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COVER STOBY

I 994

THE YEAR IN PICTURES Images of the faces and events which will be remembered for making 1994 aunique year. Photographers Bruce Haley, Mkhitar

Khachatrian, Harry Koundakjian,

Kevork Djansezian, Armineh Johannes and others view the world.

BUSINESS

While Chevron is working on pumping black gold in Kazakhstan and Azerbaijan, Vic Koshkerian is their top American seller. GE}IERATIONS No problem, for Hannes Sarkuni. ESSAY

Armenia's Acting Minister of Education says that genocide education is

a

thing of the past

FORGROUND

Armenia signs credit agreement with World Bank... Greece to open embassy in Armenia... And Clinton Administration warns Turkey of human rights record. DOSSIER

Major Armenian cultural exibit in Germany... First meeting of Congressional Caucus on Armenian Issues held in Washington, D.C.... And Armenia's first yellow pages. PEOPLE

Lachinian's "Flight from Cuba" wins first place in the World Press Photo Foundation competition... And Sahan Arzruni's A Treasury of Armenian Chants for children is published.. PUBLISHER'S

NOTE

4

LETTERS

$50; Commonwealth ol lndependent sates: S35; Armenia: $30. Postmastar: Send address changes

lo: Alll,

P.O, Bor 3290,

lLnh.tEn B.rch,

CA 90266, U.S.A,


PUBLISHER'S NOTE

LOOKING

FORWARD t is difficult to mail the January-February edition of this magazine inApril and try to find some hopeful things to say aboutourstatus. Ourfuture is still quiteuncertain. We are awaiting the results of certain quite specific requests. The response to our call for financial assistance will determine the timing and look of the next issues. Until then, this has been an auspicious beginning to a new year . In March 1994, AIM wrote that although difficult to imagine but perhaps based on national interests, it is catholicos Karekin II of the Holy See of cilicia who should be considered as the best candidate for the seat of Catholicos ofAll Armenians. We are pleased to have been on the right track. However we are even more pleased that the issue of church unity and effective church leadership may indeed be in our future. As April came and went, the anniversary of the I 9 1 5 Genocide of theArmenians received special attention. Notonly was this

I !I

the 80th year that the mass extermination began, by government decree, but this was also the first time that a major anniversary of this type was marked in the presence of a free, independent and sovereign state. Although the benefits of a state in defending

therights of apeople seems obvious - in the words of Genocide specialist, Vahakn Dadrian, scholars are no longer alone in responding to state denial - the benefits of statehood suddenly hit home when BBC News World Service repeated throughout the day on April 24 the "news" that the Republic of Armenia markedthe 80th anniversary of theArmenian Genocideby the Turks. while the Diaspora and some specialists continue to focus on the need to achieve Genocide recognition, the Republic of Armenia and scholars have apparently also gone beyond issues of acknowledgment and are beginning to deal with causes and consequences of genocide, as well as of denial. The internationalization of the study of genocide too, is an interesting phenomenon worthy of analysis. Atl this , too, is in our future.

FOURIH MIUENNIUM SOCIETY A l.lot brPofrf, Public 8aaftrCorpmrin DIRECTORS

YANOUJAN NAHAIET NORATR OSTANNN

NA'FI ZINZAUAN ASSOCIATE TRUSTEES

rAZMrc HAl(ItlAN ilADA

JACK ffixN 'SAXIAN

FOUNDING TRUSTEES

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PUBLISHER Michael Nahabel

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COVEBTOCOVER I read your Nov.-Dec. issue cover to cover. Excellent writers, plus excellent coverage of Karabakh. Essay on Latin touched home. I went to Boston Latin

EXECUTIVE EOITOF Salpi Haroulinian Ghazarian

EDITOnIAL CONSULTANT Minas Koiaian ED]TOB EIIERITUS Charles Nazarian EDITOR AT LABGE Tony Halpin ART DIFECTOR Dicran Y. Kassouny CONTRIBUTING EDITORS Ronald Grigor Suny, Jivan Tabibian, Talino Voskeritchian COttTBISUTOBS Marine Arakolians, Michael Arshagouni, Artashas Emin, Hovhannos Harutiunian, Ani Klchian, Lola Koundakiian, Mark Malkasian, Moorad Mooradian, Nancy Najarian, Ara Oshagan, Susan Patlio, Simon Payaslian, Janet Samuelian, Talino Satamian, Aris Sevag, Balli Shoubookian EDITOB]AL ASSISTANTS Sylva Dakossian, Nigey Lonnon, Ara Phanian, Lionol Rolfe ASSISTAI{TTOTHE EDlrOB GoharManlikian CORRESPONDET{TS Ammrn: Ara Voskian Amrtcrdam: Arsen Nazarian Bru$ab: Kevork Oskanian Bucnor Alraa: Sam Serkissian London: Ani Manoukian Parlt: Khatchik Kechian Sydncy: Haig Lepediian Vlcnna: Sebouh Baghdoyan Yercyrn: Hakob Asatrian, Armen Baghdasarian, Tigran Xmalian PHOTOGRAPHERS Ammln: Karekin Kelalian B.lrul: AJno Jihanian Botlon: Lena Sangnls, Ari Slamaliou London: Edmond Tarakopian Lot Angalar: Karin6 Armen, Kevork Diansâ‚Źzian, Sossi Madzounian

llhml:

School.

JohnV. Manuelian B e lmont,

I appreciate your letter in the latest issue

explaining your problems. I know many people were debating whether or not they should renew AIM, but once they read your letter and fully understood the problem-

their attitude (and mine) has changed. I applaud your honesty in informing your subscribers of your troubles.

AraTopouzian B lo

Tony Savino

Naw York: Harry Koundakiian Nodh Bcrgcn: Ardem Aslanian Parl!:fumineh Johannes. Aline Manoukian Plovl-

dancc: Bergo Ara Zobian San Francl3co: Armon Pelrossian Ycrcvan: Mkhitar Khachalrian, Zaven Khachikian, Buben Mangasarian PHOTO ARCHIVIST Parik Nazalian CIBCULATION DIRECTOB Thomas Yoterian ADIIINISTRATIVE DIFECTOB Sela Kouzouiar AD[lNISTBATIVE ASS]ST NT Asdghig Mazmanian ADVERTISING DIBECTOB Alina S. Kassabian AOVERTISING REPRESENTATIVES Ani Azar, Msline Ouniian COLOFSEPARATIONTTiA, Montreal, Canada, Photolith, Burbank, California INTEBNATIONAL REPBESENTATIVES CANADA: Razmig Hakimian, 6695 Henri Bourassa wost, Montr6al, PO, H4R 2E1, Telephone 51 4 339 25.t 7 UNITEO

ARAB EIIIRATES: Sebouh Armenagian, POBor 3000, Sharjah, UAE, Telephono 971 6 331 361 UNITED KINGDOM: Misak Ohanian, l05A Mill Hill Road, Acton, Lodon W38JF, U.K., Tolsphone 081 992 4621 FRANCE: JoanPalrick Mouradian, 3 Rue Jul6s Guesde, 9414o-Alfortville, Telophono 33 1 48 93 10 33 ITALY: Pi6rrs Balanian, Via .l235 HONG Morlacca,61 A4l5, Roms, Telephone 995 KONG:JackMaxian, RM. A2, I 1/F, BlockA,26 Kai Cheung Rd., Kowloon Bay, Kowloon, TolophonoS52 79598884USTFALIA: Allred Markarian, P.O.Box 92, Merrylands, NSW2t 60, Tslsphono 02 897 I 846; Artin Goc, 29 Maytair Avo., Fernlree Gully, Victoria 31 56, Phone 03-752-3873 Far 03-752-3638 PUBLISHED AS A PUBLIC SERVICE BY THE FOURTH IIILLENNIUTI SOCIETY, A NOT.FOB-PROFIT, TAX.EXETIPT CHABITABLECOBPORATION

A NOTETOOUR READERS

Although we read all letters and submissions, our stafling and resources do not allow us to acknowledge every-

thing we receive. We welcome all communicatlon.

