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Apologia 2.3.1 - Study Type 2.3.2 - Leith 2026 2.3.3 - Dwelling Plus 2.3.4 - Inhabit Process Work


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Apologia Process Work

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Tools for Design Learning Journal Final Review Feedback


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ARC2009 Architectural Technology 182 ARC2010 Environmental Design and Services 196 ARC2020 Dissertation Studies 198 ARC2024 About Architecture 200




Charrette YOU SPIN ME RIGHT ROUND BABY This charrette was based entirely around amusement. The initial aim was to create a machine that rotated a camera in different planes to capture footage of around the city which would give the effect of an amusement ride. At the end of the week the videos would then be shown along side the machine that filmed them. The Trip: As a group we took a trip to Whitley Bay on the Eastern coast of Northern England. The aim of this trip (other than eating Fish and Chips) was to capture sound recordings that are mostly associated with the seaside. The sounds included mostly the amusements in the arcades, and the crashing of waves on the beach. These sounds would then be added to our video clips to give a sensation of the coast, as amusements are associated greatly with the seaside. The Machine: Once the challenging task of creating the machine was complete, we mounted a small camcorder on the rotating arm and headed out into different locations in the city, from a quiet church to the middle of a busy shopping street. These videos were then curated together to create delusional clips The Exhibition: Once all the videos and sounds had been edited, the machine was given a makeover with brightly coloured spray paint to match the bright colours of the amusements at Whitley Bay. Bright, colour changing disco lights were also added in spirit of ‘Blackpool Illuminations’. The videos were playing on two large monitors to create a confusing environment with a hint of 80s music.




At Home in the City


APOLOGIA - I The main drives around this project which was situated in

Throughout the design process of Dwelling-Plus and

Leith, just outside Edinburgh was to rejuvenate the local

Inhabit I focused greatly on how the public and private

area with several design approaches through from an area

realms interconnect with each other. With this in mind, I

master plan, down to the smaller details the home. Upon

began creating sketch models at the beginning of the pro-

visiting Leith, I felt as though many of the buildings were

cess that included two different materials that represent-

very much facing inwards, isolating people within their in-

ed the public and private areas. This shaped much of my

dividual dwellings and complexes with a lack of a sense of

design as I felt the buffer zone between public and private

community. I initially approached this issue throughout the

are crucial to the home-owner’s safety and privacy. How-

‘Leith 2026’ master plan around the Cable Wynd House

ever, I believe that focusing on this straight away distract-

area by introducing community driven schemes such as

ed me from how the spaces worked together in floor plan

public spaces (including the demolition of half of Cable

form as I didn’t have readable precise floor plans unit a

Wynd house and neighbouring terraces), workshops,

couple of weeks into the project. With these two weeks

food bazaars, markets and festivals. However, all these

without legitimate floor plans, some spaces were under-

schemes I feel were shallow and were not looked at in a

developed and could have had more potential. The plans

lot of depth (despite being a week for the project). I believe

became restricted to the form that I had in mind from early

a much more successful approach would have been to fo-

in the design process and therefore the form started shap-

cus deeply on a couple of intervention ideas instead which

ing the plans rather than the plans shaping the form, so

would have shown a much more developed proposal. The

not all spaces were completely functional.

phrase ‘quality over quantity’ will now be a consideration in all my future design projects.



2.3.1 - STUDY TYPE Germanika





The settlement of Germanika is located near

after the original town in Asia Minor from which

The Asia Minor Campaign refers to the Greek

continued until the Catastrophe of Smyma that

Piraeus, a region in the south of the city of

the refugees came, with the affixation of ‘nea’ at

advancement into Anatolia (Asia) in 1919,

decimated the remainder of the Greek army,

Athens. It was established in 1927 by the Greek

the start, for example, Nea Michaniona. To this

beginning in what we now know as Turkey. This

resulting them in evacuating the population of

day most Greek towns have a ‘refugee quarter’

advancement to claim more land was at first

Thrace and Bosporus. This left over 1.5million

1.5 million people that were left destitute after

in some part of the town, however these, like

supported by the French and British armies,

refugees internally divided, and created a state

the result of the Asia Minor campaign in what is

Germanika, have drastically changed from their

and so the Greeks continue to invade Turkey

of emergency for the Greek government, who

now known as modern day Turkey. Germanika

rapid construction in the 1920s.

until 1921, when they lost the support of the

needed to house this influx of people that

is just one of many similar settlements

allies. Simultaneously, Turkish forces gained

equated to a third of the population of Greece

that appeared all over Greece, often being named

the support of the Soviet Union and after the

at that time.

government as part of a scheme to rehouse the

21-day Battle of Sakarya, which exhausted the Greeks, the latter withdrew. This retreat

Map from 1920 showing the relationship between

Map and charts showing the distribution of refugees

Greece and what was then known as Asia Minor,

across Greece following the Asia Minor Campaign

modern-day Turkey.






Plan of Germanika

Whilst Germanika was built within the confines

permanent, tents and makeshift shacks were

of Athens, the refugee quarter remained distinctly

rife, and there were no public works or access to

separated from the rest of the city. It population

public transport. One report describes the quarter;

of immigrants and rapidly changing structure


set it apart from the stoic, historical centre. The

Black - Original plan, 1927

refugees, lacking funds and normally from rural

Red - new additions, 2001

areas, were seen as a separate population by the

Green - new additions, 2008

native city dwellers, creating an inhospitable atmosphere towards the immigrants. This

"Damp penetrated the basement walls"

"There are clouds of flies, dust, mud, the roads are nonexistent, water scarce" Today






improved; whilst there still is a lack of organised and permanent structures, the families and buildings

are well established and extended, deeply rooting

Perception was exacerbated by poor living

themselves into the city. Living conditions have also

conditions, which, particularly in the first 15

improved over the years, now being comparable to

years of its construction, were thought to be

other poorer suburban areas surrounding the city.

“unfit for human habitation�. No structures were

To house the 1.5 million refugees the Greek

toilet, the entire house only measuring roughly

Government created 27,000 houses across

4x8m, surrounded by a small courtyard and side

the country in 125 locations, one of which is

yard. Each house shared a wall with another

Germanika, which consists of an area of land

unit, the layout mirrored on the other side. This

roughly 80,000 sq.m, located near Piraeus (an

arrangement was identical across the whole site,

area of Athens). The houses that were erected

divided into 32 blocks that were 50x35m, split

had to be built quickly, from a variety of cheap

by 10m wide roads that formed a regular street

and readily available materials, such as timber.


As a result the small dwellings consisted of a basic Timber frame, with walls only 2 inches thick, and pitched tiled roofs. Each house had two basic rooms, plus a kitchen and a small






It soon became apparent across Germanika

With couples having multiple daughters, there

The time frame between the construction of

to food and water, healthcare and education

that complex connections between families and

soon wasn’t enough space for the whole family,

refugee camps such as Germanika, and those

being of primary importance, even if they are

so rooms were added, either outwards in the

constructed today span nearly 100 years,

unevenly distributed throughout the rapidly

settlements, and this pattern was perpetuated by

courtyard, or more often, downwards into

yet both faced many of the same problems.

growing camps. This shows a stark contrast

the prevalence of arranged marriages. Parents

basement rooms. As a result it was common

Overcrowding, as well as trying to create

between today’s refugees and the care given to

tended to only approve of suitable husbands that

to have, for example, 11 persons in one unit,

a community within temporary structures

those of the Asia Minor campaign, which was

spanning across four generations.

that also integrate with the local population

almost non-existent. As a result, the people living

between families that lived in close proximity to

remains a struggle. However each governments

in refugee quarters, such as Germanika, are far

one another. Another and more tangible effect

approach to housing a refugee population has

more self sufficient and independent, setting up

of Greek marriage traditions was the extension

changed. Whist in Germanika, semi-permanent

their own livelihoods instead of relying on the

of the original structures. When a daughter of

structures, with wooden frames and tiled roofs

care packages modern day refugees are given.

the family got married, she was given a room

were built, today, with modern materials large

Both Zaatari and Germanika show how refugee

of the house for her dowry, whilst the sons

tents are preferred. Whilst these can be more

camps can work, at least in part, but only with the

hastily constructed and relocated, they do not

support of the government. The Syrian camp in

give their inhabitants as much of a sense of

Calais highlights the importance of this support,

comfort, due to their lack of permanency. Also,

as here living conditions are appalling. Refugees

due to the scale of today’s large city populations,

camp in ramshackle tents with no facilities,

normally these refugee camps are erected in

amogst piles of garbage, in an attempt from the

areas of empty land, for example Zaatari, the

French government to discourage this population

largest Syrian refugee camp. Some facilities

from sheltering on this area of land.

in-laws were spread across nearby units in the

they knew, resulting in marriage ties often being

tended to move out to live with their new wives.

Family Tree showing the typical multi-generational household

have improved over the years, with access





MODERN DAY GERMANIKA Today Germanika is almost unrecognizable from

roads that intersect through the quarter.

In my opinion Germanika was a relative success, If I were to adapt way inGermanika which Germanika Germanika was indeed successful for housing Afterthe studying my thoughts on

its humble beginnings. The basic rectangular

Germanika is now a well-established community,

especiallyrefugees considering the era to in which it was were designed, would definitely ensure to have changed. in relation when the scheme was theIrefugee camp have unexpectedly

street pattern is the only plan that has remained

a fixture in amongst the city, set apart from

built andconstructed the resourcesasthat were available to 1920s.clean, water respectable sewage a masterplan in the It running From myand ordinal research into Germanika I just

the same over the years, with the internal

the rest of Athens by its ability to directly

the government at the time. However I think

courtyard and double unit all but abandoned.

show the immediate needs of its residents. It

it could have been improved by having more

public transport to create links with the main

Buildings have been extended and joined, and

is now the ultimate community led build –

consideration put towards how the refugees

city of Athens, in order to improve integration

the ground underneath excavated to created

completely left alone by the government and

could mix more with the local city dwellers,

between the refugees and the original habitants.

rambling basement rooms that stretch under the

professional contractors, architects, and builders.

to avoid the separation that occurred between

In terms of living space, I would probably

the two. Perhaps by having smaller sites dotted

create two or three stories, rather than just

around the city, as opposed to one large quarter

the one to increase the area available in each

this could have helped the refugees integrate

home, meaning that each block would be able

more. That said, by doing this they might have

to house more people. This would have meant

systems. I would make sure to run some type of decided against multi-storey housing which believed it was a construction of desperation and

allowed the refugees to feel as though they

time limit, which I Guess It was. With further

had more control and ownership over their

research I learnt that the community of which

dwellings, allowing them to adapt and expand

Germanika created was one that was strong

the interior and exterior, adding extra rooms as

and managed to keep a family atmosphere.

they wished. Much in contrast to modern day

Renee Hirschons Article on Germanika,

refugees who are seen as unwanted by many and

which was published in 1970 mentioned that

aren’t given any form of shelter. The Germanika

in a sample she took 87% of the 42 household

camp was set up as temporary is blocks are still occupied by the ordinal families. I lost the extended family connections that which were I believe that fewer would have been needed, a mistake the Greek time do feelaround that if itthe government readily available andbyimportant toGovernment the refugees. of the and the landscape would have beenat the time underestimated thebigger situation of the Asiaand more gavesuitable Germanika access activities to running water and With thatasinthey mind, maybe fewer but larger for outdoor Minor Instead believe permanent helped them and throughout their houses that couldCampaign. shelter more peopleI might for the younger children, more space fortime in need it housing should have been constructed would more of a successful refugee have worked, considering the people’s traditions toneighbours to spendhave timebeen together. and family structure. an ideal public enhance theInlives of theworld, refugees and make them

community. I would possibly design in the

transportfeel would havecity been available -Jemima Smith partalso of the rather thantoa the temporary option for adaptability in the houses. With the refugees, appendix. as well as access to running water. Housing could have been situated

across the city rather than in one place to -Emma Kemp


refugee crisis rising, more and more families were needing space. Instead of expending down,

immerse them in the city culture.

expanding up would have been more ideal.

-Arran Noble

-Abi Smart




2.3.2 - LEITH 2026 The Neighbourhood





People Mapping

Tracking the behaviours of people within the area of focus and their activities, this will help connect with the local community. 24


Exploring Boundaries

Photo-montage of different boundaries found within the area of focus. Some more prominent than others which can separate the public and private. 26

Exploring Faรงades

Photo-montage of different faรงades found within the area of focus.


Public - Private Realms


Diagram of public - private realms we discovered on site, through appearance, emotion and instinct.


Sound Mapping LOUD



Diagram of Sound Mapping around the area of focus.


Proposal After carefully analysing the site through such topics as physical, history, social and economy, rhythms, and interviewing as a group we can now begin using the data to improve the neighbourhood of Leith. The area that we concentrated on was mainly the surroundings of Cable Wynd House which we unanimously identified as an ‘island’ from the rest of the community. We split the proposals in to three separate topics which included; Economy and Tourism, Design, and Social that ran along side each other closely and collectively produced a master plan to improve the area. The Economy and Tourism team focused mostly on events and how people could be encouraged to visit the area and spend money to boost the local economy. The Design team concentrated on how spaces could be improved or added to the are to enhance the experience of the area for current residents and visitors, this included spaces for events. Finally the Social team would look into how local residents wouldn’t be left behind in the regeneration projects as many have been in other schemes, this includes how they could get involved in the process as well as the completed regeneration.


‘Grow the creative sector through more space provision and central networking hub.’

‘New iconic buildings and structures.’ ‘Introduce new leisure facilities including novel sports (e.g. surfing) to animate area.’

‘Museums (e.g. maritime, transport) and cultural Buildings (e.g. theatre, concert venues).’ ‘Signed tourist trails’

‘Streetscape improved including Leith walk as boulevard’

‘Encourage re-use/ conversion of vacant buildings. Especially historic structures.’

‘More trees, greening, landscaping.’ ‘Provision of live-work units to attract small and start-up businesses, e.g. artist studios.’

‘Open up craft businesses/ studios to visitors.’

‘Public art including treatment of blank gables, dock walls.’ ‘City dressing (e.g. signs, bunting).’

‘Widen range of new residential developments to include lower density family housing to provide whole-life range and retain residents’

‘Further visitor attractions required.’ ‘Encourage more events including festival/ fringe, food festival by identifying and promoting suitable venues.’ ‘Promote temporary initiatives for gap sites, street improvements, vacant buildings, empty shops.’

WHAT DO THE RESIDENTS OF LEITH WANT? Council study from December 2014.

Interview responses from Leith residents.


Terrace Pavilion A SPACE FOR THE COMMUNITY What’s missing in Leith especially in the high density populated site ‘C’ is a space for the community to come together and either celebrate, enjoy and exchange culture. As part of out proposal we have decided to renovate the Henderson Terrace that it situated on the south-east side of Cable Wynd House into a community pavilion, taking inspiration from the Assemble; Cherish the Terrace Winter Garden style design. This included removing all the contents of the terrace street leaving an open space with the front façades remaining, then filled with greenhouse style structure. The space is planned to be used for events within the community which could attract visitors, and therefore, income.

External perspective of the Terrace Pavilion which is situated in front of Cable Wynd House.


Interior perspective of the Terrace Pavilion, which is to be used as a community hall mostly.


Cable Wynd Forum A LANDSCAPED OUTDOOR SPACE FOR RELAXING, EATING & DRINKING The second part of the design work included a huge overhaul of Cable Wynd house. This included almost slicing a corner off the existing structure. This will hopefully make the building look less intimidating from the surrounding area, especially that of around Henderson terrace. The Slice would act as a route from the street level all the way to the top, almost acting as a vertical park. A cafe/restaurant will be situated on the fourth floor of the complex, which will also be accessible by elevator. The ‘vertical park’ will include little pockets on the incline, offering obscured seating areas. Towards the bottom, the slope will fan outwards into the already existing park/playground. The use of the slope will be used to produce a miniature amphitheatre facing a bandstand type pavilion which can be used to house events which include an performer and audience.

Detailed sketches of proposal.


Cable Wynd House

Impression of the newly modified Cable Wynd House, with new public spaces and venues.


Tourism and Economy A VARIETY OF POSTERS FOR A UNIVERSAL RANGE OF EVENTS Art Exhibition: Art can be located around the exterior

General Market: Shipping Containers will be used for

and interior areas to attract a steady influx of people

a permanent market under the void of Cable Wynd

of a longer period of time, using local businesses at

which is currently out of use to the public and is

the same time.

used for utilities. Other stalls will use pop-up stalls

Glass Blowing Workshop: Focused around Leith’s

historic glass industry, workshops will be set up to

give locals or tourists an opportunity to experience the art of glass blowing.

Film Festival: Outdoor summer event making use of the miniature amphitheatre at the base of the Cable Wynd vertical park area. Other locations include the terrace pavilion. Music Festival: A music festival will run to primarily showcase local and regional talent in the music industry. This will encourage people to visit the area to also visit events running simultaneously such as the markets.


as well as the terrace pavilion. International Food Bazaar: Market style event lining Henderson Street with pop-up stalls as well as using the terrace pavilion.

Range of posters for events which intend to promote Leith, bringing new people to the area.


