Issuu on Google+


L1 INTRODUCTION TO THE JUNIOR POLICE ACADEMY Why do police officers do what they do? If you’ve ever been in a car that’s been pulled over at night, you might notice that the officer pulls her squad car behind yours at an angle. You might notice that she leaves her flashing lights on. OVERVIEW: DISCUSS THE NEED FOR UNDERSTANDING POLICE PROCEDURE. DISTRIBUTE THE CADET HANDOUT AND PROVIDE AN OVERVIEW OF THE JUNIOR POLICE ACADEMY. OBJECTIVE: CADETS WILL DEVELOP AN UNDERSTANDING OF THE JUNIOR POLICE ACADEMY’S MISSION. CADETS WILL RECOGNIZE THE IMPORTANCE OF UNDERSTANDING POLICE PROCEDURES. Now, have your cadets take out their Cadet Handout for this unit. You might notice that she turns on a floodlight pointing directly at your car. You might notice that she appears to just sit in her squad car for a few minutes. Why does she do these things? Is it just to freak you out? Does anyone have any theories? Sometimes, police officers can seem intimidating. If you’re in a car that’s been pulled over, it can almost seem like the officer is making you wait, just to make you nervous. But there are specific reasons for every police procedure, and the more you know about the why and how of these procedures, the less intimidating police officers will seem. After learning about why police officers do what they do, the next time you’re in a car that gets pulled over, you can be the one staying cool and calm while everyone else gets nervous. THE HOW AND WHY OF POLICE WORK In the Junior Police Academy you will learn the procedures used by law enforcement officers and the reasons behind those procedures. Few citizens truly understand what police officers do and why they do it. Even less understand the vital role that law enforcement plays in a community. By taking the mystery out of law enforcement procedures and policies, we hope to change young people's attitudes toward police and their role in society. First, tell the cadets what it is like to be a police officer.


FOR INSTANCE: This is a unique profession. Yes, there can be a lot of action and drama, but there’s also a lot of drudgery and monotony. If all you're looking for is glamour and excitement, you'll soon become bored. But a police career doesn't have to be that way. It won't be if you approach your job with a proper perspective and are doing it for the right reasons. Yes, there is satisfaction in solving a mystery or catching a criminal. But the basic reason for being a cop is that you can make your community a better place in which to live. You can't change the world, but you can make a difference in your little part of it. SO WHAT IS JPA? Discuss with the cadets the mission of the program. Ask the cadets why it is important that citizens understand the role of law enforcement officers. On the first day of class, be sure to refer to the students as cadets. Make the class seem like an academy, in every way possible.

WHAT IS JPA? Junior Police Academy motivates young people to be outstanding citizens through law enforcement education. An extension of community policing, JPA transforms the traditional role of the police officer into one of mentor and friend. At the same time, it encourages our young citizens to be partners, not adversaries, in building safer schools and communities. "Young people do not understand what police officers do and why they do it. They don't understand the role of law enforcement in a community," observes Officer Mitchell Garcia of the Houston Police Department. "But when we take the mystery out of law enforcement procedures and policies -- young people's attitudes toward police and their role in society are transformed." The Junior Police Academy provides a forum where America’s law enforcement veterans can act as mentors to our young people! * Cadet Handbooks Next you’re going to explain how the Handbooks will serve as a resource for the cadets to review before a quiz or test. You also reserve the option of collecting the Handbooks on a regular basis for one of the course grades.

CADET HANDBOOKS Precision and attention to detail is essential to be a good police officer. Cadets will practice these attributes by keeping their own Handbook. This will be a


general use notebook where cadets will: • Take notes on lessons • Takes notes on videos and visiting speakers • File articles from the Current Events Beat • Record the vocabulary words and definitions WWW.JUNIORPOLICEACADEMY.ORG Cadets are encouraged to log on to the Junior Police Academy’s website for the latest news on the program’s activities and an extensive inventory of educational materials. Our “Cadet Central” section is written specifically for young people enrolled in the program. There you will find a wealth of information regarding law enforcement. MISSION OF THE JPA During the following weeks you will actually experience what it is like to go through a police academy. Although this academy is not nearly as comprehensive or demanding as a real academy, you will learn many of the same skills a police officer must learn. And while you will not graduate as police officers, you will graduate, with full honors, as Junior Police Cadets -instilled with an appreciation and respect for law enforcement officers and their role in society. WHAT IT MEANS TO BE A GRADUATE OF THE JUNIOR POLICE ACADEMY: Upon completing the program, Junior Police Academy Cadets are presented with a “Certificate of Achievement.” But just what does a Junior Police Academy education mean? What distinguishes a JPA Cadet from other students?

*A graduating Cadet is not ready to patrol the streets…but they do appreciate the commitment, dedication and courage a law enforcement officer needs to walk the streets each day. *Proficiency with firearms is not part of a Cadet’s training…but they do understand why it is necessary for police officers to carry weapons. *Cadets have not known the stress and uncertainty of stopping a speeding motorist on a lonely highway at two o’clock in the morning…but they do understand why no-nonsense, by-the-book traffic stops are not mere theatrics, but a law enforcement officer’s protocol for staying alive. *Cadets cannot cite case law with the skill of a lawyer…but they do recognize the value of a


precise penal code, applied justly and fairly to all. *Though cadets have not consoled a child at the site of a horrific traffic accident…they have refined their definition of a law enforcement officer to include peacemaker and lifeline to those in peril. *JPA Cadets have not experienced the agony of losing a fellow officer in the line-of-duty….but they do respect and honor the sacrifices law enforcement demands of every officer. While the program does not produce a single licensed law enforcement officer….the Junior Police Academy does graduate tomorrow’s citizens, supplying each with a rich understanding of a law enforcement officer’s role in society. DISCUSSION Conclude the first day by asking the cadets to list words or phrases that they think characterize law enforcement officers. Write the cadets’ suggestions on the board. Discuss whether the job of law enforcement is easy or hard, and how the cadets formed their opinions. *Ask cadets whether they have changed their ideas about law enforcement officials. *Ask them to add to their list of police descriptions, any new words or phrases inspired by the video (write the additions in a different color chalk, if possible.) *Let the class discuss what they think the educational skills and requirements of a police officer should be. *Discuss what qualities each cadet would have to develop before wearing a badge.

1.What is JPA? 2.What is the JPA website? 3.What distinguishes a JPA cadet from other students? 4.What is the mission of the JPA? 5.List two attributes essential to be a good police officer.

L2 HISTORY OF POLICING There have always been "police.” Cavemen likely stationed a guard at the cave entrance. Can


anyone guess when history recorded the first appearance of police officers? OVERVIEW: EXPLAIN THE ORIGINS OF POLICING. DISTRIBUTE CADET HANDOUTS AND DISCUSS THE EVOLUTION OF POLICING -- FROM SCOTLAND YARD TO PRESENT DAY LAW ENFORCEMENT IN AMERICA— CONCLUDE WITH AN HISTORICAL EXAMINATION OF "THE CALLBOX.” OBJECTIVE: CADETS WILL DEVELOP AN UNDERSTANDING OF THE ORIGINS OF THE UNITED STATES’ SYSTEM OF CRIMINAL JUSTICE AND FORMULATE AN APPRECIATION FOR OUR NATION’S PROFESSIONAL APPROACH TO LAW ENFORCEMENT. Now, have your cadets take out their Cadet Handout for this unit. Law enforcement has a long history, with it's origins dating all the way back to the earliest human civilizations. The first recorded police organization operated in Egypt during the reign of Pharoah Hur Moheb, around 1340 BC. That’s over 3000 years ago! They patrolled the Nile River with boats. It’s a long way from boats on the Nile to squad cars on the freeway — so how did we get to where we are now? The first organized and proactive police force was formed on September 29, 1829. Sir Robert Peel restructured the various magistrate forces, including horse and day and night patrols, into a unified Metropolitan Police in London, England. Their headquarters was established at 4 Whitehall Place. There was a rear door the officers commonly used and it opened onto Scotland Yard; hence, the force came to be called Scotland Yard. By the way, COP is not an acronym for "constable on Patrol." The term actually stems from the slang word "cop," meaning "to grab or catch." It first appeared around 1700. It's still used today, as in "cop a plea" or "cop out." The word "police" comes from the Greek "polis" meaning city. HISTORY OF POLICE Origins of American policing are traced to early English society. Before the Norman Conquest of England , which began in 1066, protection of life and property was a self-performed function. A pledge system was used wherein each person in a village pledged to protect the village against thieves and marauders. Individuals were expected to warn others of trouble and to pursue suspected criminals.

CONSTABLES & SHIRE REEVES Families banded together for self-protection. A group of ten families was called a tithing. Each group of ten tithing was supervised by a Constable. The constable can be considered the first


real police officer. Constables dealt with serious breaches of law. The Shire Reeve (later translated into Sheriff) supervised shires, similar to modern counties. The Shire Reeve was appointed by the King, Queen, or local land-owner to supervise and maintain order in the territory. WATCH SYSTEM The watch system, created in the 13th century, was more formal than the pledge system. It employed watchmen to protect property against fire and robbery. The local constables supervised these watchmen. The watch system was in place for about 500 years in England. 18TH CENTURY DEVELOPMENTS Two major developments in the 18th century changed the way the police were organized. 1) Cities Grew: The Industrial revolution lured the masses to the cities for employment. 2) Invention of Gin: Before the 17th century most people in England drank only beer and wine because the only hard liquor available to them, brandy, was much too expensive. With the invention of gin, cheap hard liquor was available to the English masses. The English government encouraged the manufacture of gin as a way to deal with grain surpluses. Consumption of alcohol doubled in England between 1727 and 1743 and with this increase came widespread public drunkenness and violence. METROPOLITAN POLICE OF LONDON 1829 Recognized as the world's first organized police force, the Metropolitan Police of London was organized by Sir Robert Peel, England's Home Secretary. Composed of over 1,000 officers, or “Bobbies�, it was the first force to be under a military command structure, as well as the first to have special uniforms. COLONIAL POLICING IN AMERICA Law enforcement in colonial America was similar to that in England. The county Sheriff was the primary law enforcement agent. He was paid by the fee system -- a fixed amount for every arrest made. He investigated citizen complaints, ran the jail and collected taxes. The town Marshall policed urban areas. EARLY AMERICA POLICING Modern American police departments were first created in the 19th century. 1838 first police force created in Boston 1844 New York Police Department created 1856 Philadelphia Police Department created Local politics and politicians often controlled these early urban police departments by determining who was hired and who was promoted. Getting hired and getting promoted was


more a question of who you knew rather than what you knew. Early American police work was primitive in nature. Most officers patrolled on foot. Because there was little formal training or supervision, corruption and brutality were common. 19TH & 20TH CENTURY POLICE REFORMS Policing became more technologically sophisticated around the turn of the century. Police uniforms were first introduced in 1853 -- finally police could be identified as police. The first telegraph police boxes were installed in 1867 -- finally police administrators could exercise some supervision over officers. In 1910, the first police car was introduced in Akron, Ohio -- finally police were mobile and could respond quickly to calls for assistance from the public or other officers. Police officers’ salaries also increased a great deal in this time period, drawing better applicants to the job and diminishing the appeal of accepting bribes. LAW ENFORCEMENT TODAY Today there are about 17,000 law enforcement agencies. 1. 3,100 Sheriffs departments 2. 12,500 municipal police agencies 3. 1 ,700 special police forces (parks, transit, airport, university) 4. 49 state police forces (all but Hawaii) 5. 50 federal law enforcement agencies More than 800,000 people are employed in policing, with more than 600,000 sworn officers and about 250,000 civilians.

L3 A QUICK GUIDE TO BEING A POLICE OFFICER The way police officers are often portrayed in movies and television can make it look like a pretty exciting job. Though it can be, especially if you work in a major city or one of its suburbs, many officers have gone through their entire careers without ever having to unholster their weapon. But there's no way to know for sure what your experience will be. You can be bored stiff one minute, and be facing a moment of sheer terror the next, but you must be prepared for both. OVERVIEW:


DISCUSS THE RANGE OF RESPONSIBILITIES A POLICE OFFICER FACES. DISTRIBUTE THE CADET HANDOUT AND REVIEW THE ASPECTS OF A POLICE OFFICER'S JOB. OBJECTIVE: CADETS WILL GAIN A DEEPER APPRECIATION FOR THE DUTIES A POLICE OFFICER PERFORMS AND BE ABLE TO IDENTIFY THE QUALITIES REQUIRED FOR A SUCCESSFUL PROFESSIONAL CAREER. Now, have your cadets take out their Cadet Handout for this unit. By focusing on car chases, investigations, shoot-outs and other visually interesting responsibilities, filmmakers give us heart-pounding action movies, but not necessarily a very realistic depiction of what officers do on a daily basis. In reality, the duties of a police officer are focused on patrolling, and ensuring the day to day safety of the city, town, or highway for which they are responsible. Sure, there’s the potential for arrests and investigations, but a police officer has many duties — most of which are less than glamorous. Police work is mostly routine, until it isn't. Sometimes, it’s just filing written reports or cleaning and inspecting weapons. Other times it may be diagramming crime scenes or seizing contraband materials, which requires another written report. Regardless of what their specific day entails, a day in the life of a police officer revolves around only one thing: keeping the public safe. NEW RECRUITS: WHAT YOU CAN EXPECT Most new police recruits begin on patrol duty, riding in a police vehicle or walking an assigned foot beat. They may work alone or with experienced officers in such varied areas as congested business districts, outlying residential neighborhoods, or even gang-infested inner-city housing projects. Officers attempt to become thoroughly familiar with conditions throughout their area and, while on patrol, must remain alert for anything unusual. They note suspicious circumstances, such as broken windows in a building that faces a dark alley or lights on in vacant buildings, as well as hazards to public safety, such as burned-out streetlights or fallen trees. Officers enforce traffic regulations and also watch for stolen vehicles. At regular intervals, officers report to police headquarters from radios, telephones, or MDTs (mobile display terminals). Officers may work alone, but in large agencies they often patrol with a partner. One partner (usually the senior officer) will drive, while the other handles radio broadcasts and MDT communications. While on patrol, officers are dispatched to individual calls for assistance within their district. RUNNING, ARRESTING, AND LISTENING During their shift, they may identify, pursue, and arrest suspected criminals, resolve problems within the community, and enforce traffic laws. Some police officers specialize in such diverse


fields as chemical and microscopic analysis, training and firearms instruction, or handwriting and fingerprint identification. Others work with special units such as horseback, bicycle, motorcycle or harbor patrol, canine corps, special weapons and tactics (SWAT), or emergency response teams. About 1 in 10 local and special law enforcement officers perform jail-related duties, and about 4 percent work in courts. Regardless of job duties or location, police officers and detectives at all levels must write detailed reports and maintain meticulous records that may be introduced as evidence at trial and used to refresh their memories of the incident prior to testifying in court. ESSENTIAL JOB TASKS PERFORMED BY POLICE OFFICERS ARREST AND APPREHENSION Use appropriate level of force Make judgments about arresting or releasing suspects or offenders Identify and apprehend offenders Handcuff suspects or prisoners Conduct frisk and pat down Advise persons of constitutional rights Seize contraband Use deadly force when necessary Execute arrest warrants Fire weapons on duty Pursue suspect on foot Execute search warrants Pursue suspect in vehicle Obtain and serve protection orders and committals INVESTIGATION Secure and maintain accident, crime, or disaster scenes Investigate crimes against persons and property Investigate suspicious and criminal activity Interview witnesses Investigate suspicious persons or vehicles Collect, document and preserve evidence (chain of custody) Make judgments about probable cause for warrant-less searches Search crime scene for physical evidence Investigate complaints of drug law violations Locate witnesses to crime Interrogate suspects Process crime scene, fingerprints, accident scene, etc. Search premises or property Transport property or evidence Diagram crime/accident scenes


PATROL Enforce criminal laws Respond to calls for service Drive motor vehicle under non-emergency conditions Search persons, vehicles, and places Drive motor vehicle under emergency conditions Patrol assigned area in a vehicle Issue citations for non-traffic offenses Make checks of various types of premises and buildings (schools, playgrounds, parks and recreational centers, businesses, hospitals, churches, etc.) TRAFFIC ENFORCEMENT Enforce traffic and parking laws and ordinances Investigate traffic accidents Check vehicles for proper registration Request emergency assistance for accidents Administer roadside sobriety tests COMMUNICATION Communicate with dispatcher, other police vehicles, and commanding officers by radio Exchange necessary information with other police officers at a scene Provide accurate oral descriptions Interact, communicate, and work with citizens PAPERWORK Write reports Write citations and summonses Write memos Review and sign reports to ensure completeness and accuracy PHYSICAL TASKS Subdue and arrest a resisting/attacking individual Encounter an armed suspect Encounter resistance during an arrest or in an emergency situation Sit or stand for long periods of time Recover weapon from suspect who gives it up voluntarily Perform an evasive maneuver (dodge, duck, block, push, shove, pull, etc.) in order to disarm a suspect Subdue and physically restrain an intoxicated individual


TO BECOME A POLICE OFFICER... You must be a citizen of the U.S.A You must be 20 or older You must have a GED or high school diploma You must pass several written and physical exams You must NOT be a convicted felon You need a college degree to work in state and federal law enforcement agencies WHAT TRAINING WILL YOU NEED? 12 to 14 weeks of training in a police academy including classroom instruction (constitutional law and civil rights, state laws and local ordinances, and accident investigation) and hands-on experience (patrol, traffic control, firearms usage, self-defense, first aid, and emergency response) Completion of a 2-year associate’s program or 4-year bachelor’s program in a criminal justice-related area is encouraged Knowledge of a foreign language and physical fitness are both plusses What career opportunities and advancements will I have as a police officer? Potential for promotion to a specialty area or higher rank Potential to retire with a pension after only 20-25 years of service. Potential to earn a salary from the mid-$30,000s and upwards HOW DO I GET STARTED? *Find schools with programs that interest you. *Request info from specific police departments to get started on your new career. STILL INTERESTED? ASK YOURSELF: *Why become a police officer? *Who do police officers serve? *What are the dangers as well as the benefits to fighting crime and ensuring public safety? VIDEO: SWEEPING THE STREETS In the clip “Sweeping the Streets” (Unit 3 from the JPA Video) from COURT TV’s “The System”, a police officer must deal with interpersonal conflict when a citizen discovers strangers have moved into her home. Before showing the clip, explain to the class that one of the most important duties of a police officer is conflict resolution. Ask the class to pay close attention to how the officer handles a frantic citizen. Show the clip and discuss the following questions.


What is a contract? How is the woman in this scene going to make money off of this situation? The police officer in this situation remained very calm and helped work out a compromise. Have the cadets write an explanation of why it is important for officers to remain calm in situations like this. THE LAW ENFORCEMENT CODE OF ETHICS As a law enforcement officer, my fundamental duty is to serve humankind; to safeguard lives and property; to protect the innocent against deception, the weak against oppression or intimidation, and the peaceful against violence or disorder; and to respect the constitutional rights of all people to liberty, equality, and justice. I will never engage in acts of corruption or bribery, nor will I condone such acts by other police officers. I will cooperate with all legally-authorized agencies and their representatives in the pursuit of justice. I know that I alone am responsible for my own standard of professional performance and will take every reasonable opportunity to enhance and improve my level of knowledge and competence. I recognize the badge of my office as a symbol of public faith, and I accept it as a public trust to be held so long as I am true to the ethics of the police service. I will constantly strive to achieve these objectives and ideals, dedicating myself before God to my chosen profession Law Enforcement. Review each part of the Law Enforcement Code of Ethics. Decide which part you think would be the most difficult to uphold over the course of a career in law enforcement. Why do you think this aspect of the Code is important to a police officer? 1. Where do most new recruits begin working? 2. Are there essential tasks performed by an officer? 3. Name three things an officer looks for while on patrol. 4. Discuss the difference between police officers on television and those on the streets. 5. Name 2 requirements to become an officer.