TRUSTING I}l UIRACLES Thank you for AIM. I wish you much

success in continuing to publish the magazine. I trust that the miracle will Arpi P anos s ian- M uttart W illow dale, O ntari o, C anada I have read

carefully yourexplanation of

your fiscal situation in the latest issue. I certainly hope you will soon overcome these problems and resume a.timely monthly publication of AIM. Here is a three-year subscription.

M.J. Ohanian Gainesville, Florida

describe the situation. Here is my subscription. Unfortunately, I cannot subscribe for a longer period owing to my advanced age, 87.

TnrouhiBaronic Montreal, Canada Thesepastthreemonths I haveanxiously waited for my copy of AIM, all the while fearing that you had closed shop due to hard times. My anticipation is proof in itself of

how your publication has succeeded in winning the hearts of many. AIM's high standards and uniqueness have made you the star of the diaspora media. You should be the pride of every Armenian. C amb

Hopefully your unique enterprise will continue. It has added a critical dimension

to Armenian news. When you have overcome (as you will) your present

financial problems ... the best of success to all ofyou brave entrepreneurs. Van Mihran Aroian Worce

s

te

r, M as s achuse tt s

I'm sad to see that you are having difficulties. I really think that AIM is an important publication for the Armenian world. It has been really useful for me, Although I don't find every article very interesting, I understand that the publication is aimed to a wide audience with different

profiles and interests. But specially for those Armenians who are far from large communities, the magazine is something

FAX: 818.246.0088 Letters to the Editor may be edated belore publlcataon.

Be sure that I read AIM with delight. Your claims are justified by all means. We must be thankful for the relaxed way you

AIM!

AIM4M@AOL.COM

AIM P.O. Box 10793 Glendale, CA 91 209-3793

omft eld Hills, M ic hi gan

continue, and we will always be proud of

We can be reached on-line at

or the traditionalway

M as s ac hu s e t t s

that makes us feel less isolated. Most of the Armenian music, books, etc. one could buy

in the last years was because of the advertising in AIM. I'll keep supporting your work with my subscription, and recommending it. Nelson Baloian

ViaE-Mail AIM, JANUARY.FEBRUARY I995

ri d ge,

A. Panossian Canada

O ntario,

IIODERII FEUDALISTI? In the post World War II period the word

feudalism has been used to describe conditions in the so-called developing countries. Now, in "Crisis is Opportunity" by Garine Zeitliarl. (Essay, October), the

term feudalism is used to describe circumstances in the post-Soviet era-in this case, in Armenia.

The use of the word feudalism to describe contemporary social conditions at

best obscures the circumstances under review and at worst misses an oppornrnity to uncoverthenewly evolving political and economic relationships. Levon Charkoudian Boston, Massachusetts CORRECTION The photo of Patriarch Torkom Manoogian, which appeared on pags 11 ot the November-December 1994 lssue was taken by London-basad photographer Onnik Krikodan. We regret lhe omission ol the credit.


US House of Representative Speaker

Newt Gingrich forced the resignation in early January of Christina Jeffrey, the historian

of the House, whom he had appointedjust

weeks earlier. She was ousted when it was learned that she had once helped to deny federal funding of Facing History and

Ourselves.

an

Fund has just transferred $25 million, or 25 percent of the funds it has promised to Armenia. The funds were transferred under the Systematic Transformation Facility

A Center for the Improvement of Trade between Armenia and Egypt opened in Yerevan last November. Egyptian businessmen

program, which provides exchange rate stabilization funds to central

of Economy Ibrahim Fawzi spearheaded this initiative after Armenian President

banks in countries changing to market economies. Another $25

in

million is scheduled to go to Armenia some time this year. The funds are Ioaned at a nominal interest rate of 0.5 percent over 10 years.

and the Minister

Levon Ter Petrossian' s visit to Egypt

1992. This center is the first permanent economic exhibit in

Armenia and Egypt's first such effort in the former Soviet Union. The Permanent Commission on

development

Internal Affairs of the Greek

credit agreement with the World Bank in December which will provide the country with $43 million over 35 years for its irrigation

Parliament adopted in principle a draft of a law titled "Regarding the

Armenia signed

a

rehabilitation project. The project intends to increase the country's

Recognition of the Armenian Genocide." The vote is expected in the parliament's plenary session in March.

irrigated agricultural production and

improve water

resource

management.

educational program about the

Genocide

of

Armenians and

Holocaust of Jews. Jeffrey had recommended against funding because the program did not present the views of the perpetrators.

California's

Armenia signed a loan

agreement with the European Bank for Reconstruction and

Development (EBRD) to provide $22.8 million for the construction of

exchanges, consular and diplomatic

to

home

an

community.

The

Clinton

Administration warned Turkey

natural gas reserves in Armenia.

about its increasingly deteriorating human rights

Yerevan Basin for oil reserves and the Hoktemberian Basin for natural gas. Armenia's Oil and Gas

Development Fund (ArmOil),

record and said this

created in 1993 in conjunction with the survey, will pick up where the

could undermine relations between the two countries. State Department

an

The International Monetary

on

80,000-plus Greek

The CEC report identifies the

estimated at 6.4 billion barrels while its natural gas reserves are estimated at 6,200 billion cubic feet.

bilateral agreements

telecommunications, cultural

is

Energy

exploratory program. According to the report, Armenia's oil reserves are

ministers, Vahan Papazian and a series of

Karolos Papoulias signed

activities. Armenia

Commission (CEC) has announced the discovery of substantial potential oil and

survey left off by beginning

Greece will soon be opening an

embassy in Armenia. The Armenian and Greek foreign

a cargo terminal together with taxiways, loading and unloading

officials cited concern over the early

equipment and an earthquake-proof

eight Kurdish parliamentarians of

December verdict which stripped

structure providing 6,000 square

of

their diplomatic immunity and

meters Yerevan'

s

imposed a l5-year imprisonment sentence on them for supporting

warehouse space at

Zvartnots Airport.

AIM, JANUARY.FEBRUARY I995


republlc's parliament. commended

the

He

Armenian

Revolutionary Federation for having always coordinated its Artsakh Fund

fundraising efforts with the Karabakh leadership.

adopted by the country's Parliament which allows a western consortium to begin the offshore exploration in the Caspian Sea. Former president Ayaz Mutalibov, recently ousted prime minister Surat Huseinov and

former defense minister Rahim

A delegation from Armenia participated in the meetings of the International Oympic Committee held in mld-Decmber in Atlanta.

Kaziev from the leadership of this new alliance. Armenian President Levon Ter

Petrossian appointed Parlia-

Kurdish separation in southeastern

While Armenian athletes continue to train despite harsh living conditons, thousands of dollars are required to

Turkey.

arrange for their travel to Europe and

replaced Haig Ghazarian who had resigned in the midst of a nationwide

Eduard Shevardnadze has turned to the securlty ministries to keep him in Georgia's

elsewhere to obtain the points necessary to qualify for the 1996 Olympiad in Atlanta. The delegation was led by Alexander Avetissian,

mentarian Ashot Bleyan as Acting

Minister of Education. Bleyan

teachers' strike. Bleyan's appointment was met with consternation

by those who

power. With elections scheduled for the fall, his conflict with warlords who brought him to power by

head of the Department of Sports and

questioned his frequently arbitrary

Youth Affairs and chairman of the National Olympic Committee of

enough, just as schools had resumed

overthrowing the elected president is

Armenia.

their spring schedules, Bleyan

intensifying. Real power in Georgia

Azeri

lies with the few well-armed

warlords, whose

Defense Min-

powers

ister General Mamedrafi

Shevardnadze has moved to curb. In

the process, he is relying on the increasingly powerful security and

Mamedov has been sacked by

interior ministries.