Henderson Street Market A MARKET CONNECTING GREAT JUNCTION STREET WITH THE WATER OF LEITH The Henderson Street market will be a major des-

Pop-up stalls towards the north of the site.

tination in the new proposals as it will include multicultural products and food from the variety of cultures from Leith. It will connect great junction street which is a major bus route to the water of Leith which is home to beautiful scenery. It will pass via the Cable Wynd Forum and parkland which is a space to meet and relax whilst exploring the market. Different locations within the market are marked on the opposite page.

Shipping container stalls which will be permanent and will be situated in the current utilities quarter of Cable Wynd House.

Pop-up stalls at the beginning of Henderson Street to the south. Banners and Bunting can enhance the experience and solidly mark the route.


Site plan of proposals labelled.


Leith Late Festival BUILDING UPON AN EXISTING EVENT TO MAKE IT MORE ESTABLISHED AND POPULAR ‘Leith Late’ is an existing art trail which takes place every year in Leith. It includes Murals on buildings and street furniture across Leith in which people admire every year. This can add life to existing buildings that can usually looked tired and unloved. It adds colour and interest to the community as well as attracting a broad range of artists. Adding to this existing event can enhance the area that we are concentrating on by adding murals to such buildings as Cable Wynd House. Bringing the trail into the heart of the Cable Wynd Community can bring customers to local business’, cafés and shops.


Mural example on the exterior of Cable Wynd House as part of the Leith Late exhibition trail.


Improving Infrastructure PROVIDING A FREE SHUTTLE BUS FROM EDINBURGH CITY CENTRE TO LEITH In order to maximise numbers of visitors to the area of the master plan, the catchment area much be large enough. This includes how accessible the place is. So we propose to add a free shuttle bus to run from central Edinburgh, calling at the train station and bus station which makes it easy for connections, and that will directly run to the Cable Wynd Forum. This will allow people to travel much easier without the worry of parking in Leith itself. As most transport links in the surrounding suburbs of Edinburgh will terminate or incorporate the bus station in some manner, it is thought that connections would be easier. The train station also connects the shuttle with the rest of Scotland and England.


Proposed new bus route from the city centre to Leith highlighted in red.


2.3.3 - DWELLING PLUS The Building



Introduction OUTLINING INITIAL INTENTIONS The proposed multi-unit dwelling is to include 6 separate units occupied by a diverse range of people with different needs including families to young couples, some of which will be familiar to the Leith area, and some who are not. The proposal will be orientated around community and adaptability to meet the studio brief. Two public spaces as a minimum will be included within the design to run along side each other, this is with the intention that the community can come together as a team to run and use these facilities.

Cable Wynd House (Banana Flats)


Site of proposal, currently used as car park.


Accommodation ONE BEDROOM UNITS Two young professionals living in Leith and commuting

Two parent family with two young children as well as a

to Edinburgh - Will require: one bedroom, one bathroom,

temporary grandparent - Will require: three bedrooms,

living/kitchen area, small office space.

two bathrooms, living/kitchen area, sit down dining area,


childcare, children orientated activities.


Couple arriving in the area from abroad who are expecting a child - Will require: two bedrooms, one bathroom,

The roof garden space will be an opportunity for both

living/kitchen area.

children and adults who live in the dwellings, as well as the residents of the community to grow plants and pro-

Elderly couple with grandchildren visiting regularly. They

duce which can be served or sold in the cafe/shop with

will be volunteering in public spaces - Will require: two

all profits funding the maintenance of the building and

bedrooms, one bathroom, living/kitchen area. Access to

public spaces. The learning hub will also act as an af-

public spaces.

ter-school childcare club.

Young Professional couple who will run the public facing


business’ - Will require: two bedrooms (one an office), one bathroom, living/kitchen


Both the shop and cafe will sell and serve produce which is either locally sourced or grown on site at the roof garden and learning hub. It will include both indoor and outdoor seating as well as a kitchen area which can be also

Single parent family with two young children - Will require: three bedrooms, two bathrooms, living/kitchen area, sit down dining area, childcare, children orientated activities.


used for community events.



The main materials for the building will sit on an in-

materials used on the structure as it is

ternal steel frame due to the height of the building as this would be the most efficient and economical way of construction. The two primary cladding materials will determine the two separate spaces of public and private yet creating a mystery how the two spaces come together.

Masonry will be one of the primary

widely recognised as a building material for building a ‘home’. It also gives a solidarity feel to the structure, making the dwellings feel secure and well built. The masonry work will be used to clad the private aspects of the structure, such as those which are private properties.

MESH CLADDING Mesh will clad the public aspects of the building. This will in some places be clad onto solid walls but in other places will have no wall behind, making it open to air such as on the stair core which will also act as a vertical garden, gathering inspiration from the ‘Leith 2026’ proposal. The mesh can therefore act as a trellis to allow residents to grow using the building itself and will develop over time.


Impression of proposal from street level of Cable Wynd.


Circulation HOW PEOPLE TRAVEL TO AND THROUGH THE BUILDING This diagram shows how circulation will work around the site and within the building. People will approach

Roof Garden

from Complex the north (Mill Lane) or the south (Cable Wynd) and can either pass through the buildings underpass or can travel up through the core of the building via the stairs or elevator. This will lead to the

Learning Hub

learning hub and roof garden on the upper floors.

Cafe and Shop

Central Stair Core


Circulation diagram of how people may move around the site and up through the central stair-core to reach the public roof garden. There is an open void underneath the stair-core which allows people to pass through the site, interacting with the building. 53

Lighting TESTING SHADOWING FROM NEIGHBOURING BUILDINGS As the building is situated in close proximity to Cable Wynd House which is a 9 storey high and extremely long tower block, the site may commonly become over shadowed as it is slightly to the North-West. This will primarily block South-East sunlight that you may find in the morning. With this in mind I have carried out some shadow testing on a sketch -up model. The captions state the date and time which they show.


Shadowing at midday in June - Plan View

Shadowing at midday in December - Plan View

Shadowing at midday in June - View from Cable Wynd

Shadowing at midday in December - View from Cable Wynd


Three - Dimensional Model MODEL PRODUCED AT A SCALE OF 1:100 A range of photographs including different levels of lighting in order to showcase the model which was constructed to support the scheme. It gives a three-dimensional view into what the final building may potentially look like. It was built at a scale of 1:100 and made from white card and mesh to represent the primary two materials that are proposed; Mesh and Masonry (on steel frame).


Photographs of 1:100 model highlighting key areas around the structure. Top left shows the entire front facade as if you were looking at the proposal from a higher level of Cable Wynd House. 57

Top - Public space to the front of the building on the street level of Cable Wynd. Bottom - Roof garden area which is to be clad in mesh to act as a trellis. Right - View of rear of building from Mill Lane. 58

Photographs of 1:100 model showing central stair-core through the building. The stair-core is external ans open to the elements however it is contained by mesh which allows plants to grow up it, making a vertical garden over time. 59




















2.3.4 - INHABIT The Home



Public - Private HOW MATERIALS AND CHANGING LEVELS CAN DEFINE A SPACE The boundaries between public and private spaces

zone which separates the public space from the pri-

are important when designing homes for people to

vate space with a void. This voids main purpose is to

live in as for many, people like to call their home,

act as a buffer zone into the home to give that need-

without having to share it too much with others. Its

ed separation which is usually done with a pathway

important that the dwelling allows the level of privacy

or driveway in houses. The space is stepped up

but with the opportunity to look out and allow light

and the floor material is continuous from inside the

to penetrate the spaces. Harsh boundaries are used

home. The change in level gives the indication that

commonly across modern dwellings where the front

your are entering a new space.

door leading into a home, opens directly onto a public space. This can feel intrusive. To combat these issues I propose an intermediate

Red = Private Yellow = Intermediate Green = Public

Diagram of Section AA showing different realms of public to private spaces.


Intermediate zone, wood flooring, acts as an entrance lobby. Doorway into the private dwelling. Interior wood finish floor surface. Step up from the public use space into the intermediate zone.

Polished concrete floor surface, indicates public use.

Example floor plan showing floor materials used to separate public and private spaces.


Inhabited Apartment A GENERIC TWO-BED APARTMENT, INHABITED WITH FURNITURE There are three, two-bed apartments within the complex and are spread across two floors. They

Lift Shaft

Office Nook



Bedroom 1 Bedroom 2

include a living and kitchen area on one floor with an entrance lobby, and two double bedrooms and a bathroom on another, complete with an office nook at the top of each staircase which offers views of the docks. The layout is open plan with south east facing floor to ceiling opening windows to let the

Staircase Entrance Lobby

outside in. A breakfast bar is positioned on the adjacent window allowing the resident to look out whilst enjoying a meal.


Living Area Kitchen Area Breakfast Bar

Opening Balcony Window

Inhabited line drawing plan and section of apartment.


Impression of living/kitchen space within a two-bedroom apartment.






Public Spaces A PLACE FOR EATING, LEARNING AND MEETING Photo Montages of different public spaces within the building that are fully accessible. This is to encourage the coming together of the local community. The External facade of the complex. diagram on the opposite page shows where these spaces are situated within the building.

Outdoor seating area that extends the cafe outside.

Internal perspective of the cafe.


Roof Garden

Learning Hub

Cafe and Shop

Central Stair Core

Exploded diagram highlighting public spaces.


Roof Garden A PLACE FOR MEETING, GROWING AND LEARNING Photo Montage of the roof garden (doorway to the right signals the staircase down to the learning hub below)



Process Work EXPLORING FORM AND LAYOUT - TWO AND THREE DIMENSIONALLY The process work is crucial in the design process as it shows where the development of the project began. In this case, the project began with a sketch model, produced from cardboard and mesh. The mesh was simply used as an alternative material to clearly show the central enclosed stair-core in my design, however this became a key feature and drive in the project, remaining in the design until the final development. Sketches accompanied this model with calculations of floor plans and where spaces would be positioned in relation to each other. The use of colours in initial drawings aided me to decipher differ spaces.

Top - Sketch Model 1 Bottom - Sketch Model 2 Both informing three dimensional design, giving aid visualising overall appearance. 82

1 - Exploring volumes of rooms. 2 - Experimenting potential floor plans. 3 - Experimenting with overall shape of building. 4 - Calculating how spaces will work both vertically and horizontally.


Development Sketches REFINING PLANS AND EXPLORING SMALLER DETAILS Refining smaller details include how rooms connect with each other and how an individual would flow through the space from the front door to the bedroom for example. This space must work efficiently such as working space out for each use rather that just a room. Doing this requires gaining measurements for furnishings to ensure they will fit in the room they are intended to. As this required some development, tracing paper was used to draw over plans to quickly develop and improve spaces which therefore could be seen much more clearly.

Section AA showing realms of public to private (initial diagram). Top Left - Change to roof garden, mezzanine level decided. 84




1 - Development of final floor plans at 1:200 scale. Displaying walls, doors and openings. Produced on layout and trace overlay. 2 - Two-bed apartment floor 1 at 1:50 scale. Displaying key furniture. Produced on layout with trace overlay. 3 - Two-bed apartment floor 2 at 1:50 scale. Displaying key furniture. Produced on layout with trace overlay.


SEM 2 Experience





Reflection Throughout the duration of the project we met up as

knowledge on how to function the cameras which aid-

a group almost daily to share and discuss ideas on

ed me in the production of the film. However, I would

what key themes we may like portray in the film we

have like to have developed my skills and learnt how

were going to create. This also included watching the

to video edit using the Premier-Pro software. As the

film together as I believed this would be most benefi-

deadline approached a group member who was more

cial as we could analyse the selected scene and the

familiar edited the video whilst I concentrated on the

rest of the film immediately afterwards whilst it was

exhibition space and maquette but I would change

still fresh in the mind. During meetings we were very

this by having some footage filmed earlier in the pro-

critical including myself which meant that a conclu-

ject which I could have attempted to learn the soft-

sion wasn’t reached until later than originally expect-

ware with. I very much like the film itself and I think it

ed, so if I was going to change something next time, I

was a real success of everyone working together and

would recommend to myself to come to a conclusion

individual inputs. However, I what I would of changed

much quicker on ideas. This also may include start

would be some of the sound. Despite liking the current

working off paper much sooner by doing earlier test

one I believe we should have related more back to the

shots which could then be cut down.

Paprika clip by layering annoying and uncomfortable

The process of watching the film then analysing it

sounds as we originally planned such as chewing, an

however is one of the skills I have taken from the pro-

alarm clock and squelching.

ject by creating an awareness to cameras angles, colour and sound, and how they can have a huge impact on the mood and atmosphere of the film. I already went into the project with a comfortable amount of


Selection of Mood-board images which were inspired us on creating atmospheric scenes


Response The clip from the film ‘Paprika’ expressed some key


themes which as a group we analysed and explored

The film as a whole features and transitions between

in order for our own short film to be successful. The

the dream world and reality until both worlds collide

clip features Toshimi Konakawa in his car, stuck in

and create confusion as no one is conscious of what

traffic congestion, a problem most people face in

is, or what isn’t a dream. Other individuals are also

everyday life. At the beginning of the selected scene

able to access the dreams, creating a paradox. We

the traffic signal turns red, bringing the traffic to

reacted to this by creating dream scenes throughout

a halt. The colour red can be symbolised by such

which mostly are orientated by situations that made

meanings as anger, danger and stress, and in this

us as a group feel uncomfortable or stressed us out.

case due to other elements the colour was probably

These included, chomping on food loudly, breathing

used to indicate stress. Other elements included the

heavily, drowning, catching a train, and crowds of

levels and angles of lighting throughout the scene as

people. These situations would be placed into the

shadows tend to be bearing down, creating dark-

film in between that primary story line. The main

er lighting above giving a negative effect. Toshimi

story line primarily focused on the themes of stress,

is also ‘trapped’ in his car, looking out at different

anxiety and discomfort. As a result of this we exper-

situations which are making him feel more and more

imented greatly with the use of red lighting through-

uncomfortable throughout. These images are be-

out as mentioned previously that it was the colour

coming more unfocused and the sound is building,

of stress and that it was featured in the paprika clip.

almost like it is eating away at him as he appears to

The idea was that the individual would be constantly

be in pain. This continues until the scene comes to a

looking for the source of the sound throughout the

penultimate where a white light flashes bringing it to

film. They would start off in a small, confined and

an end.

damp room which they would break out of just to

Shooting the opening scene, showing the set and props used, with reference to camera position.


find out they were in another room slightly larger similar to Russian dolls. This would create stress and anxiety as the number of rooms could be endless as this continues for multiple scenes. The transition between each room is when a ‘dream’ occurs, meaning that when the individual exits a dream/wakes up, they are in a different location. When the film begins to draw to a close, the individual locates the source of the sound which has been hinted at all throughout the film which is a large grammar phone which we created as part of our Marquette and a record player. When the actor goes to touch this the film immediately cuts and rewinds meaning that he was never able to actually touch it, giving the viewer the chance to interpret what could have happened next for themselves. The idea that the actors face was never shown throughout the film was so that the viewer could relate more to the situation and put themselves in their footsteps. The exhibition itself is actually a recreation of one of the sets we used allowing someone to sit in the red chair and see shadows protected onto the translucent screen.


Testing different lighting levels as well as shadows.


Camera Angles To create the illusion that the actor is trapped in a square room, working on the themes of claustrophobia that are expressed in the film, we used multiple camera angles. This was successful by giving the effect the camera was in the wall as the scenes rapidly switched between each other.

This still from the actual film features the same scene from a different angle as previously discussed. As this is the first scene, it begins very dark and gloomy, with a heavy red colour dominating. The colour red is usually used to express anger, stress and anxiety which are the themes ‘Paprika’ express.

Stills from the film.


Mood and Atmosphere This scene is shown towards the middle of the film. At this scene the mask is removed and the room is much larger to symbolise that the person is progressing, however, still finds themselves in another room, trapped. Here the scene can still be seen red like the previous reality scenes.

The image here still shows the same scene however with changed lighting and shadows. We decided to change the lighting from red to white in this scene due to the person progressing, to almost give the effect that they are getting nearer to escaping. The red chair remains to tie the previous scenes together.

Testing lighting and colour in production.


Dream Scenes One of the stressful scenes selected to be part of the dream world was the idea of drowning or being underwater. We still aimed to conceal the face by further experimenting with lighting so that only half of the face was revealed. The music also became muffled to enhance the scene.

Stills from water scenes.

Set-up for water filming, camera placed beneath facing upwards. 98





1 - Stressful/uncomfortable scene: Heavy breathing. 3 - Stressful/uncomfortable scene: Busy platform.

2 - Stressful/uncomfortable scene: Running for the Metro. 4 - Stressful/uncomfortable scene: Chomping on food loudly. 99

Identifying the Dream

To make the film more understandable when the

After experimenting with the transfer of the tattoo

individual would be entering the dream world or be

onto skin, we decided against it as could often

in reality, we believed it was key for a symbol, a rec-

look amateur and inconsistent between scenes.

ognisable icon or shot should be used as a signal for

Instead we focused on the eye as a direct portal

this. We began by looking at the idea of a tattoo as

into the mind almost which could then continue

this could be filmed well at multiple angles and could

onto the dream scenes. The idea initially came

potentially grow as the film progressed. It was also

from images featured on the mood board.

important what the tattoo would be of as this needed to be related to the themes of the film. The idea of a musical note in different forms were explored as well as ‘His Masters Voice’ logo as the dog could potentially growl.