L4 PATROLING THE STREETS Whether it's walking a beat, riding a bicycle, motorcycle or horse, or driving a car, the basic function of police is to patrol. This day-to-day patrol work makes a police department effective in many ways: it shortens response time, aids in crime prevention, gang suppression, traffic enforcement, apprehension of suspects, and intervention in crimes in progress, to name just a few.

OVERVIEW: DISCUSS THE REASON FOR PATROLLING AND WHY IT IS A VITAL PART OF LAW ENFORCEMENT OBJECTIVE: CADETS SHOULD HAVE A BETTER UNDERSTANDING OF THE PHILOSOPHY OF PATROLLING AND ITS DIFFERENT METHODS AND TECHINIQUES. Now, have your cadets take out their Cadet Handout for this unit. Patrol is the first line of defense against crime. Why? Because it puts you where the people are. It promotes contact with citizens so they get to know their police officer. Patrols allow for officers to be nearby when a cry for help comes in to the dispatcher. Patrol officers may even stumble upon a crime or hazardous situation that requires immediate attention, such as a street sign twisted so it miss-identifies the cross street, the traffic signal that isn't working, the pothole left by last night's rain, the broken tree limb that brought down a live electric line, or a gas leak that could explode when someone lights a cigarette. Historically, patrol work has been the basic function of police in protecting life and property and serving the public. The earliest police forces were called "patrols." London had its Day Patrol, Night Patrol and Horse Patrol before Sir Robert Peel devised the first proactive police force called the Metropolitan Police. As important as it is, patrol isn't necessarily pleasant work. In fact, the word patrol is derived from the French "patrouiller" meaning "to go through puddles." That's what you’ll do -- walk through littered alleys, climb rickety back stairs, slosh through slush in winter and slog through mud puddles after summer storms. The first assignment you will receive as a new officer will probably be patrol. Your job will be to poke your nose into places the public would pass by with little notice. It may sound like it’s not much fun, but when approached with the right attitude, patrol is one of the more interesting aspects of police work.


DID YOU SEE THAT??!!! Most citizens walk down the sidewalk oblivious to their surroundings, unless approached by a beggar or purse-snatcher, which often comes as a complete surprise due to their lack of awareness. As an officer, it is important for you to always be aware of the things that are going on around you and to try to remember all of the details of your surroundings. Learn to observe people, to note their differences and distinguishing features. Practice glancing at people quickly, then describing them. From your description could a fellow officer pick out the individual in a crowd? You'll find that with practice you'll see more than you ever thought possible. **Try this with the cadets. Have one cadet describe another cadet without looking at them, then see if the others can guess who they are describing. The Sixth Sense‌ Some officers seem to have a sixth sense that tells them "that person is wrong." They have simply learned to observe details of dress, actions, mannerisms, and appearance. These details may be so minor they're meaningless until they are viewed in the context of the total picture. Every time you make a good arrest, ask yourself, "What tipped me off that something was wrong? What caught my attention?" By analyzing each situation, you'll discover the seemingly insignificant action or thing that didn't fit. If you have a partner, talk it over together. You'll find that the vague feeling you get when something is wrong has a sound basis in your observation. Two approaches to patrol There are two distinct philosophies of patrol. In one, you wear a distinctive uniform and drive a marked car with a light bar on top. The light bar has small bulbs, "cruise lights", that increase your visibility at night. On foot patrol, you walk at the curb side of the sidewalk and generally make yourself as conspicuous as possible. This lets your citizens know you are on the job and it forestalls contemplated actions by criminals. This is the technique for prevention. The other approach is more effective when your purpose is apprehension. You are in uniform but in an unmarked car with concealed emergency lights. On foot, you walk up close to the buildings, duck into doorways, and observe without being seen. When your purpose is apprehension, you are unobtrusive and avoid influencing a situation you are observing. When on patrol, use the approach that is most appropriate. If you are in an area you can't reach while sitting in a squad car, park your car and continue on foot. Avoid obvious routines You've analyzed your patrol area and determined a patrol routine that covers it effectively and efficiently. This routine is working, so why change it?


Whether on foot or in a car, a criminal will quickly learn your routine and plan his actions accordingly. If he learns that you always start your evening patrol in the less populated areas then work your way toward the high crime areas later in the evening, he's going to hit the high crime area early in your shift or the residential area later.

“Be systematically unsystematic” You want people to know you're on the job, but you never want them to know where you'll be next. Backtracking is one technique to break a patrol routine, and it works on foot or on wheels. After you've walked a particularly vulnerable area, turn around and walk it back the other way. On your walk back, duck into a doorway and wait for a while. Observe without being observed. If you are in a car you can drive around the block and cover it again, this time detouring up the alley. Patrolling at night Use light and shadow to your advantage. When you enter a dark alley from a lighted street, wait for a few minutes to let your eyes adjust. This gives you a chance to watch for the movement of someone who saw you enter the alley. You might pass the alley entrance, then double back. Stand where you are shielded from the street so you aren't silhouetted against the street lights. Work your way through the alley by hugging the sides and ducking behind the dumpster. Use your light only when necessary, because it not only tips off the bad guys to your presence, it also makes a good target at which to aim a weapon. When walking a beat at night, you don't want to stroll down the street, trying every door and flashing your light around at random. Even an inexperienced crook can keep track of your movements. It may seem obvious, but it happens, because it's easy for humans to fall into a routine. Know your neighborhood There is a lot for you to learn about your patrol area. You need to know more than just every street name and how buildings are numbered. Learn the peculiarities of every street, road, and alley. Knowing where a high-crowned cross street creates a dip could be critical in a high-speed chase, just as knowing that the dirt road your fleeing suspect just turned down dead ends into a lake or that the alley the suspect turns into has no exit. Become familiar with the buildings on your patrols, and learn the location of their entrances and exits, as well as the situation of important things such as their electrical circuit boxes or their security alarm. You’ll want to know what types of businesses operate from each building, and where each business stores its valuables. All of this knowledge should influence the way that you patrol. Every patrol area has locations where trouble is likely to develop. Identify those areas that have had the most calls for service.


Know your neighbors You can't do a good job patrolling unless you know the people in the area that you patrol, know what they know, and have their confidence and respect. The law-abiding citizens of your community will likely never meet you, or you them, unless they become a victim of a crime. It is up to you to reach out to the community and meet the people that live there. There are many people whose jobs put them in good positions to help you, and it's worth cultivating their friendship. Delivery persons, hotel clerks, bellhops, cab drivers, gas station attendants and security guards could be sources of good information, and can be a second set of eyes for you. Even the people who sit in the park most of the day become skilled observers. Get to know the neighborhood business owners and employees by sight, if not by name, and learn their personal habits. If you know a store manager never opens before 0900 hours (9:00 a.m.), someone moving around inside at 0800 should arouse suspicion. If you know the clerks restock shelves after closing time, activity inside then might not be suspicious. But if it is someone you don't recognize, it could be a burglar trying to look like an employee. While you are getting to know the people, get to know their cars as well. Learn who owns which cars, and which cars are usually parked in the neighborhood during your patrol. With this knowledge, you will have a better chance of recognizing any suspicious activity. The Police Car Improvements in the quality and performance of police vehicles, as well as their increased necessity in the twentieth century, were the result of technological advances. As technology improved the performance of cars, criminals made use of their higher speeds to elude capture. Police departments, at first unable or unwilling to incur the expense of outfitting their force with patrol cars, had no choice but to keep up with the criminals. The modern police car is a high performance, high speed, law enforcement tool. Today the police car is as familiar as the police officer. But police officers have a long tradition of “walking the beat,� or as mounted officers. Why did police departments implement the use of modern police cars in law enforcement? Automobiles came into police work shortly after Henry Ford made the first Model T, but they didn't come into prominence until the 1920s. At first, they were kept at the station house so officers could respond faster when a call came in. During World War II, a manpower shortage and the advent of the two-way radio increased the relevance of the patrol car. The car lets you cover a larger territory and travel faster from point to point, but it also encases you in a metal box that separates you from the community. Many departments started "walk and talk" programs where you had to spend part of each hour with the car parked as you got out and talked with people in your patrol area. This became possible and more useful with the development of portable two-way radios. Where closer community contact has been established, crime has been reduced and the citizens have a better relationship with their


police departments.

Extended Activities *Design a police car for the future. What types of options and equipment do you think will be necessary? *Have a debate or discussion in your class about the pros and cons of police officers using police cars. Are there any alternatives to police cars? *How can the police officers in your community develop a better relationship with community members? 1. How was order kept before a police system was created? 2. Why was a police organization created? 3. What could be considered the first real police officer and what were his duties? 4. What two major developments changed the way police were organized? 5. How does politics affect the way policing is executed?

L5 HAZARDS ON PATROL Police work can be very dangerous and stressful. In addition to the obvious danger of confrontations with criminals, officers need to be constantly alert and ready to deal appropriately with a number of other threatening situations. OVERVIEW: DISCUSS THE RANGE OF RESPONSIBILITIES A POLICE OFFICER FACES-DISTRIBUTE THE CADET HANDOUT AND REVIEW THE ASPECTS OF A POLICE OFFICER'S JOB. CONCLUDE BY VIEWING THE VIDEO "SWEEPING THE STREETS." OBJECTIVE: CADETS WILL GAIN A DEEPER APPRECIATION FOR THE DUTIES A POLICE OFFICER PERFORMS AND BE ABLE TO IDENTIFY THE QUALITIES REQUIRED FOR A SUCCESSFUL PROFESSIONAL CAREER. Now, have your cadets take out their Cadet Handout for this unit. Many law enforcement officers witness death and suffering resulting from accidents and criminal behavior, which can take a toll on their psychological well-being.


A career in law enforcement may also impact officers' private lives. Police officers and detectives are required to work any time their services are needed and may work long hours during investigations. In most jurisdictions, whether on or off duty, officers are expected to be armed and to exercise their arrest authority whenever necessary. But when you are dispatched on an emergency call, remember that your first responsibility is to reach your destination safely. It's little consolation to the accident victim who's bleeding to death that you would have arrived sixty seconds sooner if that drunken driver hadn't pulled out in front of you and caused a crash. Treat every emergency call like an emergency. "Routine" is a threat to the police officer. The seventh response to a particular ringing alarm that's always been false in the past just might be real. You can't assume anything. Every emergency call is an emergency until you determine the facts. BE CLEVER If you can, avoid approaching in a manner that allows you to be spotted from some distance away. In the city, use a parallel street and cut over at the last possible intersection. If it's a holdup, burglary, or prowler call, cut your siren several blocks away and extinguish your lights before you are spotted from the destination. Note the license plate numbers and descriptions of vehicles or persons departing as you approach the scene. When you arrive, stop a little way down the street, then wait a second, and size up what you can see. Is someone waiting in a car with the engine running? Is someone running off in the opposite direction? If nothing attracts your attention, identify the best approach route. Have a plan. If you're working with a partner, it's critical that each of you knows what the other is going to do. Talk about it. A poor plan is better than no plan at all. ALWAYS USE CAUTION Let's say you spot a car that doesn't fit the area where it's parked. You radio the dispatcher for a motor vehicle registration check and it comes back "stolen." Do you rush right over and start rummaging through it for evidence? Of course not. Better to drive on by and position yourself where you can watch it unobtrusively. The thief may be using it to hold up the store, particularly if it was recently stolen. Or, he may have stopped to pick up someone. Advise the dispatcher what you've got. Perhaps a plainclothes officer will want to stake it out. Once you're reasonably sure the car has been abandoned, let the investigators do the rummaging. They're trained to find evidence not obvious to you, since you don't recover stolen cars every day. What if, responding to an armed robbery call, you find the perpetrator still in the store with


salesclerks and customers? Rushing in could be dangerous to someone inside, or even create a hostage situation. It's better to wait a discreet distance away for the robbers to come outside before you confront them, because ensuring the safety of the public is your primary concern. Narcotics cases can be touchy. If you have a narcotics squad, they may work a case for months without making an arrest. Many people are involved in the drug trade, with one level shielding the next higher level. If you rush in and bust the pusher, you could blow the case of an officer who was using the pusher to identify his distributor. If you come across a drug transaction and can discreetly check by radio, do it; get the expert's advice. If you arrest a group and recognize an officer working undercover, don't acknowledge him or her. Treat him the same as everyone else. You can sort it out later. There are conditions that can make a person appear to be intoxicated when they've had nothing at all to drink. A blow to the head could have this effect. Carbon monoxide poisoning could, too. A diabetic could be suffering from insulin shock or even go into a diabetic coma. If you find any evidence of injury or a Medic Alert tag, get immediate medical attention for the subject. What is the largest single source of police liability lawsuits? No, it's not firearms or use of force. It's automobiles. Your car is a very powerful tool, and you use it constantly. Operating your patrol car calls for exemplary skills whenever you are behind the wheel. After all, your marked car is easily identified and citizens are watching you. When you go into the defensive driving course during training, you need to practice control, steering, fast but safe lane changes, U-turns, controlled skids, and proper braking. Your driving instructors know what has caused officer-involved accidents in the past. They've given a lot of thought to how to avoid them and they teach you techniques they've developed to prevent them. They will also try to teach you judgment. Their experience will tell you what you might expect from other drivers' reacting to you. That is the essence of defensive driving -- anticipating the other drivers' actions. TO CHASE OR NOT TO CHASE Many departments require logging and reporting each pursuit. If the operator's identity has been established, discontinue pursuit and apprehend later. Courts have held, in cases where pursuits resulted in injuries or death, it is the officer’s fault for causing the fleeing driver to do things under stress (s)he would not ordinarily do. Just because a motorist runs, it doesn't mean (s)he's a felon who can't afford to be caught. A driver may run for any number of real or imagined reasons. Of course, you want to catch him. But if continuing hot pursuit puts others at risk, you have no choice but to break it off. If you noted the license plate number, you can always catch him another day. If it's a suspected felon who's running, your radio can alert other units that may be ahead of him. If the only reason to


chase is that the driver was speeding, it's not worth breaking your neck, or someone else's. The exception is one who is likely to endanger others if (s)he continues. You need to consider the type of road, weather and wind conditions, amount of traffic, and what's up ahead before deciding to engage an offender in hot pursuit. Good judgment is the critical factor. But let's say that, all things (and the policies of your department) considered, you decide to chase. First, realize that you're going to startle other motorists when you switch on the lights and siren. Give them a chance to get out of your way. Then remember that high-speed operation of a motor vehicle is quite different from a Sunday drive in the country. While draping one arm out the window and resting the right hand at the bottom of the wheel may seem comfortable, it affords little steering control. Where does the racing driver put his hands? The left at nine or ten o'clock, the right at two or three o'clock. That hand position provides maximum control. CELL PHONES: It has happened to anyone who has used a cell phone. You’re making a call and nothing happens, you just can’t get through, maybe you only hear static. So, you call later and get through. But what if you couldn’t wait a few minutes? What if those minutes meant life or death? These days, for many public safety providers, they do.

CLOSE CALLS -- On September 18, 1996, two detectives ran after a drug dealer in Kansas City, MO. When they called for backup on their new handheld radios, they got dead air and their situation got dangerous. As they cornered the suspect, he shot them both. These shooting victims were also victims of progress. The once-dependable police radio is literally being drowned out by a torrent of information-age devices that have made mobile communications available to millions of Americans, such as wireless phones, Blackberrys, Droids, IPads, and laptop computers. Even as police, fire and emergency medical services upgrade to pricey new radio systems, dozens of agencies face increasing interference from more powerful commercial wireless services. What other common emergency situations could be hindered by a lack of immediate radio contact? ROLE OF REGULATORS -- As metro populations swell, police, fire and medical agencies lack enough channels to handle the growth in their own ranks. The Federal Communications Commission is in charge of regulating our nation’s airwaves but they are under tremendous pressure to bring in as many billions of dollars as possible from auctioning airwaves to the commercial carriers that provide our cellular services. POTENTIAL PROBLEMS & SOLUTIONS -- Currently, officers must travel farther to get a signal,


carry cell phones and bring backup when entering static-prone areas. The solution is to build a bigger network. Packed with new features and buttons, officers often have trouble using them. Though time and training should ease many of these concerns, the new radio systems are also more glitch-prone. There’s a lot more that can and will go wrong. Discuss: Identify an alternative solution to this airwave issue. Consider the number of cellular or wireless devices in your home and how often your family uses them. Discuss the long term effects of over-populating the airwaves. 1. How was order kept before a police system was created? 2. Why was a police organization created? 3. What could be considered the first real police officer and what were his duties? 4. What two major developments changed the way police were organized? 5. How does politics affect the way policing is executed?

L6 TRAFFIC ENFORCEMENT 101 Why do officers conduct traffic stops? No one likes to get a ticket, but if a ticket deters drivers from things that put the community’s safety at risk, we all benefit. OVERVIEW: INSTRUCTOR WILL REVIEW THE VARIOUS TYPES OF TRAFFIC COLLISIONS AND WILL CONDUCT AN EXERCISE IN WHICH THE CADETS COMPLETE A COLLISION REPORT. OBJECTIVES: CADETS WILL UNDERSTAND THE SAFETY MEASURES THAT ARE NECESSARY WHEN WORKING AT VARIOUS ACCIDENT SITES. THEY WILL LEARN THE IMPORTANCE OF ACCURATELY COMPLETING A COLLISION REPORT. Now, have your cadets take out their Cadet Handout for this unit. In addition to reducing injuries and deaths on our roadways, officers save us money by issuing tickets.