President Haidar Aliyev as Baku is threatening to use force

Izzet Rustamov and Tamaz Nadareishvili, the deputy prime ministers of Azerbaijan and

Georgia respectively, appealed for

more emergency food aid as theirpopulations faced a fierce winter. The joint announcement came during the meeting of the UN World Food Program in Rome. "Fuel shortages, lack ofspare parts and the

general breakdown in transport infrastructures means commodities

and aid are being blocked for months," complained Nadareishvili.

During his December visit to the United States, Karen Babourian,

Acting Chairman of Karabakh's Parliament, announced that all organizations soliciting funds on

behalf of Karabakh must first

obtain the permission of the

against its autonomous republic

of

and extremist positions. Sure announced that perhaps teaching children about the Genocide would be inappropriate since it is such a heavy and sad topic. Azeri was recently addedto the foreign language course offerings

at the Department of Oriental Studies of Yerevan State University. The other languages include Arabic, Farsi and Turkish. A stream of

high-ranking

Baku's former president Abulfaz Elchibey are based. Mamedov's

Armenian officials have been traveling to Mountainous Karabakh.

sacking comes as Azerbaijan and

The

Nakhichevan, where supporters of

neighboring Armenia

are

continuing talks to resolve the Karabakh conflict. Mamedov's deputy, SafarAbiyev, has reportedly been given therankofgeneral as well as the title of defense minister.

A number of former Azeri

fint visit

was from Deputy

Foreign Minister Vartan Oskanian, followed by Babken Ararktsian, Chairman

of the Parliament, and VicePresident Gagik Haroutunian. The vice-president visited the Askeran, Hadrut and Marruni regions to participate in the opening

of

leaders, currently in exile in

ceremonies

Moscow, formed a coalition with

constructed facilities builtby the PanAmerican Fund, which is attempting

the aim of

overthrowing

several newly

Azerbaijan's president Gaidar

to restore Mountainous Karabakh's

Aliev

eronomy,

and rescinding on the

oil deal

AIM, JANUARY-FEBRUARY 1995


Kultur

New Armenian Presence in Washington, DG

and Rapprochement in Germiny A massive exhibition spanning five millennia of Armenian culture has opened at the Bochum Museum in Germany. The $ 1,400,000 price tag for "Armenien

:

Wiederentdeckung einer alten Kulturlandschaft" (Armenia: Rediscovery of an Ancient Culture) was largely assumed by the Germans-an important development in Armenian-German rapprochement, as Germany historically has favored Turkey in its foreign relations.

A Congressional Caucus on Armenian Issues held its firstmeeting in lateFebruary inWashington, DC. The meeting was significant if for no other reason

than that the Armenian-American community has never had an organized presence in Congress before. Before it's all over, caucus organizers hope there be more than 50 congressmen signed on. As of the end of February, 3l had joined the caucus.

will

Why now? Timothy Jemal, the Congressional Relations Director for the Armenian Assembly of America who worked closely with Rep. FrankPallone of New Jersey in creating the caucus, said that forming a caucus has long been discussed, but the actual impetus came from Pallone late last year. Pallone, who does not have a large ArmenianAmerican constituency in his district, says there are a fair number in New Jersey. When the congressman spoke before the Armenian Assembly trustees at a function in New York last December, he announced his serious intention to move forward with creating the caucus. The trustees expressed their support.

However, the new Republican majority in Congress yanked all public funding for caucuses which means that the new Caucus on Armenian Issues willhavenopaid staff. This means, ofcourse, thatthe caucus will have to depend on groups such as the Assembly. This is precisely what has happened. Jemal has been functioning almost as caucus staff. Pallone is co-chairof the caucus, along with John Porter of Illinois, whose wife, a human rights activist has become a vocal spokeswoman for the plight of Armenians in Karabakh and the Republic of Armenia. Jemal thinks thatPorter, an internationalist, is well aware of the need to support democracy and the growing market economy of the new Republic. Other congressional members have joined up because many do, in fact, have a good sized local community. Two members of the famous Kennedy clan are members of the caucus- Patrick Kennedy

-

The sprawling exhibition takes three floors of the Bochum city museum and features artifacts drawn from a wide variety of sources from

Armenia and the Diaspora. The primary focus is on antiquities, such

as bronze and stone artifacts, manuscripts, statuary, andrugs. There are also special exhibits devoted to modern painting and photography. A Works by Ruben Grigorian (below) and Araks Nergararian (above).

handsomely produced

47

2-page

catalog, with color photos and detailed

articles by dozens of eminent

historians, is perhaps the exhibit's most valuable product. The exhibit has been invited to travel to other countries after it closes on April 17.

Nlgey Lennon

from Rhode Island and Joe Kennedy from Massachusetts, who reportedly was "obviously

moved" as a part of a Congressional delegation visiting Armenia. Congressman Ed Markey from the Boston area, where Armenians number over 80,000, is also a caucus member. The sole Armenian member of Congress, Rep. Anna Eshoo of California, has also signed up. The change in international politics since the end of theCold War was acrucial factor in the creation of the caucus, Jemal says. As a newly independent state

AIM, JANUARY.FEBRUARY 1995


charge d'affaires in Azerbaijan, Harold Formstone, was seconded from the Department of Trade and

Industry-a sign that Britain saw in Azerbaijan a lucrative trade partner, especially for British Petroleum. Formstone admitted in a BBC documentary that "I came down essentially to support what BP are doing." British diplomatic sources indicate that although complaints over the lack of a resident embassy were received from Turkmenistan, Georgia and Armenia, those from Armenia were the "most vocal."

Felix Corley

Poisonous Profits with an orientation toward democracy and

a

market

economy, Armenia has received close to half a billion money that has been a dollars in aid since 1993 lifeline for the new republic. The caucus was formed just in time to address the Humanitarian Aid Corridor Act, which would take away Turkey's considerable US foreign assistance if

-

Turkey does not reverse its current policy of preventing US humanitarianaid from gettingthrough to Armenia. Both the Azerbaijanis and Turks have

been actively fighting this act, and the Clinton administration has not endorsed it because of its desire to maintain the Executive Branch's control

over foreignpolicy.

So what if "kind words can get a snake out of its hole?" You might make more money if it stays there. Armenia boasts the former Soviet Union' s only snake cultivation center or serpentarium, home to 350 highly poisonous species. While their venom is deadly for

humans, the conservatory turns it to lifesaving utilizing the skin for fashionable

purposes, as well as

or otherwise useful items.

The director of the snake center, Ishkhan Hakobian, explains that venom-which in minute doses becomes thevaccineknown as antivenin*is a

highly expensive commodity in international markets. For instance, sales of venom produced in Mountainous Karabakh are becoming an increasing

source of revenue for the young republic, which produced more than 100 grams of snake venom in 1994. On theinternationalmarket,one gramofvenom

can be worth anywhere from $800 toseveral Lionel Rolle

minimal expenses involved in cultivating and

The British Are Goming

preparing the venom for sale.