1-3 - Possible tattoo ideas relating to sound and music. 4 - Testing prints onto the skin. 101


The choice of the maquette was focused around a Grammar-phone as throughout the film we wanted to portray the individual constantly looking for the source of the music and sounds in the film. This is hinted throughout with shadows of the grammar-phone and the record turn-table. The idea is that the person (on top of everything else) is stressed about the source of the music. This page aims to show the exploration and experimentation of the maquette form.

TOP: Sketch model of maquette (front view). BOTTOM: Side view of maquette (side view) with cling-film wrap. 102

SketchUp graphics showing the development of the maquette.






1 - Laser cutting maquette components. 3 - Spray painting maquette components before assembly. 104

2 - Testing components fit together. 4 - Initial assembly of the maquette to be used in filming.

Testing lighting for the scene with the completed maquette as a shadow behind the acrylic screen.


Closing Scene

The closing scene of the film features the individual actually finding the source of the music which they have been searching for throughout the film and through dreams. Multiple camera angles are used on the approach to the turntable in order to conceal the face and to make the viewers more aware of the space rather than a simple view. Upon reaching to touch the turntable (the source) the video immediately rewinds, meaning that after all the searching, they never actually reach the source of the sound. This creates no definite end to the film allowing the viewer to interpret what could have happened next for themselves.

End scene of grammar-phone and record player, the source of the sound. 106

TOP: Approaching the source of the sound (ft. maquette). BOTTOM: About to touch the source of the sound before film rewinds. Leaves the film unfinished. 107


Stills from ‘Paprika’ which relate to the selected scene. 108

Comparing our film stills with ‘Paprika’ stills, with attention to atmosphere, camera angles and colour. 109


The idea behind the exhibition space was that people visiting could put their selves in the film itself as we recreated the set with similar lighting used to the production. It allows people to discover the grammar-phone maquette and then place themselves in the red chair with a translucent screen in front of them. Behind the screen is the rest of the space with red lights projecting onto it so when people walk between it casts large shadows onto both sides of the translucent screen, the same effect used in the film.






1 - Behind the screen featuring the chair and maquette 3 - inside of the screen where shadows will be projected

2 - Where people will walk in front of the red lights to cast shadows 4 - The maquette placed on a platform behind the chair, slightly obscured





APOLOGIA - II The idea of Exploring Experience that it focuses around a

properties of these began to inform I approached the rest

material. In my case the material was plastic. Plastic is a

of the design, with themes such as ‘lightness’ ‘translucen-

fairly modern material but it can have huge consequences

cy’ and ‘sterile’ standing out which influenced the façade

on the environment as it requires oil to produce which is an

of the building being created from Tensile PVC Fabric to

unsustainable raw material. It is commonly used for pack-

promote the potential of plastics to Berwick and Visitors.

aging and therefore is a big contributor to landfills and

Reflecting on this process and design within this project, I

the oceans. Plastics are not biodegradable which is the

would have liked to have developed a greater connection

main cause for concern. With these moral issues in mind,

of the Tensile PVC fabric façade and the plastics being de-

it began to influence me in how I approach the design

veloped on site. This could have included looking more in

of this project. This informed me to incorporate a plastic

depth at bioplastics, exploring how that itself could have

recycling plant within the building where the public could

been used as a façade on a much larger scale. Thinking

drop off their own plastic through a ‘hole in the wall’ in an

ahead to the next academic year I wish to continue to

attempt to reduce landfill and ocean waste. The recycled

experiment with materials as I believe this was an effec-

plastic could be then made into exhibiting art forms or

tive way to develop initial design ideas and a successful

useful desktop appliances in the gift shop.

scheme as well as learning about the properties of the material individually. However, I’d like to explore how these

I also began experimenting with homemade bioplastics

materials may weather and develop over time, thinking of

using recipes found online. I had a flexible approach to

the structure over its lifespan rather than just the newly

these by deciding to experiment with the ratio of ingre-

finished form.

dients, which as a result created different outcomes. The



Introduction OUTLINING INITIAL INTENTIONS The proposed buildings main purpose will be a Plastic Exploration Centre. The centre will include a Plastic Recycling plant which will recycle plastic so it can be used by the on-site artists and public workshops to be made into either art works or desktop appliances to be sold in the shop. Two galleries will exhibit works that purely celebrate plastic as a material. The building will be situated within the town walls of Berwick, which means it will have a higher footfall of guests and that it will be in the heart of the Berwick community, meaning that it will be convenient for the public to recycle their plastics and to visit the galleries, shop and cafe.

Derelict site 3 from Sandgate.


View from intersection of Drivers Lane and Sandgate.


“Old Bridge” Crossing the River Tweed


The Leaping Salmon - Public House

Berwick Infirmary


YHA Berwick

Berwick Town Hall

Berwick Parish Church

Berwick Skyline from South bank of River Tweed with Proposal




An on-site plastic recycling centre will allow members of

The shop and small cafe will be situated on the second

the public to deliver their very own plastic bottles through

floor within the tensile Polyvinyl chloride composite struc-

the “Hole in the Wall� and watch the process take place on

ture above the gallery spaces. The situation of this space

large recycling machines through large glazed openings on

on the top floor is intentional to encourage guests to flow

the street level of Sandgate.

through the gallery spaces in order to reach this place of

ARTIST WORKSHOP AND STUDIO An Artist workshop and studio which will be linked to the plastic recycling centre and the rest of the building will allow artists to work on their installations for the gallery or on smaller individual works relating to plastics. The public are

OUTREACH SPACE The whole building is an outreach space in terms of exploring and experiencing the properties of plastic, but to get an even immersive experience, workshops are available to

free to observe artists at work.

educational institutes and the public to get a hands on ap-


producing bioplastics, and thermal reforming.

The proposal includes on-site en-suite accommodation for three Artists with shared kitchen, living and snug area. There is also 24 hour access to the studio area which is situated in the same wing of the building.

GALLERY SPACE Gallery space allows for on-site and visiting artists to exhibit their work. Split across two levels within the tensile Polyvinyl chloride composite structure, the galleries offer high ceilings and large uninterrupted spaces. 120


proach to reforming plastic. Activities include 3D printing,

OUTDOOR SPACE With the facade of the structure being translucent, it has the opportunity of becoming a screen, bringing the building to life during the Berwick Film Festival, celebrating the possibilities of recycled plastics.


Artists at Work MIWA KOIZUMI Koizumi is an artist who works directly with plastic. She highlights the issues of waste plastic within the ocean by orientating her work around sea creatures. The work is crafted from recycled PET plastic bottles that are a common household object and are typically disposed of by most. Koizumi reclaims PET bottles prior to the recycling process and reforms them through cutting and heating them until they become soft. Being a thermoplastic, once cool they will set in the new desired shape. Based on these processes, a key part of the recycling centre will be a reclaim area which will give the artists an opportunity to claim PET bottles before they go through the recycling process.


Artworks by Miwa Koizumi - Created from plastic PET bottles by heating up and reshaping before leaving to cool and set. Usually exhibited by suspending from ceiling. 123

Experimenting BIOPLASTICS


As the purpose of the proposal focuses around


plastics as a whole and not only recycling, the use

of bioplastics should be addressed. The two differ-


ent bioplastic recipes (see right) used produced two


different results in terms of appearance and proper-


main properties raised in this process were:


Using Corn Starch and Vinegar

Using Gelatine (by Mauricio Rodriguez)

ties, which were used to inform the early stages of design and the potential of the material. The three







-White Vinegar

The bioplastics produced were relatively ‘low-tech’ and were produced in a home environment, with this in mind, bioplastic workshops would be available in the Outreach space, to aid learning and further the understanding of bioplastic potential for the future.





1 - Bioplastic Recipe 1. With addition of food colouring and soap. Set on aluminium foil. Hard. 2 - Bioplastic Recipe 2. With addition of soap. Set in square plastic container. Warped over time. Hard. Tough. 3 - Bioplastic Recipe 3. Suspended from frame. Elastic feel. Soft. Ripped easily. 125

Installations CONCEPT ART The following pieces show initial concepts that informed me of some forms early in the design process and the different properties of plastic. These were produced from the bioplastics which were produced, recycled context lens containers and nylon tights. These pieces are examples of some of the work that will be on exhibition in the gallery spaces, celebrating the potential of recycled plastics. The way these are presented in model form make an otherwise typical object, interesting to look at.





1 - Nylon tights stretched over wooden frame. (Plastic properties) 2 - Contact lens containers recycled to produce exhibition piece. 3 - Exhibition piece created from home-made bioplastic. 127



The main feature of the building is the Polyvinyl

internal steel trusses and box columns.

Chloride fabric facade that is stretched with tension over a steel frame with specially design spokes that force the fabric outwards, creating the tensile appearance. This materially generally defies the public space within the building. Upon entering the main entrance to the building on the first level, minimalistic glazing lines the perimeter of this level with the atrium-like space created by the tensile structure.

The tensile fabric will be stretched over It will create a semi indoor-outside space in the interior with it mainly being used as an enclosure

CONCRETE Solid concrete walls will enclose the recycling centre on the street level of the site. The solidity of this material will contrast the public spaces above.

Within the ‘cube’, a separate concrete frame suspends two decks within, that are purposed as an additional gallery space and cafe/shop respectively.

MASONRY Masonry will be used to create the

This material aims to express the potential of polymers to visitors without them even having to enter the building, giving an immediate and lasting effect through the bold façades and features of the design. The material is also translucent which also allows like to penetrate inwards throughout the day and vice-versa at night, creating a glowing ‘cube’, and potentially attracting attention.


wing of the building where the existing building stood to mimic the heritage of that an the old picture house. It also separates the artists accommodation from the rest of the proposal.

View of proposal from street level on Sandgate.


Circulation PEDESTRIAN ROUTES THROUGH THE SITE Pedestrian routes was a major drive in the design process by creating a open air route through the centre of site between the two proposed buildings. This intention follows site analysis of many people passing through the car park and down drivers lane, simply then to walk northwards up Sandgate. Creating this route reduces the need for walking around the road way which already has insufficient pavements. The passage through the two buildings also gives a unconscious interaction with polymers even to those who aren’t visiting the centre. The passage way boasts façades of glazing on either side, one with the plastic recycling centre and recycling machine, and the other with the artists workshop and studio. The two sides are interconnected underneath the grand staircase of the passage, hence it benefits from the change in level across the site.

Pedestrian routes through the site. (Plan view)


Pedestrian routes around the building and through the site. (Tensile PVC structure removed for purpose of diagram)


Plastic Recycling Centre

‘Hole in the Wall’

Sorting area

Up to Galleries

“LARGE VIEWING WINDOWS” Situated on level with Sandgate with large window openings in the solid concrete walls. This allows the public to see the process of recycling take place. The plastic transformation centre is a key space within the building as it aims to teach the community about

Plastic Transformation Machine

plastics. Doing this will create more awareness and encourage people to recycle and use the on-site recycling facilities. This could result in their contribution being used for art work or re-purposed objects and appliances in the gift shop.


Up to Studio

Outreach Space

Plastic Recycling Centre


Plastic transformation route diagram. Plastics enter through ‘Hole in the wall’ (top left) and are then sorted where which they will either be claimed by the artists or put in the machine to be transformed into pellets.

Impression of the viewing window into the plastic transformation centre along the passageway between the two buildings.


Main Entrance / Gallery 1 “ARTWORK SUSPENDED IN THE ATRIUM� The public will enter to the rear of the building after passing through the passage way and up the large external stairs. This space is both reception and gallery atrium space. The floor surface will be polish concrete which will reflect the light. A concrete frame will support gallery 2 and the cafe/ shop above, standing separately from the steel structure which supports the facade. This space contains an atrium where artworks like that of Miwa Koizumi will be suspended from.

Reception, Main Public Entrance & Gallery 1


Impression of main public entrance of the building, with reception on the left, elevator on the right and exhibition space with work from Miwa Koizumi ahead. 135

Spaces GALLERY 2


Gallery 2 is situated on a deck above gallery 1 and will

A core staircase will wrap round a central lift shaft. The lift

house similar exhibitions to that of gallery 1.

itself is an industrial sized elevator in order to manoeuvre


large art across the multiple levels.

The cafe and shop are situated on the top floor to encourage people to flow through all the galleries. The space will be the highest point and will only have the PVC fabric above, allowing mass amount of light to fill the space.

OUTREACH SPACE An outreach space will face directly onto Sandgate street so the public can have a direct view of the learning going on inside. Working 3D printers will be on display in the window.

ARTIST ACCOMMODATION Artist accommodation will be positioned on the first and second floors of the existing building as an indication that this space is more private. Large openings however are still in place in the studio to allow the public to see them at work and have a connection.


Vertical Circulation in main public space

Gallery 2

Cafe / Shop

Outreach Space

Artist Accommodation

Positioning of Key spaces around the building.



Toilet Facilities


Plastic Transformation Centre

Outreach Space



Gallery 1 / Reception Studio

Kitchen / Living Area



Gallery 2


Artist Accommodation


Shop / Cafe


Section AA 142


Structural Strategy SHOWN THROUGH DIAGRAMS AND SECTION The structure of the building will be compromised of three key structural strategies. These three methods are crucial for the layout and appearance of the development. The tensile PVC fabric will be stretched over a steel frame made up of box steel columns and trusses to withstand the tensile load. It will be pushed outwards with the use of specialist designed steel spokes to give the points on the overall external appearance. Diagram 1 describes how the tensile PVC fabric will be then attached and sealed to the rest of the structure. The base of the building where the recycling centre will be positioned will be constructed using solid concrete wall methods which will be connected to an intermediate concrete floor which will require a profile steel deck method. See diagram 2 for more details. Steel is used as support due to larger spans. The existing building will be reconstructed using block and beam construction due to its low floor loads as it is mostly residential and the fact that the floors have shorter spans, which means block and beam will be more economical. Diagram 3 gives a closer look. 144



Change in Level DESIGNING ACROSS TWO LEVELS The site from front to back has an approximate change in level of around one storey. With this in mind it allows the main entrance to the building to be to the rear of the building which is facing away from the main Sandgate road. The passage way through the site will include a wide staircase, which underneath is a connecting corridor between the existing building and the new structure. This corridor will be used for staff and artists only and is not a public space.




Three - Dimensional Model MODEL PRODUCED AT A SCALE OF 1:100 A range of photographs including different levels of lighting in order to showcase the model which was constructed to support the scheme. It gives a three-dimensional view into what the final building may potentially look like. The model is set into its immediate context within Berwick-Upon-Tweed which has been produced in a different colour material to allow the new proposal to stand out, to show a clear indication between the old and the new. The tensile PVC structure was produced from nylon white tights for the purpose of the model as it has relatively similar elastic properties, and the ability to semi-transparent which the final building will be. This is also removable on the model so the concrete frame decks inside can be visualised more easily.


Images showing proposal in context with, and without tensile PVC fabric structure.


Top - Illuminating the inside of the tensile PVC structure, showing translucent properties. Right - Showing street view facing westerly up Drivers Lane. Bottom - Public space in front of Plastic transformation centre & Gallery 1/entrance space (glazing proposed) 150

Top - Man and Girl looking through the viewing window at the plastic transformation centre. Bottom - Public space in front of Plastic transformation centre with view of grand external staircase to main entrance. 151

Three - Dimensional Model FRAGMENT OF BUILDING PRODUCED AT 1:50 As part of the development of the scheme, the most important part of the building would be the tensile PVC fabric facade as this is the feature of the design that promotes the use of polymers within construction. As a result a 1:50 model fragment has been produced to best show this feature. It shows some of the structural strategy that includes box steel columns and trusses which in this case has been recreated in MDF. The concrete block below conceptually shows the space of where the Recycling Transformation centre will be situated. For modelling purposes, nylon tights are used to represent the tensile PVC facade showing how it will be stretched across the specialist designed spokes. The open space between this and the concrete will be glazed.


1:50 Fragment model of tensile PVC fabric as a facade with conceptual concrete block to represent plastic transformation centre below.


Top - Full model fragment with interior illuminated and shadows. Right - Close-up of box steel construction with spokes to push the fabric outwards. Bottom - Close-up of average person besides the construction to give sense of scale. 154

Projections onto stretched nylon tights (representing tensile PVC fabric). Projections show video tutorials of how to recycle plastics into useful household objects and appliances which will be used as part of the Berwick Film Festival, highlighting the importance of recycling plastics. Facade doubles up as screen. 155

Process Work EXPLORING FORM AND LAYOUT - TWO AND THREE DIMENSIONALLY The process work is crucial in the design process as it shows where the development of the project began. I started off by sizing all the approximate sizes of each component which needed to be included in the building, with a ratio for each room. With this in mind I then began to develop different forms within this volume. I stared off using blue foam as this could be easily cut using the wire cutter, producing various forms in a short amount of time. Constructing a cardboard site model allowed me to interchange sketch models within it, giving an appearance of what the design may look like in context. Exploring Floor area.


1 - Sketch Model 1. Produced from massing blue foam. Set in context. (Plastic Transformation centre filling entire site at ground level) 2 - Sketch Model 2. Reforming the tower. Set in context. (Connection to existing building) 3 - Sketch Model 3. Raising the tower to create a glazed void (similar to that in final design in Entrance/Gallery 1). 157


1 - Sketch Model 4. Looking into spaces and floor levels in more detail. Creating an atrium space over the walkway between the new and existing building. Recognising the change in levels. 2 - Sketch Model 5. Separation of new and existing building. Creating an open passage way between the two. Having floor decks contained within the ‘cube’. Plastic transformation centre remains on ground floor in both and is connected to existing building via underpass.

