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Claudia Arrecis #3

Approaches in psychology

Is based on the concept of explaining behavior through observation, and in the belief that our environment is what causes us to behave differently.  Classical Behaviorism: It holds that observable behaviors are the only phenomena a psychologist should be concerned with, because observation is required for both objective interpretation and measurement.  Methodological Behaviorism:  Is a normative theory about the scientific conduct of psychology.  It claims that psychology should concern itself with the behavior of organisms.  Psychology should not concern itself with mental states or events or with constructing internal information processing accounts of behavior.  Radical Behaviorism:  Employs what is known as experimental analysis of behavior.  Approach developed by psychologist B.F. Skinner.  Radical behaviorism also holds that environment is the primary cause of behavior.

Studies the influence of cultural and ethnic similarities and differences. Is the scientific study of human behavior and mental process. Through expanding research methodologies to recognize cultural variance in behavior, language, and meaning it seeks to extend and develop psychology. Cross-cultural psychology is differentiated from cultural psychology, which refers to the branch of psychology that holds that human behavior is significantly influenced by cultural differences, means that psychological phenomena can only be compared with each other across cultures to a very limited extent. In contrast, cross-cultural psychology includes a search for possible universals in behavior and mental processes. Cross-cultural psychology "can be thought of as a type research methodology, rather than an entirely separate field within psychology".

Biology: Is defined as the study of life.

Comparative method: different species of animal can be studied and compared. This can help in the search to understand human behavior.

Physiology: how the nervous system and hormones work, how the brain functions, how changes in structure and/or function can affect behavior.

Investigation of inheritance: what an animal inherits from its parents, mechanisms of inheritance (genetics).

Is an approach that looks at our genetics to build a reason as to why we act the way we do and why we develop abnormal behaviors. Are the chemical reactions in the brain

Main Assumptions The biological approach believes that mental illnesses are caused by: 1. Brain differences 2. Genetics Abnormalies are caused by physical problems with the brain or body. It is studied by biological psychologists who normally rely more on medication and medical procedures and try to relate behavior to the functions of the brain and the nervous system. The brain and nervous system are the biological approach and so are chemical changes in the body -it is all biology. Cognitive explanations involve the way we think and how our thinking develops and has led to cognitive behavior therapies. Social psychological explanations involve the way we learn from others around us - our peers and family and how we learn to model and imitate that behavior.

 There Are Three Basic Components To Piaget's Cognitive Theory • Schemas: (building blocks of knowledge) • Processes that enable the transition from one stage to another (equilibrium, assimilation and accommodation) • Stages of development: sensorimotor, preoperational, concrete operational, formal operational According to Piaget, children are born with a very basic mental structure (inherited ) on which all learning and knowledge is based. He became interested when he saw the reasons that children gave for their wrong answers on the questions that require logical thinking. He believed that these incorrect answers revealed important differences between the thinking of adults and children.

Refers to mental activities

Apply to

Focus on understanding

• Thinking • Remembering • Learning • Using language

• Learning • Teaching

• Information • Concepts

Humanistic approach Evolutionary psychology is a theory of human behavior that incorporates the effects of evolution. As our ancestors confronted problems, they developed ways of solving those problems. Over time, the most successful solutions developed into basic instincts. We no longer need to consciously think about certain behaviors, as they simply “come naturally.”

This approach emphasize on subject meaning, a rejection of determinism, and a concern for positive growth rather than pathology. Humanists argue that an individual is capable to understand their own behavior. Humanistic approach studies the whole person, and the uniqueness of each individual. Humanism is a psychological approach that emphasizes the study of the whole person. Humanistic psychologists look at human behavior not only through the eyes of the observer, but through the eyes of the person doing the behaving. Humanistic psychologists believe that an individual's behavior is connected to their inner feelings and self-concept.

Evolutionary Approach is based in how evolution has shaped the mind and behavior.

Application in children

 Jill has been afraid of spiders since she was a toddler. After determining that she had never been bitten or seen someone bitten by a spider, her therapist explained that according to evolutionary psychology, Jill's fear might be an instinctive reaction.

Children have to grow up in a nice and positive environment in order to increase their development. Teachers are in charge to watch their behaviors inasmuch as depending on their behavior that’s the way they are going to interact with the society. Social and cultural context are very important for child development because that’s the way we conceive them as humans. Even though each kid has his/her own development style they are characterized by their curiosity and sensibility, that’s why they are able to have social interaction with their family and classmates.