The British Foreign Office informed the Armenian

that it would soon

Foreign Ministry on February opening a British embassy in Yerevan. The Foreign Office announced at about the same time that it would be opening embassies in Tbilisi, the Georgian capital, and in the capital of Turkmenistan, Ashkabad. It is expected that a British ambassador to Armenia will be named and in place by the end of the summer. Until now, British relations with these three republics have been handled via the embassy in Moscow, a position that has caused unhappiness in 14

thousands, dependingonthetype. Thisbecomeseven more lucrative when one takes into consideration the

be

Armenian circles given that, in 1993, Britain

established an embassy in the Azerbaijani capital, Baku. Armenian concerns focus around the possible bias that might result from Britain having a resident embassy in Baku but not in Yerevan. The first British

Hakobian complains that the Armenian

government does not understand the snake-wealth it's sitting on. "They try to place obstacles by saying that these cobras are part of our natural treasures and individuals do not have the right to handle them." On the other hand, he explains that some individuals have even tried to sneak these snakes out of the country to cash in on their wealth. He says that the snakes have been registered in the Red Book of Armenian Fauna and need tobeprotectedby the government. Hakobian claims that since land reform, the private cultivation of land has threatenedthe survival of some species in Armenia. Further, those who have heard of the snake center, sell their animals to the center for exhorbitant prices due to economic deprivation.

The workers at the serpentarium are clearly

AIM, JANUARY-FEBRUARY 1995


committed to their jobs. Last winter, the center's

information

director and his staff moved the snakes to their own homes to protect them from the cold.

u r i g ers Do t he Walking _F in Yerevan

from the

neighborhood.

In years past, a much

Armen Baghdasarlan

skimpier kind of "red pages" were kept in

locked drawers of

l_r

-l=-et- -Y-o

in

someone

When New York attorney AssadourM. Ashdjian

first decided that he wanred to help bring foreign capital toArmenia and setupjointventuresof various kinds, he discovered that even in the capital city of Yerevan, his biggest problem was a lack of bisic information. It was impossible to find anything in the city. So, armed with some records from ihe yErevan mayor's office and its endorsement, Ashdjian opened an office and with a staff of six researchers began the laborious process of compiling bits of information

for the country's first Yellow Pages. The city provided a few centralized lists, butthere weren't any lists of factories, forexample. Thenames

of various factories were pieced together by

communist bureaucrats and in the secretive -environment cultivated in the old Soviet Union, it was most certainly not available to the general public.

The Vertex Yellow Pages cameoutattheend of last year, and already

most of its 3,000 copies retail at $35 - which have been snapped up. The first catalog was printed in Finland, because no Armenian printer said they were up to the job, but

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when Ashdjianpublisheshis nextedition, he's

planningtoprintitinArmenia. Healsohopes ihattherewill be alotmoreadvertising, sothat itcanbe soldfor$4 or$5 andreach abroader

We are making a difference

for the children of ArmeniA...

audience. Ashdjian admits ttratthe first edition

was bought primarily by the foreign community in Yerevan, with diplomatic and business interests uppermost in their minds. Becausetherehas neverbeen anything like this in Armenia ttre firstyellow pages includes

articles on history, geography, climate, economy, architecture, parks and landmarks of all kinds.There are historical reflections, descriptions of the State Library and the National ArtGallery, even seating plans for thecity's mainauditoriums, andtimetablesof planes, Eains andbuses. Finally, there is

alist

of phone numbers for almost every kind of governmental authority, from the president ind prime minister down. Some of the numbers actually might be answered by the officials in question, Ashdjian says. Unlike its western counterparts, the Yerevan yellow pages make for fascinating

reading. Yerevan has four symphony

orchestras, as well as the Armenian Brass Bandandan academicchorus. Therearethree music schools, two medical schools and two and many technical teachers' colleges

,.,but we need Uour helP to continue,

schools are listed.- Automobile-related

businesses and Yerevan's 13 operating gas stations take uponly one column each, while bookstores, book lovers' groups, writers and iournalists' unions and a Literature Institution

tilt thr"r columns. In addition,

glazed earthenware factories, haberdashery

production and repair establishments-and one acupuncture facility, are also listed. Those who remember the old Yerevan can notice the changes just by glancing through the pages. Businesses such as restaurants, which are comparatively new enterprises and privatelyowned, havenames. Those which are still state-owned-such as

drugstores and bookstores--are still

numbered. Last but not least, there is a politicians' association. With a laugh, Ashdjian said he didn'tknow what the association did. L.B.

Evervthinq You

ftirttY'winted

to

Journalists, government officials,

lobbyists, students of history and political

science, anyone doing business with Armenia shall rejoice at a new reference guide published by the Washington-based

Armenian Assembly of America.

The Assembly's Armenia Factbook outlines the three branches ofgovernment, their officers, ministries, committees and

their members; details the country's military and geographic security issues;

Since lggg, the ACMF has sent almost $2 million in lifesaving supplies to targeted regions in Armenia, specifically: o Almost 500 tons of lsomil soy-based infant formula to Cumri, Coris,

o

Stepanagert and Yerevan 40 tons of dry powdered milk to spitak, Dilijan, coris, cumri and Yerevan

The ACMF soy-based infant formula program works! It,s the reason why Dr. Roupig Khatchadourian, Chief of the Gumri

Health

Department, and Dr. Nelli Garabedian, Chief Pediatrician of Cumri, said Cumri has the lowest infant mortality rate in all of Armenia!

Your support is making a difference in the lives of countless children. Thank you for making the difference!

lust $19 will feed a child for one month; $1 14 for six months; $228 for a Year. Milk Fund. Mail it to: PO. Box 652 o Boston, MA 02178-0005 All contributions are tax-deductible. For information, call (617) 491-2300.

Please make your check payable to Armenian Children's

ACMF is sponsored by the Armenian Missionary Association of America, a blue ribbon, tax exempt humanitarian organization which has been active in direct relief efforts in 18 countries worldwide since 1918. lt is located at 140 Forest Avenue, Paramus, NJ 07652; telephone (201) 265'260712608. AIM, JANUARY-FEBRUARY 1995


Iists the political parties, braves an explanation of their platforms, and identifies their

Ieadership; describes its economy, from agriculture and

Academic Affairs, Rouben Adalian, the Factbook was compiled byYerevan and US staff. An index-a rarity in Armenian publications-is

yourguide to names ofindividuals who remain in the limelight even though their positions and titles may

industry to taxation policies

change.

and foreign trade; identifies the

Perfectionists will also notice that the Factbook follow a consistent system of transliteration; however, those familiar with Armenian names will recognize their English equivalent and be happy to have found them in any form.

international agreements to which Armeniahas acceded in various spheres, provides the names and a summary of the

work of

humanitarian

does not

assistance programs in operation in the country and

non-governmental

organizations ; the circulation and editorial orientation of the media, and finally, a listing of Armenian embassies and their addressis. There was a time when those in need ofsuch information had to rely on newspapers or a friend who hqppened to be a walking encyilopeOlaof Armenian life. But now, anyone can brows-e through this 67page Armenia Factbook and locate the necessary information. Edited by the Assembly's Director oi

GarineZettlian

Armenians On lce

In 1994 the Armenian Skating Association was elected as a new member to the Int-ernational Skating FeCeratien, allt wing Armenian figure skaters to

participate

in international

championship

competitions as well as the Winter Olympics. At the 1995 European Figure Skating Chamiionships, held January 3 I inDortmund, Germany, Simuel Glzolian B-glarys, took fourth place with hi s partner Tarj ana 9,f Nadka. Vazken Azroyan, representing Russia with

Tlgran Arakelian and Kaho

Koinuma

partner Elena Kustrarova, came in l7th. The team of Tigran Arakelian and Kaho Koinuma finished 2lst in a held of 25. Last year Arakelian and Koinuma won the gold medal in the Japanese Open Championship.