For example, an uninsured driver not wearing a seat belt speeds down the road, loses control and hits a guardrail. Who pays for rescue and emergency services? Who pays for his hospital stay and physical therapy? Who pays for the guardrail repair? It is not the careless driver, but your local government, which is generously funded by you, the taxpayer. Of course, there are much more important reasons why traffic enforcement is vital. Making motorists wear their seat belts, encouraging the use of child safety seats, and providing a deterrent to driving under the influence or texting while driving are all valid and important safety concerns. In this lesson, we will be reviewing the many issues surrounding traffic enforcement — from the rights of motorists to the safety of our officers in uniform. TRAFFIC STOPS ARE DANGEROUS Many officers are killed each year and thousands more are injured in traffic-related incidents. For example, in 1998, about half of all officer line-of-duty deaths were related to traffic incidents. This is because even the most routine stop for a traffic violation or vehicle code infraction has the potential for danger. Traffic stops have been a leading cause of death for police officers for the past decade, according to the National Law Enforcement Officers Memorial Fund in Washington. From 2000 through 2009, 118 officers were killed conducting traffic stops, compared with 82 handling domestic-violence complaints and 74 during disturbance calls. Routine traffic stops often turn out to be not so routine. Officers find uninsured drivers, suspended licenses, impaired drivers, illegal firearms, drugs and fugitives. Discoveries like these are all in a day’s work for many officers. This is why officers are trained to place a great deal of emphasis on their safety and take a defensive posture during the stop until the risk of confrontation or injury is diminished. WHAT CAN CITIZENS DO TO MAKE TRAFFIC STOPS A LITTLE EASIER? Whether you are stopped by a state highway patrol trooper, county sheriff’s deputy, or local police officer, you are expected to cooperate. Along with the officer, drivers and other occupants can do their part in helping to create a more professional atmosphere during the stop. *Drivers should pull over to the far right side, safely and quickly, upon seeing a police vehicle's light bar activate or hearing the siren. *Drivers should show courtesy to the officer by rolling their window down completely, turn off the engine, remove the keys and place them on the dashboard and keep both hands on the steering wheel until instructed to do otherwise by the officer. If the stop is at night, the driver should also turn on the interior light. *Once stopped, drivers should not engage in suspicious activity, such as hiding things or


making sudden moves as these behaviors may give the officer probable cause to search the driver and/or the vehicle. *Drivers should remain in the car unless asked to exit - any sudden moves or eagerness to exit the car may result in a search of the driver and/or vehicle. *A cooperative driver allows the officer to speak first and responds without sarcasm or defense; if the driver does not agree with the officer, it is better that he or she remain silent rather than respond harshly. *If you are not the subject of the traffic stop, but are approaching a stop-in-progress, change lanes or slow down. Most of our 50 states have enacted "Move Over" laws to protect law enforcement and emergency personnel and drivers can be fined for not moving to a lane farther away from the activity. If traffic flow prohibits a lane change, drivers must slow down at least 20 miles per hour as they pass the location. WHY DID YOU STOP ME? The most common reasons are: *Moving violations, such as speeding, weaving, lane straddling, running a red light or stop sign, reckless operation, failure to yield the right-of-way, etc. *Registration or Equipment Violations are other reasons a vehicle may be stopped. It is not uncommon for a driver to be in violation of a law and not know it. It's your responsibility to maintain a safe vehicle and know the laws governing driving privileges. *Criminal Investigations often involve searching for a "getaway" car involved in a crash, robbery, vandalism, assault, etc. Your vehicle may match the description of a suspect's vehicle. *Safety concerns are another reason an officer may stop your vehicle. For instance, your trunk may be open, something may be hanging from under your vehicle, or you may have left items on your roof. FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS ABOUT TRAFFIC STOPS Are the police allowed to search a car that they have pulled over? Yes, if they have reason (probable cause) to suspect criminal activity (such as the smell of marijuana or alcohol) or to fear for their safety, then they may search the car. If they think that the violator poses a danger to their safety, they are allowed to search the driver and the immediate areas within the driver's reach (under the seat, the middle console, and may include the passenger side of the car and its contents, such as shopping bags, a briefcase or the glove compartment.) Probable cause is the legal term for a reasonable belief that a person has committed a crime. The test courts employ to determine whether probable cause existed when someone is arrested is whether facts and circumstances within the officer's knowledge are sufficient to warrant a prudent person to believe a person has committed, is committing, or is about to commit a crime. (U.S. v. Puerta, 982 F.2d 1297, 1300 - 9th Cir. 1992).


To seize items, probable cause requires that the facts available to the officer warrants a "person of reasonable caution" to conclude that certain items may be contraband, stolen property or useful as evidence of a crime. (U.S. v. Dunn, 946 F.2d 615, 619 - 9th Cir. 1991, cert. Denied, 112 S. Ct. 401, 1992). Is it legal for the police to pull over cars and question their drivers at a roadblock? Yes, as long as the police use a neutral policy when stopping cars (such as stopping all cars or stopping every third car) and minimize any inconvenience to the drivers involved. Is a driver’s license from one state valid in all the other states? A valid license from one state, is valid in other states given the driver is just visiting. But if a driver makes a permanent move to another state, he or she will have to apply for a new license, and possibly retake some driving exams, in that state. Usually, you must do this within 30 days after moving to the new state. When can the police suspend or revoke a driver's license? The police themselves cannot suspend or revoke a driver's license, but the state and its courts can and do. Driving a car is considered a privilege, not a right, and a state won't hesitate to take it away if a driver behaves irresponsibly on the road. A state may temporarily suspend a driver’s privileges for a number of reasons, including: *driving under the influence of alcohol or drugs *refusing to take a blood-alcohol test *driving without liability insurance *speeding *reckless driving Why do troopers approach a car on the driver’s side, exposing themselves to traffic? Why don't they approach the vehicle from the passenger side? It's necessary for the officer to bend down to look at the driver and scope out the vehicle to see if there's something suspicious in sight, such as a weapon. The officer also has to receive the driver's license, registration and proof of insurance. If he or she did this from the passenger side, he or she would have to lean farther into the vehicle, which exposes the officer to offensive actions by the driver or a passenger. Can police order passengers, not just the driver, out of a vehicle during a traffic stop? The Supreme Court has ruled that police can order all the passengers, not just the driver, to get out of the vehicle during a traffic stop, even when they have no reason to suspect danger or wrong-doing. The justices said the need to protect an officer's safety outweighs the privacy


rights of innocent passengers. "Regrettably, traffic stops may be dangerous encounters for police,” wrote then-Chief Justice William Rehnquist. The decision in a Maryland case said ordering passengers not suspected of wrongdoing out of a car is only a "minimal" intrusion on their rights. "Danger to an officer from a traffic stop is likely to be greater when there are passengers in addition to the driver in the stopped car," Rehnquist said. He noted that 11 police officers were killed and more than 5,700 were assaulted during traffic stops in 1994. TRAFFIC STOP PROCEDURE Before approaching a violator, an officer must get to the offender's vehicle safely. This requires properly positioning the police car to maximize officer safety. The most common technique is to position the police car behind the stopped vehicle with the driver's side tail light aligned with the hood ornament of the police vehicle. This offset method creates a safe path to the driver's door for the officer because it creates a barrier to oncoming vehicles, and gives maximum visibility of the flashing light bar indicating that a law enforcement action is taking place. After the vehicle is properly positioned, the following steps are followed: A. Greeting and Identification The peace officer must either introduce himself or make a courtesy greeting to the individual stopped. The peace officer must ID himself and the agency he is with. B. Statement of Violation Committed The officer must tell the person why they are stopped and emphasize the seriousness of the violation. The officer must ask the reason for the violation and give the person an opportunity to justify himself. C. ID of Driver and Check of Conditions of Violator and Vehicle Every violator stopped must present their driver’s license. If there is no driver’s license available, the peace officer must write down a brief description of the person. D. Statement of Action to be Taken The Officer must firmly state what action will be taken and what will happen. The statement must be clear enough for the individual to understand. E. Take That Action The Officer must write a citation, take the person into custody or give a warning - whatever the peace officer decides. F. Explain What the Violator Must Do The Officer must explain to the individual what actions they must take: Appear in court; get into patrol car, etc. (Give locations of courts)


G. Leave The Officer must never be sorry for giving a ticket. In a business-like tone, they tell the violator goodbye (“Good Afternoon”) and then immediately return to the patrol car. TRAFFIC STOP EXERCISE Review traffic stop procedures. Test the cadet’s ability to follow safety guidelines by supervising a mock traffic stop. (Before class, position two vehicles, one behind the other, in the parking lot. If possible, you should position a squad car behind a civilian vehicle.) TIPS: Brief each driver regarding the scenario, but the “police officer” should not know what to expect. Optional: As well as following the proper procedure, you may want the cadets to fill out a Traffic Ticket (Traffic Summons). Have the cadets write and issue a summons for speeding. Make copies of the driver’s license, insurance card, and vehicle registration to pass around. In the exercise, discuss the importance of the "officer's comments" section that is on the officer's copy of the traffic summons. Since driver's can plead "not guilty" and the police officer could go to court, important facts should be noted on the officer's copy of the summons. 1. Why does an officer approach the driver’s side of a vehicle during a stop? 2. How do traffic stops save money? 3. Name 3 things that the driver can do to make the officer’s job easier. 4. Can passengers be searched as well? Why or why not? 5. Have you ever been in a stopped car? Why? What happened?

L7 SKILLS UNIQUE TO CRIME FIGHTING To become an officer, you must be a citizen, age 20 or older, with at least a high school education and the ability to pass an intense written examination. But that’s only part of the picture. There are other skills to acquire that you may have never considered. OVERVIEW: INSTRUCTOR WILL REVIEW AND DISCUSS THE POLICE OFFICER’S ROLE IN SOCIETY AND THE PROFESSIONAL CHALLENGES EVERY OFFICER MUST FACE. OBJECTIVES: CADETS WILL GAIN A DEEPER APPRECIATION FOR THE DUTIES A POLICE OFFICER PERFORMS AND BE ABLE TO IDENTIFY THE QUALITIES REQUIRED FOR A SUCCESSFUL PROFESSIONAL CAREER.


Now, have your cadets take out their Cadet Handout for this unit. Police officers must possess distinct physical and mental qualities to successfully perform their duties. As a police officer, you're on the go for at least eight hours a day. You may need to calm the mother of an injured child one minute and chase down a violent offender the next. You may have to switch from a state of peace and calm to an adrenaline-filled struggle for survival the next. Both physically and mentally demanding, a police officer must possess skills that few other professions demand. In this lesson, we will learn more about the demands of protecting the public and the skills required of every officer who wears a badge. A recent jobs posting for a position as a police officer read as follows: “Strong, verbal communication skills are necessary. Commensurate mental and physical skills necessary to walk/stand for long periods of time, respond to emergencies, and maintain order among individuals and groups are necessary.” The following is list of the skills that are unique to being a police officer. Review them and see if you’re up to the job! As the representative of "government" in the eyes of your citizens, your physical appearance and mental attitude reflect on police officers everywhere, in your town, state and nation. You ARE the image of government in your jurisdiction. People may see the mayor on television, but the one they deal with every day is YOU. Obviously, you must be neat, well-groomed, wearing the proper uniform, cleaned and pressed, shoes shined, and present a cool, calm, demeanor. While other people may have a "bad day," you can't. When you deal with the public, it's not their fault that you feel grumpy because of an argument that morning with your significant other. You are still the personification of authority. People often wave as you walk by in uniform or drive by in a police car. Odds are they don't know you and you probably don't know them. They are acknowledging what you represent, not you personally. People really do care about "their" police. Keeping physically fit is very important, and more involved for an officer than a regular citizen. Consider the demands of the job. You may ride in a car all day, then jump out to run a foot race with a fleeing felon. When you catch him, he turns to fight. He may be the high school weight-lifting champion, but your job is to subdue him and take him into custody. Then you have to safeguard his well being while you take him back to the police station. Your physical attitude has quickly shifted from inertia to exertion, and your mental attitude must shift just as

1


quickly from one of overcoming an adversary to protecting your prisoner. All that is said about diet and exercise is critical to a successful police career but because of the unique demands on police, you need to pay attention to four specific targets. Can your body handle the rapid changes and survive? The first target is your cardiovascular and respiratory systems. A properly designed exercise program can improve the circulation of your blood and increase your lung capacity. Muscle strength and stamina can give you an edge over the weight-lifter. Punching power is NOT developed by doing biceps curls with a dumbbell. It's developed by punching properly. In training, you will learn a variety of defensive techniques that enable you to control a person stronger than you. But you have to be able to do those techniques. If your joints are stiff, your performance will suffer. Body fat, not the blubber that hangs over your belt, but the fat inside your body, can literally get in the way of movement of your body parts. A lithe and well-trained police officer could probably walk all over a Sumo wrestler. Being mentally prepared means that once you've decided to take an action, you can do it decisively, as aggressively as necessary, and right NOW! Speed of thought and speed of action can resolve a situation before it has a chance to escalate into something more serious. It gives you the element of surprise. If you react before the aggressor expects it, and you get him under control, you have the upper hand. Remain cool and calm during all this. If you lose control of your temper, you lose control of yourself, and you will have lost control of the situation. DEALING WITH PEOPLE Remember the TV ad showing the Marine Drill Instructor right up in the recruit's face, head up, and chin forward, shoulders back, hands on hips? He was expressing dominance. Yes, there may be times you want to express dominance, but more likely you want to appear interested and cooperative until a subject gives you cause to appear otherwise. And that serves your safety better. When you enter an elevator with another person, ever notice how the two of you will share the confined space equally? Make it three people in the elevator and they divide the space into thirds. When you enter a crowded elevator and face the people already there, notice how they feel uncomfortable. That's because one's "personal space" extends farther to the front than it does to the sides or rear. Knowing this helps you to avoid letting someone get so close you have no time to react to an unexpected threat, and to avoid your precipitating an aggressive reaction by another when you approach him. Everyone is circled by three zones. The outermost for a police officer is the alert zone. Next is the defense zone where you are on the defensive. The innermost, about one arm's length plus one hand, is the attack zone. It is in this zone where an intrusion is likely to cause a reaction. A


civilian might name these zones social, personal and intimate. It's important, when talking with a subject, that you don't let him get into the inner zone where he could easily attack you. By the same token, if you just want to talk with a citizen, don't approach into HIS inner zone where you make him feel uncomfortable and possibly cause him to react. Besides, if you were that close, he could attack you and you wouldn't have the reaction time to defend yourself. THE FINE ART OF DIRECTING TRAFFIC Directing traffic sounds mundane, but it is fundamental to being a police officer. Even if you're assigned to patrol and you respond to an automobile accident, you have to direct traffic around the accident scene. Traffic is usually the first problem your citizens complain about. Roads and highways are better than they used to be, but there are some four million miles of public roads in America. Accidents are so common that fatalities don't always make the evening news. The automobile has killed more Americans than all of the wars in which the United States has participated. Despite many improvements, the only force operating in this motor mayhem is the police. Effective traffic enforcement can potentially save more lives than anything else you do. Directing traffic is not an efficient use of police personnel. A traffic signal works 24-hours a day and never needs to go to the bathroom, but there are special circumstances when an officer is necessary: the signal being replaced, the high school football game dumping 500 cars in one bunch onto city streets, road construction, an accident, a parade. When traffic exceeds the design capability of the area, it's the police officer who helps it to flow smoothly. Giving good signals should be emphasized more than it is. I've seen police officers directing traffic at dusk wearing black gloves, then wiggle their fingers at a car to tell him to come through the intersection. Who could even see his fingers? Drivers can't obey your signals if they can't see or understand them. In daylight, wear white gloves. At dusk, wear florescent orange gloves. Always face the traffic that's stopped with your side toward the traffic that's moving. Your whole body becomes a signpost. Point to the driver you want to react to your signal. I don't know why that's effective, but it is. Then sweep your entire arm to indicate what you want him to do. You want him to cross the intersection in front of you? Point, then sweep your hand and arm across in front of you. You want him to lake a left turn around you? Sweep your arm around. You want him to turn behind you? Sweep your arm but bring your hand past your head on the side you want him to turn. Directing traffic is an opportunity to have a lot of fun. I'll bet most departments have a traffic officer who can make a ballet of directing traffic. I've seen many on television news shows. A reflective vest and gloves are a must after dark, but you still need a source of light for drivers to see them. And you don't want to be standing in front of their headlights. You might park your car with the headlights shining on you. You can use your flashlight to extend your signals. People interpret a flashlight moving side to side as a stop signal. When you want them to go, point the light at them and move it just as if you were giving a daytime signal. When


there are long approaches to where you're directing traffic, you may need to put out flares or lighted barriers to give advanced warning and to protect yourself. 1. Why is the appearance of an officer important? 2. Why is it important for police officers to stay in good physical condition? 3. How can one’s posture express dominance? Interest? 4. What are the three zones around the officer? 5. What are the three zones around you?

L8 CONFICT RESOLUTION Conflict occurs whenever people don’t agree on something. This can happen anywhere, anytime, and to anyone. We have all had moments when we thought differently than someone.

OVERVIEW: THIS LESSON WILL DISCUSS THE DIFFERENT WAYS THAT OFFICERS DEAL WITH CONFLICTS AND METHODS TO RESOLVE THEM.

OBJECTIVE: TO HELP CADETS BETTER UNDERSTAND HOW DEALING WITH CONFLICTS IS A VERY IMPORTANT PART OF AN OFFICERS JOB. THEY WILL ALSO HAVE A BETTER UNDERSTANDING OF HOW TO DEAL WITH CONFLICT IN THEIR OWN LIVES. Now, have your cadets take out their Cadet Handout for this unit. Sometimes these disagreements are with strangers, but often we disagree with the people that are closest to us, our family and friends. When conflict happens between people that care for each other it is called a domestic conflict. Usually, people are able to settle these minor conflicts on their own. At times, though, these situations get out of control. The disagreement can explode, resulting in an argument, shouting match, or at its worst, a physical altercation. When a conflict reaches this level, law enforcement officers are usually called to defuse the situation. It is the officer’s duty to help the people involved resolve their differences. This is known as Conflict Resolution. It is one of the most important skills that an officer can develop, because


almost every call that an officer responds to includes some element of conflict. Sometimes the officer’s presence is the cause of the conflict. Having good conflict resolution skills enables the officer to stay calm, and to take control of a high conflict, emotionally-charged situation ensuring the safety of everyone involved. In this lesson, we will examine domestic conflicts and learn skills that can help us resolve these situations. This section deals with the causes of domestic conflict and the officer’s role in resolving the situation. What is a domestic conflict? A domestic conflict is a disagreement that occurs between people that care for one another. This can be between a husband and wife, parents and their child, siblings or close friends that live with one another. What causes domestic conflict? There are countless causes for conflict situations to arise. In a domestic setting, these reasons seem to multiply. Sometimes disagreements happen because of the strong emotions that come with a close relationship. Other times, having many things that are shared and spending a lot time together can create more opportunities for people to disagree. It is important to remember that whatever the cause of conflict, the people involved do care for each other. Reasons that domestic conflicts get out of control One of the most common elements in these situations is alcohol use. Being intoxicated affects a person’s judgment and impairs his or her ability to reason. It is harder for an intoxicated person to understand why there is a disagreement, and how to fix the problem. Because his or her judgment has been affected, that person might make decisions that he or she wouldn’t normally make. In a situation where emotions are really high, these factors can cause the conflict to reach a state of crisis. The officer’s role in domestic conflict situations When handling a domestic conflict, the officer has many responsibilities. The first priority is to restore order to the scene, and ensure the safety of everyone there. The officer must then help the people that are having the disagreement to resolve the conflict, doing everything that (s)he can to make sure that the situation will not repeat itself. Handling a domestic situation is a special challenge Domestic conflict situations are very complex, because the dispute happens between people who care for each other. This often makes it difficult because there is a chance that the officer will be seen as an intruder, rather than a person who is there to help. If this happens, the officer can become a target, and his attempts to defuse the situation will be more difficult and


potentially dangerous. *Outlined below is a recommended procedure for conflict resolution. Have the cadets discuss each step completely. RESPONDING TO A DOMESTIC CONFLICT CALL Approaching the Situation Before arriving at the scene, try to get a good idea of what is happening. It is important to know how many people are involved, if there is a potential threat and if this situation has happened before. Knowing this, you can think about how you will approach the scene, and how you can prepare for any threats to your safety. If possible, try to contact the officer that handled the situation before. She or he may have additional information that can help you. Safety Take steps to ensure your safety. Never enter a conflict situation alone. Always call for backup, and wait until they arrive. Make sure that you let the dispatcher and any nearby units know exactly what is happening at all times. When entering a scene, pay special attention to everything that is lying around to make sure that there are no weapons, traps or other threats to your safety. Assessing the Scene When you arrive at the scene, your first step should be to figure out what the problem is. Why are they fighting? Find out who is involved in the conflict, and what caused the problem. You will probably want to separate the people that are involved. Your partner should take one of the combatants to a different room. If there is anyone else at the scene, they should be asked to wait somewhere where they will not witness what is going on. Calm Everyone Down The first step in reaching a resolution is to calm everyone down. Once you have separated the people involved, let each of them tell their side of the story. Show them that you care about what they are telling you by listening to everything they have to say. Listen, Listen, Listen‌ It is very important to pay full attention to everything you are told, and how it is expressed, because a person's body language often speaks louder than their words. Make sure to listen to each side of the story impartially. You will not be able to reach any decisions or resolve the conflict until you have a full picture of what initiated the conflict, and how the situation got out of control. Reaching a Resolution After everyone has calmed down and had their say, bring them back together to reach a resolution. Let each of them tell his or her story in front of the other, and make sure another argument doesn’t break out. With your help, they should discuss what caused the problem,


and what they can do to keep it from happening again. Leaving the Scene Before you leave the scene, you should be confident that the problem has been resolved, and that you will not have to return. If you have arrested anyone, make sure that the remaining people have been calmed down completely, and will not attack you. Domestic situations present this special safety challenge because people often do not like to see their loved ones arrested. It is not uncommon for a woman who was pleading for you to arrest her abusive husband one minute to suddenly attack you in a futile attempt free him once you've handcuffed him and are attempting to place him in the back of the patrol car. He may be the sole means of family support, and getting arrested could negatively impact his earning potential and jeopardize the family's financial security.