Development of facade and building ‘wrap’. Floor decks contained within the wrap from diagram 2 onwards. Diagrams 3 and 4 explore different uses of tensile PVC. The face of the re-purposed existing structure is also developed to include larger and more openings reflecting from the new structure. 159




Development of floor plans throughout the project. Colour coded for easy reading during tutorials. Major changes include: The stair and lift core, The artist accommodation and studio, and the set back position of the plastic transformation centre. 160

Additional diagrams supporting the development of the project. 1 - Initial idea of being able to view and observe artists at work in their studios and workshops. Gives public interaction and interest. 161


Process + Reflect


Modelling WORKING AT VARIOUS SCALES When model making it is important to stick to scales when producing a design. This is crucial as it gives the peer an insight into how large or small the development is. It can therefore also be measured using a scale ruler if dimensions are required. Throughout the design process, my method of working is to start with smaller sketch like models at scale 1:200. At this scale, minimal level of detailing is used and is commonly used to show the overall form of the building within its context. At this stage the design is under development so modelling should be quick paced. Once the design is in the late development stage, the scale will increase, typically 1:100. At this scale more details will be added such as openings, internal walls and floors if not already done so at 1:200. This will therefore increase spacial awareness and in this case might lead to further developments.

I decided to increase the scale of the Tensile PVC

Materiality is also incorporated at this level as I

fabric fragment of the structure, this is produced

have used grey-board to represent concrete, white

at 1:50 and shows potential details in the steel

to represent the masonry and brown cardboard to

trusses. For this model I used new techniques to

represent the context. Keeping the material palette

myself which included using the laser cutter and

concise will ensure the model is more readable.

casting. Adding scale people to the model also

Once the design was finalised before the final review,

improves context of scale. Top - 1:200 scale model. (Sketch Model 5 in context) Bottom - 1:100 scale model with minimal materials palette in context.


Top - Constructing the laser cut pieces of the steel frame that will support the tensile PVC structure. The design was drawn using Adobe Illustrator before being exported to the laser cutter. Bottom - Casting concrete to the dimensions of Plastic Transformation Centre on ground floor of design. Form creating using wood offcuts and concrete produced by using 2 part cement, 1 part water, and 1 part sand. Less sand in future as quite crumbly in parts. Right - Final 1:50 model fragment with added tensile PVC fabric and people added for scale context.



Model photographs are crucial to the creation of the portfolio. This is one of the est ways you can communicate your design through 3D outputs. As a result of this time should be invested into taking model photographs that show the model clearly and/or atmospherically. Through the tools for design workshops it has encouraged and excited me into taking model photographs by testing out different lighting throughout to find the best way to present the model. On the opposite page I have chosen 4 different photograph methods I have used when taking a photograph. 1 - For this image I have chosen to use direct lighting to identify a key feature of the building which in this case is the central stair core. This creates a clear approach with the background being a high contrast to the feature in focus.


2 - This image represents how the building may appear at night. I have positioned the light behind to shine through the openings of the model. This creates an atmospheric approach as it may represent what the building will look like once constructed. 3 - This image best shows the properties of the tensile PVC material as I have illuminated this fragment to show how light filters in and the shadows of the floor decks that are cast inside. This was an important feature of the design, so photographing the effect is an efficient way to communicate the idea. 4 - Image 4 was taken under natural lighting conditions and shows the model in its true form. This type of photograph is required in the portfolio as it clearly communicates the model in its context with no distraction from lighting techniques.

1 - Direct lighting and highlighting technique. 2 - Atmospheric lighting at night approach. 3 - Atmospheric lighting communicating materiality. 4 - Natural Lighting conditions for clear and readable model images.


Representation COMMUNICATING WORK Work must be communicated effectively in order for peers to understand and read the scheme. This is also a very important skill for practice when communicating ideas to the client, contractors and engineers. I have learnt through tools for design that leaving white space within the portfolio is crucial for it being successful as it allows the image to breathe and therefore peers aren’t distracted with what else is going on the page. Using tools such as Photoshop also allows me to more successfully communicate my ideas by using realistic photo renders of materials and cleaning up plans that may have lost quality through the scanners. I have also been aware of markings on plans that display the maximum amount of communication possibly with features such as, Section cut lines, North arrow and scale bar. I have included a selection of my work from the stage it was in January 2017, comparing it to now (May 2017) showing how my representation skills have developed. As a result I now feel much more confident using Adobe Photoshop and InDesign. Top - Exterior perspective (January 2017) Bottom - Exterior Perspective (May 2017) 168

Sketch Models

Developing Sketches REFINING PLANS AND EXPLORING MORE SMALLER DETAILS Refining smaller details include how rooms connect with each other and how an individual would flow through the space from the front door to the bedroom for example. This space must work efficiently such as working space out for each use rather that just a room. Doing this requires gaining measurements for furnishings to ensure they will fit in the room they are intended to.

Initially inhabiting rooms for a standard two-bed apartment.

Sketch to change the layout of the roof garden- making a mezzanine.

1:200 plan of fourth floor, showing adjustments to curve the front facade.

Early section including public-private diagram.

Top - Dwelling Plus Ground Floor Plan (January 2017) Bottom - Dwelling Plus Ground Floor Plan (May 2017) Addition of section cut line, scale bar and North arrow.


Top - Process work in portfolio (January 2017) Bottom - Process work in portfolio (May 2017) Clearly captioned and room for images and diagrams to breathe. 169

Learning Journal JOURNAL KEEPING IN SKETCHBOOKS THROUGHOUT THE YEAR As part of stage two I have kept several sketch books close by as a go to when I think of an idea or a potential development. I have taken sketchbooks on site visits with me so that I am able to record important information on the day which I would not receive otherwise. This includes taking observational sketches and recording the atmosphere in words. With this vital information recorded on the day, some of my design ideas are driven on this information. I also use the sketchbooks to record precedents for my design projects where I am able to analyse them in a sketchy manner, and be able to draw on top of them if needed. The main idea of these sketchbooks is that I can freely express my ideas with no boundaries. They allow me experiment and explore different techniques and form. A selection of example pages have been taken from my sketchbooks on the following pages to give an indication of how I work.


Top - Site analysis in the area of interest in Leith. Bottom - Observational sketch of a public and private boundary. 171

Top - Photographs and analysis of Cable Wynd House, high CCTV presence Bottom - Observational sketches and diagrams of a public and private boundary. 172

Top & Bottom - Drawing onto images of sketch model to aid development. Note taking from tutorials. 173

Top - Drawing on photographs of model to further understand the site and the routes through the building. Bottom - Studying the workings of the vertical garden using mesh. 174

Top - Site analysis of site 3 in Berwick - Upon - Tweed. Situated on Sandgate. Bottom - Research into recycling plastic and plastic transformation machines. 175

Top - Calculating space required in the building for different purposes. Bottom - Comparing and analysing sketch models. 176

Top - Development sketches of building in section, more details shown and preliminary floor plans. Bottom - Diagrams showing activities taking place in the building with development sketches. 177




Non-Design Modules ARC2009 ARC2010 ARC2020 ARC2024


ARC2009 - ARCHITECTURAL TECHNOLOGY Constructional Coursework







The building is to be located north of Edinburgh in Leith. The site itself is opposite cable wynd which has had a controversial history of crime and an alienated community in more recent years. My proposal hopes to rectify the current issues the area is having by introducing new housing and community orientated public spaces. The ambition is to encourage the people of Leith to come together to grow, learn and eat together in a community run kitchen which plans to sell, cook or prepare locally sourced products or fruits and vegetables that are grown in the roof garden/terrace. ConnectGround Floor (shown in diagram) ed to the semi-enclosed roof garden is a learning hub, that offers learning primarily aimed at children, whilst simultaneously providing child care. All these spaces, as well as six individual 1-3 bedroom dwellings are accessible via a central stair core, cladded with steel mesh (also to act as a trellis) with an elevator for disabled access and an express route to higher floors. A distinct feature of the building is that public spaces are clad in mesh, whereas private spaces in brickwork.

Map of Leith with site highlighted

1. PLANS Plans of all eight floors including the ground floor are shown with a yellow box which shows the bay where the constructional diagram will be based on. As all floors are mostly repeated in layout the diagram only shows the ground and first floors as well as the roof construction. However I have clearly marked on all floors where the diagram will be taken to make it clearer that all floors are layered above each other. B5007372





2. SECTION The section is clearly marked up to show the bay which will be shown in the constructional diagram. Part of the bay takes place in the private stairwell between the both floors of the individual apartments. This staircase includes a tall narrow window which is taller than a conventional floor in the building. Fourth Floor

First Floor (shown in diagram)

Fifth Floor

Second Floor

Sixth Floor

Section AA Seventh Floor (partially shown in diagram)

Third Floor



3. MODEL PHOTOGRAPHS The model photographs are intended to give a three-dimensional image of my proposals for the building. It also makes it more clearer what features the structural diagram will show and what it will include.



1. CAIXA FORUM, MADRID This was one of the buildings that inspired me in the coming to the Leith proposal, the Caixa Forum in Madrid. It is used as a museum and a cultural centre, designed and constructed by Swiss architects, Herzog & de Mouron. It was originally an old electrical power station but it was newly purposed and additional floors were added, cladded in oxidised cast iron, that has a similar look to corten steel.

Model of an example of a two bedroom apartment where the constructional diagram will be taken.

This links to the materiality of the proposal in Leith due to the contrasting, yet complimenting materials used to clad the building. A main feature of my proposal is that steel mesh will clad the public spaces, with the space behind it being open to the elements in some aspects such as on the staircase and part of the roof garden. A similar affect can be seen in the bottom right image where voids have been cut into the material. Front elevation of the dwellings.

Caixa forum featuring corten steel cladding accompanied with old existing power station and green wall.

Constructional section showing stair-core in centre of building.

Photograph taken during the construction/restoration of Caixa Forum. Steel frame with corten cladding can be seen here.

Corten cladding and partial mesh, similar that to be used on dwelling plus in Leith. However a silver steel will be used to clad public space elements.

The material has been mounted on a light steel frame work which will act as the infill to the main structural steel frame that will tie both the new building and the existing together.

The constructional bay can be seen in the model photograph above. The diagram itself however only shows the ground and first floors as all other floors are repeated using the same constructional method and have the same layout.

Roof plan of dwelling. B5007372









The Monadnock building is the tallest load bearing brick structure in the world as it stands at 16 stories. It primarily used as offices in the present day. The building itself dates back to 1891, yet the flaring bulking masonry at the corners of the building (pictured right) give an almost post modernist appearance. The thick walls towards the base of the building act as buttresses to support the many floors of brick work above. I was first drawn to this building due to the appearance as I proposed for the building at Leith to have a thick masonry wall appearance, acting as a partial balcony where the door would be opened onto a seamless glass barrier. I also studies the plans which can be seen in the top left image. It shows both a higher level and a lower level of the building, where the walls towards the base are much thicker and ones towards the top are thinner, as they don’t have to support as much weight above.


Due to the purpose of the ground floor majority being public use, it will be more practical to use solid concrete as this can withstand more weight than other methods such as ‘block and beam’. It is also relitively inexpensive in comparison.

2. UPPER FLOOR CONSTRUCTION The upper floors will be constructed using pre-cast concrete slabs which are also hollow which reduces the weight but the strength is retained. Due to floors being at higher levels, this will be an easier method as they can be craned into place. They also off acoustic and fire resistant properties.

Comparison of plans from a lower floor and a higher floor, noticing that a lower floor has much thicker walls, due to load bearing masonry.

In modern day, the developers would select a frame based structure as it would be relatively cheaper in comparison as well as it saving time in the construction. Using load bearing masonry also proves limits as it doesn’t allow for as large open plan spaces as supporting walls will need to be present,dividing spaces. This is partially why I have opted for a steel frame in the Leith proposal as it allows for more flexibility in terms of space, as well as costs and duration of construction.

3. ROOF CONSTRUCTION A flat roof construction would be most suitable for a building of this height due to wind conditions at that height, in which a pitched roof could become vulnerable.

Photograph taken at street level.

Windows can be seen recessed in the load bearing masonry wall. A similar aesthetic appearance I am aiming for in dwelling plus.






i. Wall construction proposed: Steel frame with timber stud infill with brickwork and cement cladding.




6. INSULATION i. Wall and Roof insulation Conventional insulation in the walls of the structure can be stone wool insulation which comes in a variety of densities which provide various levels of insulation.

I had originally intended to for the walls to compose of a brick outer leaf cladding with a timber infill within a steel frame. However this does not link directly to the green guide. With the timber infill, this would make the structure more sustainable due to timber being a renewable material. Fixings can also be easily applied and possibilities of cold bridging are reduced. However, additional fire protection will need to be applied.

ii. Ground Floor and Upper Floor insulation


Due to these insulations having to retain weight of the floor above, solid insulation has to be used, hence why expanded polystyrene has been chosen.

Aluminium frame windows tend to be more durable and appear more aesthetically sleek in the design of the structure. They can also be recoloured in desired.





1. ROOF B5007372




i. Roof Construction Build Up

SUGGESTED IMPROVEMENTS One large area for improvement especially would be the construction of the intermediate floor levels. I have currently proposed all intermediate floor to be constructed using hollow pre-cast reinforced concrete slab. I chose this due to its acoustic qualities and fire resistance. It would also be suitable for installation on higher levels as it could be lifted and dropped into place. However this scores very low in reference to the green guide with a summary rating of ‘E’. The three highest weighting components to the green guide table are Climate change (21.6%), Water Extraction (11.7%) and Mineral Resource Extraction (9.8%) which all score E, E, D respectively on the material. A direct alternative to this would be to used pre-stressed concrete slabs as this not only benefits the building structurally by being able to run greater spans at reduced depths, but increases the summary rating from an E to a C. All columns in the table read C or above with the three heaviest weighting ones at grades C, B and C respectively. Timber joists also prove a possible alternative especially to those floors that are of the same apartment (i.e.. Apartment on two floors) which would higher the summary rating significantly due to timber being a renewable material. For the roof construction I have opted for a profiled metal deck which will be fixed to the steel framework and will be the base for the insulation and roofing membrane. This scores an impressive summary rating of a ‘B’. However using timber joists for the warm deck roofing between the structural steels would have giving ratings of ‘A+’ due to it being a renewable material and that it would not have taken much energy to produce it to its form.


2. EXTERNAL WALL i. External Wall Construction Build Up

Roofing Membrane Insulation Vapour Control Layer Profiled Metal ‘Deep’ Decking Structural Steel Framework

A warm deck flat roof construction will be used with a parapet edging. This will be most functional for a high-rise building over a pitched roof construction due to higher wind levels at the 8th storey. The parapet component will also give aesthetic appearance of a continuing wall. Drainage will also run internally.

Weighting table

ii. Parapet Detail Metal Flashing with Drip Features Ply-board & Insulation Wall Construction Component

Roofing Membrane (continuous under Parapet Cap) Cant Strip



This is an up close detail of the parapet edging to the roof with a cut away to show internal layers. The metal flashing which sits on top acts as the final protective layer from the elements and includes drip features so that water can not travel up the inside of the flashing into the cavity due to gravity. The cant strip is used in the transition between the vertical and horizontal planes of the roof and avoids the sharp corner, reducing problems such as the membrane becoming split and water collecting where leakages are more prone. The Waterproofing membrane runs continuously underneath the flashing to protect the cavity from damp with joins of separate pieces using specialist overlapping methods to eliminate water intrusion. ARC 2009 ARCHITECTURE TECHNOLOGY COURSEWORK



ii. Ground floor external wall Ground Floor Level Inner Leaf Block work DPM Inner Leaf Insulation and Cavity DPC Outer Leaf Brickwork Cladding Structural Steelwork Steel Bolted into Foundations The base of the external wall it made up of block work in two leafs, an inner and outer. The inner leaf is made up of one layer of block work, followed by a damp proof course that is continuous underneath the concrete slab in the solid concrete floor. The outer leaf is constructed from brick work, which will form the cladding of the structure (as it is not load bearing). One layer will eventually be below vegetation and two above, followed be a damp proof course to prevent rainwater permeating up and inside the cavity where the timber will be placed. Insulation will be positioned in this lower part of the wall below where the timber stud infill will be.

Timber Noggins Timber Frame Infill

Timber Studs Timber Sole Plates

External Floor Level


The timber infill is then placed on top of the DPC and insulation. It will be fixed in on sole plates that will be fixed to the steel work to avoid puncturing the DPC. The studs will typically be placed and 400mm centres and have standard cross-sectional dimensions of 140x35mm. Noggins will be inserted to improve stability. Insulation is also placed between the concrete foundation caps and the steelwork itself to reduce cold bridging up through the building. Insulation will also fill the voids of the timber infill.






iii. External Wall with Clad



i. Solid Concrete Floor

Insulation in Timber Stud Infill

Cast Concrete Floor

Plywood Board

DPC Continuous on Steel and Block Work

Damp Proof Membrane

DPC Under Cast Concrete

Insulating Fibre Boards

Insulation Sand Topper

Brickwork Cladding

Aggregate Hardcore Fill (if necessary)

Structural Steelwork A plywood board is then applied to the timber stud work and runs in front of the steelwork, this will further stabilise the stud-work and act as a base for the damp proof membrane that is design to prevent moisture from coming into contact with the timber which could cause it to rot over time. Insulating fibre board is then added which also runs in front of the steelwork. This will provide a final layer of insulation and reduce cold bridging. Wall ties are then fastened through these layers back to the stud work, these are designed to keep the brickwork cladding in order and stable. The wall ties are usually fixed in place with the mortar between the masonry.