They will gc,on to compete in tlie Worid Skating Championships in England this March.

,v.t. AIM, JANUARY.FEBRUARY 1995


INPIOTMES nstitutions come in all shapes. For prominent figures and traditional organizations, 1994 was a yeff when philanthropic efforts forArmenia were coupled with efforts to nurture a Diaspora. Faced with an uncertain peace in the Middle East and certain assimilation in the West, schools, churches and community centers everywhere continued to meet ever-growing challenges with limited resources. AIM, IANUARY-FEBRUARY 1995

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Armenian Ambassadol Gharles Aznavour fundraised and perlomed hls way iiiiougtt ths Veir, even linding time to sing_.with opsra.sta.l Placldo Domlngo inO ttirwegian slnger,Stssel l(yrkiebo in Uienna (top lelt); tha Lebanese chaotors ol the Armenian General Athletic Union'Homenetmen 8nl0y0d a new spurt of aclivlty (above) and Beirut's Halgazlan College (lolt) was not at a loss lor students.

AIM. JANUARY-FEBRUARY 1995


1994 was just one more year without official Genocide recognition by the Turkish government. But the battle against denial seemed to pick up pace. In London, youth held an

April 24 candlelight vigil (righr). In Paris, Turkish historian Bernard Lewis was taken to court (far right) for falsifying history. Even without a legal victory the political point was made and Armenians reaffirmed their commitment to demand redress. The political system was also used, in the US this time, to advance anArmenian candidate,

Chuck Haytaian (far right, bottom) to the Senate. It almost worked.

An independent Armenia does nol seem to have slgnllicantly altered the insiltutions ol

the Diaspora. A maior erception is lhe Armenian General Benevolent Union which has undergone signilicant structural changes and has locused much ol its rosouroos on Armenia. Witness their ZSth General Conventlon which was held in Yereran, with 300 delegates pondering new challenges (rlght).

AIM, JANUARY-FEBRUARY 1995


The Diaspora's largest political party, the Armenian Revolutionary Federalion, erperienced

several shocks. lts undisputed leader lor decades, Hrair Maroukhian, was physically incapacitated and unable to lead the pafi through a year in which il was lemporarily banned lrom operating in Armenia. While it is still unclear how these two evenls will reshape the party, traditions continue, as evidenced by the ollicial opening ol a new centet in Glendale, Calilornia (far lett).

Tricolor llags were not unknown in Beirut during these 70 years. Now, they also lly in September, on the new lndependence Day.


he passing of Catholicos Vasken I clearly marked the end of an era. After nearly 40 years on the throne of St. Gregory he was laid to rest in Ejmiatsin, in the same year which saw the death of

architect Armen Zarran, painter Vagharshak Elibekian, writers Hakob Karapents and Vardges Petrosian, photographer Harry Naltchayan, physicist TerezaMarkulova and former Yerevan Mayor Hambartsum Galstian.

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ln the old days, dreams about an independent homeland did not leature athletes carrying lhe tricolor. Yet whether it's Armenia's soccer team in an exhibition match against the US prior to the World Gup, or whether il's Karabakh's Soccer School team playing lriendship games in Connecticut, diplomats have sometimes worn shorts. Could anyone have imagined that at the World Weightlilting Championships in Turkey, lhe Armenian nalional anthem would be heard and the tricolor raised to honor an Armenian gold medalist? lt happened in 1994.

AIM, JANUARY-FEBRUARY 1995

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irst or fifteenth-however many times one has visited Armenia, the surprises

don't stop. Glendale Attorney Shahen Hairapetian made his first trip to Armenia this year-to attend the mid-year conference of the Armenian Bar Association, to lecture at Yerevan State University aboutAmerican tax law-and to "close the circle that had begun with the songs, stories and prayers of our parents and theirparents. "I met a bus driver who confided that all the tires on the bus were not the same size. Then, there was the man who gave me a handful of the walnuts he hadjust collected, before he returned to his stand near the Monastery of Gegard to sell his walnuts to tourists. And of course, there was the chess player at the Chess Center, who said 'When you come back, come visit me here. If I'm still alive, this is where I will be.' "In the short span of one week, I was in two different places on earth. And in both places, I was home."

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ln Armenia, everyone's walking a tightrope, including this perlormer in the city ol Eimiatsin, during the May 28 celebration.

An ouldoor concert (lar

left), sidewalk llower vendors (center) and Hairapetian (right) playing chess with a local veteran.

AI1\{, JANUARY.FEBRUARY I 995


T,

hat can you say about a year that began with railway and bridge bombings, gas pipeline explosions and burst aqueducts, and ended with two hours of electricity per household per day?

AIM, JANUARY.FEBRUARY 1995


he government says, food production has been adequate {or tfe population's needs, largely because of agricultural pnvglization which began earlier than in any other former Soviet republic. Nevertheless, there is tension between villagers who have plenty of food, and citydwellers who don't grow their own food and don't always have enough money to buy it. Although it is Dram which is exchanged across the countLr, everything starts with the almighty dollar which bought under 200 Dram in late L993 and 400 Dram inl994.

ou can say that Yerevan's Zvartnots airport remained the only reliable link to the outside world, that the number of scheduled flights increased to 50 per week, that markets were full but money was in short supply. I t t 9 a I

AIM, JANUARY-FEBRUARY 1995


There are prolits to be made and lessons in capitalism to be learned in all markets, including the Yerevan Stock

Erchange(rlght). Completing Its llrst year, it trades in dollars, ma*s, rubles and stocks.

AIM, JANUARY.FEBRUARY 1995


Thriving trallic lrom lran and the gull countrles as well as

Syila and Russia, croates small, prlvate merchants hawklng theirwates anywhere they can, including the Hrazdan Sports Stadlum (!elt) weekend swap meet.

Medium size Yentures ale ln a conslant slate ol

llur. SAM!Falalol

Bread production (left) was and stlllls govemmenl subsidized, and although there was llllle wory ln 1994 about bread lines, government lssue bread was still

rationed. ln Decembet, per lntematlonal Monetary Fund loan condltions, the dreaded and ott-postponed step was

taken-conlrols were removed and bread prlces shot up.

AIM. IANUARY.FEBRUARY 1995

(above), a SyrlanArmenian joint venlure which sold pretend Lahmajun and not-bad Falalel, shut down last year, but other businesses, including seml-prlvate taxi service, (lar lelt, top) picked up.


What do Egypt, France, GreeGe, Germany, the UK, the US, Russia, lran and China have in common? They all have embassies in Yerevan. At lelt, the embassy ol the People's Republic ol Ghina.

his was the year of shuttle diplomacy. The

conflict in Mountainous Karabakh brought UN General Secretary Boutros Boutros Ghali (far right) as well as Russian Ambassador Vladimir Kazimirov (top) and CSCE Minsk Group Chairman Jan Eliasson (left) to Yerevan. President Levon Ter Petrossian had several meetings with his Georgian andAzerbaijani counterparts (below).