Application of humanistic approach On whole school level: open classroom, class meetings, alternative modes of assessments. On class level: would support:  Students having control over daily activities  Students monitor their own progress and self-evaluation  Teacher does not control learning process, only a facilitator  Integrating personal and communications skills Applications within the humanistic approach 1. Cooperative learning Balancing teaching and achieving academic skills with the need to acquire personal and life skills. Helping to involve children with disabilities in mainstream class 2. Emotional literacy class Aims at teaching emotional skills, no acknowledging the role of feelings and emotions in learning Teaching emotional skill will: Improve children academic skills Enhances schools’ ability to teach Emphasizes the role of emotional intelligence Humanistic Strategies in the Classroom  Student-Centered Learning  Emotional Support  Open Seminars  Cooperative Learning  Discovery Education

No to teach so people gather learn when they only want to learn No to exams or grades so focus on inconsequential type of learning No to degrees so continuing process of learning

Psychoanalytic Approach Based on the belief that childhood experiences greatly influence the development of later personality traits and psychological problems.

I can’t say no

I’m very proud

It’s hard for me to make a decision

I fight for the things that I want

Sometimes I say the things in a bad way and I can make people feel bad

I love that people give the best, if not I will fight to make that possible

It’s hard for me to punish someone

An approach is a perspective that involves certain assumptions about human behavior: the way they function, which aspects of them are worthy of study and what research methods are appropriate for undertaking this study. Each perspective has its strengths and weaknesses, and brings something different to our understanding of human behavior. For this reasons, it is important that psychology does have different perspectives to the understanding and study of human and animal behavior. There are 7 main approaches in psychology: 1. Behavioral Approach: Sometimes called “Radical Behaviorism” suggested behavior is influenced by patterns of learning which takes place in the environment. 2. Cross-cultural Approach: Differences and similarities between cultures 3. Cognitive Approach: Suggesting the mind works like a computer, Cognitive Psychology asserts behavior is influenced by thought processes taking place in the mind. 4. Humanistic Approach: Named “The Third Force” of psychology, Humanism assumes behavior is influenced based on the fulfillment of needs and “self-actualization” 5. Biological Approach: States human behavior is influenced by physiological, genetic or evolutionary forces. 6. Evolutionary Approach: Ideas that change through the time 7. Psychoanalytic Approach: Believes human behavior is influenced by unconscious drives and inner conflicts. Personality is about our different ways of being human. How we are all variations on the same themes. How the human nature we all share manifests in different styles of thinking, feeling and acting.

Are types of short stories that typically features European folkloric, fantasy characters, such as fairies, goblins, elves, trolls, dwarves, giants, witches, mermaids, or gnomes, and usually magic or enchantments. Fairy tales are loved by the children because despite all the angry, anxious thoughts in his mind and any feeling, to which the fairy tale gives body and specific context, these stories always result in a happy outcome, which the children cannot imagine on his own

Conflict between controlling or letting one's impulses free (devouring or not devouring) Conflict between aggression and superego (if he eats, the hunter will punish/kill him) Oral needs Dominance

Fear of possible dangers/insecurity (may be a thief, witch will kill them too) Coping with danger (they will kill the witch, ways of deceiving her, hide) Self - image (doubting their ability to help, concern about their small stature or their appearance)

Dominance/ambitions. Self- image (she is getting old, her magic power is diminishing, nobody loves her, she is ugly) low self-esteem Mother - child relationship (mother image) Narcissistic feelings (she wants everyone to admire her) Sibling rivalry fear of getting punished for wrongdoing Aggression

Aggression Dominance Oral needs Self - image (he is ugly/dumb/ nobody) Father-child relationship (rare) Sexual feelings (he wants to find a girlfriend)

Severity of superego (She begs mother to forgive her, she wants the story to end with “Card 1” because she deserved mother's punishment) Conflict between pleasure (playing, cutting flowers) and moral restrictions (she must visit her sick grandmother) Fear of abandonment/rejection Depression

Carl Gustav Jung interpreted that fairy tales are lives in miniature… suggesting for example, that each character within a tale, may represent an aspect of personality.

Fairy Tales show kids how to handle problems. We learn from the characters in stories, even as adults. They help us because we connect to our own lives, dreams, anxieties, and consider what we would do in their shoes. The fairytales help the children to…  Learn how to navigate life.  Show real life issues in a fantastical scenario where most often the hero triumphs. Children need to discover in a safe environment that bad things happen to everyone.  Once a child understands story, it supports his ability to make predictions and comprehend other stories he’s reading.  Develop a child’s Imagination.  Give Parents Opportunities to teach critical thinking skills.  Teach lessons.

So is essential to conclude that fairy tales teach us about ourselves and our society, help us to find solutions for variety of problems, tell us what is right and wrong and of course they have incredibly comforting effect.

“Fairy tales do not tell children the dragons exist. Children already know that dragons exist. Fairy tales tell children the dragons can be killed.”
― G.K. Chesterton

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