Hardcore aggregate can be used if necessary to level off the site for the construction of a solid concrete floor. Sand is then applied on top of this to provide a smoother surface which can be more easily levelled off. Insulation that is moisture tolerable is then placed on top of the sand, followed by a Damp Proof Course that runs continuously over the inner leaf of the wall to ensure moisture protection. Concrete is then cast on top of this. A layer of screed and underfloor heating pipes can be installed on top of this layer.

iv. External Wall with Internal Finishes Plasterboard Finish Timber Battens Vapour Control Layer Steelwork Fixing with Insulation

Window Opening Insulation and Timber Stud Infill

Pile Foundations Concrete Cap Pile Foundations

Structural Steelwork Internally, a vapour control membrane coats the timber stud-work from the inside to protect it from moisture. This is followed by timber battens which leaves a cavity for piping and cables if necessary before the plaster board is applied. Plaster and paint can then be applied to this surface.





As the building is a high rise of 8 stories, pile foundations will be the most suitable. The ground floor level sits slightly above the actually ground levels to prevent moisture through the ground.





i. Internal Stud-work Detail

i. Hollow Pre-Cast Concrete Slab Floor


Screed Wall Insulation

Trimmer Studs

Hollow Pre-Cast Concrete Slabs

Sill Trimmer

Structural Steelwork

Cripple Studs The pre-cast concrete slabs will be supported by the structural steel frame. The hollow feature to the slabs reduces the weight significantly however retains its strength. Insulation is then placed on top of the slabs followed by a screed, in which underfloor heating can be installed at the same time. This method of intermediate flooring is sound insulating and reduces the spread of fire which can be two important factors in high rise living, with different dwellings above and beneath.

In this case the window opening lines up with the 400mm centres of the timber stud work. Where the window opening is made, additional studs such as trimmer studs and sill trimmers are inserted in order to strengthen the rest of the infill due to the opening and to be able to support the window fixtures that will be inserted.

ii. Lintel Detail

ii. Ceiling Detail

Damp Proof Membrane Damp Proof Course Metal Lintel Fixture

Light Steelwork

External Brickwork Cladding

Plaster Board Ceiling

Insulation inside Lintel

The lintel is fastened to the timber stud-work and is designed to support the brickwork above the window opening. Commonly the lintel is produced in steel and therefore can be a leading cause of cold bridging, however due to the timber stud-work construction this is reduced along with the insulation that is inserted in the void of the lintel. A damp proof course lines the lintel and the damp proof membrane overlaps to ensure that the structure is fully damp proof.

Ceiling Boards will be fixed to light steel work on the underside of the floor. The cavity can be used for utilities such as pipes and cabling as well as house additional insulation.







i. Cavity Fire Barrier Cavity

Cavity Fire Barrier

Fire can lead to devastating consequences in high-rise domestic buildings, so fire prevention measures have to be taken. A fire barrier is inserted into the cavity between apartments to stop fire from travelling up through the cavity quickly as it can slow the fire down by up to 60 minutes.


In order to fulfil all the features of the high rise building I believe choosing a steel frame for the primary construction material. Using a steel frame allowed for the spaces within it to be more flexible and allow for open plan rooms as the material could span further distances than others such as load bearing masonry and timber. The flexibility also allowed for much larger attractive windows, as well as the placement and position of them as the frame could be adjusted to meet the requirements. This could allow much more light into the property and capture specific views. This framework can also be bridged to the external stair core that is planned to be clad in a steel mesh material. This external staircase is proposed to look more industrial in comparison to the dwellings themselves which will be clad in brick which gives the sense of a ‘home’. The frame work will be clad with an outer leaf of conventional brickwork that it a durable material that will protect the interior from the elements as well as appearing attractive along with the complimenting windows and steel cladding. Brickwork would have a longer life span compared to other cladding materials that could have been used as an alternative such as timber cladding. It also benefits the insulation of the property as the brickwork itself resists fire and provides excellent moisture control.

Brickwork Cladding

Cavity Fire Barrier

Structural Steelwork

Timber Infill Specialist types of insulation can also act as fire protection which could be used by slowing down the journey of fire and confining it to one flat/apartment, which would allow it to be extinguished safely. Using a floor system such as pre-cast concrete slabs, will also act as fire protection between floors. It is also vitally important that the timber stud work especially is protected by materials that are resistant to fire such as fire resistant plaster board.

Timber in-fills will provide the fixings for the interior wall, this will be suitable for insulation to fixed within it. Battens and plasterboard can be added to this so that necessary utilities can be fitted in the cavity that give comfort to the homeowner.



15007372 ARC2009 - Architecture Technology Access for All Coursework Submission Part 2A 2016-2017 Disobedient Bodies Exhibition in Gallery 10 - own photo 1


Location: The Hepworth Wakefield The Hepworth Gallery is a purpose built art and sculpture gallery in Wakefield, West Yorkshire. Situated on the river Calder on an old industrial site, the gallery was designed by David Chipperfield in honour of Sculptor Barbara Hepworth who was raised in the city. Galleries and public facilities are spread across 2 floors with an approximate area of 1600sqm which attracted 500,000 visitors during its first year of opening (2011-2012)

The Hepworth Gallery

Condition: Age Related Macular Degeneration

Audit Location and Scope

Macular Degeneration is an eye condition that causes dysfunction of the macular. The disease causes blind spots in the centre of the person’s vision as well as being blurred and distorted. It is the most common cause of visual impairment amongst older people and therefore must be an important issue to address in architecture. As sharp central vision is impaired, first time visits can be daunting, especially when finding routes around the building, using vertical circulation and reading information.

Address: The Hepworth Wakefield, Gallery Walk, Wakefield WF1 5AW, UK Survey Date: 02/04/2017 [PM] Weather Conditions: Dry, light cloud with some sunny intervals, some shaded areas tended to be damp with some surface water from previous rainfall, Average high of 13c, South Westerly Wind <10mph The main areas concentrated in the report will be: 1) Pedestrian routes to the main entrance of the gallery from the main car park, nearby train station, and free city bus stop dedicated to the gallery. 2) Internally stairs that allow vertical circulation which will also include a brief study of handrails that accompany them 3) Wayfinding, information and signs both internally and externally 4) Websites used to collect information prior to visit

Normal Vision

Vision with Age-Related Macular Degeneration 3


Pedestrian Routes Building accessibility on 02/04/2017

Accessible areas

Route 1

I have chosen to assess pedestrian routes as part of the Access Audit Report as this takes a key role in making the building accessible, especially to those who are partially sighted. Macular Degeneration causes vision to become defocused and presents blind spots in the individualâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s vision. As a result of this the route from drop off zones and public transport networks must be specific standards in order to allow for a safe and easier use for the individual. Cafe

Auditorium Gallery 3


Lift/Stair Lobby

Gallery 4

Gallery 2

Entrance Lobby

Gallery 6

The gallery has many pedestrian routes round its site. One feature that particularly stood out to me when visiting was the controlled crossing to the east of the site. This crossing is well equipped in its features to satisfying the partially sighted, or those with Macular Degeneration. Even though it is not owned or maintained by the gallery itself, it is strategically positioned where it is for people accessing the gallery. It enables those particularly with eye sight conditions who otherwise struggle to cross the road, to cross it safely, from tactile paving and guides on the floor, to contrasting control boxes and pictograms. However an area for improvement which can easily be solved is grounds management as some vegetation was becoming overgrown which could potentially cause a trip hazard to those who may not see it.

Gallery 1

Gallery 8

Gallery Gardens

I have selected two routes which I know are the routes with the most pedestrian traffic. I will follow these as well as routes in the gallery gardens to assess against the access audit report and discuss how those who are partially sighted with macular degeneration may portray the site.

Gallery 5

Lift/Stair Lobby

Gallery 10


Ground Floor

Route 1 starts next to the car park where people may potentially get dropped off or another family member or friend may park. As the condition I am studying relates to be partially sighted it is unlikely they will be driving. The route includes a pedestrian crossing, a slope and bridge to the main gallery entrance.

Gallery 7

Gallery 9

Route 2 Route 2 is on the same side of the river as the gallery. The route starts on a major route (A61) which includes primary bus routes which guests may use as well as the free city bus shuttle. It also includes a drop off point.

First Floor

Additional Routes Additional pedestrian routes around the site include those in the gallery gardens which include obstacles such a steps and surfaces that may change relating to weather conditions and times of years.



Pedestrian Routes Diagram

Route 1 - Point 1

Referring to access audit checklist points 3.1, 3.5, 3.17-3.20

Control box

Start Point 1

This has been designed to aid the partially sighted as:


- Red = Stop, Green = Go - Universally recognised.

2 3


- Universal wait and go symbols on the actual control box instead of having to look to the control column on the opposite side of the road as in past. - Florescent Yellow (contrasts from background and stands out) - White button contrasts with black surface.

Start Point 2

7 6




1 Tactile Paving


This has been designed to aid the partially sighted as: - Allows them to feel the dome profiles under their feet, which indicates a crossing nearby.

2 2 Main Entrance Point

- *Improvement* Tactile paving on a controlled crossing should usually extend to the back of the path on the same side as the control column.




Key Point on Route Start of Route 7


Minimum width of extended tactile paving to be 1200mm - Complies with Approved Doc. M1


Referring to access audit checklist points 3.1, 3.5, 3.17-3.20

Route 1 - Point 2

Referring to access audit checklist points 3.9, 3.14-3.16

Guide Markers

This has been designed to aid the partially sighted as:

Sign & Information Point

- Reflective and contrast with road creating a â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;pathâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;

This sign has issues and requires *Improvement* as:

- Set at regular intervals to continue the path (400mm)


-Text does not contrast with the background making it difficult to read, especially those with blurred and distorted vision as the colours blend.

- Embossed from the road surface so they can be felt underfoot - Particularly useful at night as they refelect the street-lights making the crossing route much more prominent.

- Sign defaced, could cause some confusion. - Information on opening times and access unreadable at time of assessment, heavily faded. - *Improvement* The sign will need replacing to enable people to see necessary information clearly with or without a visual condition. Text in dark colours such as black will contrast with the grey galvanised steel. See example below:

Lowering of Curb

This has been designed to aid the partially sighted as:


- Allows step free access to the building, which can be particularly challenging for the partially sighted.


- Must be at least 1200mm wide to allow for passing. - *Note* Tactile paving continues to back of path on opposite side of road

3200mm 9

Route 1 - Point 3

Referring to access audit checklist points 3.1-3.13


Route 2 - Point 4

Referring to access audit checklist points 3.17-3.20

Floor Surface

This aids the partially sighted as: -The floor surface on this incline has treads to prevent slipping which is very beneficial.

1 & 2

- *Improvement* The colour of the floor and wall surface are very similar colours under the current lighting which can cause confusion for people with more serious Macular degeneration whoms vision is extremely blurred. Those with the condition benefit most from contrasting surfaces/colours.

Pavement and road boundary This has issues and requires *Improvement* as: - Road and pavement are on the same level without any warning which may cause confusion to people with sight problems even is surfaces slightly contrast.

Floor Surface

1 Wall Surface

- *Improvement* Instead of a harsh curb that will still require lowering at intervals, tactile paving could be installed, similar to that used on road crossings. This therefore would be much safer.

Floor Surface



No Handrail provided. *Improvement* can be made by: -I have calculated an approximate gradient of the incline with a run of 45m and a rise of 2m which equals a gradient of 1:23 (to nearest whole number). This means that it does not legally require a handrail (1:20 or steeper do)





- *Note* Low profile drainage can be identified here to prevent water run-off from the road onto the pavement.

Bollards and Posts This has issues and requires *Improvement* as:

-A handrail could be added easily to the existing structure. Even though the gradient is not steep enough to require one this could aid people with sight conditions like Macular degeneration to guide themselves into the building more safely.

- With the bollard being a similar grey colour to its surrounds it can be easily missed by those with eye conditions that results in being partially sighted. It could cause injury if these people were to walk into one. - *Improvement* Florescent taping can be added to the posts so that they stand out against the background.

2 2

(Referring to Approved Doc. M)



Route 2 - Point 5

Referring to access audit checklist points 3.17-3.20


Additional Route- Point 6

Referring to access audit checklist points 3.3, 3.10

Window opening outwards

Overgrown Planting

This has issues and requires *Improvement* as:


- The window opens outwards over the path which could cause an obstruction even though the distance is limited. Those who do not notice this or those who are partially sighted could walk into this and cause injury. - *Improvement* Florescent hazard tape could be added to the edge of the window opening as a quick temporary fix. Alternatively the path could be altered and planting introduced to act as a boundary.

This has issues and requires *Improvement* as:


- Due to the nature of the plants, it could cause a potential trip hazard if gone unseen which could cause injury. - *Improvement* Simple maintenance needs to be carried out and checked on a regular basis. When the summer months come the problem could worsen.


Example of hazard tape.

This aids the partially sighted as: - The material used contrasts the surroundings making it easily identifiable.


1 13



- *Improvement* Seating could be placed along the routes at more regular intervals.

Additional Route- Point 7

Referring to access audit checklist points 3.1, 3.8, 3.11-3.13

I have chosen to assess internal stairs as part of the access audit as stairs act a main point of circulation in a building but at the same time they can be deemed as an obstacle for many, especially those who are partially sighted. The steps contain nosings which contrast from the rest of the step as well as adding a profile to the step. This is good practice for those who suffer with Age Related Macular Degeneration as it aids them in identifying each step and therefore making the journey safer. Along side this I have made references to the handrail as it is a common ‘Age-related’ disease, many of those with the condition will likely be elderly and may require the use of a handrail. The handrail complies fully with the dimensions stated in Approved Document M1/M2 building regulations and also contrasts with the wall to make it stand out for those who can not see as well. However one major improvement that is required for improvement would be to make the landing surface contrast the stair surface to indicate that the change in level has been completed, and to reduce confusion for the partially sighted.

Stairs This has issues and requires *Improvement* as: - Surfaces do not contrast and can be difficult to see steps when walking down them if you have impaired vision. - *Improvement* Nosings can be applied to the steps which contrast the edges of them to make them more clear and safer.

Water collecting


Example of step nosing.

This has issues and requires *Improvement* as:


Internal Stairs (including Handrails)

Accessible areas

Location of Stairs audited

Auditorium Gallery 3

- Due to the weather conditions on the day of auditing, some puddles were still present on some surfaces of the site.


- Water collecting on surfaces can cause a slip hazard and therefore injury.

Lift/Stair Lobby

Gallery 2

Entrance Lobby

- *Improvement* Drainage can be installed to effectively drain water away, however a crossfall gradient is also required for water to run-off the surface in the direction of the drain/planting area.

Gallery 4

Gallery 5

Gallery 7

Gallery 8

Gallery 10


Gallery Gardens

Gallery 6

Lift/Stair Lobby

Gallery 1

Gallery 9

Example of set in path drainage.



Staircase Dimensions

Ground Floor

First Floor


Referring to access audit checklist points 3.3, 3.10, 18.22-18.23

Referring to access audit checklist points 8.1-8.11, 18.15-18.17

Step Nosing 1.

This aids the those with Macular Degeneration as:

Step dimensions meet building regulations in approved document M1/M2 - Actual Step Rise = 165mm - Step Rise Limits = 150mm-170mm


- Actual Step Going = 280mm - Step Going Limit = 280mm-425mm



400mm 3.



Staircase Pitch Line


Handrail dimensions meet building regulations in approved document M1/M2


- *Improvement* The nosing is metallic and can at some angles cause glare due to the roof light. A matt black colour may be more effective or even florescent yellow as seen previously on pedestrian routes.


- Actual Vertical Height to top of handrail from pitch line = 900mm - Vertical Height to top of handrail from pitch line Limits = 900mm-1000mm






- Actual Vertical Height to top of handrail from landing surface = 1050mm - Vertical Height to top of handrail from landing surface Limit = 900mm-1050mm


- Actual horizontal extension of handrail beyond top and bottom of stairs = 400mm - Horizontal extension of handrail beyond top and bottom of stairs = 300mm Max.

Surface finishes This has issues and requires *Improvement* as:

2 1


3 2 17

Referring to access audit checklist points 8.1-8.11

This aids the those with Macular Degeneration as:


- Handrails are continuous so they guide a route the entire journey. - Extends horizontal beyond bottom and top of stairs by 400mm so people who are partially sighted are indicated of the transition of landing. - Handrail turned inwards to prevent clothes becoming caught which may cause trip/injury.

- The surface of the steps do not visually contrast with the landing which may cause confusion for them who are partially sighted as contrasting surfaces will highlight the end of the stairs clearly. - *Improvement* Landing surface could be changed to make it visually contrasting. This may be only for a short running and could even include tactile flooring so it can be felt underfoot.