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Strategies ol all kinds: Opposition party members Kim Balayan ol the ARF and Varlan Zurnatchian ol the ANM over a game ol chess (above, lelt). Famitiar laces such as Paruir Hairikian turned up at Opera Square rallies (above,

right). AIM. JANUARY.FEBRUARY I995


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fWarisHell, asthe saying goes, then what is a ceasefire? A state of limbo? A

prisoner facing the unceriainty of either release or execution? Karabakh seems to be such a prisoner and its current cease-fire a gulag. They pray for peace, yet every waking moment is cancerous with the realizattonthat Hell could easily return. These photographs, then, may depict merely an interlude between battles or the beginning of Karabakh's rise from the ashes of war. At present, there is only the hope that ballerinas can remain out of their bomb shelters. AIM, JANUARY.FEBRUARY I 995


esilience: A shopkeeper laughing even when his

Photographer Bruce Haley is a recipient of the prestigious Robert Capa Gold Medal. He has covered life and war in many diverse locations, including Afghanistan, Burma, Northern lreland, Somalia, Croatia and most recently Karabakh.

AIM, JANUARY.FEBRUARY I995

shelves are bare. Strength: A man playfutly hoisting his granddaughter onto his shoulders, watched over by heavenly figures brought to life by the hand and brush of a son killed in the war. Spirit: The liturgy once more resounding magnifi cently within the medieval monastery of Gandsasar. May these echoes escape the vaulted chambers and testify to the hope and determination of the people of Mountainous Karabakh.


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he cease-fire allows a soldier's body

to make its final journey home. After being buried at the front for nearly two years, it is roped into the back of a dilapidated bus, escorted by relatives and friends. Elsewhere, an exhausted gravestone cutter naps on his wares. The face of death has visited every family in Karabakh.

AIM, JANUARY.FEBRUARY I995


hen the bombs are silent, the land is bountiful. Where the cattle and plow do not set offland mines, the soil is rich. The

grandmother checking her daughter's drying grain looks down the generations at the young goatherd brothers.

AIM, JANUARY-FEBRUARY I995


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AIM, JANUARY-FEBRUARY 1995


hat happened to kinder and gentler? Even without the ColdWar, there are plenty of hot ones around, even if we don't count Karabakh.

(Clockwise from bottom left) Whether it's Bosnians fighting everyone, Chechnyans fighting Russians, Turks sentencing Kurds, the Japanese baffling nature, or the Arabs and Israelis fighting themselves, war goes on.

AIM, JANUARY-FEBRUARY 1995


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APAGASI

A

DICTA Electronic

YOUNGAND BRAINY Francis Lawrence was very enthusiastic about the idea. Although the possibility of attending other schools like MIT, Yale and

By ARA PIRAl{lAll hat do you say about a l0year-old who receives an A

The

Armenian Software

that you haae been

lookingfor

in Calculus? The Ashbury Press said Hannes Sarkuni may be considered "the most intelligent Armenian child in the United States, if not

in the world."

Hannes didn't find the eighth grade

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interesting enough. His attention drifted. He got on the teachers' nerves and thus spent more than a few times in detention. "I told the teachers I got bored and they yelled at me." The solution to the problem? Hejust skipped high school and went directly to college. Presently

Harvard existed, the Sarkunis didn' t like the idea of their I 3-year-old son boarding far

away from home, Hannes echoed his parents' concern and preferred to live at home. His family includes three younger siblings: Serop, I l, Mariana. 8, and Saro,4. Hannes' mother, Zavart,says, "Our life hasn'tchanged much. The only thing is that we don't see him as much becausehecomes home much later."

And how about Hannes' social life?

he's a sophomore at Rutgers University in New Brunswick, New Jersey, where physics, calculus, and courses in computer science are a bit morechallenging

than elementary school arithmetic.

Hannes' attendance at Rutgers

University was treated like

an

experiment for the school. OUTSTANDING

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Normally anyone entering college must have a high school diploma

or graduation equivalency, but when Hannes' father, Sarko, approached the dean of academic

and student affairs of Cook College, Ian L. Maw, the dean suggested that Hannes be put in a

summer Calculus course at Rutgers. Hereceivedan "A" in the class and has since enrolled full time, with his parents driving him to and from school every day, 40

miles roundtrip. Hannes plans to graduate from Rutgers

University when he is 14 years old. That may be too early for him to decide what he wants to dowith his lifebuthe wants to enter a fi eld of work relating to math or computer science. He holds a double major in those

fields. Presently his classes include

computer science, numerical analysis,

environmental and agricultural

perspectives, fundamentals of logic, and Armenian; a total of l9 units. It is the frrst time in Rutgers 228-yearhistory that they have allowed someone as young as Hannes to attend. But President AIM, JANUARY-FEBRUARY 1995

Well don't expect him to be some type of introverted eccentric who spends hours on end behind his home computer trying to discover the Grand Unifi ed Equation. After

putting in only one hour of homework everyday ("Ijust listen in class") Hannes has more than enough time to spend with his

friends or to play the guitar. "I like alternative rock: Pearl Jam , Alice in Chains." His father interrupted, "Unfortunately, he doesn't play any

Armenian music for me to enjoy. I used to play the Rolling Stones and my dad used to get upset, so it's coming back to me." I


PUMPING GOLD By LIONEL ROLFE hevron made a 40-minute motivational video about Victor Koshkerian that was shown at

its gas station

dealers'

convention last winter in Hawaii and it was quite a story. It was about someone who started with little, and made himself Chevron's most

-

successful dealer in gross gallons of

for l8 years, selling clothes, modeling (he's a lean, jaunty-looking guy who wears his uniform shirt and hiking shorts proudly), and learning English as a paratrooper. Koshkerian said until he came to the United States and went to work for a brief, unpleasant time with an uncle who owned a gas station, hedidn'teven know thatthere were different grades ofgasoline. Unlike those many immigrants who fl ooded into the U.S. and became gas station

owners, Koshkerian didn't know anything about cars, either. He's now gotten to the

to pull out of Southern California-the world's biggest oil market. Most of those affected didn't have the capital to purchase the land or remodel their stations. Koshkerian explained that many didn't know how to get Small Business Administration loans that might have kept them afloat-and, in a country like the US, even resisted the concept of credit and felt uncomfortable using other people' s money to build their businesses. As if modern business management principles, financial and marketing skills weren't enough, there is also the pesky invasion of computers. "Back when gas stations revolved around the garage, to be successful in gas stations, you didn't have also

to speak the language or understand

management," he said. "You could always

hire a guy or two who did speak good English. Youonlyhadto workhard. Butthat is changing now. The competition in the gas station business has gotten very rough. If

you don't pump enough gas, they shut you down in a hurry. Besides, everything has been effected by

computers. Cars are increasingly run by computers, and this has made car

repairs less a seat-of-the-pants occupation."

Cyril Ramdhani, Chevron's

territory manager, nods

as

Koshkerian talks. In the old days, Ramdhani says, when thegaragewas

the focus of a service station, the mechanic still greasy from whatever he was working on would stop his work to pump gas. The greasejockey presents the wrong image, he says.

And running a modern garcEe profitably is hard, both Ramdhani and Koshkerian agree. That is why so many of thosewho

found the gas station business profitable in the '60s and'70s couldn't do it any longer.

While Ramdhani says there probably are other factors such as location and competition that enter

into the success equation, Standing left to right, Don Gunness, Chevron's Retail Manager, Ramdhani, Koshkerian's wife Lianna, Koshkerian, Dave Reeves, Regional Manager, receiving an award for record-breaking gasoline sales.

gasoline sold in the entire country. At the rate his middle-size Anaheim Chevron station pumps gas-up from 50,000 a month to 600,000-he's selling seven million gallons a year.

He's not, by his own account, an educated man. "I couldn't get a job. My handwriting is terrible, and I can't read or write properly." Koshkerian is proud of his against-allodds success. His childhood in Israel, and later Jordan, was one of privation, caused largely by his father's drinking habits. He escaped to Australia, where he lived

point where he can troubleshoot, but he admits, he still can't actually fix a car.