RESOLUTION STRATEGIES There are a number of different ways to reach resolution in a conflict situation: Competition By identifying and separating the emotional arguments from the intellectual ones, an officer can help resolve miscommunications. Collaboration Collaboration occurs when everyone involved works together to find the best solution, and everyone gets his or her individual needs met. Compromise In a compromise, everyone may not get everything that they want, but each person wants there to be resolution even if they have to give a few things up. Separation Sometimes the only way to resolve a conflict situation in by separating everyone involved. Arrest Arresting one or more of the people involved in a conflict is usually the last resort, unless it is required by law, as in the case of visible injury to one of the parties. Often, people will try to reach a resolution using the other strategies first, to avoid arrest. VOCABULARY judgment reason impair domestic conflict


RESOLVING A CONFLICT Have cadets role-play a conflict situation and it’s resolution. Identify strategies from this lesson as they are used in the exercise. 1. Name one type of conflict situation. 2. How can an officer ensure his or her safety during a conflict situation? 3. The best way to resolve a conflict is by arresting someone. True or false? 4. Name 2 strategies that can be used to resolve a conflict. 5. Besides law enforcement, what other areas involve conflict resolution skills?

L9 THE SECRET LANGUAGE OF POLICE If any of you have used shorthand acronyms when talking to friends on Internet instant messenger programs, you know how useful shorthand can be when you want to communicate information quickly. OVERVIEW: DICUSS THE NEED FOR A CODE OF COMMUNICATION FOR LAW ENFORCERS. DISTRIBUTE THE CADET HANDOUT AND REVIEW THE "SECRET LANGUAGE OF POLICE." CONCLUDE BY TESTING THE CADETS' COMMAND OF THE POLICE CODE. OBJECTIVE: CADETS WILL DEVELOP AN APPRECIATION FOR A POLICE OFFICER’S NEED TO COMMUNICATE CONCISELY, CLEARLY AND WITH STEALTH. THE SECRET LANGUAGE OF POLICE Now, have your cadets take out their Cadet Handout for this unit. Imagine typing, “laughing out loud” verses “LOL.” It’s so much quicker to type just the few letters. Police have their own language of codes to communicate situations with each other and their dispatch center. These codes are used because they’re efficient and confidential. Some of the codes are familiar, such “10-4.” But many of the codes are secret. Why do you think it would be important for police to keep some of the codes confidential? Discuss: Ask the cadets if they ever use codes when communicating with their friends. Why do they use codes in these situations?


Discuss the need to keep police communication confidential. Ask the cadets reasons why there is a need for a uniform code when communicating with police headquarters and other police officers. Ask them what might happen if there was confusion when delivering a message in an emergency situation. In this unit, you’ll get an introduction to some of the codes. You never know — you may find yourself asking your friends online to go on a “10-12,” or, when you’re done chatting, typing “10-84.”

POLICE COMMUNICATIONS: NO EASY TASK Talking on a police radio isn't the same as talking on the phone. The telephone is duplex, that is, both persons can talk at the same time. That's true with cellular phones, too. But few radios are set up for duplex operation. Radio is simplex. When a police officer speaks into their radio only they are heard by others listening, and they can't hear if someone else tries to transmit at the same time. Communication does not happen unless one person transmits something and another person receives it -- AND UNDERSTANDS IT. It isn't enough to just hear what the other person said. If you don't understand what he said, that's NOT communication. Also consider that a police car can be a noisy environment. It's important that you speak distinctly and enunciate words precisely. THE BEGINNING During the 1920’s, police departments across the country began experimenting with radio as a crime-fighting tool. As criminals were making greater use of automobiles, the police were looking at technology to help keep pace. They investigated the use of the radio to more quickly dispatch officers to where they were needed and several years of testing followed. USING AM RADIO STATIONS The earliest police radio “systems” were simple arrangements with local AM radio broadcasters -- when the police received a call of sufficient importance, they would phone it to the radio station where the announcer or engineer would interrupt the regular program to announce the call…the police cruisers kept their AM car radios tuned to this radio station. Chicago Police, for example, used WGN’s 720-AM facilities for about a year starting in 1929. After about a year they decided this new invention was workable, so they applied to the


Federal Radio Commission and got licenses for three transmitters around Chicago. Ask the cadets: What communication system was developed? (The police radio) Ask the cadets: On what frequency was the first police radio transmission? (AM) THE DEPRESSION YEARS Remembered that the early 1930’s were the deepest of the depression years, and people didn’t go out much. While radios had become very popular, good radio programs had not yet been developed. Since police broadcasts were just above the AM broadcast band – most home radios could tune them in. At night, the signal of the LAPD could be heard all across the country, even as far as the east coast and Hawaii. Ask the cadets: Why was the AM frequency generally not a good idea? (Because if the public was listening to the radio, the police calls could be heard as they were being transmitted) Discussion: During the Depression years, many people listened to the radio. Why? (People didn’t go out much because of lack of money, so the radio was their source of entertainment.) THE LOS ANGELES POLICE DEPARTMENT In the beginning, using the LAPD as an example, calls were all received by the main City Hall switchboard operators. Those requiring police service were routed by a conveyor belt on top of the switchboard to a dispatcher (a policeman) in the remote-control room, who would broadcast it to the proper car. Officers could receive calls, but could not “talk back” to the dispatcher. Before long, LAPD recognized that the tremendous potential of police radio could be better realized by a more streamlined method of call-taking. A new system that was instituted increased speed in answering and dispatching calls. Police Officers worked a “complaint board” receiving incoming calls directly from a new telephone number instead of having them relayed by the city hall switchboard. Routine calls were sent by a conveyor belt to the radio room which had dispatcher positions and a “link” operator. When an emergency call such as a robbery or homicide was received at the complaint board, the officer could press a button and his telephone conversation would be carried over loudspeakers installed in the Business Office Division and in Robbery and Homicide Bureaus. This served both to alert detectives to a possible call for them, as well as to reduce the chance of human error by the board officer. RADIO FREQUENCIES The next development was the police radio band which operated on its own frequency. The problem here was that communities developed around metropolitan areas and it wasn’t


possible to direct communication between police, fire and emergency units. 2011 At the present time, city, county and state law enforcement and emergency services have the ability to communicate with one another on the same frequency in a given area. Another development has been communications between aircraft, ground units and water craft. THE TEN CODES Have the cadets divide up into groups. Conduct one of the following exercises to test the cadets’ command of the police code: Radio Dispatch Distribute hand held radios (if available), although for this lesson other objects may stand in for the real thing. Next, dispatch a group to the parking lot and ask them to find a particular car. They should then call in the license number using the phonetic plate numbers on the chalkboard and ask one group representative at a time to spell out the plate. Charades Have one cadet from each group come to the front of the room. The instructor should write one of the codes on a piece of paper. Show what you have written to the group. Without speaking, have your group of cadets act out the meaning of the code for their group. The first group to successfully guess the code wins! PHONETIC ALPHABET CHART A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P

Adam Boy Charles David Edward Frank George Henry Ida John King Lincoln Mary Nora Ocean Paul


Q R S T U V W X Y Z

Queen Robert Sam Tom Union Victor William Xray Young Zebra

10-CODES 10-1 10-2 10-4 10-9 10-10 10-12 10-18 10-20 10-23 10-27 10-28 10-29 10-30 10-33 10-34 10-39 10-50 10-60 10-61 10-70 10-71 10-78 10-81 10-84 10-85

Transmission Weak Transmission Strong Affirmative/OK Repeat Negative Standby Urgent Location Arrived At Scene Driver License Info Vehicle Registration Wanted/Warrant Check Use Caution Emergency Time Abandoned Vehicle Accident Suspicious Person/Vehicle Vehicle Stop Improperly Parked Car Improper Use of Radio Officer Needs Assistance Return To Station/Dept. Permission To Leave Assist Motorist

Discuss with the class the need for using a consistent set of codes. Discuss why emergency situations should be communicated in code over the radio. 1. Why was it necessary, as a crime-fighting tool, to develop a system of communications between the police and incoming calls to the department?


2. What communication system was developed? 3. On what frequency was the first police radio transmission? 4. Why was the AM frequency generally not a good idea? 5. During the depression years, many people listened to the radio. Why? L10 IDENTIFYING YOUR SKILLS & YOUR PLACE IN LAW ENFORCEMENT From computer wiz to youth counselor to communications technician — crime -fighters come in many sizes and skill-sets. There are a variety of law enforcement jobs available to those who pass the police exam and make it through police academy training. OVERVIEW: DISCUSS THE CHAIN OF COMMAND OF THE POLICE DEPARTMENT. DISTRIBUTE THE CADET HANDOUT AND EXPLAIN THE DIVISIONS WITHIN A POLICE DEPARTMENT. CONCLUDE BY CONSTRUCTING A CHART DETAILING THE SUBDIVISIONS WITHIN A POLICE DEPARTMENT. OBJECTIVE: CADETS WILL DEVELOP AN APPRECIATION FOR THE INNER WORKINGS OF THE POLICE DEPARTMENT AND THE SOPHISTICATION WITH WHICH MODERN DEPARTMENTS ARE STRUCTURED TO BETTER SERVE THE PUBLIC AND THE CAUSE OF JUSTICE. Now, have your cadets take out their Cadet Handout for this unit. If you have a specialized skill, chances are there is a special unit of the law enforcement community that is right for you. Some police officers specialize in such diverse fields as chemical and microscopic analysis, training and firearms instruction, or handwriting and fingerprint identification. About 10 percent of local and special law enforcement officers perform jail-related duties, and around 4 percent work in courts. Others work with special units such as horseback, bicycle, motorcycle or harbor patrol, canine corps, special weapons and tactics (SWAT) or emergency response teams. Some law enforcement jobs are more difficult to obtain and more dangerous than others, but all are rewarding in their own way. DIVISIONS, UNITS & SQUADS: A TEAMWORK APPROACH TO POLICING A Police organization is organized according to operational tasks. The following is a list of divisions within a police department.


Each police department is divided differently. Some will have far fewer divisions, while others may have many more than are listed here.

Patrol At the center of police law enforcement is patrol. This involves movement of uniformed police personnel, on foot or in vehicles, through designated areas. In most departments, at least half of all police personnel are assigned to patrol. Officers on patrol have a variety of duties that include: interviewing and interrogating suspects; arresting lawbreakers; controlling crowds at public gatherings; enforcing laws regulating public conduct; intervening in personal, family, and public disputes; issuing warnings and citations; and providing miscellaneous services to members of the public. Staff Functions Staff functions are activities performed by police officers to help administrators organize and manage the police agency. Personnel recruitment, selection, and training, planning, finance, employee services, public relations and use of civilian personnel are examples of staff work. Crime Laboratory Because solutions to many crimes are found through the application of physical and biological sciences, the crime laboratory is of great value to law enforcement officers. If you've ever watched television's CSI, you know the painstaking efforts taken by the various DNA, fingerprinting, blood and other analysts and how important they are to establishing a suspect's guilt or innocence. Transportation Police mobility is crucial to crime prevention and quickly and efficiently responding to emergencies. Police officers must have the capability to move safely and swiftly to meet their responsibilities. Communications Communications in a police agency are the lifeline of the organization. Most police department communication systems have three parts: the telephone system, command and control operations, and radio communications. Intelligence Information is gathered to keep police officials attuned to happenings in their jurisdictions by providing insight into community conditions, potential problem areas, and criminal activities. Internal Affairs Another auxiliary staff service is internal discipline. Transparent discipline and accountability are vital to maintaining any police agency's integrity with employees, elected leaders and the


public. Internal discipline, also known as internal affairs or professional standards, involves objective investigation of citizen and officer complaints related to police department services and personnel. Coroner's Liaison Unit Unit works with the Coroner’s Office and assists in identification of deceased victims. Financial Crimes Unit Investigates all crimes dealing with: ATM fraud Credit card fraud Forgery Scams Counterfeitting (birth certificates, driver's licences and other important documents, even works of art. Counterfeitting US currency is a federal crime and those investigations will also likely involve the FBI and/or the Secret Service.) Welfare fraud Cell phone fraud Identity Theft Racketeering Money laundering Telemarketing fraud Cyber (computer) crime Tax Evasion/fraud Embezzlement Securities fraud Pyramid schemes

Gaming Unit (Phil...is this a current unit? At LAPD, I think this is the responsibility of the Vice Unit, along with alcohol-beverage control enforcement and prostitution.) The Unit responsible for the monitoring, tracking and enforcement against all illegal gambling activities. Homicide Squad Investigates murders. Youth Services Unit Youth Services Unit is responsible for: The prevention and investigation of youth violence in and around schools. The investigation of property crime involving youth. Dealing with street entrenched youth. Assisting School Liaison Officers.


GUESS ITS FUNCTION: Can you determine the function of the Division or Squad just by its name? Give it a try with the list below. Internal Investigations K-9 Unit (Dog Squad) Media Liaison Mounted Unit Polygraph Unit Reserve Police Force (Auxiliary Police) Robbery Squad School Liaison Team Vice and Drugs Section Victim Services Unit QUALITIES OF A LEADER As police officers move up in the chain of command, they will lead others, so they must develop and then demonstrate effective leadership skills. Review the following attributes of a strong leader. Write each quality on the board and discuss it with your cadets. EXPLAIN TO CADETS: As a police commander or a leader in any organization — from the school yearbook staff to captain of the football team — you need the loyalty of the people around you. To help you, here are a few tips on earning that loyalty. Be Pleasant and Approachable Loyalty starts out by having a mutually good feeling about the other person. A smile and a warm “good morning” are a good place to start. Over time, your pleasant attitude and approachability will help foster an atmosphere of mutual understanding and commitment. Help Your People to Do Their Jobs As their commander, you are in a position to eliminate stumbling blocks to the successful completion of your subordinates’ tasks. You may have to cut some “red tape” for them, make sure they have the right equipment, or assign more resources to help them. But most importantly, be sure that you give them the encouragement they need to perform their most difficult tasks professionally and compassionately. Be Honest Far and away this is the single most important attribute that police commanders or any other leader must possess. Keep your promises or don’t make them. In every personal contact you have, be up-front and honest. It's always better to say you don't know the answer to something than to make stuff up. Then go find the answer and get back to that person. Your


reputation will both follow and precede you. Remember, the only person who can destroy your credibility and damage your integrity is you. Once you've lost credibility in someone's eyes, it takes a long time to regain their trust, if you ever do.

Be Fair A true commander is fair to all -- superiors, peers and the people under his or her command. Regardless of their race, color, ethnicity, gender, sexual orientation, religious affiliation, age or disability. Though there are now many laws on the books that provide a hefty incentive to treat everyone equally in the workplace, a good commander sets the tone by not playing favorites and ensuring all employees have an equal opportunity to succeed and advance professionally. Be Willing to Help True police commanders are always willing to help their personnel and their constituents. Whether it’s clearing red tape for their subordinates, or solving problems for their constituents, they are always willing to help in any way they can. Leadership Summary A leader must be a person of impeccable character. Honesty begets honesty. To the contrary, a person who will manipulate or lie to a subordinate invites disloyalty and reciprocal lies. Courage, both moral and physical, is a character trait, and it is infectious. Humility and empathy with one's subordinates invites both loyalty and respect. And finally, a true leader will possess an inate sense of vision, and the ability to communicate it to his people and help them see why they've been instructed to do things a certain way and how it fits into the "big picture" -- in other words, how reaching that specific goal gets them closer to making the vision a reality. Review Questions: Why is loyalty so important to success as a police commander? How is loyalty developed by a commander? List three traits that subordinates want in their commander. 1. Names 3 other police related careers? 2. Name 3 staff functions? 3. What would be a good law enforcement job for a student who likes science? 4. What about a student who enjoys art? 5. How would your talents fit into a law enforcement career?

L11 SCHOOL RESOURCE OFFICER


The 1999 Columbine High School massacre jolted people across the United States into the awareness that schools aren’t always the safe places we thought and expected them to be. Since Columbine, school shootings have alarmingly proliferated. OVERVIEW: DISCUSS THE DEFINITION OF A SCHOOL RESOURCE OFFICER. DISTRIBUTE THE CADET HANDOUT AND EXPLAIN THE EVOLUTION AND DUTIES OF THE SRO. OBJECTIVE: CADETS WILL RECOGNIZE THE NEED FOR A PROFESSIONAL LAW ENFORCEMENT PRESENCE ON SCHOOL GROUNDS AND GAIN A DEEPER APPRECIATION FOR THE MANY CHALLENGES AN SRO MUST FACE. Now, have your cadets take out their Cadet Handout for this unit. A lot of changes were made in school security after Columbine — can you think of any examples? One of the changes is that more and more schools have an in-school resource officer. These officers work in schools to provide a more safe, secure, and orderly environment. These in-school resource officers provide three important services: law enforcement, law-related counseling, and mentor/educator. How much time is spent on each of the three services depends on the school and the students. What kinds of schools would you imagine would need more law enforcement? What kinds of schools might need more law-related education? An SRO is a certified law enforcement officer who is permanently assigned to a school or a set of schools. The SRO is specifically trained to perform three roles: 1. law enforcement officer 2. law-related counselor 3. law-related education teacher TEACHER AND MENTOR The SRO serves as teacher, counselor and role model, but the SRO is not the school disciplinarian. Rather, they bring full service, personalized policing to a school setting. With a full-time presence in the schools, the SRO is an easily recognized and approachable resource for students. The ultimate goal of an SRO program is to improve and maintain the safety of the learning environment in our schools through the reduction and prevention of school violence and drug abuse.