Step Wall


- Wall surface visually contrasts with the floor surface which clearly distinguishes between the two creating a visual boundary.


Wayfinding, Information and Signs Wayfinding yourself round a building and reading information and signs may prove a challenge to those with eye sight conditions visiting a building for the first time. On the ground floor, public spaces feed off the main entrance lobby that leads guests on to the Stair and lift lobby that directly navigates them to the gallery. When all galleries are open (as was on 02/04/2017) a continuous journey through the galleries is available from 1-10 and exiting again through Gallery 1. The stairs act as a central point. Signs throughout the gallery have endeavoured to be friendly to the partially sighted, as those with Macular Degeneration find it particularly difficult to read with blind spots and blurred vision. Font is kept consistent throughout the gallery with vinyl printed lettering being either: black on a white surface or white on a dark grey surface which helps people with impaired vision distinguish the text. There is no major concern regarding sign-age apart from it being displayed logically.



- Create visual contrast of the edge of the step. - Makes the step more profiled and therefore easier to see with blurred vision. -Prevents tripping as nosing is embedded into concrete cast step

- Metallic silver handrail contrasts with dark grey background. This allows it to be clearly identified to those with sight conditions where a handrail is really necessary for them to make the journey to the next floor. - *Improvement* The handrail is semi-reflective which can cause glare from the skylight. An improvement would be to make the surface more matt. However an argument could be made that the glare further distinguishes it from the wall.


Accessible areas

Location of Signs Audited

Auditorium Gallery 3


Lift/Stair Lobby

Gallery 4

Gallery 2

Entrance Lobby

Ground Floor 19

Gallery 6

Lift/Stair Lobby

Gallery 1

Gallery 8

Gallery Gardens

Gallery 5

Gallery 10


Gallery 7

Gallery 9

First Floor



Referring to access audit checklist points 22.1-22.7

Referring to access audit checklist points 22.8, 22.10-22.18, 22.22, 22.24-22.27

Fire Exit Signs These are designed to aid everyone as:

Layout, features and landmarks

- They are universally recognised as they are of a consistent appearance of including the colour green, a pictogram and usually an arrow pointing you in the direction. - They are located in every room, and high up so can be seen in crowds. - Are individually illuminated or use phosphorescent pigments.

This aids the those with Macular Degeneration as:

Gallery 3

Gallery 5 Gallery 4

Gallery 6

Lift/Stair Lobby

Gallery 2

- *Improvement* The gallery number could be more clearly labelled in the building as well as potentially providing a map on the wall with a red marker labelled â&#x20AC;&#x153;you are hereâ&#x20AC;? for example. - Once in the gallery space it is hard to have bearings of the exit without following signs. -Colour coding could be used.

Gallery 1 8

Gallery 10

- Layout is continuous and a journey through the building is clear by starting at the Lift/Stair lobby, walking from gallery 1-10 and finishing at the same Lift/ Stair Lobby. - Lift/Stair Lobby at central point on plan.

Gallery 7

Gallery 9

- *Improvement*

- Sign could benefit from arrow to point you in the direction of the galleries which happened to be upstairs from this point.

Example of colour coded map


Referring to access audit checklist points 22.11-22.27

Visual Signs This aids the those with Macular Degeneration as:

Order of signs


1 2

- *Improvement* Capital letters used to create titles and could cause difficulty to read. - Name of room to aid wayfinding is very small and high up which some people with eye sight conditions will have difficulty reading - Text overall could be more bold to help those with particularly blurred vision.


This has issues and requires *Improvement* as: - Order of and layout of these signs are not logical and could create confusion. - They are all part of the same set of information about membership. - The new edited version offers a more logical layout.

- Text and background contrast each other making the text more distinguished and therefore easier to read especially for those with Macular degeneration who benefit from high contrasts. (Two examples used represent all signs in building as tended to be consistent) - Text written in sans serif typeface making it easier to read for all. - Signs positioned on wall so do not cause obstruction. - Text Size consistent

- *Improvement* This fire alarm is placed between two signs which may cause confusion, it should be placed in a location that is free of additional signs and easily and clearly visible without distractions.

- The text is in all capital letters which may prove hard to read. Opt for single capital letter at beginning of word

- The stand placed next to the alarm also is elevated away from the wall which may impair someone in a wheelchair from accessing the alarm to sound it.



Referring to access audit checklist points 28.1

I have chosen to assess the website as its commonly forgotten that the use of a computer may be compromised if you are partially sighted with such a condition as Macular Degeneration. These people may be wishing to use the website to see if the building is fully accessible to them. The layout of the website is very clear and logically presented. There is a full page dedicated to the accessibility of the gallery as well as how to make the web-page more accessible using your personal browser from features such as making text bigger and how to get text to speech tool, both of which can benefit the partially sighted. There are no major concerns or room for improvement with the website as I personally found the experience pleasant. It is also accredited with W3C standard grade A.





Symbols and pictograms This aids the those with Macular Degeneration as:


1 2


- Universally understood pictograms allows the person to identify the meaning without actually reading. - People with Macular Degeneration may benefit from this as vision tends to be blurred with blind spots proving it difficult to read, therefore an picture/symbol is easier to identify. - Arrow to indicate direction. - Symbols are kept consistent throughout building to identify spaces. (As seen on toilets) - *Improvement* The symbols occupy a small space on the wall and can only be seen when within a limited range - Pictogram could be easily added to cafe sign.


- Clear font against a contracting background make it easier to read. Especially those with Macular Degeneration whoms vision is blurred and benefit from high contrasting text. - Clutter free with no distractions makes the experience positive.



Moving Graphics

This aids the those with Macular Degeneration as:


1 4

3 2

- Moving graphics kept to a minimum of one on screen which rotate from banners of the articles listed below. Purely for a more aesthetic and interesting approach to the experience. - Too many moving graphics can cause confusion especially those with Macular Degeneration who might require more time to read.



This aids the those with Macular Degeneration as: - In a logical order and structured well. Makes it much easier to find necessary information. - Good amount of spacing between the headings, reducing confusion.

This is part of the website experience



This aids the those with Macular Degeneration as: - Pictures are hyperlinked to their paired page on the website that may benefit people who are visually impaired as they are not required to read the description to see what they are clicking on. - The bigger area being hyperlinked may be beneficial to those who might find it difficult to pin point their mouse on the smaller text.

Website Home Page



Referring to access audit checklist points 28.2-28.4

Summary Alternative Formats This aids the those with Macular Degeneration as: - Allows them to change the way the view the website on their own browser that will benefit them. - This can be done using a range of different settings and be unique to personal preference. - Therefore it can be used to help the user use the website much easier.

Overall, with the building only being opened just under 6 years ago, it has a good strategy and provides clear intentions that it is catering for everyone, and most of their needs. This is due to the fact it can comply with reasonably recent building regulations and the access audit checklist, however these are updating constantly to further improve buildings based on issues identified in current buildings. It particularly caters for those with impaired vision such as age related Macular degeneration as surfaces on key features of the building such as the staircase and handrail contrasted with one another to make it stand out more. This strategy is only used on information and signs throughout the building where the text contrasts with the background. What the building could improve on consists of more external features surrounding the gallery as some hazards were identified. Some of these such as overgrown vegetation require simple maintenance whereas others such as the unmarked bollards and windows opening outwards may require florescent hazard tape or redesigning. The site is reasonably flat and the river Calder crossing has been tackled appropriately with a low gradient incline, proving that the building is accessible to all.

Accreditations and Guidelines

Compliant with W3C standards - endeavours to conform to level Double-A -

WCAG20/#conformance-reqs offers a checklist of web requirements to meet A, AA or AAA standards.

View of weir from Gallery 5 - own photo

Features include:

Word Count of Written Report: 1233

-Making Text Larger -Change colours and fonts -Text to Speech tool *Improvements* -No instructions for Google Chrome, the browser which I was using at the time. -Could be more clearly marked out on the website, followed several pages from home page and was located at the bottom of the page.

Acknowledges international guidelines on web accessibility Not possible in all website areas




Pedestrian Crossing

Overgrown Vegetation

Normal Vision

Normal Vision

Normal Vision

Vision with Age-Related Macular Degeneration

Normal Vision

Vision with Age-Related Macular Degeneration

Vision with Age-Related Macular Degeneration




Internal Stairs


Vision with Age-Related Macular Degeneration Normal Vision

Vision with Age-Related Macular Degeneration




15007372 ARC2009 - Architecture Technology Means of Escape - Exploring Experience Coursework Submission Part 2B 2016-2017



Stair Capacity for Simultaneous Evacuation

Summary My design is currently in the developing position for the upcoming final review, this therefore provides some time to reflect on fire safety to ensure a robust final design. The design currently does not comply with building regulations in approved document B (fire safety). Main issues that are currently causing concern are:

Building A


Number of People

Minimum Stair Width (mm)











G (to exit through 1st floor level)

63 (Recycling Centre & Workshop only)


Building B


Number of People

Minimum Stair Width (mm)











-Width of doors, corridors and final exit doors. These will need calculating and redesigning the ones that do not comply with the approved document B Section 3. -Width of stairs and the number of people that will be using them from each floor. These will also need calculation more precisely and adjusting to comply with approved document B section 4. -The blocking and disruption of main escape routes such as door swings that can reduce the width of the escape route. -The lack of protected staircases that enable safe vertical escape. Adding these will make escape routes shorter and prevent fire from spreading. These are free of flammable material and are designed so fire can not start within them. These are all vital to ensure building safety and to reduce and hopefully eliminate the number of fatalities which can be caused by building fire. There is also many building management strategies that can be carried out which make the building even more safe such as smoke extraction systems, sprinkler systems and an on site fire warden to ensure safe building practice.

Current plans do not meet this calculation. Current Stair Width (mm) 900mm

3 8

Floor Space Factors Type of Accommodation (Referring to Appendix C,table C1)

Accommodation Name (Referring to floor plans)

Total Floor Area

Floor Space Factor m2 per Person

Maximum Occupancy

Second Floor Building A


Gallery 2



TOTAL = 12

Second Floor Building B


Third Floor Building A


Artist Accommodation

4 x rooms at 18m2 (incl. En-suites)

Ground Floor Collective Building A&B



Type of Accommodation (Referring to Appendix C,table C1)

Accommodation Name (Referring to floor plans)

Total Floor Area

Floor Space Factor (No. People per m2)

Maximum Occupancy


Workshop & Recycling Centre (LEVEL -0.5)





Learning Space/Meeting Room



25 TOTAL = 63



TOTAL = 54


First Floor Building A


First Floor Building B


Gallery 1



TOTAL = 31


Artist Studio





Communal Kitchen



3 TOTAL = 13



Building A

Building B

Building A & B

Escape Routes


Number of People Exiting

Required Width of Exit and routes (Referring to Table 4, Approved docs. Part B




Building A


Number of People




Number of exits (Referring to floor plans)

Number of required exits (Referring to Table 3, Approved docs. Part B










63 (Recycling Centre & Workshop only)











Number of People

Number of required exits (Referring to Table 3, Approved docs. Part B


63 (Recycling Centre & Workshop only)

2 (1 exiting through each building A & B)





Building B


Number of People




Number of exits (Referring to floor plans)


Number of required exits (Referring to Table 3, Approved docs. Part B










Number of People

Number of exits (Referring to floor plans)

Number of required exits (Referring to Table 3, Approved docs. Part B






Number of People

Number of required exits (Referring to Table 3, Approved docs. Part B




Final Exit for Building A on this level.

Building A & B

Final Exit for Building B on this level. Current plans meet these calculations.

Final Exit for Building A on this level.

Final Exit for Building B on this level. Current plans meet these calculations.

7 6


Final Exit Width Formula for Calculating final Exit width (Referring to Approved Doc. Part B)

Travel Distances W = ((N/2.5) + (60S)) / 80 W = Width (m) N = Maximum Number of People who could potentially use the exit

Building A

W = ((N/2.5) + (60S)) / 80


W = Width (m)

Type of Accommodation = Assembly and Recreational - C. Elsewhere (Referring to Table 2, Approved Doc. Part B)

N = 160

Maximum Total Travel Distance = 45m

Maximum Total Travel Distance in one direction = 18m

S = 1m

S = Stair Width (m)

W = ((160/2.5) + (60(1)) / 80 W = 1.55m

(Final Exit 3)

Current plans do not meet this calculation.

Building A Building B

W = ((N/2.5) + (60S)) / 80


W = Width (m) N = 84


Travelling to Location (Refer Points to floor plans pg.12)

Total Travel Distance from furthest point


3i (Cafe/Shop)

Protected Staircase A

11m (5m in one direction)


2i (Gallery 2)

Protected Staircase A

10m (one direction)


1i (Gallery 1)


17m (one direction)


Gi (Recycling Cen-Protected Staircase A tre)

19m (10m in one direction)



Travelling to

Total Travel Distance


2ii (Bedroom 4)

Protected Staircase B

7.5m (6m in one direction)


1ii (Communal Kitchen)

Protected Staircase B

7.5m (6m in one direction)


G2 (Learning Space)

Protected Corridor B


S = 1m W = ((84/2.5) + (60(1)) / 80 W=

1.17m (Final Exit 4)

Current plans do not meet this calculation.

Building B


Final Exit for Building A on this level.

Final Exit for Building B on this level. Current plans meet these calculations.



The landing of the protected staircase has been widened in order to ensure a clear escape route without door swings.

Wheelchair refuge point has been added to the protected staircase. It is placed where is does not compromise the route of escape which has been calculated at a minimum of 1000mm

As calculated on pg. The minimum door width of final exit 3 had to be at least 1550m. However it was previously only 1000mm. This has now been amended to a double door opening with a width of 1800mm.

In the event of a fire/evacuation, a person in a wheelchair can use this refuge point for a short period of time whilst waiting for assistance down the protected staircase, but not left indefinitely until the fire rescue service arrives or the fire is extinguished.

These doors also open outwards with the flow of escape so that people can evacuate more efficiently, easier and safely.

Minimum dimensions of refuge point = 900mm x 1400mm

As well as a wheelchair refuge point, this diagram shows the protected staircase that has been added. As calculated on pg.8 That the minimum width is to be 1000mm, this space must be continuous until final exit without any inference from anything that may reduce the width of the route such as door swings.

The ground floor does not include direct spaces the public can access which initially lead to limited direct external access. However I have now included a final exit from the recycling centre onto the side street to eliminate people to walk upstairs in order to escape.

As a result of this i have widened the landing of the staircase so that the door swing does not overlap with the escape route. The same can be seen on building B with no doors opening outwards onto the protected corridor.

The Workshop and recycling plant were originally one big open room, however to prevent the spread of fire, this could be divided into two spaces with a protected wall and fire doors. This could also give more time for people to escape safely.

Upon calculating the minimum width of final exit 4, it required a width of 1170mm whereas it was currently 900mm. This was mainly to do with people escaping from building A recycling centre as an alternative exit. There is now a direct final exit from the workshop/recycling centre and the original one remains with a protected corridor to serve the rest of building B.



Strategy (i)

Furthest point from any protected staircase, corridor or final exit on the upper most level (See Building A & B)


Furthest accessible toilet from any final exit on the upper most level

2 Second Floor

3 Third Floor

Accessible Toilets Refuge Point

Refuge Point


Furthest route from upper most level Furthest route from accessible toilet on upper most level Protected Staircase/Corridor


Furthest route from upper most level Furthest route from accessible toilet on upper most level


Protected Staircase/Corridor

Open voids of at least 2 storeys Final Exit

9m (i)

Open voids of at least 2 storeys Final Exit

* Protected Staircases and Corridors Continue

* Protected Staircases and Corridors have been introduced in order to allow people to escape safely. The idea of protected areas is that it contains no flammable material which used as fuel in a fire and that it is enclosed with appropriate walls and fire doors to withstand fire for a lengthened amount of time, allowing people to escape.

* The staircase landing has been widened to allow the door to open without reducing the width of the escape route less than 1000mm (calculated pg.8) Approved Doc. B (fire safety)

7.5m 22


Distance from furthest point from protected staircase on uppermost level to protected staircase (Building A) Distance from accessible toilet to protected staircase and refuge point


7.5 (i)

* Wheelchair refuge added with dimensions of 1400mm x 900mm - Approved Doc. B (fire safety)

* The staircase landing has been widened to allow the door to open without reducing the width of the escape route less than 1000mm - in line with Approved Doc. B (fire safety)


Furthest point from any protected staircase, corridor or final exit on the upper most level (See Building A & B)

7.5m Fire Escape further than 4.5m away from opening in floor Protected Staircase 1

Distance from furthest point from protected staircase on uppermost level to protected staircase (Building B)

Fire Escape further than 4.5m away from opening in floor Protected Staircase 1

Refuge Point Protected Staircase & Corridor 2


1 First Floor

G Ground Floor

Furthest route from upper most level Furthest route from accessible toilet on upper most level

Furthest route from upper most level Furthest route from accessible toilet on upper most level

Protected Staircase/Corridor

Protected Staircase/Corridor

Open voids of at least 2 storeys




Open voids of at least 2 storeys


Final Exit

Final Exit


* Protected Staircases and Corridors Continue

* Protected Staircases and Corridors Continue

* The staircase landing has been widened to allow the door to open without reducing the width of the escape route less than 1000mm (calculated pg.) Approved Doc. B (fire safety)

* The staircase landing has been widened to allow the door to open without reducing the width of the escape route less than 1000mm (calculated pg.8) Approved Doc. B (fire safety)

* Wheelchair refuge added with dimensions of 1400mm x 900mm - Approved Doc. B (fire safety)

* Wheelchair refuge added with dimensions of 1400mm x 900mm - Approved Doc. B (fire safety)



* Final Exit 6 (1800mm) added to eliminate people having to walk up the stairs to the exit of building A on first floor. Also provides alternative exit. Final Exit

Distance from accessible toilet to final exit 3 - direct final exit from protected staircase 1 Distance from furthest point from protected staircase on uppermost level to final exit 3 - direct final exit from protected staircase 1 (Building A)



* Final Exit 5 added to replace final exit 4 as main exit from workshop/recycling centre exit 4 remains at 900mm and 5 is 1800mm as a 1170mm minimum width was calculated.