It doesn't matter. He's convinced that running a garage is not the way to make a gas station profitable. His two stationshave mini-marts instead-sparkling clean and run by people, like Koshkerian, who are friendly, open, and like to talk. Koshkerian shamelessly likes people andwants themto like him. That's how he met his wife, who has been invaluable in his business success. Like many who ran Exxon gas stations, Koshkerian lost his franchise when Exxon, the largest corporation in the world, decided

AIM, JANUARY.FEBRUARY 1995

Koshkerian politely disagrees. You can make it as hard as you want or as simple as you want. It's how you treat people. If a customer

don'tstartby saying he needs me more than I need him. You have to get yourpriorities right." Ramdhani concedes that Koshkerian has a vision.

comes in, you

Koshkerian says matter-of-factly his success comes in part from being a

genuinely nice guy, who is also very competitive. "I am aggressive in business, butnottoward people." He says thathaving been hungry as

a

kid made him want to never

bepooragain. If my fatherwere arich guy, and he had given me all this, it would have been sweet. But if you have to get it by

working hard, it's

sweeter."

I


By ARA PIBANIAN

The Prize Out of 29,885 photographs submitted by 2,997 photographers

from 97 countries, it was the photograph, taken by Garo Lachinian of the Baltimore Sun, that

tookthefirstplaceprizeintheWorld Press Photo Foundation, considered by many professionals to be the most

prestigious international press photographic competition in the world.

Lachinian's winning photo-

graph, entitled "Flight from Cuba", pictures a Cuban boy escorting his

departing brothers and father on their fl ight off the shore of Cojimar, a town on the outskirts of Havana. Lachinian took the picture 100 feet

from the shore while himself submerged in the water to get the perfect angle he desired. Therewere ninejudges from the

United States, Britain, France, Germany, Russia, Netherlands, South Africa, Mexico and Bangladesh who were on thejudging panel. "When you enter a

competition of this sort you never exPect

towin,"Lachiniansaid. "IgotacallatT a.m. from an editor at work who told me the news. I was half asleep at the time and took

the announcement until later on."

lightly. [t didn't hit

me

"FlightfromCuba" won Lachinian atrip

Sixth Armenian Medical World Congress July 5-9,1995 in Boston, Massachusetts Join your colleagues this summer at Marriott Copley Place in the historic city of Boston. Come and explore the birthplace of the American Revolution. Experience the annual Fourth of July festivities on the banks of the Charles River. Visit Faneuil Hall, Old Ironsides, Old North Church and the other sites along Boston's famed Freedom Trail. This will be the largest Congress ever. Meet your colleagues from around the world. This is your chance to take part in a major medical meeting with yourfellow Armenian medical professionals. Hear about the latest advances in medicine and share your knowledge with others. Attendees are invited to submit abstracts on health-related topics. Find out what is being done in Armenia today by other individuals, medical organizations, and philanthropic groups.

will confer

to address areas ofparticular concern inH e alth, H o spit al Admini stration, P rimary C ar e, P e rinato lo gy/I,l e onat o lo gy, P harmacy /M e dic al T e c hno I o gy and D e nSeven key workshops

chding M edic al Educ ation,

P ublic

tistry. There will be special workshops also for dentists, pharmacists, residents/

medical students, and nurses. For more information contact:

World Congress Committee C/O Travel Vision International, Inc. 49 River Street

Waltham,MA 02154, USA Armenians Assisting Armenians

Phone: 617 -647 -5530 Fax: 617-894-6454 AIM. JANUARY.FEBRUARY 1995


to Amsterdam to be present at

Direct Garuo $eruice to and frofi Armenia

the

ceremonies April25 and $1,5(X), which he

plans to use to start a program called

we'll do is take used or broken cameras from

Cameras for Students. "What

newspapers and magazines from across the country and give them to Canon and Nikon to be repaired, after which they will be given free to college students who are studying photography," said Lachinian. In order to

start the program he is trying to get the TIMES MIRROR CO. to match the $1,500.

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Room 8210, 96 Broad St., Guilford, CT 06437 AIM, JANUARY.FEBRUARY 1995

Lachinian, 32, who is originally from Tehran, kan, came to the United States in 1970 and attended the Art Institute of Boston where he realized his interest in photography. Since 1984 he has worked as a professional photographer first for the Conc o rd M onitor and then fo r the B althw re Sun, "However, I plan to leave the Sr,ln to stay home with my daughter, Talin, and do freelance photography on the side." Lachinian has been to Armenia on two occasions to take pictures: Once in l99ohe went to cover the reconstruction efforts after the earthquake, and once in 1993 to cover

the conflict in Karabagh. Many of his

photos have appeared in AIM. However, most of his daily assignments are to cover fires, accidents andprofessional sports. He comments on his daily experiences: "There havebeen days whenlhadto trudge through mud to take pictures of a landfill that caught

on fire, and soon after that had to take pictures of, for example, Gov. Judo Gregg of New Hampshire at a press conference."

Simple Ghants Pianist and musicologist Sahan Arzruni, whose performance and projects schedule

grows by the day, has authored several entries in the New Groves Dictionary of

Music and Musicians , as well as a children's book entitled A Treasury of Armenian C hanrs, a collection of 50 hymns ar,td a sample of secular songs. Treasury , released by the Department

of Religious Education of the Eastern Diocese of the Armenian Church of North America, was compiled, annotated and arrangedby Arzruni. "Itwas an opportunity

to renew myself; to reconnect with my ancestral past and feel secure in my place.


Secondly, it was a musical challenge," said a recent interview from his see, Manhattan apartment.

Arzruni in

"You

traditionally Armenian chants are sung monophonically, that is to say, when chanted by

a

group, everyone sings the same

melodic line. That's what I wanted to duplicate here. I strived for simplicity,

something Komitas achieved

so

monumentally." Arzruni has compiled these songs for children so that they may become familiar with hymns recorded by Moses of Khoren, Saints Mesrob and Sahak over 1,500 years ago, as well as the works of such famous modern composers as Aram Khatchaturian,

Alan

Hovhaness

and

Alexander

Spendiarian.

"I

chose music that exemplified

children's style and is catchy enough for them to learn." Arzruni also said, "This is

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for the children to know their own roots and acquire atleastapartof theiridentity." The

book contains informative headnotes introducing each piece and English translations of all the lyrics. A cassette tape of the children's choir of Yerevan's St. Sarkis Church accompanies the book.

As for his work with The New Groves

Dictionary of Music and Musicians, the world's most authoritative music reference, it centers around a specialized volume on women musicians. "I had to fight to include

CornfortCare

the women composers I had chosen to write about. I was allowed seven entries including

such famous contemporaries as Sirvart Karamanuk of Istanbul, Turkey and the eighth century Sahakdukht," Arzruni said.

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THE EDUGATION OF ASHOT By SALPI HAROUTINIAN GHAZARIAN " The Turki s h G enocide of Armenians should be kept away from our schools and kinde rgartens. History and politic s are fo r the old. "

Ashot Bleyan, Minister of Education Yerevan, Armenia, March 8, 1995

Ashot Bleyan should have met my grandmother. Armenia's Acting Ministerof Education doesn't seem to understand teaching or learning. My grandmother did.

nearly impossible. That is why Ashot Bleyan is not the hrst person to have said let's quit focusing on the genocide and tcach our kids something more pleasant. Even survivors said it. As a result, in Europe and North America, away from the refugee camps of the Middle East, much of the pre-World War II generation was raised resenting the past and their own identity without understanding why. The well-meaning "let's save our kids from themselves" attitude

is common parental folly. It is also shortsighted. For the Minister of Education to declare

The Arabs had kidnapped her-grabbed her from her mother's lap-while they and thousands like them were on the

that he is going to eliminate the theme of genocide from school

deportation route in the Syrian

curricula, because children are

desert. The year was 19 15. When she was not quite five years old, herparents joined the statistics as genocide victims. She became a

and impressionable, is absurd. Atthe

young, vulnerable

most universal level, what are students to learn if not to deal with life?Whatis life, ifnota seriesof

survivor.