While the primary focus is prevention and deterrence, the SRO conducts all criminal investigations on campus, coordinating his/her activities with the building administrator. Although under the direct supervision of the Police Department, the SRO is considered a member of the school faculty and, as such, works closely with the principal and vice-principal to determine the best course of action. Many SROs find themselves at the front of the class, providing instruction on topics such as the history of law enforcement, search and seizure, constitutional rights, criminal law, and drug abuse. The School Resource Officer's duties extend far beyond the classroom and normal work day. The officer participates in PTO and faculty meetings, club projects, student social functions and sporting events. DUTIES OF AN SRO *To foster educational programs and activities that will increase students' knowledge of and respect for the law and the function of law enforcement agencies. *To act swiftly and cooperatively when responding to major disruptions and flagrant criminal offenses at school, such as: disorderly conduct by trespassers, the possession and use of weapons on campus, the illegal sale and/or distribution of controlled substances, medical emergencies and riots. *To report serious crimes that occur on campus and to cooperate with the law enforcement officials in their investigation of crimes that occur at school. *To cooperate with law enforcement officials in their investigations of criminal offenses which occur off campus. *To provide traffic control and crossing guards at schools when deemed necessary for the safety and protection of students and the general public when the regular traffic control officer or crossing guard is absent. THE HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT OF THE SCHOOL RESOURCE OFFICERS SROs emerged from a combination of police officer involvement in schools and a community-oriented policing philosophy that emphasizes a proactive and prevention-oriented approach to policing. The term "School Resource Officer" was first used by a police chief in Miami, Florida, who coined the term sometime in the early to mid 1960s. Law enforcement agencies and school districts in Florida are believed to be some of the first to launch SRO programs in the 1960s


and 1970s. Other programs throughout the country, although not many, also trace their establishment to the 1970s. The 1980s and early 1990s were not marked by continuous growth in the number of SRO programs, but as the 1990s progressed, the SRO approach regained momentum as community policing began to be embraced by more communities throughout the country. COMMUNITY POLICING This resurgence of the SRO approach was stimulated by a linkage in many communities of the community-oriented policing philosophy with concerns about the safety, security, and order of schools. Since the mid 1990s, the number of officers identified as SROs who are working in schools has continued to increase. JUST THE FACTS *More SROs are assigned to high schools than to middle schools or elementary schools. *A slight majority of SROs are assigned to provide coverage to only one school that is considered by the officer to be his or her "beat". *The vast majority of officers assigned to schools are not "rookie" police officers but those who have put in "street time," have experience with young people in environments outside the schools, and are volunteers for their SRO assignments. *Most of the individuals who are described with the title "School Resource Officer" are certified or sworn law enforcement officers who technically work for either police or sheriffs’ departments. *Most SROs wear their law enforcement uniforms at least sometimes while performing their roles as SROs, and almost all carry a gun while working in their schools.

AN SRO’S GUIDE TO CRISIS PREVENTION EARLY WARNING SIGNS It’s not always possible to predict behavior that will lead to violence. However, certain early warning signs may be predictors of aggressive rage or violent behavior toward one’s self or others. Early warning signs include: 1) Social withdrawal: In some situations, gradual and eventually complete withdrawal from social contacts can be an important indicator of a troubled child. 2) Excessive feelings of rejection: In the process of growing up, and in the course of adolescent development, many young people experience emotionally painful rejection


(whether real or perceived) from peers, teachers, family, teammates or others who matter to them. 3) Being a victim of violence: Children who are victims of violence - including physical, emotional or sexual abuse - are sometimes at risk themselves of becoming violent toward themselves or others. Studies have shown that children who are victims of violence or bullying are four times more likely to become abusers as adults. 4) Low school interest and poor academic performance: Poor school achievement can be the result of many factors. It is important to consider whether there is a drastic change in performance and/or it becomes a chronic condition that limits the child's capacity to learn. 5) Uncontrolled anger: Everyone gets angry. Anger is a natural emotion. However, anger that is expressed frequently and explosively in response to minor irritants may signal potentially violent behavior toward one’s self or others. 6) History of discipline problems: Chronic misbehavior and disciplinary problems in school and at home may suggest that underlying emotional needs are not being met. These unmet needs may be manifested in acting out and aggressive behaviors. ACTION STEPS FOR STUDENTS There is a lot students can do to help create safe schools. Here are some ideas that students in other schools have tried: 1) Listen to your friends if they seem troubled or confused. 2) Create, join, or support student organizations that combat violence, such as "Students Against Destructive Decisions" and "Young Heroes Program." 3) Get involved in planning, implementing, and evaluating your school's violence prevention and response plan. 4) Participate in violence prevention programs such as peer mediation and conflict resolution. Employ your new skills in other settings, such as at home, or in your neighborhood and larger community. 5) Ask for permission to invite a law enforcement officer to your school to conduct a safety audit and share safety tips, such as traveling in groups and avoiding areas known to be unsafe. Share your ideas with the officer. 6) Help to develop and participate in activities that promote student understanding of cultural, racial, religious and other differences and foster respect for the rights of all. QUESTIONS: Which of the above steps have you personally performed? Did it prevent or solve a problem?


1. Why did SRO’s develop? 2. What does an SRO do? 3. What kinds of issues does an SRO deal with? 4. Why would a patrol officer enjoy being an SRO? 5. Besides JPA, where else do you see your SRO? What is he or she doing and why? L12 BOMB SQUAD The Bomb Squad is called out in all situations involving the possible presence of an explosive device. The Bomb Squad is responsible for transporting, handling and rendering safe all explosive devises in its jurisdiction, as well as for protecting visiting dignitaries, conducting explosives sweeps, evaluating suspicious packages, and conducting security checks at airports. OVERVIEW: DISCUSS THE TRAINING AND RESPONSIBILITIES OF THE BOMB SQUAD. DISTRIBUTE THE CADET HANDOUT AND REVIEW LAPD BOMB SQUAD ADVICE FOR HANDLING “EXPLOSIVE SITUATIONS” CONCLUDE WITH A HISTORY OF THE LAPD BOMB SQUAD. OBJECTIVE: CADETS WILL DEVELOP AN APPRECIATION FOR THE SKILLS AND COURAGE REQUIRED TO SERVE ON THE POLICE BOMB SQUAD. CADETS WILL LEARN TO EVALUATE AND SKILLFULLY HANDLE CRISIS SCENARIOS INVOLVING THE THREAT OF EXPLOSIVE DEVICES. Now, have your cadets take out their Cadet Handout for this unit. Basically, if it blows up, the Bomb Squad is watching out for it, and knows how to render it. safe, which can either mean defusing it or destroying it. It’s the Bomb Squad’s job to make sure that American citizens are safe from explosives, and sometimes that can mean extra tight security at airports. And, as some of you know if you’ve traveled by airplane since the terrorist attacks on 9/11, sometimes that can mean that even your shoes are suspect. Most Bomb Squad technicians have received training from the FBI, US Army Explosive Ordinance Disposal personnel and the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco , Firearms and Explosives. In this lesson, we will learn more about the men and woman whose job it is move in, after everyone else has run away! Here is some sound advice from the LAPD Bomb Squad for handling potentially explosive situations.


WHAT SHOULD YOU DO AFTER RECEIVING A BOMB THREAT? Call 911 and request the police. Patrol officers will respond and give advice regarding bomb threat procedures and options for immediate response. WHAT SHOULD YOU DO IF YOU FIND A SUSPICIOUS ITEM THAT MIGHT BE A "BOMB"? Do not handle or disturb the suspected item. Immediately evacuate the location and notify the police from a neighbor’s house or a business. Only conventional telephones should be used as cellular telephone frequencies have the potential to detonate an explosive device. WHEN DOES THE BOMB SQUAD RESPOND TO A CALL? The Bomb Squad is notified and responds whenever a suspected explosive device is found, or when suspicious circumstances indicate the possible presence of one, such as when a large rented vehicle is found abandoned outside of a potential "high value" target, such as a government building. Timothy McVeigh, an American militia movement sympathizer angered over the FBI's handling of the Ruby Ridge and Waco actions, was convicted in 1997 and executed by lethal injection in 2001 for the April 1995 bombing of the Alfred P. Murrah Federal Building in Oklahoma City. His co-conspirator, Terry Nichols, is serving a life sentence at a Supermax prison in Colorado for helping to mix the chemicals for the bomb. They parked a rented Ryder truck in front of the federal building filled with over 2.5 tons of high grade ammonium nitrate fertilizer, huge drums of industrial solvents, ammonium nitrate fuel oil (an explosive commonly used in mining and quarrying), several crates of a gel explosive and spools of shock tube (non-electric fusing) and cannon fuse and detonated it. The blast claimed 168 lives, including 19 children under the age of 6, and injured more than 680 people. It destroyed or damaged 324 buildings within a sixteen-block radius, destroyed or burned 86 cars, and shattered glass in 258 nearby buildings, causing at least $652 million in damage. With the exception of the World Trade Center bombing on 9/11/01, the Oklahoma City bombing was the largest law enforcement investigation in U.S. history. The FBI conducted over 28,000 interviews, collected over three tons of evidence, and collected nearly one billion bits of information. It remains the largest act of domestic terrorism in our nation's history. WHAT SHOULD YOU DO IF YOU RECEIVE A SUSPICIOUS PACKAGE IN THE MAIL? Explosive devices can be contained in almost anything. Bombs can be constructed to look like almost any item and can be delivered in any number of ways. Most bombs are homemade and are limited in their design only by the imagination of their maker. Letter and package bombs are not new. While the latest incidents have involved political terrorism, such bombs are made for a wide variety of motives. The particular form of these bombs varies in size, shape, and components. They have electric, non-electric or other


sophisticated firing systems, depending on the skill-level of the maker. There are different signs that you can look for which might indicate a possible explosive device: *Unexpected foreign mail, airmail and special delivery *Restrictive markings such as confidential, personal, etc. *Excessive postage *Hand written or poorly typed addresses *Titles but no names *Misspellings of common words *Oily stains or discoloration *No return address *Excessive weight BOMB SQUADS ALSO HANDLE... Home-made Fireworks Home-made fireworks and explosives are very unstable. There is no set formula for the explosive that is used in illegal fireworks. Some of the fireworks that are made in Mexico are so unstable and dangerous that they are shipped wet to prevent them from exploding prematurely. The explosive filler can be set off by friction, heat, impact, sparks or flame. If you have a bag full of illegal fireworks and one of them goes off accidentally, you can assume that all of the fireworks in the bag will go off at the same time. A small amount of fireworks going off simultaneously in a vehicle can kill everyone who is in that vehicle and scatter parts of the car for some distance in all directions. Military devices Military devices are designed to kill. Some of them have complicated fuses that are designed to detonate the explosive by the slightest movement or impact. Some of them contain poisonous gas. It is usually not the actual explosion of a military device that kills people, it is usually the shrapnel (small pieces of metal) from the explosion. Shrapnel can travel at 3000 feet per second in all directions from the explosion. The metal pieces are razor sharp and will slice through the human body causing fatal wounds. Military devices are often altered by civilians and become even more dangerous. Pipe Bombs Pipe bombs are one of the most dangerous explosive devices that you may encounter, as well as one of the most common. The explosive filler may get into the threads of the pipe and a small amount of movement may be enough friction to cause the pipe bomb to explode. Static electricity may also jump from your hand to the pipe causing detonation. A pipe bomb can easily kill someone who is 300 feet away from the explosion because it propels hundreds,


perhaps thousands of pieces of shrapnel in all directions. Commercial Explosives Even commercial explosives can be unpredictable. Crystallized dynamite can detonate with a sudden temperature change of 3 degrees or more. YEARLY DEATH TOLL There are over 50 people killed and approximately 500 people injured each year by explosives (not including major events like Oklahoma City or 9/11.) According to the FBI’s Bomb Data Center, most of these "incidents" occur in residential areas. The most common explosives used are black powder, smokeless powder and fireworks powders. The most common explosive device encountered in the USA is the pipe bomb. WHAT IF? What should I say to a caller when he warns of a bomb at my location? If you receive a bomb threat over the phone, attempt to keep the caller on the line as long as possible. Ask him to repeat the message and be sure to record every word spoken. If the caller does not indicate the location of the bomb or the time of possible detonation, you should ask him for this information. It is a good idea to inform the caller that the building is occupied and the detonation of a bomb could result in death or serious injury to innocent people. Listen for background sounds that may indicate caller's location As you attempt to keep the caller on the line, listen for any particular background noises such as motors running, background music or other noise that may give a clue as to the location of the caller. As you are gathering information about the caller write down as much information as possible. When the police arrive at your location, be prepared to give an accurate description of the caller's voice including any regional accents or speech impediments. Are fireworks considered explosive devices? Fireworks are considered explosive devices, and they are extremely dangerous. Every year numerous children and adults are injured or burned as a result of playing with fireworks. Fireworks are dangerous and illegal within the city limits of most cities. BOMB SQUADS: A BRIEF HISTORY LAPD BOMB SQUAD To learn more about this vital part of every major police department, we will focus on one of the best and busiest units in America -- the Los Angeles Police HISTORY: A ONE MAN SHOW In 1950, Police Officer DeWayne Wolfer, assigned to Scientific Investigation Division (SID), was probably the first officer on the Department recognized as an explosives expert. He responded to calls from officers in the field when a possible explosive device was found.


TODAY A formal Bomb Squad has been serving the residents of Los Angeles since 1950. The Bomb Squad unit is comprised of 14 highly trained officers and two explosive detection canines. The section responds to over 1000 calls for service yearly for the handling, transportating and rendering safe of all explosive items located within the City. But it wasn’t always this way. SCHOOL FOR BOMBS In 1973, officers began receiving formal explosives training at the newly established FBI Hazardous Devices School at Redstone Army Arsenal in Huntsville, Alabama. The school has been in operation for over 35 years and is considered one of the best in the world. It's the place where the nation's 2600 bomb technicians are trained and certified, training over 1,250 students per year in both the basic and refresher Hazardous Devices courses. Graduates of HDS can be found in nearly every Bomb Squad in the country and many foreign countries. More than 7,500 first responders have completed the basic course since the school opened in 1971. 1. List three responsibilities of the Bomb Squad? 2. What should you do if you receive a bomb threat? 3. Name one of the most dangerous types of bombs? 4. What are the signs that a person can look for when trying to identify an explosive device? 5. What traits might you look for in a person wanting to be on the bomb squad?

L13 POLICE SKETCH ARTIST How would you describe your face to someone? How would you describe your nose, your chin or your eyes? What defining features would you tell them about — freckles? Scars? Piercings? OVERVIEW: DISCUSS HOW A FORENSIC ARTIST TURNS A WITNESS’S DESCRIPTION INTO A DRAWING. DISTRIBUTE THE CADET HANDOUT AND DISCUSS THE SKILLS REQUIRED BY A SKETCH ARTIST. CONCLUDE BY TESTING THE CADETS' MEMORY OF DETAILS. OBJECTIVE: CADETS WILL RECOGNIZE THE CONTRIBUTIONS OF A POLICE SKETCH ARTIST AND THE EXPERT SKILLS WITH WHICH THEY PURSUE JUSTICE. CADETS WILL DEVELOP THEIR OWN SKILLS OF OBSERVATION THROUGH MEMORY EXERCISES. Now, have your cadets take out their Cadet Handout for this unit.


How would you explain the shape of your jaw to someone? How would you explain the distance between your eyes? It can be hard to know how to describe your own face, let alone a face you've only seen once. Imagine what a tough job it would be to take that description, and turn it into a drawing. The primary role of Forensic Artists (often known as Composite Sketch Artists) is to listen very carefully to victims or witnesses of crimes and to create drawings from their descriptions. The sketch artist relies heavily on the memory of victims and witnesses, spending up to five hours working on a sketch. Forensic art (as it is usually called) plays an important role in the criminal justice system. Without that infamous and widely distributed sketch of the Unabomber, the FBI might never have caught Ted Kaczynski. In order to become a forensic artist, a candidate obviously must be able to draw accurate renditions of suspects from verbal descriptions, but they must also be board-certified, trustworthy, and of sound moral character. In the United States, forensic artists are also trained in the fields of human anatomy, odontology (study of teeth), age progression, psychology, and, in some cases, 3D imagery. Their talents are called upon for courtroom sketches, "wanted" posters, drafting crime scenes, medical drawings for autopsies, and facial reconstruction sketches from skulls. Forensic artists have played an important role in the identification of bodies, and also helped police capture elusive criminals, such as serial killers Ted Bundy and serial bomber Eric Rudolph (who bombed the Olympic Village at the 1996 Olympic Games in Atlanta) and and Richard Allen Davis, who killed Polly Klaas. PEOPLE SKILLS The Forensic Artist must not only be an accomplished artist, but they must be very compassionate and work well with victims. It is, after all, the victim of a crime who will most likely be constructing the image from memory. To assist, a Forensic Artist will often show the victim or witness a binder full of pictures of people of different races, ages and characteristics. In the words of one prominent Forensic Artist: "Many times they can't remember all the pieces of the face, so I ask them to flip through until something makes them feel warm." TAKING SHAPE The sketches start out as a hazy gray circle roughly in the outline of the face. It generally takes between two and five hours to complete a sketch, which the Forensic Artist shows to the witness along the way and changes to fit their memories.


EXERCISE ONE: IT ALL HAPPENED SO QUICKLY! Hold up Image # ? on the facing page so that all the cadets clearly see the details of the photograph. After one minute, quickly turn the image face down on the desk. Explain that crimes happen very quickly and most witnesses only get a glance at the suspects. Now instruct the cadets to answer the following questions. (They may work in groups.) 1. Was the male passenger getting in/out of the front seat or back seat? 2. Did the cab driver have on a uniform? 3. What was the cab driver wearing? 4. Did the female have on jewelry? If so, what was she wearing 5. What was the name of the cab company? 6. Was the cab driver wearing glasses? If so, were they sunglasses? 7. What was the male passenger wearing? 8. Was the female talking on a phone or fixing her hair? 9. Was there a car behind the cab? If so, what color was it. 10. Did the cab appear to be in a crosswalk? 11. Was there anyone walking across the street? If so, was it a male or female? 12. What was in the street behind the cab? 13. What was the nationality of the female? 14. What was the nationality of the passenger? 15. What was the nationality of the cab driver? 16. Was the male passenger clean shaven or did he had a mustache or beard? 17. Was there something sitting directly behind the cab? What was it. 18. Did the cab driver have a mustache? 19. Could you tell if the male passenger was reaching for something? HOUSTON POLICE SKETCH ARTIST LOIS GIBSON HAS SET A NEW WORLD RECORD Gibson received a certificate from the Guinness World Records, Ltd. on February 6, 2003 for her composite sketches that have led to the arrests of dozens of suspects. The certificate states: "Since 1982, more than 135 criminals have been positively identified and brought to justice in Texas, due to the detailed composites drawn by forensic artist Lois Gibson. Police officials claim these criminal cases dealing with murder, rape and robbery would have gone unsolved without Lois' drawings." "To get a world record is terrific," said Gibson, "but to set a world record through my work that has helped bring to justice so many suspects makes it incredibly rewarding." "Lois has been an exemplary employee with the Houston Police Department," said Houston Police Chief C.O. Bradford. "Her skill as a sketch artist has proven to be a valuable tool to the HPD. Her sketches have helped raise awareness in the community about suspects which has led to several successful arrests and convictions." THE FACE OF CRIME Permit the cadets a full 10 minutes to memorize everything they can about the fugitives


below. At the end of ten minutes, Handouts should be turned over. Instruct the cadets to answer the Question Sheet. Again, discuss the difficulty of remembering facial features. WANTED FOR DRUG SALES Name: Beverly Rhodes Age: 35-40 Race: Black Height: 5'4" Weight: 120 lbs. Hair: Brown Eyes: Brown Complexion: Medium Scars/Marks: Beauty mark (mole) on left cheek. Usually wears thick glasses. WANTED FOR MULTIPLE ROBBERIES. THREATENS VICTIMS WITH AN UZI MACHINE GUN. OFTEN ACCOMPANIED BY A YOUNG HISPANIC WHO GOES BY THE NICKNAME "MONEY".