* Final Exit 3 widened from 1000mm to 1800mm as a 1550mm minimum width was calculated, allows direct exit from protected stairs. (Calculated pg 9) w



1 Protected Staircase 1

Maximum Predicted Width usage (no. People) 31









Refuge Point Protected Staircase & Corridor 2

max. 45m

Distance from furthest point from protected staircase on uppermost level to final exit 4 - direct final exit from protected corridor 2 (Building B)

Final Exit Refuge Point Protected Staircase & Corridor 1


Maximum Predicted Width usage (no. People) 900mm 46







Protected Staircase & Corridor 2


A fire assembly point will be located at the rear of the building which will give a direction of people to go as a head count may be required to ensure everyone has been evacuated. This location is usually safe and the distance away is twice the height of the building - so at least 20m in this case.

This sign will be places at all refuge points to ensure they are clearly marked out and kept clear at all times. Additional signs around the building may give directions from key locations such as accessible toilets



Used for Escape Routes Pg.6

Manual call points and fire extinguishers will be located throughout the building. These are usually located near exits/ protected areas so people do not have to travel in the opposite direction.

Used for Travel Distances Pg.10



Used for Stair Width for Simultaneous Evacuation Pg.8

Used for Travel Distances Pg.7

Used for Amendments and Strategy Pg.19-25


Used for Final Exit Width Pg.9





ARC2010 Environmental Design and Services ‘At Home in the City’ – Site C Newcastle University

20/01/2017 Coursework Submission


arrans cool dialux


Site 1 / Building 1 / Storey 1 / Room 1 / Workplane 1 / False colours / Light scene for daylight factor / Perpendicular illuminance (adaptive)

Workplane 1

U-Value Calculation

Daylighting Analysis The diagrams opposite are informative pieces of information that show hoe light levels are distributed in the living areas of the dwelling. It shows one of the floors of a two-floor apartment which is compromised of a kitchen and living space, and a small dining area. The apartment is designed for two occupants with two bedrooms and a bathroom which are located on the upper floor. The shape of the room is due to the staircase which will be situated in the top right of the diagram, and the entrance to the left.

U-Value (w/m2k) = (1/r)

Resistance of materials

Total wall resistance U-Value

Material depth (meters) Thermal conductivity (w/mk) r = Resistance (m2k/w) = (material depth/thermal conductivity)

Glazing = 2.7w/m2k UPVC Door = 1.8w/m2k Solid Concrete Floor = 0.17w/m2k



Plasterboard : (0.02/0.2) = 0.1 Blockwork : (0.1/0.15) = 0.67 Rockwool Insulation : (0.08/0.045) = 1.78 Brickwork : (0.1/0.8) = 0.125 Air Cavity : 0.18 Inner air resistance : 0.125 Outer air resistance : 0.04

Plasterboard : (0.02/0.2) = 0.1 Expanded polystyrene insulation : (0.15/0.03) = 5 Plywood : (0.03/0.13) = 0.23 Bitumen : (0.01/0.17) = 0.06 Inner air resistance = 0.125 Outer air resistance = 0.04

In the diagrams I have shows the false colour diagram showing light levels in LUX for both a typical mid-winter day, and a mid-summer day with overcast skies. As can be seen due to the colour alterations, more light penetrates the room in the summer months compared to the winter. This means that on average the dwelling receives a higher daylighting factor. However this could cause some glare around the are of the window as the LUX levels exceed 1000lx, where you would typically aim for comfortable levels below 800lx.

0.1 + 0.67 + 1.78 + 0.125 + 0.18 + 0.125 + 0.04 = 3.02

0.1 + 5 + 0.23 + 0.06 + 0.125 + 0.04 = 5.56

(1/3.02) = 0.33w/m2k

(1/5.56) = 0.18w/m2k

The average daylight factor is calculated in the tab below the diagrams to be 4.259% which falls in moderate category as the room is not to dark or too bright on average. However improvements could be made by potentially reducing the floor to ceiling window heights at the front of the property to reduce glare, and by introducing an opening to the rear of the dwelling. Even if this window is small, it could provide the needed daylighting to equally balance levels.

Scale: 1 : 50

arrans cool dialux

arrans cool dialux


Site 1 / Building 1 / Storey 1 / Room 1 / Workplane 1 / Isolines / Light scene for daylight factor / Perpendicular illuminance (adaptive)

arrans cool dialux


Site 1 / Building 1 / Storey 1 / Room 1 / Workplane 1 / False colours / Light scene for daylight factor / Perpendicular illuminance (adaptive)

Perpendicular illuminance (Surface) Mean (actual): 955Workplane lx, Min: 77.5 lx, Max: 5554 lx, Min/average: 0.08, Min/max: 0.01 1 Height of working plane: 0.800 m, Wall zone: 0.000 m

Workplane 1


Site 1 / Building 1 / Storey 1 / Room 1 / Daylight factor effective area 1 / Results overview / Light scene for daylight factor

Daylight factor effective area 1 Page 1 arrans cool dialux


Site 1 / Building 1 / Storey 1 / Room 1 / Daylight factor effective area 1 / Results overview / Light scene for daylight factor

Scale: 1 : 50

Winter daylight 21/12 – 12:00

Daylight factor effective area 1

Perpendicular illuminance (Surface) Mean (actual): 353 lx, Min: 28.7 lx, Max: 2056 lx, Min/average: 0.08, Min/max: 0.01 Height of working plane: 0.800 m, Wall zone: 0.000 m

Scale: 1 : 50

arrans cool dialux 18/01/2017 Perpendicular illuminance (Surface) Mean (actual): 353 lx, Min: 28.7 lx, Max: 2056 lx, Min/average: 0.08, Min/max: 0.01 Site 1 / Building 1 / Storey 1 / Room 1 / Workplane 1 / False colours / Light scene for daylight factor / Perpendicular illuminance Height of working plane: 0.800 m, Wall zone: 0.000 m (adaptive)

Workplane 1

Page 1

Page 1

Summer daylight 21/06 – 12:00

Scale: 1 : 50

Perpendicular illuminance (Surface) Mean (actual): 955 lx, Min: 77.5 lx, Max: 5554 lx, Min/average: 0.08, Min/max: 0.01 Height of working plane: 0.800 m, Wall zone: 0.000 m



Mean (target) Min

Daylight factor [%] 4.259 Rotation: X:0.0°, Y:0.0°, Z:0.0°, Height: Daylight factor0.850 [%]m, Wall zone: 1.000 m


Min/average Min/max

1.455 8.450 /


Rotation: X:0.0°, Y:0.0°, Z:0.0°, Height: 0.850 m, Wall zone: 1.000 m

Mean (target) Min 4.259


Min/average Min/max

1.455 8.450 /

/ Page 1

Profile: Offices, Writing, typewriting, reading, data processing

Profile: Offices, Writing, typewriting, reading, data processing

SAP Spreadsheet Improvements

Energy Strategy

Target Emission Rate (TER) Target Fabric Energy Efficiency (TFEE) Dwelling Emission Rate (DER) Dwelling Fabric Energy Efficiency (DFEE)

Due to the built up community around Leith it may be unsuitable for the multi-unit dwelling to have its energy sources in its own right. This would be due to space and visual appearance of the structure. Usually this would be connected to the national grid for its electrical demand as it will be well accessible in the area and is a reliable source of energy. As the dwelling will require 239.1kWhr/year for lighting and a further 130kWhr/year for water pumps, It is reliable as the national grid is a network of energy sources feeding one single supply. For example, there are many different sources such as solar, wind, hydro or biomass. By 2030, it is expected that renewable energy sources within the national grid will continue to rise with coal dramatically falling as it is currently. The biomass family will begin to dominate the market with ‘Energy from Waste’ (EfW). Solar energy, already popular will also become more advanced and more commonly seen with it being expected to account for 83% of our energy demands by 2030.

The tables to the right hand side of the text show the changes that have been made to the table. The text describes the adjustments that have been made to the dwelling. This shows the current rates against the targets before alterations have been made.

Page 1

To make the first adjustment to improve both my DER and DFEE to meet the targets was to reduce the U-value of the external walls by 0.07 to 0.26. This was achieved by adding 4cm of insulation so that the wall was now insulated by 12cm of rock-wool insulation. This reduced both values slightly, but not enough to make impact. The current U-value on the typical double glazing windows which I was currently proposing were a high rating of 2.7w/m2k. By introducing triple glazing this reduced the U-value to 0.7w/m2k as it has a lower thermal conductivity. This therefore significantly lowered both the DER and DEFF as it is a much more insulating material.

To meet the demands of the heating systems which will require 12102.09kWhr/year in the heating system and a further 4152.35kWhr/year for water heating, I am proposing to use a Combination or as better known as, a “combi” boiler. Using a Combi boiler will offer hot water on demand to all taps and radiators in the dwelling as it is heated straight from the mains, meaning it is unlimited. Due to the smaller size of the dwelling, and the fact it is one of many units in a bigger structure, saving space is necessary so the combi boiler is suitable as it can be relatively compact depending on the size of the property. The Combi boiler tends to be compact as it does not require a water tank or a hot water cylinder which again would save space. The main disadvantage with a combination boiler is that pressure and heat can be lost when two appliances are used at the same time. They are also given efficiency letter ratings that rate the output vs input so you can ensure you are purchasing the most efficient, obviously the most efficient will be the best value for money over a period of time that provides the same amount of energy. Combination boilers require gas to heat the water. Gas is sourced from a variety of locations for consumption in the U.K. 45% is sourced in the north sea, 38% from European pipelines, and 17% on tankers as Liquefied natural gas.

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A draught lobby can be used to trap cold air entering the property by using two doors in the style of a lobby usually used for shoe, coats and other outdoor wearables. It works so that before opening the second door into the dwelling, you close the first door behind you so that heat can’t directly be lost to the exterior through one single open door. The ceiling heights have been reduced from 2.6m to 2.5m meters high. Reducing it by just 10cm reduces the overall volume of the dwelling by 12.6m3 to 315m3, therefore less space will be required heating.


A change in insulation could make a difference as Rock-wool with a thermal conductivity of 0.045w/mk has been changed for a more insulate material. Styrofoam board insulation has a thermal conductivity of 0.03, much lower than rock-wool. This therefore reduces the U-value of the wall to 0.19w/m2k. As a result of the adjustments the Dwelling Emission rate target has been met by undercutting it by 0.1, and Dwelling Fabric Energy Efficiency being 1.2 from target. This leaves a final SAP rating of 84.


ARC2020 - DISSERTATION STUDIES Proposal Dissertation Proposal • • •

Name: Arran James Noble 150073721 Tutor: Neveen Hamza Preliminary Research Title: How does the Walt Disney Company tactically change and adjust their energy strategies in their retail stores to address the climate in contrasting environments (In particular those of Orlando, Florida and the United Kingdom) Declaration: 8000 Word Written Dissertation

Background Information / Build Up Upon choosing the elective of ‘Unseen Energies’ during the dissertation preparation seminars in the previous module, it has widened my knowledge in the architectural field and how important energy actually is to the building and environment. I initially began to look at a larger scope of energies from more obvious topic areas such as sustainable buildings that operate on low emissions to protect the environment, to more complex issues relating to human comfort. Human comfort is something which is crucial to the successfulness of a building, but yet it is something that often is thought of subconsciously when visiting a building, hence the relation of ‘unseen energies’. However, the issues relating to human comfort such as bad air quality (dry and damp), heat and light can be directly sourced to the architecture of the buildings and their building management strategies. Much of this can influence productivity that takes place within the building which can be much more beneficial to some building uses than others. These include retail premises which can determine the duration of time which a person is in the store and how much money they spend. Research Topic Retail is a topic area that I am particularly wishing to research at this stage as a believe it is a current issue in terms of the economy and the market becoming much more competitive. With that in mind, it is highly important that retailers produce a strategy in order to address the human comfort levels within their stores. These strategies focus on many factors to the position and colour hue of lighting, to air temperatures with a key focus in mind of keeping the consumers in the stores for as long as possible and displaying their products in the most complimenting way. Many companies will expand their businesses with the same energy strategies across the country, due to the fact the locations have similar climates to one another as well as it being cost effective. It tends to be consistent with the ‘look’ of their stores, keeping their identity the same with only minor differences in strategies. The Walt Disney Company however, is one leading international retailer that rolls out stores across all continents of the world. Being a highly recognised brand and a household name, Disney Store’s tended to have a similar product identity to one another to keep the guest experience consistent throughout their stores and theme parks across the globe. Although, all these locations have a range of different climates which will therefore need different and energies strategies in order to keep their stores at human comfort levels that maximising the


duration that people spend in the store and therefore increasing purchases. With Disney being a leading international retailer, it is clear that their strategies must be successful. As a result, I am hoping to explore this as part of my Undergraduate Dissertation, by how the Walt Disney Company tactically changes and adjusts its energy strategies to address the climate in contrasting environments. I am anticipating to particularly analyse those that are situated within the United Kingdom, against those in the Walt Disney World Resort theme parks in Orlando, Florida. Both locations have very different climates with the United Kingdom known for being wet and cooler, whereas Florida being hot and humid. These climates will, as a result, have different energy strategies to comfort guests/consumers in these conditions. This is due to the fact the United Kingdom stores may often require heating to heat the store to the comfort temperature, whereas the Florida stores will require cooling down to comfort guests. Outside of these comfort zones guests may tend to spend less time in the stores due to being uncomfortable. Research Proposals â&#x20AC;˘

Relevant Travel

With working in retail for the years alongside my architecture degree, it particularly fascinates me how retail works together with architecture in order to create certain strategies to increase consumer spending by tactically using energy, lighting and layout. During the preparation of my dissertation I am working at the Walt Disney World Resort in Orlando, Florida from the 19th of June until the 31st of August in the role of merchandising. Spending this amount of time in the heart of a Disney retail store in this environment will not only give me a first-hand experience of the conditions within the store, but hopefully give me the connections I need with building managers to be able to gather relevant data I need in order to analyse against the United Kingdom. In the weeks prior to travelling to Florida I will prepare questions to ask building managers and identify the data I will require. At this stage I am planning on particularly looking at air quality and temperature as I believe this will be one major difference between the strategies of the USA and UK.


Related Reading

I plan on reading mostly scientific articles and journals in order to carry out my research which will allow me access to generic data relating to retail environments and how they work simultaneously with human comfort levels. The following I have used as starting points which I plan to study in more depth: 1. Prior, Josephine J. (1999). Sustainable Retail Premises. Construction Information Service. This article focuses on the the impact of retail premises on the environment but at the same time ensuring that business remains at high levels. It also relates to BREEAM, which is a British method of assessing buildings against the positive environmental factors. It also states that the guide includes the most efficient way to fit out stores as well as operating and maintaining it. This could be useful to compare how the Disney Company may have incorporated this information. It will also lead to me having a better understanding of retail strategies. 2. Mattias. Kärrholm (2012). Retailising space : architecture, retail and the territorialisation of public space. -: Burlington : Ashgate Pub. Co.

This book provides information about the development of retail spaces which could aid me in the research of my dissertation. It relates to international practice which will be relevant when discussing different strategies in different locations. 3. Chung, C J. Inaba, J. Koolhaus, R. Leong, S T. (2002). The Harvard Design School Guide to Shopping / Harvard Design School Project on the City 2. USA: Taschen.

This book primarily also focuses on the progression of retail design particularly in the United States. However, it does show tactical design methods that are used in retail. 4. Carlucci, S (2013). Thermal Comfort Assessment of Buildings. London: Springer.

This article is about thermal comfort within a building and how it might influence how we feel within a building. This is particularly important for retail environments as it may influence the customers instore habits. 5. Tantanatewin, W. Inkarojrit, V. (2016). Effects of color and lighting on

retail impression and identity. Journal of Environmental Psychology. 46 (-), 197-205.

This article focuses on the perception of light in the retail environment which I studied as part of my elective presentation. The way light is used is crucial in a retail store strategy for maximizing sales. 6. Nichol, F. Humphreys, M. and Roaf, S. (2012). Adaptive Thermal Comfort: Principalsand practice. London: Routledge.

Outlines necessary steps that need to be taken by architects to ensure thermal comfort of a building. It encourages using natural ventilation systems and only to use mechanical systems when the climate requires it. This could be useful when comparing different climates of Disney Store locations and how there ventilation strategies could be improved.


