is collected and used for irrigation. The series of ponds and rain gardens are designed to hold the rain water and increase the biodiversity around the buildings. All wastewater and greywater is directed to the constructed wetlands in the Wetland Park, where it is filtered and the pollutants are removed. Treatment of wastewater and storm water by constructed wetlands is a low-cost, low-energy process requiring minimal maintenance and operation. Filtered grey water is partly reused for flushing.
Ramp Disabled toilets Lift Disabled Access Platform
ACCESS AND USE OF BUILDING (Part M) The project site is largely flat. The kĂşpeleâ€™s buildings are raised on a 600mm height plinth and the ramps are provided to all the entrances. The buildings are only one story high. For the Salt Cave in the basement, the lift is provided. In all places, where the level slightly changes, the ramp that is shallower than 1:15 is provided. Disabled access is provided to all facilities and disabled toilets are located in all buildings. Disabled people are also encouraged to participate in all sports and fitness activities. Disabled Access Platform is provided for both indoor and outdoor pools. All staircases comply with Part K of the Building Regulations.
Note on building regulations: While the project is located in Slovakia and would therefore be subject to the Slovak building regulations, the design resorts to British regulations for the purposes of this report.
FIRE SAFETY (Part B)
MATERIALS AND WORKMANSHIP (Regulation 7)
The proposal sits generously within the landscape. This allows for expanses of hardsurface open areas if there is a fire. Moreover, all buildings are constructed from 70 cm load bearing rammed earth walls. Rammed earth can be classified as non-combustible material. A 30 cm wall is capable of providing fire resistance of at least 90 minutes.
The buildings are the first in Slovakia using the rammed earth as the main building material. Earth as a naturally occurring material is normally not covered by the harmonised European product standards. Past experience, such as use in an existing building abroad, will manifest that the material can perform the function for which it is intended. Martin Rauchâ€™s rammed earth buildings in neighbouring Austria will be used as the suitable case studies. It is recommended, that multiple tests and calculations will be carried out before the construction.
Introducing an inclusive strategy for resilient development of the neglected regions in Slovakia