WANTED FOR AUTO THEFT Juana Lopez Age: 21 Race: Hispanic Height: 5'11" Weight: 190 lbs. Hair: Brown Eyes: Brown Complexion: Medium Scars/Marks: Missing ring finger on left hand. WANTED FOR RUNNING A "CHOP SHOP" AND MULTIPLE THEFTS OF LUXURY AUTOS, PARTICULARLY LATE MODEL MERCEDES-BENZ CONVERTIBLES. QUESTION SHEET Circle the correct answer questions 1 through 4 on the basis of your memory. YOU MAY NOT LOOK BACK AT THE FACT SHEET! 1. With regard to the person who is wanted for drug sales, which one of the following choices is correct? (Circle the correct statements.) The person poses as a doctor. The person wears glasses. The person is blind in his left eye. The person drives a Mercedes-Benz convertible. 2. With regard to the person wanted for auto theft, which one of the following choices is correct? (Circle the correct statements.)


The person is missing a ring finger on their left hand. The person drives a white BMW. The person goes by the nickname of "Snow." The person walks with a limp. 1. What is the primary role of a Sketch Artist? 2. Why is having a good sketch artist so critical to a police department? 3. What are the tools of a Sketch Artist? 4. What is another name for Sketch Artist? 5. Other than being an accomplished artist, what else must a sketch artist be?

L14 K-9 UNIT We’ve spent a lot of time talking about all the people who make up the different arms of law enforcement in the United States, but what about the four-legged law enforcement OVERVIEW: DISCUSS WHY CANINES CAN BE USEFUL IN LAW ENFORCEMENT. DISTRIBUTE THE CADET HANDOUT AND EXPLAIN THE HISTORY, ADVANTAGES AND DRAWBACKS OF A K-9 UNIT. CONCLUDE BY DISCUSSING THE TRAITS OF AN EFFECTIVE K-9 PARTNER. OBJECTIVE: CADETS WILL GAIN AN APPRECIATION FOR K-9S AND THEIR POLICE HANDLERS. Now, have your cadets take out their Cadet Handout for this unit. Dogs play a crucial role in many law enforcement activities, most of which revolve around their most valuable tool: their noses. A dog's sense of smell is said to be thousands of times more powerful than that of humans. While a human has about 5 million smell receptors in its nose, a dog has more than 220 million! Because of this keen sense of smell, dogs are able to locate everything from dead bodies to disaster survivors as evidenced after the recent spate of deadly tornadoes that ripped through the midwest. Dogs can sniff out all sorts of things in all sorts of places: survivors in the rubble of an earthquake; drugs hidden in a suitcase at the airport; bombs in cars or packages; bodies in buried deep in forests; and guns in closets. Don’t think that just because a dog's sense of smell is up to a million times more sensitive than yours that it’s not hard work. All police dogs go through rigorous training.


Working with police dogs can be very sad. One man who worked with rescue dogs after an avalanche explained that, “after spending about 8 hours going through an avalanche area, we were all exhausted, but a couple of the dogs were still trying to find anybody they could. Once we had accounted for everybody, a couple trainers asked some of us to partly bury ourselves so that the dogs could end their day finding a live body. The dog that found me was ecstatic that it had finally found somebody to save.� K-9 Units are a valuable part of many police departments. Dogs perform law enforcement duties that are beyond the physical capabilities of human beings. Dogs are primarily used for their extraordinary sense of smell. This heightened sense can assist officers in dealing with narcotics, explosive and weapons detection, tracking and search and rescue. THE CANINE HISTORY The training of dogs for police work was originally developed in Ghent, Belgium (as early as 1859) and was soon being used elsewhere throughout the European continent. Breeds with especially keen senses are used for special purposes, such as detecting caches of illegal drugs or for tracking fugitives and missing persons. The most widely trained dogs for patrol work are the German Shepherd, Belgian Malinois, Boxers, Doberman Pinschers, Airedale Terriers, Rottweilers, Giant Schnauzers, and Bloodhounds. WHY K-9 UNITS ARE NECESSARY? K-9 Units can be very effective in any community, but the choice to create one is based upon the departments workload, crime statistics and size. DETERRENCE Patrolling in a well-marked K-9 vehicle is extremely effective tool for deterring crime. The psychological advantage of having a K-9 team patrolling an area is deemed to be tremendous. A number of years ago, the Yarmouth, Massachusetts Police Department started their unit with three K-9 teams. During the first year, the unit worked hard in reducing the number of break-ins in their business sectors. At the end of the first year of utilizing a highly visible K-9 unit, the rate of break-ins decreased 80% while surrounding communities experienced a sudden rise in this business burglaries. IT'S ALL IN THE NOSE Tracking is a prime function of the working police dog. Tracking suspects from burglaries, stolen cars, and robberies, or tracking lost children or adults are functions that, in the majority of conditions, a human cannot possibly duplicate. Again, it comes down to the fact that the K-9's sense of smell is many times greater than the human's. A dog is capable of smelling the odor of a human being from hundreds of yards


away when the odor is carried by the slightest breeze. At least 97% of the work that the K-9 does is with its nose. DRAWBACKS A small department does not want an officer seeing his/her position as a K-9 handler as an excuse to ignore regular police duties. All too often this has been one of the main reasons for disbanding a K-9 Unit. The handler should be ready to accept all duties of the regular patrol force, in addition to the extra work and risk of being a K-9 handler. THINGS TO CONSIDER BEFORE FORMING A K-9 UNIT *Can the dog be donated or will it have to be purchased? *Will the dog live indoors or outside? If outside, consider the cost of the kennel fencing, cement pad, dog house, etc. *Training is paramount and quality does not come cheap. Who will pay for the dog’s training? *Who will pay for food and vet bills?

K-9 UNITS IMPROVE COMMUNITY RELATIONS One of the goals of the canine unit is to increase community relations through demonstrations at schools, public events etc. The canine demonstrations primarily focus on children programs, but we have found that the adults are just as intrigued by the training and abilities of a Sheriff’s canine. Members of the unit have discovered that quite often the public is misinformed as to the uses of the canine and how they are employed. Through demonstrations, handlers educate the public on the fact that canines are not vicious, but actually well-trained animals, under complete control, capable of completing a wide variety of tasks. As a part of the demonstration, direct interaction between the canine and the public demonstrates the social side of the canines. These demonstrations are usually provided to schools, church groups, college career days, community groups, and other public events. Though assignment to the canine unit is voluntary, it requires a tremendous commitment of personal time and effort to properly maintain a canine patrol, and the real compensation for that effort will be a well-trained canine that may save a life someday. K-9 UNIT DEMONSTRATION: If possible, have your K-9 Unit or Team give a demonstration in class Have the K-9 officer talk about what it is like to work with a dog. The cadets will love to hear first hand accounts of how the team worked together to solve a case or catch a criminal. SO YOU WANT TO START A K-9 UNIT? Starting a K-9 Unit is no simple task. There are specific questions a police department should consider before you and your K-9 partner go on patrol. Unfortunately, K-9 handlers have often learned the answers to these questions unexpectedly with embarrassing or even tragic results.


1. Can I fire my weapon next to him? 2. Can my back up fire his weapon near the K-9 team? 3. Can I recall my dog during a stressful event? 4. Can he defend himself alone for more than (5) minutes of fight? 5. Will he search anywhere in a building, dark rooms, stairs, crawl spaces, and basements? 6. How will he react to gunfire in a building? 7. Will he exit the cruiser to come aid me during a fight? 8. What happens if I go to the ground first during a fight? 9. Will he alert or apprehend a passive subject? 10. Can I trust my dog at demonstrations? 11. Do I have to hold him, while doing tactical maneuvers, and will this affect my ability to shoot during a hot situation? 12. What happens when the suspects goes passive after a fight, will my dog stay with the suspect or leave? 13. Can I move with a bunch of officers tactically and safely? 14. What if my dog finds food along the track or in a building? 15. Will he stay down and quiet for more than twenty minutes? 16. Will he jump a chain link fence after a suspect, or allow me to carry him over obstacles and up stairs? 17. Is there someone else that can handle my partner if need be? Questions: Consider your own dog or a friend's -- how would they react in the situations listed above? What temperament would be required for a dog to work well in law enforcement? 1. Define “working dog”. 2. Where was the training of dogs for police departments first developed? 3. List the special purposes for which working dogs are used? 4. What is “tracking” and what are its uses? 5. What do you need to consider before starting a K-9 unit?

L15 – SWAT Though some officers appear on bikes or horses, uniformed in shorts or simple slacks, you know a SWAT team officer when you see one. They wear body armor, camouflage outfits, face masks, and helmets.


OVERVIEW: INSTRUCTOR WILL INTRODUCE CADETS TO THE FUNCTIONS OF A SWAT UNIT AND THE TACTICAL STRATEGIES THESE HIGHLY TRAINED OFFICERS USE WHEN FIGHTING CRIME. OBJECTIVES: CADETS WILL GAIN A BETTER UNDERSTANDING OF THE SWAT UNIT’S SPECIAL MISSION IN FIGHTING CRIME. Now, have your cadets take out their Cadet Handout for this unit. They carry semi and fully automatic pistols, submachine guns, assault rifles, shotguns, and flash-bang grenades and wear heavy body armor. But these are not military commandos -- they are the members of a Special Weapons and Tactics Unit, more commonly known as SWAT. They are the "go-to" team in high-risk, volatile situation, when surgical precision and advanced tactics are required. These elite team members train frequently and rigorously, and they must keep current on the ever-changing science of crisis resolution. This is why LAPD SWAT remains the most respected group of its kind on the planet. An old saying goes, "When people are in trouble they call the police. When the police are in trouble they call SWAT!" Any critical incident (such as armed or barricaded suspects, hostage situations or serving arrest or search warrants) where there is a threat or potential for violence is a situation where a SWAT team might be deployed. These are the officers that come in when lives are on the line. One of the most famous and dangerous situations involving LAPD SWAT played out on the streets of North Hollywood, CA on February 28, 1997 and was broadcast live on Los Angeles area television stations. The North Hollywood Bank Robbery involved two men in full military-grade body armor, carrying fully automatic rifles with armor piercing bullets, who were confronted by police as they exited a bank they'd just robbed. Patrol officers had been alerted to the robbery-in-progress and quickly realized they were out-gunned. Their their 9mm duty weapons and shotguns were useless against the suspects' body armor. SWAT was summoned, and while waiting for their arrival, patrol supervisors hurried to area gun shops to borrow automatic rifles in an attempt to give them firepower equal to the suspects, who were wanted in connection with at least two armored car robberies, and were known for their range of high-impact weaponry and state-of-the-art body armor. In all, over 2,000 rounds were fired in that confrontation, injuring eleven officers and seven civilians. Both suspects were mortally wounded, one by SWAT officers and the other by his own hand. SWAT teams may also appear at large political protests or act as part of the security contingent for visiting elected officials and foreign dignitaries. Why do you think a protest might be a good reason to bring in the SWAT team? How do you think the officers on the SWAT team treat a protest situation differently than a hostage situation?


IT’S ALL IN THE NAME What we now take for granted did not exist until around 1968. Daryl Gates, then the future LAPD chief, is generally credited with creating the first SWAT team. Gates originally wanted to call the unit, ‘Special Weapons Attack Team’, but changed the name for public relations purposes. Gates saw a distinct need for a police unit like this in Los Angeles in the late 60s, where social unrest became increasingly common. Thirty-three years later, 90 percent of police agencies surveyed in cities with a population over 50,000 had SWAT units. Seventy percent of cities with a population under 50,000 had SWAT teams. As the name implies (Special Weapons and Tactics) the team members are issued special weapons including: semi-automatic and fully-automatic firearms, long range precision rifles, flash-bang diversionary devices, tear gas grenades, ballistic shields, vests and helmets. Also, as the name states, they train in special tactics. These tactical methods are designed to bring a critical incident to a close with the least amount of risk to the officers and citizens. WHY THE NEED FOR A SWAT TEAM? Public Safety — nothing comes before this, and if you’re dealing with a heavily armed, barricaded suspect who is holding hostages, you are not thinking straight if you think he/she will surrender to an officer with just a simple knock on their door. SWAT is needed here. How about a situation where you have armed suspects at large in a wooded area that has been cordoned off by the local police? Is this a job for a traffic cop? Or do you call in a specially trained unit whose members have trained for months to handle such situations? It’s a no-brainer. YOU CALL SWAT WHEN SPECIAL SITUATIONS ARISE: What if you’re dispatched to a call of a sniper perched on a tall building? A SWAT sniper is needed here. How about a plane hijacking at your local airport? How about a suspect or domestic terrorist holed up in an apartment complex with enough explosive material to level the apartments? How about an armed suicidal suspect in a crowded fast food joint? How about a Columbine High School situation? All these scenarios call for the expertise of a SWAT team. Social changes, including heavily armed drug traffickers and the increased violence associated with them, are yet another reason to have SWAT on call. COMPONENTS OF A SWAT TEAM The following components are usually, but not necessarily, found in a Department’s The Command Post The Command Team consists of the Team leader and his lieutenants. They are in constant


communication with the other team members by way of state of the art headpieces and must make on-the-spot decisions about the nature of the engagement depending on how the situation plays out. The Negotiator The Negotiation Team consists of members who have been trained in psychology and are able to make a field assessment of any hostage scenario. They are essential in diffusing a potentially violent and dangerous situation. The Sniper The Sniper Team consists of members who are highly skilled in the arts of camouflage and long distance shooting with state of the art weaponry. While their main task is to provide cover and fire support, they are also instrumental in providing up-to-the-minute intelligence to the Command Post. This information could be crucial in making decisions regarding assault plans and life-threatening situations. They are also known as the perimeter or containment team. The Entry Team The name says it all. This team is comprised of members who are skilled in the art of explosives, forced entry and frontal assault. They are heavily armed with projectile weapons, smoke bombs, flash bombs and tear gas. Performance The true success of a SWAT team, however, is not measured in equipment, but in their performance as a team. A team that is untrained, undisciplined, and inexperienced, is a liability to its community, no matter how well armed and equipped they may be. Requirements Because much depends on recruiting the right personnel, police departments typically set rigid standards for service in the unit. These standards usually include: Officers must pass a standard physical test that includes a two mile run, push ups, pull ups, and sit ups. They must qualify with department firearms to a higher standard than the non-SWAT patrol officer. The team members train together, as a team, at least once a month, but usually more frequently. Quarterly, the physical and firearms standards must be met by all members of the SWAT team. SWAT officers train on the average of 16 hours per month and must be on call 24 hours a day, seven days a week.

Some of the SWAT Team disciplines include, but are not limited to: *Critical Decision Making


*Communication Skills *Indoor Search Techniques and Philosophy *Outdoor Search Techniques and Philosophy *Entry Techniques and Philosophy *Active Counter Measures *Weapon Retention *Aviation (Helicopter Deployment) *Rappelling *Special Weapons *Ordinance *Hostage Rescue *Officer Rescue Vehicle/Bus Assault Mental and Physical Disciplines Discuss why there is a need for SWAT Teams. Discuss the components of a SWAT Team and how they work together. 1. What does SWAT mean? 2. Describe a situation where you would use a SWAT team. 3. Who is credited for creating the first SWAT team? 4. List the components of a SWAT Team? 5. What standards need to be met to be a member of the SWAT team?

L16 LAW ENFORCEMENT’S MANY HATS Ever noticed how some police officers drive cars while others drive SUVs? You might see a city police car, then a County Sheriff car. Are they looking for the same criminals? OVERVIEW: DISCUSS THE COMPLEX ORGANIZATION OF LAW ENFORCEMENT AGENCIES. DISTRIBUTE THE CADET HANDOUT AND REVIEW THE VARIOUS TYPES OF AGENCIES. CONCLUDE BY DISTINGUISHING BETWEEN LOCAL, STATE AND FEDERAL LAW ENFORCEMENT DEPARTMENTS. OBJECTIVE: CADETS WILL DEVELOP AN UNDERSTANDING OF THE COMPLEX PATCHWORK OF POLICE AGENCIES AND JURISDICTIONS THAT COMPRISE THE CRIMINAL JUSTICE SYSTEM IN AMERICA.


Now, have your cadets take out their Cadet Handout for this unit. If you are walking through downtown on any given day it is possible to see a Sheriff’s Department squad car, the local police department’s bike patrol or patrol unit, the Park Police Van and perhaps even a mobile unit from the State Police. Is there a connection between all of these various departments and if so, who the heck is in charge? Those are the questions we will address today. Do all these officers work together, or for different departments? The United States has the most complex organization of police departments and agencies in the world. Why do you think this is so? Principle law enforcement agencies of this country are the Department of Justice, the Department of Homeland Security, and the United States Postal Service. The Department of Justice branches further into specialized agencies, most notably the FBI, the DEA (Drug Enforcement Administration) and the US Marshals Service. The Department of Homeland Security consists of the US Coast Guard, the Bureau of Border Security, the Secret Service, and the US Customs Service. The United States Postal Service is responsible for preventing dangerous, harmful and fraudulent mail from circulating in the country. They are constantly sifting through suspect pieces of mail believed to contain drugs, poison, explosives and other harmful materials. As you can see, law enforcement jobs vary under each division. Once you're qualified to serve in the police force, you will be able to match your abilities and interests with specialized law enforcement jobs. MUNICIPAL POLICE The police force of cities, townships, villages, boroughs and incorporated towns fall into this category. Small Municipal Departments Smaller municipal police departments provide policing services to the majority of American citizens. Tribal police departments, such as the Oneida Indian Nation Police are examples of small municipal departments. Large Municipal Departments There are few really large municipal police departments in the United States. Some of the biggest include the Los Angeles Police Department, the Chicago Police Department and the New York (City) Police Department. SPECIALIZED FORCES There are many specialized police forces around the country. They include: university police departments, school district police departments and public transit police forces.