' What she learned best as a child servant was that her masters

difficult experiences? More to the point, to speak of

the complicated task of

were harsh, but life was harsher.

Instead of playing games with other children, she ran with the deer. Camels sheltered her from therain and provided her with all the milk she could drink. She learned arithmetic as a farm hand,

education in nation-building while abandoning genocide education because itis adifficult .and uncharted path is

inconsistent, unsound and myopic. How are Armenian

philosophy from the doleful Arabic songs of her captors,

students to begin to understand

their place in the neighborhood

geography and science under the

and their lot in history ifthey do

skies, on the hillsides, in the rain.

past--all of it? The business about being the cradle of civilization, at the not leam about the

She passed on lessons about

strength and self-reliance, quite

unintentionally. Watching her, listening toher, we learnedabout cause and effect, about the past andthefuture, aboutus andthem.

Those in the Diaspora who were the recipients of the

intersection of East and West, the crosSroads ofEurope and Asia, is

good stuff. It helps

, !

one

understand why Armenian kings are buried in France and how an

i

E

informal education doled out by survivor parents and grandparents have yet to find a way to formalize their experiences into an education program. Survivors' stories-Turkish soldiers ordering people to leave their homes, women sewing gold orjewelry into their clothing, buying cupfuls of water along the route, living in orphanages, beginning a trade, selling bread and salt to newer refugees, choosing a spouse, naming children after those who perished-became, for their children, lessons in submission to authority, trying to outsmart the enemy, adapting to unwelcome conditions, becoming self-sufficient, making sensible choices for the future and honoring the past. Yet, many a disgruntled parent will tell you that the reality and immediacy of the lessons of the genocide are lost on the third generation who hear stories of loss and victimization and transform them to images ofblood, gore and vengeance. Teaching anything in a meaningful way is a tough task. Teaching the complex social, political and human dynamics of genocide is

Armenian came to prepare the Chinese translation of the Bible. But standing in the intersection, one also gets run over. And Armenians certainly did. How are students supposed to come to gnps with the realities of Diaspora, immigration, repatriation, the western-eastern Armenian duality, political violence-and, confused and confusing attitudes toward "t}te Turks," whether they live in Azerbaijan or Uzbekistan? Finally, the minister's uneducated comments trivialize and cast doubt on the careful negotiations transpiring between Armenia and Turkey. The skillful dialogue with Armenia's reluctant neighbor to the east has continued without any concessions of principle by

Armenian officials. Yet Bleyan's i[-thought and ill-timed

comments make iteasy forcritics to insist otherwise. TheEducation Minister's intentis dangerous, potentially tragic and demonstrates a sorely misplaced sense of education and nation-

building. My grandmotherwouldhave said wedon't needostriches. Better we raise eagles.

AIM, JANUARY-FEBRUARY 1995

I


WE NEED DEDICATED YOUNG MEN AND WOMEN TO JOIN OUR VOLUNTEERS ON OUR 1995 SUMMER PROGRAMS IN ARMENIA AND IN KESSAB, SYRIA

by our volunteers in having worked on our native land. The Land & Culture Organization (LCO) is now recruiting volunteers to work on the land during our annual The two program venues are Armenia proper and the

to Armenian villages around Kessab, Syria. renovating Over the past 17 years, more than 600 LCO volunteers work, from the U.S., Canada, France, England, Armenia and other

Summer Programs ranging from construction projects, help Armenian refugees resettle in Armenia, to historic monuments, to earthquake reconstruction and agricultural projects. Your involvement willentail4 weeks in

July and/or August 1995.

Our efforts not only have direct benefits

for Armenia, but they also deliver a pro-

found and powerful psychological boost to native Armenians, to say nothing of the fulfillment relished

i

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Please rush me a brochure and volunteer application. I can't go, but I would like to subsidize the cost of a volunteer and help support the Summer Programs. (Please foMard your check with this coupon to N.Y. address below.) All contrlbutlon3 are tax deductlble.

tr $50

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O $1000 El Other

Name:................

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For lnqulrles, wrlte or call: Land & Culture Organlzatlon North & S. America: 138 East 39th Street, New York, NY 10016. Call:272 697-5822 Europe, Asia, Australia: 16 Rue Notre Dame de Lorette, 75009 Paris. Call: 1 43-75-92-53

I

countries have worked hand in hand with villagers on the land to assist the local population and to preserve our culture. The benefits to our heritage are as important as they are to our volunteers. If you are an able bodied individual, dedicated, adaptable and willing to work on our land,

WE NEED YOU.

I.AND

& GULTURE OREAIUEITIOIII


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IlArtsakh - A Heroic Strug gle" Arstakh - a Hsroic Strugglo is a memorial to our

The FinancialTimes, oneof theworld's leading business newspapers, is tentatively set to publish an extensive Survey on the Republic of Armenia in collaboration with the Armenian Embassy in London. The survey will highlight the economic reforms being implemented in Armenia, and feature the extensive business opportunities this is producing. The international business community knows little about Armenia. The survey will be seen by hundreds of thousands of prominenl members of the global business community in London, Paris, New York, Frankfurt and Tokyo where editions ol the paper are published. To guarantee that the survey appears as scheduled, however, a sufficient amountof advertising must be procured. And to havethe impact that such a seclion must have, readers need lo know more about how business conditions in Armenia are becoming more conducive to economic arowth, the establishment of joint ventures, widening the scope of manufacturing and the service sectors, and in general getting out the story out about how Armenia is increasing its presence on the in-

hsroes , and a tribute to lhe Armsnian qusst lor ,reedom and dignity. lt is a vision of hope thal the pressnl struggle will bring peaco, and forEign lootsteps will no longer trampls our soil. lt is also a praysr that the Tricolor will fly on wings ol eaglos , lirting our peopls to heights we've only dr6am6d. Signed and numberod Limited Edition Prints " x 28') ara availabla at $75.00 each. Please add $5 for shipping and handllng. Make checks payable io St. Grogory The llluminator Armenian (21

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PA 19128 Phono (215) 4829200. Please allow 15 days for delivery. Also availablo aro 200 si9n6d and numberod Artist's Proofs at $100.00 oach. Requesls will be fulfitled as racoivsd on a firsl come basis. Upon dopletion of

Artisl's Proofs, Limited EditionPrints will be substituled along with a $25.00 r6fu nd.

Part of the proceeds will be allocated for Artsakh

lernational business stage. The advertising will highlight the broad range of business activities in which Armenians around the globe are involved, which will help show the world's businesscommunity that Armenia and Armenians possess the essential spirit of enterprise necessary for success.wherever they are in the world. For further intormation, contact Armen Sarkissian, ambassador of the Republic of Armenia to the United Kingdom, as soon as possible. Address: 25A Cheniston Gardens, London W8 6TG, United Kingdom. Phone: 44-71 -938-5435

Fax: 44-7'l-938-2595.

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-


1994 In Pictures - January/February 1995  

Armenian International Magazine | 1994 in Pictures - January/February 1995

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