ARC2024 - ABOUT ARCHITECTURE Los Angeles Car Culture (essay)

ABOUT ARCHITECTURE Answering the question: The urban environment has seen radical changes across the 20th and 21st centuries (the automobile, war, mass housing, computation and digitalization, greater access to the city and the workplace for women). Focusing on just one of these developments, explore its effects on buildings or space, with reference to at least 3 specific examples in a particular location. The radical change of space in Los Angeles influenced by the

150073721 About Architecture Essay ARC2024 Newcastle University

rise in ownership of Automobiles.

Image above: Own photograph taken October 2013 from the Getty Center.



About Architecture Essay


for the automobile, a mode of transport that would take you where you want, when you want and fast with yourself at the wheel. [3][4][6]

Figure 1 - Cartoon image expressing the people's fustration with the street-car network - [6] - Longstreth, R (1998). City Center to Regional Mall. Massachusetts: MIT Press. p12

The system was finally sold in 1945 following the downfall and lack of investment to improve the network and fleet. It was sold to National City Lines which were directly invested by Firestone Tire, Standard Oil of California (Chevron Corporation) and General Motors. All companies were somewhat involved with producing automobiles which fueled conspiracy theories to dismantle the streetcar systems in Los Angeles and across the United States. This would therefore be an attempt to monopolize transportation around cities as it would limit options and more or less force residents to purchase a car. [1][3][6][7] As automobile ownership began to rise and the people began to lose faith in the mass transit systems, the council announced the federal road act of 1916. This began the investments into roads around the Los Angeles area which would begin to change the shape of the city and how people used it in the future. It would allow more land to be accessible and therefore more homes could be built, expanding the city’s population even further. It enabled convenience to its inhabitants as they were now able to drive on a safe network of roads which were constantly being improved and maintained under the new act. This encouraged even more swathes of residents to purchase cars. [1][2][6] 150073721

About Architecture Essay


2. The urban environment has seen radical changes across the 20th and 21st centuries (the automobile, war, mass housing, computation and digitalization, greater access to the city and the workplace for women, etc.). Focusing on just one of these developments, explore its effects on buildings or space, with reference to at least 3 specific examples in a particular location. The radical change of space in Los Angeles influenced by the rise in ownership of Automobiles.

Cities across the world have seen radical changes over the past century and a half, with developments in technology which cater for our needs as inhabitants of these spaces. The advancement of the automobile in the city of Los Angeles was no exception as it revolutionized the area and how space was used. The automobile eventually became a key thought and consideration when it came to proposing new developments as it was changing how people interacted with the city. In the 1870’s, intercontinental railways arrived with the Southern Pacific line. With this initial form of infrastructure, it began to attract people to the area, and jobs followed due to the discovery of oil, which at the time accounted for 25% of the world’s petroleum output. Therefore, in the half a century leading up until 1920, Los Angeles population began to rise. The city became aggressively marketed as a paradise to the people of America as it could ensure all your hopes and dreams would come true. “The air was clean, the food was plentiful and the lifestyle was civilized” were all slogans used to encourage people to move to this American dreamland. [5][7] As personal automobiles were still a luxury in the early 20th century and only a few minorities were actually able to own them, most used a public transport system, the Los Angeles streetcar. The streetcars served through the core of Los Angeles which is now known as Downtown and to the surrounding neighbors. This had the intention of building the economy in the core so residents of the city could come and spend money at local businesses which would further develop the city. At its peak, the system had over 20 lines and 1250 trolleys which at the time was a reasonable sized public transport system for the current population of 500,000 between 1900 and 1920. [4][6][7] Through the 1920’s and beyond however, the streetcar public transport system witnessed a downfall in demand. The streetcars began to lose trust with the users of the network. Lack of investment meant that trains were beginning to looked exhausted and unreliable, no doubt to mention that they were now sharing the roads of Los Angeles with more vehicles than before as the population was rising as well as automobiles becoming affordable to the average family. Due to the ignorance of the management of the system, most people began to see the transport network as more of a nuisance than a life line, and began to look elsewhere for modes of transport, basically neglecting the streetcars altogether. They opted


About Architecture Essay


It was now becoming clear; the mass transit street car system was falling victim to a lack of investment, roads were expanding and improving at an astounding rate, and people wanted convenience. The automobile was the future. In 1915, one in every 8.2 people had a car in Los Angeles. This was drastically compared to other cities of similar size at the time such as Chicago where only one in every 61 people had a car. In the following five years in 1920 those numbers had increased again to one in every 3.6 people in Los Angeles and 30 in Chicago but still at a faster rate in the Los Angeles area. Automobile ownership was also on the rise across the rest of the United States with one in 43.1 people and one in every 13.1 people in the respective years. [1][6] Automobile ownership grew so much at a rate the infrastructure of the city could not keep up with. Congestion soon became a problem as early as 1920 with both privately owned vehicles and the Streetcar carts swamping the road network of core Los Angeles. It actually became so popular that a ban on curbside parking had to be made in the central core of the city and restriction put on the surrounding streets which would limit drivers to only park for an hour at a time. This was in force for the majority of the working day. The curbside ban successfully addressed the councils matters of easing congestion as traffic did begin to flow more freely again especially those that were also shared by the Streetcars. [3][6] However, the curbside ban did not last. It was clear that the consumer now relied on their car to navigate around the city for both business and leisure as a fall in sales was recorded in the central core district of the city. Consumers were taking their business elsewhere, where the car was welcome. In fear that the economy of the city may dip and local businesses harmed, curbside parking was reinstated. As congestion was already and would continue to be an issue, lighter restrictions were made which only enforced a curbside ban in the central core at peak times of the day and allowed time restricted parking at other times. This initial defeat of the council showed them that the car was here to stay and continue to shape the city. [6] The city of Los Angeles continued to expand with an even more rapid rate between 1920 and 1930 with the automobile now becoming more common as it became more affordable to the average resident. This allowed the city to grow as distance was no longer a heavily weighted issue for housing development companies as the car made almost any distance possible as well as cutting down travel times. Population numbers in Los Angeles doubled within the decade from 600,000 people to 1.2 million. Registered automobiles saw an even larger percentage increase from 161,846 in 1920, to 806,264 in 1930, an increase of nearly 500 percent. It was starting to become apparently through each decade that popularity of the motor car was spreading rapidly. Use of land was also beginning to change with room being made for automobile-associated services such as gas station which grew from 170 in 1920 to over 1500 by 1930. [1][6] Los Angles was also different to most other cities in the United States as it did not directly have any definite boundaries to immediately stop the expansion. Other cities such as New York which is situated on Manhattan island is restricted from simply expanding outwards to meet the demand of buildings and homes for an also growing population. Instead, buildings in New York City began to look to the sky for space, creating more of a vertical city where buildings would use less ground area but be taller, making more efficient use of the limited 150073721

About Architecture Essay


land. Los Angeles though was different though with the exception to the Santa Monica and San Gabriel Mountains to the north (yet still penetrable) and the coastline, it did not have any harsh boundaries. Price of land was relatively low at the time due to it being almost unlimited. This lead to many buildings at the time being no more usually than five stories tall as the city was shaped horizontally becoming a ‘City of Sprawl’. [1][5][6] As the city became to be shaped this way with no boundaries and a ‘sprawl’, the automobile was now more of a necessity than a luxury as it was becoming almost impossible to navigate anywhere without. The majority of the traffic was from the many suburbs into the central city core as residents travelled for both business and leisure. As previously discussed, curbside parking restrictions were in place in an attempt to ease the congestion in the central core, but as car ownership increased, City Centre parking became an issue. Originally small buildings in surrounding central blocks would be demolished through the 1910’s and 1920’s just to make room for surface parking as it was economical to do so as parking became such a profitable business. [6]

Figure 2 - Small Buildings have here been demolished to make way for surface parking lots. - [6] - Longstreth, R (1998). City Center to Regional Mall. Massachusettes: MIT Press.

However, where parking was needed in the central core of the city, is where the land was the most expensive. Therefore, it then became uneconomical to demolish existing buildings just to have a surface car park. Multi-story car parks began to become an option as it made more efficient use of the land by being able to layer up multiply levels of parking and therefore maximizing revenue for the developer. This new car garage design lacked technology at the time proving to have issues with circulation of automobiles inside the multistory garage due to some steep and awkward ramps used to link the multiple levels. The developments were also expensive to construct along with the price of the desirable central plot which initially made it a challenge to recuperate costs. As a result, parking garage costs tended to be much higher making it harder for them to compete with cheaper land surface parking not too far away. [6]



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The Grand Central Parking garage was the first of its kind to be built in the Los Angeles area, but it was built further away from the main central hub, or otherwise known as ‘downtown’ Los Angeles’. It was host to eight levels of parking for over 1000 vehicles, much larger than any surface lot at the time and making use of all the available space. Unlike todays common multistory garages, Grand Central was not self-service and had a sizable team of staff to claim cars quickly and efficiently as infrastructure wasn’t in place for individuals to collect their own car. Despite the car park being originally further away from downtown business’, predictions were correct that intense development would follow in the area, which possibly identifies that a trend was beginning that businesses were chasing where there was convenience for the consumer. [6] Another example that followed was the Hills Parking Garage in 1928. The Hills garage had a similar capacity to the Grand Central garage of around 1000 vehicles but was in a much more central location in comparison. It was thirteen levels and expressed new technology as it included three car elevators. Using so many levels and car elevators instead of the conventional ramps meant that that garage was relatively compact and therefore being more efficient by using less land in such a desirable central location. The investors hoped that the design of the Hills Garage would set an example for others to follow in the area, with hope for curbside parking to be eliminated in the near future. However, with the design being more efficient it came at a cost, a cost considerably more than the earlier Grand Central scheme. These costs could not always be sacrificed as with the markets for parking in the city growing, prices were becoming more and more competitive. [6] Wealthy department stores in the city began to acknowledge the growing need for parking in order to maximize customers in their stores. The rule once was for the parking lots to be managed separately from private businesses to avoid the much needed parking space to be reserved for specific people. As store associated parking garages were built, these stores therefore became more attractive to the customer as they were able to park in a garage that was allocated for the store easily and efficiently meaning that stores of similar nature would less likely to be chosen as a ‘lack of convenience’. They were also able to offer more competitive prices for the vehicle owners as further incentives to pick their store over others. The first to offer store parking was Scruggs, Vanderwoort, Barney of St. Louis which offered one-hour free parking with a one-dollar purchase in 1927. However, this was soon undercut by the Broadway Department Store which owned a much larger parking garage and offered two-hours free parking with a one-dollar purchase. [6][7] 150073721

About Architecture Essay




quick glance from within the car, similar to that of McDonalds’ golden arches or the PizzaHut’s distinctive roof which is still familiar in present day. [2][4][9]

Figure 7- Bob's Big Boy diner, Wayne McAllister (1949) - [9] - Various. (2016). Car Culture. Available: Last accessed Feb 2017.

The ‘Drive-in’ culture continued to expand as by the 1960’s, most households in Los Angeles owned on average two motor-cars. The car was not just a mode of transport anymore that would get you from point A to point B, but it was becoming a space in its own right as people now dwelled in the car by driving to a drive-through restaurant or to a drive-in movie theatre, eating and being entertained without having to leave the comfort of the automobile. [2][6][9] The city of Los Angeles would simply not function without the use of the automobile as the vast sprawl of the city could not incorporate a public transport network large enough that would reach all suburbs as well as coping with the size of the population. It has been primarily designed and shaped with the automobile in mind, with multistory carparks rising up from the ground and the spread of outlets that promote a ‘dwell in the car’ environment. Many places though become car only environments with no consideration to human activity and almost becoming hostile, hence how many sayings go “Nobody walks in L.A.” as basic infrastructure like pavements which we see in other parts of the world, simply do not exist in some areas, making it impossible for a pedestrian to navigate from A to B. [1][2][7] The failure of the public transport in the central are of the city (or as known as the street cars) was due to the fact that the city was expanding too quickly for the transport network. Along with lack of investment from the councils, this is what collectively crippled the network as it was never designed to operate at such capacities. Street cars have since begun operating again in downtown Los Angeles from 2016 as the world as a whole becomes more conscious of climate change. Could this therefore be readying the changing-shape of the city again, as mass transit systems are becoming options again and electric cars require charging points? [1][7] 150073721

Figure 3 - Example of a parking garage promotion - [6] - Longstreth, R (1998). City Center to Regional Mall. Massachusettes: MIT Press. P50

About Architecture Essay

About Architecture Essay


Another major industry that flourished after the invention and popularity of the automobile was fast-food outlets and leisure facilities, mainly post 1950. These no longer had to be located in town Centre’s or popular areas as the motor car allowed people to travel to them at their own convenience, a majority of the time they would be located together in a retailpark-like manner that we are all familiar with today. These would tend to be more convenient than a town center as they also tended to offer parking and eased congestion. The outlets were usually located along roadsides, with large extravagant signs to attract driver’s attention. It became a battle for the biggest to attract the most attention and hence, customers. A key example of this is Harbor boulevard in the Anaheim district where after the opening of Disneyland in 1955, the road besides it became cluttered with motels and fast food diners due to the influx of guests from across America. [2][4][9]

Underground parking became a new model for parking garage architecture, though it was limited to only two levels underground which mean that it didn’t have the capacity for the demand of shoppers as it commonly held around 200 vehicles. Instead it was adopted by businesses and tended to be built below the building itself to save on the limited land. The Pacific Mutual Life Insurance company was the first to put this concept in place by having two levels below the surface which was primarily reserved for employees, followed by a surface level lot which was used by visitors. It became common practice with over eight buildings of similar nature built in the next five years having a similar concept. This was starting to show that the automobile was not only just shaping the city, but how it was influencing commercial structures through the need for parking. [1][6] As buildings began to be shaped by the automobile, the Los Angeles Downtown Parking Association announced that it was aiming to create or find 10,000 parking spaces in the city within the next three years from 1946. The association looked at a wide range of possible concepts and ideas to combat the parking issue. One particular idea had the central core of the building had a car park in a spiral design so people could have direct access into the building from their cars, not having to meet with the outdoors and being totally convenient. Figure 6 - Harbor Boulevard, Anaheim during the 1950's after the opening of Disneyland (out of frame to the left) -


Many of the outlets were built around the ‘Googie’ style of architecture which was at its peak through the 1950’s. It was primarily influenced by the car culture itself as it expressed the streamline moderne style and space age design which were symbolic of motion. An influential architect of the time was Wayne McAllister whose notable work began with ‘Bob’s Big Burger’ restaurant in the Burbank district which set a standard for drive-in diners. As the area of Los Angeles was becoming so great, it was not uncommon for restaurants to have multiple outlets in the suburbs of the city. With this becoming common practice, most restaurants would have a symbolic sign, motif or building style that was recognizable at a


About Architecture Essay


Although never built, this design was one of the most radical and demonstrated how open the LA parking association were to ideas. [1][6][7] The General Petroleum building in 1949 opened a revolutionary parking garage which was a breakthrough in design. The key concept was that parking spaces were placed on the ramps of the structure. Wasted space was kept to a minimal and car parking spaces could be maximized making more efficient use of the land. Vehicle circulation was also improved as the structure was a continuous spiral ramp to the roof top instead of flat levels with tight and steep ramps that were difficult to maneuver. This soon became the national model for parking garages across American and later the world. This shows considerations needed to be made with carefully planning space, as more space for cars can lead to limited space to sell goods, so it’s the art of construction that is required to get the perfect divide between both. [6][8]

Figure 4 - The General Petroleum Corporation Parking Garage - [8] - Masters, N. (2013). Don’t Overlook This Historic Parking Garage in Downtown L.A.. Available: Last

Figure 5 - Diagram helping understand the circulation of the Petroleum Corporation parking garage, a revolutionary design - Own Sketch 150073721

About Architecture Essay


Bibliography [1] - Robbins, E and El-Khoury, R (2004). Shaping the City. New York: Routledge. p98-


[2] - Bohm, S. Jones, C. Land, C. Paterson, M. (2006). Against Automobility. United

Kingdom: Blackwell Publishing Ltd. p9-25.

[3] - Borden, I (2013). Drive. London: Reaktion Books Ltd. p45-47, 123-127. [4] - Evans, G (2001). Cultural Planning, an urban renaissance?. London: Routledge. p160-162.

[5] - Cardinal-Pett, C (2016). Architecture and Urbanism in the Americas. New York: Routledge. p447-450.

[6] - Longstreth, R (1998). City Center to Regional Mall. Massachusettes: MIT Press. p3-

19, 43-57, 210-215.

[7] - Novak, M. (2013). Nobody Walks in L.A.: The Rise of Cars and the Monorails That

Never Were. Available: Last accessed Feb 2017.

[8] - Masters, N. (2013). Don’t Overlook This Historic Parking Garage in Downtown

L.A.. Available: Last accessed Feb 2017.

[9] - Various. (2016). Car Culture. Available: Last accessed Feb 2017.

[10] – The Founder (2017). Directed by Michael Keaton [Film] The Weinstein Company – Used as general knowledge throughout the essay as showed reenactments of drive-in diners towards to beginning of the film. Word Count: 3247 (approximately)



Arran James Noble

Newcastle University Stage 2 Architecture Portfolio - 2016/2017  
Newcastle University Stage 2 Architecture Portfolio - 2016/2017