SHERIFFS DEPARTMENT Sheriffs and deputy sheriffs patrol more than 3,000 counties in the United Sates. There are, however, other county police forces whose jurisdictions either duplicate or displace those of the Sheriff's Department. A county is the largest territorial division for local government within a state. Most counties have a constitutional office or sheriff who is the chief law enforcement official for that area. STATE LAW ENFORCEMENT Each of the 50 U.S. states has established its own police forces and criminal investigation agencies. Some state police departments, such as the Alaska State Troopers, provide general policing services to all areas of a state that are not served by municipal police. Other state police departments, such as the Utah Highway Patrol, are restricted to enforcing laws on the roads and highways of a state. Another example of a state police agency with restricted jurisdiction is the South Dakota Department of Game and Fish. This department is involved solely in the enforcement of South Dakota's game and fish laws. Two of the best-known state-level enforcement units are the state police and the highway patrol. There is a definite distinction between these agencies in terms of responsibility and authority. State police engage in a full range of law enforcement activities including criminal investigation. Highway patrol units are concerned almost entirely with traffic control and enforcement and may have limited general police authority. FEDERAL LAW ENFORCEMENT The federal government provides a wide variety of police services. Within the US Department of Justice one finds the Drug Enforcement Administration and the Federal Bureau of Investigation. FEDERAL BUREAU OF INVESTIGATION The Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) is responsible for investigating violations of all federal laws except those specifically within the jurisdiction of other federal agencies. The FBI deals with violations of sabotage, treason, and espionage laws as well as internal security matters. Although the jurisdiction of the Bureau in criminal matters is limited, the FBI has responsibility for enforcing numerous federal laws including terrorism, kidnapping, extortion, bank robbery, offenses involving interstate transportation, civil rights violations, and the assault or killing of a U.S. President. BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO, FIREARMS AND EXPLOSIVES (ATF) ATF is a unique law enforcement agency in the United States Department of Justice that protects our communities from violent criminals, criminal organizations, the illegal use and trafficking of firearms, the illegal use and storage of explosives, acts of arson and bombings, acts of terrorism, and the illegal diversion of alcohol and tobacco products. They partner with communities, industries, law enforcement, and public safety agencies to safeguard the public


through information sharing, training, research, and use of technology. DRUG ENFORCEMENT AGENCY The Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA), an agency of the U.S. Department of Justice, has the leading role in the fight against illegal drugs in our country. The DEA’s mission is to control narcotic and dangerous drug abuse effectively through law enforcement, education, training, and research activities. IMMIGRATION AND CUSTOMS ENFORCEMENT Immigration and Customs Enforcement is the principal investigative arm of the U.S. Department of Homeland Security (DHS) and the second largest investigative agency in the federal government. Created in 2003 through a merger of the investigative and interior enforcement elements of the U.S. Customs Service and the Immigration and Naturalization Service, ICE now has more than 20,000 employees in offices in all 50 states and 48 foreign countries. ICE's primary mission is to promote homeland security and public safety through the criminal and civil enforcement of federal laws governing border control, customs, trade, and immigration. The agency has an annual budget of more than $5.7 billion dollars, primarily devoted to its two principal operating components - Homeland Security Investigations (HSI) and Enforcement and Removal Operations (ERO). INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE The Internal Revenue Service (IRS) is an important enforcement agency within the Department of the Treasury. U.S DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE The Department of Agriculture enforces numerous laws designed to protect farmers, the public, and the national forests. U.S. DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE The Department of Defense engages in law enforcement of various kinds, including: investigating crimes within their own jurisdictions, providing and controlling security for classified projects, gathering intelligence and operating counterintelligence. U.S. DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR As custodian of the natural resources of our country, the Department of the Interior utilizes some law enforcement personnel. They are stationed in places such as fish and wildlife preserves, historic sites, territories, reservations, and island possessions of the United States. U.S. MARSHALS SERVICE The U.S. Marshals Service operates under the general authority of the U.S. Attorney General in the courts of the various federal districts throughout the United States. In each of the 94 U.S. judicial districts, a U.S. Marshal is appointed by the President of the United States to be


responsible for directing the activities of Deputy U.S. Marshals and supportive staff. Marshals are present at federal court proceedings and carry out such responsibilities as maintaining order, removing unruly persons, accompanying and guarding prisoners, serving orders of the court, and generally assisting the court in carrying out decisions. U.S. POSTAL SERVICE When it is not delivering mail, the U.S. Postal Service also engages in law enforcement activities. The Postal Inspection Service searches mail for drugs, bombs and child pornography. Even the United States State Department, with its Bureau of Diplomatic Security, has law enforcement capabilities. U.S. SECRET SERVICE The U.S. Secret Service, created in 1865, is one of our nation’s oldest law enforcement agencies. It was originally formed as a bureau of the Department of the Treasury and was given the responsibility for eliminating the counterfeiting of currency as well as the forging and cashing of government checks, bonds, and securities. The Match Game! Outline the following information and exercise on the board: The United States system of Law Enforcement is divided into three parts: Local, State, and Federal. LOCAL: Consists of cities, towns, counties, airports, parks, sheriff’s departments. 74% of all police officers are employed in 19,000 local agencies and departments. STATE: State police are a police body unique to each U.S. state, having statewide authority to conduct law enforcement activities and criminal investigations. In general, they perform functions outside the jurisdiction of the county sheriff (Vermont being a notable exception), such as enforcing traffic laws on state highways and interstate expressways, overseeing the security of the state capitol complex, protecting the governor, training new officers for local police forces too small to operate an academy, providing technological and scientific support services, and helping to coordinate multi-jurisdictional task force activity in serious or complicated cases in those states that grant full police powers statewide. A general trend has been to bring all of these agencies under a state Department of Public Safety. Additionally, they may serve under different state departments such as the Highway Patrol under the state Department of Transportation and the Marine patrol under the Department of Natural Resources. Twenty-three U.S. states use the term "State Police." 57% of an officer’s time is spent patrolling highways.


FEDERAL: Limited strictly to enforcing Federal laws. More than 50% of all Federal officers work for either the FBI or ICE. Question the Cadets The following federal government agencies are working hard to protect you, but why are their services more appropriately handled by the federal government and not by the cities or states. Where do they belong, local, state or federal? United States Coast Guard The U.S. Coast Guard is one of America’s five armed forces, and has been around since 1790—even before the Navy! The Coast Guard’s main duty is, you guessed it, to guard the coast. But, that’s just the tip of the iceberg. The Coast Guard has a lot of other jobs as well, including search and rescue, ice patrol, stopping polluters and maintaining lighthouses. Department of Homeland Security The DHS was formed after the events of September 11th, 2001, to protect America from foreign attacks. The DHS is a collection of 22 government agencies that analyze intelligence and plan responses to future emergencies. The DHS also issues “Threat Advisories” using different colors to tell you how alert to be. “Red” is the most serious, and “Green” the least serious. U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP) Just as the Coast Guard protects our shores, the U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP) is responsible for guarding nearly 7,000 miles of land border the United States shares with Canada and Mexico and 2,000 miles of coastal waters surrounding the Florida peninsula and off the coast of Southern California. The agency also protects 95,000 miles of maritime border in partnership with the United States Coast Guard. To secure this vast terrain, CBP’s U.S. Border Patrol agents, Air and Marine agents, and CBP officers and agriculture specialists, together with the nation’s largest law enforcement canine program, stand guard along America’s front line. CBP denies entry to any suspected of being a threat to national security. CBP also screens high-risk imported food shipments in order to prevent bio-terrorism and agro-terrorism. For the first time, U.S. Food and Drug Administration and CBP personnel are working side by side at the National Terrorism Center to protect the U.S. food supply by implementing provisions of the Bioterrorism Act of 2002. CBP and FDA are able to react quickly to threats of bio-terrorist attacks on the U.S. food supply or to other food-related emergencies. All people, animals and goods passing through our airports, ports and roadside checkpoints are carefully inspected and assessed for terrorism threat. The Bureau has over 45,000 employees—and that’s not including the 1500 dogs that sniff containers for anything illegal!


In 2010, CBP processed over 965,000 passengers and pedestrians entering the country, processed over 47,000 truck, rail and sea containers, and siezed nearly 15,000 pounds of illegal drugs EVERY DAY! To discover more, visit http://cbp.gov. 1. Name several types of law enforcement agencies in this country? 2. What are the two best known state law enforcement units? 3. What is the FBI responsible for? 4. What does the US Secret Service do? 5. The Department of Homeland Security was developed because of what event?

L17 SHERIFF’S DEPARTMENT Mention the word "sheriff" and many people's minds will fill immediately with images of shootouts and gunfights in the Wild West. Such is the power of old movies and television series. OVERVIEW: DISCUSS THE DISTINCTION BETWEEN POLICE AND SHERIFF’S DEPARTMENTS. DISTRIBUTE THE CADET HANDOUT AND EXPLAIN THE ORIGINS AND NATURE OF THE SHERIFF'S DEPARTMENT. CONCLUDE WITH AN HISTORICAL EXAMINATION OF THE SHERIFF IN THE AMERICAN WILD WEST. OBJECTIVE: CADETS WILL GAIN A GREATER UNDERSTANDING OF THE ROLE A SHERIFF’S DEPARTMENT PLAYS IN MAINTAINING LAW AND ORDER AND WILL BE ABLE TO IDENTIFY THE DIFFERENCES BETWEEN A SHERIFF’S DEPARTMENT AND A POLICE DEPARTMENT. Now, have your cadets take out their Cadet Handout for this unit. Most people would be surprised to know that the office of sheriff has a proud history that spans well over a thousand years, from the early Middle Ages to our own "high-tech" era. With few exceptions, today's sheriffs are elected officials who serve as the chief law enforcement officer for a county. Although the duties of the sheriff vary from jurisdiction to jurisdiction, the sheriff's office is generally active in all three branches of the criminal justice system: law enforcement, the courts and corrections. This means that a sheriff’s deputy has jurisdiction everywhere in that county, including areas with their own police departments.


HISTORY OF THE OFFICE OF SHERIFF The office of sheriff was a development that began over 1000 years ago in England. The sheriff supreme was the law in the county and he was president of its court. He led military forces of the shire (a shire is similar to a county in this country), executed all writs (court orders), and, for the first century after the Norman Conquest in 1066, judged both criminal and civil cases. From the time of Henry II (reigned 1154-89), however, his jurisdiction was severely restricted as a result of the growing jurisdiction of the curia regis ("king's court"). His duty thereafter was to investigate allegations of crime from within his shire, to conduct a preliminary examination of the accused, to try lesser offenses, and to detain those accused of major crimes for the itinerant justices. The new offices of coroner (first mentioned in 1194), of local constable (first mentioned in 1242), and of justices of the peace (first known in the 12th century as custodies pacis, "keepers of the peace") all took work and duties from the sheriffs. THE AMERICAN SHERIFF: A TRADITION CONTINUES In the United States, the sheriff is customarily an elected public officer in his county, the chief executive officer, and an officer of the court, with a term usually of from two to four years. The deputy is appointed by the sheriff and is delegated duties. The sheriff and deputy are peace officers and thus have the power of police officers in the enforcement of criminal law. Deputy Sheriffs are county law enforcement officers who patrol assigned districts within their jurisdiction to enforce federal, state and local laws. The majority of counties throughout the US have the office of Sheriff, which in varying degrees has responsibility for county policing, jails, and court activities. They may also assume some of the functions of the local police department and are empowered to call out the posse comitatus ("the force of the county," a summoning of private citizens to assist in maintaining peace). The term “posse" derives from this and is still used in many parts of the country. The Sheriff’s Department is also responsible for issuing traffic citations on county roads, performing traffic duties in designated geographic areas and maintaining order during public demonstrations and parades. They also are responsible for enforcing laws in county and state parks and game reserves. As Thomas Jefferson wrote in his The Value of Constitutions, "the Office of Sheriff is the most important of all the executive offices of the county." *How does the office of Sheriff differ from that of Chief of Police? *What is the traditional model for Sheriff’s as defined from western movies? *How do you suppose a Sheriff’s role in the community has changed since the days of the old west?


THE MODERN SHERIFF’S DEPARTMENT Sheriffs and deputy sheriffs enforce the law on the county level. Sheriffs are usually elected to their posts and perform duties similar to those of a local or county police chief. Sheriffs' departments tend to be relatively small, most having fewer than 25 sworn officers. A deputy sheriff in a large agency will have law enforcement duties similar to those of officers in urban police departments. Nationwide, about 40 percent of full-time sworn deputies are uniformed officers assigned to patrol and respond to calls, 12 percent are investigators, 30 percent are assigned to jail-related duties, and 11 percent perform court-related duties, with the balance in administration. Police and sheriffs' deputies who provide security in city and county courts are sometimes called bailiffs. That’s the person who holds the bible on which a witness swears to tell the whole truth, and nothing but the truth. Although it varies from county to county, here are some common divisions within a Sheriff’s Department. PATROL DIVISION The patrol division is responsible for preventing crime and maintaining peace throughout the county. As a part of routine patrol, the deputies check suspicious incidents and persons, enforce state laws and county resolutions, make arrests, check businesses and residences for security, conduct criminal investigations, work with juveniles, investigate farm, industrial and traffic accidents, check clubs and taverns, and handle many other situations as they occur. The deputies must be knowledgeable of the citizens’ needs and be prepared to assist at any time. JAIL DIVISION One of the largest divisions within the Sheriff’s department, jailers are primarily responsible for the safety and security of the jail facility, the inmates and of the officers. When a person is lodged in jail, a jailer enters pertinent information in the computer and takes several sets of fingerprints and a photograph (mug shot). When a person is released from jail certain computer work and paperwork must also be completed. All these items along with other documents are routed to the Records Division for further handling, dissemination and filing. COURTS DIVISION In many counties, the Sheriff’s Department provides security for local courts, as well as safe transfer and handling of prisoners. The Courts Division is responsible for maintaining order in the court rooms. This division has court transfer responsibilities, which involves taking prisoners from the Jail Divisions to the courts. The Courts Division also may include the Friend of the Court Enforcement Unit. This Unit seeks out individuals who have become delinquent in their child support payments. This unit serves Friend of the Court warrants for non-support payments. FELONY WARRANTS The Felony warrants section tracks down fugitives and serves arrest warrants. CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS DIVISION The Criminal Investigations Division (CID) is responsible for any investigations conducted by


the Sheriff's Office that are of a criminal nature. Investigators are extensively trained in all types of investigations to include homicide, rapes, child molestation, child abuse, property crimes, and all facets from crime scene processing to interviewing. SHERIFF’S, POSSES AND THE WILD WEST The American Wild West earned its reputation as a land of adventure and lawlessness. A vast area with serious issues of crime, disorder, vice, and violence, the pioneers of the old West were in desperate need of some form of law enforcement. The office of sheriff, with its established background and history, was a natural balance for this environment. Generally, community residents selected a sheriff by popular vote. The expansive and sparsely populated countryside was a perfect fit for the county-wide jurisdiction of the Sheriff’s Office. The Sheriff dealt with the isolated nature of the frontier by having the ability to raise a posse as time and circumstances dictated. The posse was a group of citizens who volunteered to assist the Sheriff in tracking down a criminal suspect. As citizens of the community, it was in their own best interest to see that justice was served. The following two profiles illustrate the wild side of law enforcement in the old west. PATRICK GARRETT Pat Garrett was born in Alabama on June 5, 1850. Pat decided to become a lawman. In 1880, he pinned on a star for the first time as a deputy sheriff of Lincoln County, NM. Soon he ran for the top slot of sheriff. He easily won the election. His first and greatest assignment was to stop Billy The Kid, the most notorious desperado and killer in the Wild West. Garrett and his posse first caught up with the Kid and returned him for trial. He was found guilty, and while awaiting his hanging, Billy managed to kill both of his jailers during his escape from the county lock-up. After tracking The Kid, Garrett sneaked into Billy’s hotel room and upon his return, Garrett killed him. The killing brought Garrett instant fame and notoriety. WILD BILL HICKOK On August 2, 1876, the blast of a Colt Peacemaker rang out above the sounds of the saloon patrons in Deadwood, South Dakota's Number Ten Saloon. The bullet drove through the skull of the seated card player and came to rest in the arm of the man he was opposing. As the man slumped to his death he was still holding his cards. He had aces and eights, which would have been the winning hand. This variation of cards would from that time on be known as the "dead man's hand." The dead man was none other than the notorious Wild Bill Hickok, who would breathe his last breath at age thirty-nine. It ended the spectacular career of a gunman and a lawman. He was


credited with killing some thirty to eighty-five men, depending on who was doing the counting. The "Wild" addition to the name was surely deserved. After several documented and notorious killings, he was appointed a deputy U.S. marshal. In 1869, Wild Bill was appointed sheriff of Ellis County, Kansas to fill a temporary vacancy. 1. What does a modern sheriff do? 2. What other duties were given to earlier sheriff’s? 3. Where did the office of the sheriff begin? 4. Where did the term “posse” come from?

L18 STATE POLICE Each state in the United States has a state police department, called the State Police, State Patrol or Highway Patrol, depending on the state. Often, these departments focus on enforcing the law in places where municipal police departments don’t exist, such as isolated rural areas and highways. OVERVIEW: DISCUSS THE DEFINITION AND JURISDICTION OF THE STATE POLICE DEPARTMENT. DISTRIBUTE THE CADET HANDOUT AND REVIEW THE SERVICES A STATE POLICE DEPARTMENT PROVIDES. CONCLUDE WITH MOCK TRAFFIC STOP. OBJECTIVE: CADETS WILL GAIN AN APPRECIATION FOR THE STATE POLICE’S PUBLIC SAFETY MISSION. Now, have your cadets take out their Cadet Handout for this unit. State police officers (sometimes called state troopers or highway patrol officers) arrest criminals Statewide and patrol highways to enforce motor vehicle laws and regulations. Uniformed officers are best known for issuing traffic citations to motorists who violate the law. At the scene of accidents, they may direct traffic, give first aid, and call for emergency equipment. They also write reports used to determine the cause of the accident. State police officers are frequently called upon to render assistance to other law enforcement agencies, especially those in rural areas or small towns. Each state is different, though. In heavily rural states like Alaska, the State Troopers do a lot of


regional policing, investigating crimes such as assault and burglary. In South Dakota, a state known for its recreational areas, that state police department’s jurisdiction is primarily game and fishing law. Since each state is different, it means that you could get a speeding ticket from a state trooper in Utah, arrested by an Alaska state trooper for robbing someone and written up for fishing off-season in South Dakota. It all depends on the state’s particular needs and jurisdictions. ANYTHING WITH WHEELS Vehicles, large and small, consume a large percentage of a law enforcer’s time on duty. State troopers are required to: *Enforce traffic and parking laws and ordinances *Investigate traffic accidents *Check vehicles for proper registration *Request emergency assistance for accidents *Identify owners of vehicles involved in accidents *Control, regulate, and direct traffic, vehicular and pedestrian *Locate witnesses to accidents *Direct traffic using barriers, flares, and hand signals *Administer roadside sobriety tests *Follow suspicious vehicles *Operate breathalyzer test apparatus *Remove hazards from roadway *Arrange for obtaining blood or urine samples for sobriety tests *Collect physical evidence from accident scenes *Aid the injured *Assist stranded motorists *Measure skid marks *Issue parking citations HERE ARE SOME ADDITIONAL DUTIES OF THE STATE POLICE OR THE HIGHWAY PATROL: PROVIDE ASSISTANCE State police officers provide services to motorists on the highways. For example, they may radio for road service for drivers with mechanical trouble, direct tourists to their destination, or give information about lodging, restaurants, and tourist attractions. WORKING ON THE HIGHWAY State police officers also provide traffic assistance and control during road repairs, fires, and other emergencies, as well as during special occurrences such as parades and sporting events. They sometimes check the weight of commercial vehicles, conduct driver examinations, and give information on highway safety to the public.


CRIMINAL LAW State Police also must enforce criminal laws. In communities and counties that do not have a local police force or a large sheriff's department, the State police are the primary law enforcement agency, investigating crimes such as burglary or assault. They also may help city or county police catch lawbreakers and control civil disturbances. TRAFFIC LAWS AT A GLANCE A state trooper most often enforces traffic laws. The following are among the most commonly broken traffic laws. (Laws may vary slightly from state to state.) Review and discuss. Consumption or Possession of Alcoholic Beverage in Motor Vehicle No person may operate a motor vehicle in a public place while consuming an alcoholic beverage. Penalties - Class C Misdemeanor: $500 fine. Driving Without Insurance A person is guilty of Driving without Insurance who operates a motor vehicle without a motor vehicle liability insurance policy in effect. Penalties - Misdemeanor: Up to $500 in fines. Up to 6 months in jail. Failure to Observe Traffic Signals No driver may fail to comply with a traffic signal or fail to stop at a stop sign at the stop line, crosswalk or place where that person has a view of approaching traffic. Penalties - Misdemeanor: $1 to $200 in fines Drunk Driving A person is guilty of drunk driving who operates a motor vehicle in a public place while intoxicated and (1) who does not have normal use of mental or physical facilities due to alcohol or drugs or (2) who has an alcohol concentration of .10 or more. First Violation - Class B Misdemeanor: Up to $2,000 in fines and 72 hours to 180 days in jail Second Violation - Class A Misdemeanor: Up to $4,000 in fines and 30 days to 1 year in jail Third Violation - Felony 3rd degree: Up to $10,000 in fines and 2 years to 10 years in jail TRAFFIC LAWS THAT GET NO RESPECT Yield to Emergency Vehicles This is one of the most violated laws. When an emergency vehicle with its lights flashing and siren sounding approaches, you must pull over to the side of the road and stop. This gives the emergency vehicle a clear path. Do Not Cross the Median or Private Property It is illegal to drive across ANY median. Jumping the median to get on the frontage road when traffic is congested on the freeway is not only illegal and dangerous, it's arrogant. You're no


more important than anyone else stuck on the highway. Along the same lines, it is also illegal to cross private property without stopping or for the purpose of turning left or right from one road to another. In other words, it's illegal to cut-through the gas station at the corner so you don't have to stop at the stop sign or red light or to avoid the line of cars waiting at the sign or light. Common, but Unacceptable, Excuses when Fighting a Traffic Violation *The driver claims they were honestly mistaken about the law. For example, if a driver tells the judge that they honestly thought it was okay to just slow down instead of stopping at a blinking red light, his reply is almost sure to be, "Sorry, ignorance of the law is no excuse." *The driver argues that their violation didn't harm anybody. Again, sorry, everyone is legally required to stop at a red light even if it's 3:00 a.m. and no other vehicle is moving within two miles. *"The officer was picking on me." This is called "selective enforcement" and is often raised by a motorist who claims the ticketing officer ignored others who were also violating the law. It is almost impossible to win this one unless the driver can prove that the officer had a motive to single them out. *The driver tells a sympathetic story. The fact that their child, their mother or their parakeet was ill will not get them off. At best, the judge may reduce their fine a little. *The driver questions the officer in hopes that he will slip up. VIDEO: IN THE HEAT OF THE NIGHT In the clip, “In the Heat of the Night” (Unit 2 from the JPA Video) from the series “Real Stories of the Highway Patrol”, the highway patrol utilizes technology to apprehend a car thief. Before showing the clip, discuss a citizen’s duty not to endanger the safety of others -- such as driving through the streets at high speeds. Show the clip: The following questions should be discussed in class or turned in as an assignment: Why is a helicopter so valuable in the high-speed pursuit? Why are high-speed pursuits so dangerous? At what point do police put the public safety first? Discuss the responsibility of putting the safety of others first. How did the car thief violate that civic duty? 1. What is another name for the state police? 2. Why would all state police departments be different from one another?


3. Name 2 traffic violations and their consequences? 4. Name a traffic law that gets no respect? 5. Name a common excuse for fighting a violation and why it does not work? L19 FEDERAL BUREAU OF INVESTIGATION The FBI gets a lot of attention from movies and television. Who can think of a few shows or movies that featured FBI agents? OVERVIEW: DISCUSS THE ROLE OF THE FBI IN THE INVESTIGATION OF FEDERAL LAW VIOLATIONS. DISTRIBUTE THE CADET HANDOUT AND REVIEW THE NATURE OF THE FBI AND ITS RELATIONSHIP TO OTHER AGENCIES. CONCLUDE WITH A DISCUSSION OF THE FBI1S "TEN MOST WANTED FUGITIVES." OBJECTIVE: CADETS WILL GAIN A DEEPER UNDERSTANDING OF THE ROLE THAT THE FBI PLAYS IN MAINTAINING PUBLIC SAFETY HERE IN THE UNITED STATES AND A GREATER RESPECT FOR THE EXPERT SKILLS WITH WHICH THIS AGENCY PURSUES JUSTICE. Now, have your cadets take out their Cadet Handout for this unit. Everybody loves a good mystery, and the Federal Bureau of Investigation is focused on solving those mysteries. The FBI investigates violations of all federal laws, except for those specifically covered by other federal agencies like the DEA. The names of the crimes that the FBI deals with certainly sound like the stuff of movies: sabotage, treason, espionage. But a lot of what the Bureau does day to day includes finger printing, laboratory examinations, police training, publishing the annual Uniform Crime Reports, and administration of the National Crime Information Center. A team of people working together to publish a book of crime reports doesn’t look especially exciting on screen, so we don’t see much about that in movies. Regardless of how exciting it looks, the FBI performs a crucially important role in American law enforcement. Review the following questions and answers describing the role of the FBI in national law enforcement efforts. What does the FBI do? The FBI is the most important law enforcement agency of the U.S. Government. They are charged with the enforcement of over 200 federal laws. However, since September 11th, the FBI’s first priority has been to protect the United States from terrorist attacks.


The FBI focuses on threats that challenge the foundations of American society or involve dangers too large or complex for any local or state authority to handle alone. In executing the following priorities, the FBI produces and uses intelligence to protect the nation from threats and to bring to justice those who violate the law. 1. Protect the United States from terrorist attack 2. Protect the United States against foreign intelligence operations and espionage 3. Protect the United States against cyber-based attacks and high-technology crimes 4. Combat public corruption at all levels 5. Protect civil rights 6. Combat transnational/national criminal organizations and enterprises 7. Combat major white-collar crime 8. Combat significant violent crime 9. Support federal, state, local and international partners 10. Upgrade technology to successfully perform the FBI's mission Other duties include, but are not limited to: Bank robbery investigations Theft of Government property Organized crime Sabotage (deliberately damaging or destruction of property) Kidnapping Domestic Terrorism How many people are employed by the FBI? As of May 31, 2011, the FBI had a total of 35,437 employees. That included 13,963 special agents and 21,474 support professionals, such as intelligence analysts, language specialists, scientists, information technology specialists, and other professionals. How accurately is the FBI portrayed in books, television shows, and motion pictures? Any author, television script writer, or producer may consult with the FBI about closed cases, their operations, services, or history. However, there is no requirement that they do so, and the FBI does not edit or approve their work. Some authors, television programs, or motion picture producers offer reasonably accurate presentations of the responsibilities, investigations, and procedures in their story lines, while others present their own interpretations or introduce fictional events, persons, or places for dramatic effect. What authority do FBI Special Agents have to make arrests in the United States, its territories or on foreign soil? In the United States and its territories, FBI Special Agents may make arrests for any federal offense committed in their presence, or when they have reasonable grounds (probable cause) to believe that the person to be arrested has committed, or is committing, a felony violation (criminal act) of U.S. laws. Concerning arrests on foreign soil, FBI Special Agents generally do not have authority outside the US except in certain cases where, with the consent of the host


country, Congress has granted the FBI extra territorial power. Should you verify your suspicions about criminal activity before reporting it to the FBI? Citizens should never place themselves in harm’s way or conduct their own investigations. Instead, any suspicious activity about matters under FBI jurisdiction should be reported to the FBI promptly. If a child is missing and possibly kidnapped, but no interstate transportation is suspected, will the FBI begin an investigation? Yes, the FBI will initiate a kidnapping investigation involving a missing child (generally twelve years or younger) even though there is no known interstate flight. The FBI will monitor other kidnapping situations when there is no evidence of interstate travel and can offer assistance from the FBI Laboratory and the Child Abduction and Serial Killer Unit. What is the FBI's role in counter-terrorism? Today, the FBI is part of a vast national and international campaign dedicated to defeating terrorism. Working hand-in-hand with partners in law enforcement, intelligence, the military, and diplomatic circles, the FBI’s job is to neutralize terrorist cells and operatives here in the U.S. and to help dismantle terrorist networks worldwide. The FBI is uniquely situated to fight terrorism, they have both domestic intelligence and law enforcement capabilities. This gives the FBI a full range of options to pursue investigations, enabling them not only to detect terrorist threats through surveillance, source development, and careful analysis, but to act against those threats through arrest and incarceration. At the same time, the FBI can mobilize quickly and comprehensively to prevent attacks -thanks to a worldwide network of dedicated Special Agents and their long-standing relationships with federal, state, local, and international partners. The FBI has nearly a century of experience of working within the boundaries of the Constitution, protecting civil liberties. FBI - HERALDRY OF THE FBI SEAL Each symbol and color in the FBI seal has special significance. For example, the dominant blue field of the seal and the scales on the shield represent "justice". The circle of 13 stars denotes unity of purpose as exemplified by the original colonies which became the first states. The Laurel leaf has, since early civilization, symbolized academic honors, distinction and fame. There are 46 Laurel leaves in the two branches, since there were 46 states in the Union when the FBI was founded in 1908. The significance of the red and white parallel vertical stripes lies in their colors. Red traditionally stands for courage, valor, strength, while white conveys cleanliness, light, truth,


and peace. As in the American Flag, the red bars exceed the white by one. The motto, “Fidelity, Bravery, Integrity," succinctly describes the motivating force behind the men and women of the FBI. The peaked beveled edge which circumscribes the seal symbolizes the severe challenges confronting the FBI and the ruggedness of the organization. The gold color in the seal conveys its over-all value. "TEN MOST WANTED FUGITIVES" This list is designed to publicize particularly dangerous fugitives who might not otherwise merit nationwide attention. The FBI values and recognizes the need for public assistance in tracking fugitives. Review the following questions with the cadets. Supplement the answers provided with current events and any personal knowledge of the information provided. HOW MANY FUGITIVES HAVE BEEN CAPTURED DUE TO PUBLIC ASSISSTANCE? One hundred and fifty-three of the "Ten Most Wanted Fugitives" apprehensions have resulted from citizens’ recognition of fugitives through this publicity program since its inception on March 14, 1950. Since that time, 494 fugitives have been on the "Top Ten" list, and 465 have been apprehended or located. WHO ACTUALLY DECIDES WHICH FUGITIVES GO ON THE LIST? The Criminal Investigative Division (CID) at FBI Headquarters calls upon all 56 Field Offices to submit candidates for the FBI's "Ten Most Wanted Fugitives" list. The nominees received are reviewed by Special Agents in the CID and the Office of Public and Congressional Affairs. The selection of the "proposed" candidate(s) is forwarded to the Assistant Director of the CID for his/her approval and then to the FBI's Deputy Director for final approval. WHEN ARE FUGITIVES REMOVED FROM THE LIST? "Ten Most Wanted Fugitives" are only removed from the list when they meet one of the following conditions: 1. (S)he is captured. 2. The charges are dropped (this is not an FBI decision.) 3. (S)he no longer fits "Ten Most Wanted Fugitives" criteria. In the five cases where fugitives were removed for the third reason, it was determined that each fugitive was no longer considered to be a "particularly dangerous menace to society." When a fugitive is removed from the list, another is added to take his or her place. OPTIONAL ACTIVITY: FBI Special Agent Guest Speaker FBI Special Agents always make for exciting guest speakers. We encourage you to arrange for


an agent to address your cadets. Prior to the Guest Speaker's presentation (preferably during the previous class period), review with the cadets the special agent’s professional duties. Ask each cadet to write five questions for the speaker in their journal. Suggested questions for the speaker: 1. Why can't local police handle the kinds of crimes the FBI investigates? 2. What kind of person makes for a successful agent? 3. How does the uncertainty that the agency will relocate you affect raising a family? 4. What is the greatest criminal challenge to the agency as we enter the next century? 5. How have TV shows like the X-Files, Criminal Minds and Numbers helped or hurt your relations with the public? 6. What is the greatest misconception about working for the FBI? Questions for class discussion 1. What is the mission of the FBI? 2. What types of crime does the FBI investigate? 3. What entity serves as checks and balances for the FBI? Explain. 4. Does the FBI have the right to arrest you, if you have committed a crime in the U.S and then moved to another country? 5. What resources can the FBI provide local law enforcement when a kidnapping occurs?

L20 DRUG ENFORCEMENT AGENCY Since the 19th century when Americans first discovered new “wonder” drugs like morphine, heroin, and cocaine, our society has confronted the problem of drug abuse and addiction. OVERVIEW: DISCUSS THE DEA'S ROLE IN PREVENTING THE FLOW OF DRUGS INTO THE U.S. DISTRIBUTE THE CADET HANDOUT AND REVIEW THE ORGANIZATION, RESPONSIBILITIES AND HISTORICAL ROOTS OF THE DEA. CONCLUDE WITH A DISCUSSION OF THE DANGEROUS ROLE THE DEA PLAYS IN MEXICO. OBJECTIVE: CADETS WILL GAIN A BETTER UNDERSTANDING OF THE ROLE OF THE D.E.A. IN FIGHTING CRIME -- WITH SPECIAL EMPHASIS ON THE EXTREME DANGERS OF BEING A D.E.A. AGENT SERVING ABROAD. DRUG ENFORCEMENT AGENCY Now, have your cadets take out their Cadet Handout for this unit. When the 20th century began, the United States, grappling with its first drug epidemic, gradually instituted effective restrictions: at home through domestic law enforcement and


overseas by spearheading a world movement to limit opium and coca crops. By World War II, American drug use had become so rare, it was seen as a marginal social problem. The first epidemic was forgotten. However, during the 1960s, drugs like marijuana, amphetamines, and psychedelics came on the scene, and a new generation embraced drugs. With the drug culture exploding, our government developed new laws and agencies to address the problem. The Drug Enforcement Administration was created by President Richard Nixon through an Executive Order in July 1973 in order to establish a single unified command to combat "an all-out global war on the drug menace." At its outset, DEA had 1,470 Special Agents and a budget of less than $75 million. Today, the DEA has more than 5,200 Special Agents and a budget of more than $2.6 billion, working not only in every state across the US, but also in countries around the world. In fact, the DEA's biggest challenge today is the dramatic evolution of international organized crime. The mission of the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) is to enforce the controlled substances laws and regulations of the United States and bring to the criminal and civil justice system of the United States, or any other competent jurisdiction, those organizations and principal members of organizations, involved in the growing, manufacture, or distribution of controlled substances appearing in or destined for illicit traffic in the United States; and to recommend and support non-enforcement programs aimed at reducing the availability of illicit controlled substances on the domestic and international markets. While American criminals once controlled drug trafficking on U.S. soil, today sophisticated and powerful criminal cartels headquartered in foreign countries such as Mexico (marijuana preferred by 17 million people) , Afghanistan (heroin) and Colombia (cocaine - the drug of choice for 1.5 million ) control the drug trade in the United States. The goal of the DEA is to target the most notorious drug traffickers and dismantle their global networks. A MASSIVE UNDERTAKING Today, around 25 million Americans use illegal drugs on a regular basis, sending between $18 billion and $39 billion to Mexican drug cartels and fueling the drug wars happening there. That's over three times as much as the government spends fighting drugs. The U.S. federal government spent over $15 billion dollars in 2010 on the War on Drugs, at a rate of about $500 per second. Drug use in the U.S. costs billions more, through crime, hospital stays, and indirectly lost work days. The "war on drugs" is being waged on many fronts, both to slow the supply of drugs flowing into the U.S. and to reduce the demand for them. This includes tougher punishment for drug users and dealers, increased enforcement of anti-drug laws, and international efforts to help


other nations with their own anti-drug programs. But what exactly is the war on drugs and how do we fight it?

FIGHTING THE WAR The fight against drug use in the U.S. dates back to the late 1800s. Before then, the dangers of some drugs were not fully known and the government did little to regulate them. The original Coca-Cola beverage, first created in 1886, got its name from one of its main ingredients: cocaine. It was marketed as "a nerve and brain tonic" and a cure for headaches. But it wasn't long before people realized that cocaine was dangerously addictive, and the creators of what would one day become the world's most popular soft drink eliminated the drug from the recipe around 1900. Since then a lot has changed. A NEW GENERATION OF DRUGS New drugs have been discovered and invented, and public opinion has swung back and forth. In 1971, President Richard Nixon called drug use "public enemy number one," and enacted laws to fight the importation of narcotics. Ten years later, President Ronald Reagan declared a more militant "war on drugs." But it was his wife, First Lady Nancy Reagan, who coined "Just Say No." HOW TO FIGHT THE WAR Many think the best way to limit drug use is to help people understand how harmful it is. Drugs can destroy health, careers, marriages, families and whole neighborhoods. Almost every American teenager gets some drug education in school as early as elementary school. But some people, including a minority of police officers, advocate a more radical solution to the drug problem: legalize it. They cite Prohibition of alcohol in the early 1900s, and its dismal failure at combatting the problem of alcoholism, even though the ban of alcohol was added to the US Constitution, which requires ratification by three-quarters of the US states. The Eighteenth Amendment (Amendment XVIII) of the United States Constitution (along with the Volstead Act, which defined "intoxicating liquors" to exclude those used for religious purposes) established Prohibition in the United States. The Amendment was unique in setting a time delay before it would take effect following ratification, and in setting a time limit for its ratification by the states. Its ratification was certified on January 16, 1919. Demand for liquor continued, and the new law resulted in the criminalization of producers, suppliers, transporters and consumers. The police, courts and prisons were overwhelmed with new cases; organized crime increased in power, and corruption extended among law enforcement officials. When alcohol was made illegal, underground breweries and distilleries sprang up and


flourished, secret, hidden clubs called "speak-easys" took root literally behind the walls and in the basements of "respectable" businesses, the price of alcohol skyrocketed, and mobs of gangsters killed each other in an effort to control this huge illegal market. In general, the use of alcohol did not go down. The amendment was repealed in 1933 by ratification of the Twenty-first Amendment, the only instance in United States history of repeal of a constitutional amendment. Some people contend that the lessons of Prohibition should be applied to drugs. If drugs were legal, they argue, the government could control it and earn tax revenue from it. More importantly, prices would go down, and so would the huge profit margins for dealers. Drug gangs would have less incentive and drug-related violence would decrease. Most of all, say proponents of legalization, drug use would be treated as a medical problem, not a legal problem. Alcohol and nicotine are legal drugs and they kill far more people every year than marijuana or cocaine. Non-violent drug users should be put in treatment, they say, not in prison. The American public has not bought into the idea of legalization on a large scale. Most people still think that the government has an obligation to try to keep drugs off the street and to punish people who manufacture, sell and use them. PRODUCTION Illegal drugs are produced on farms, in laboratories, and in backyards all across the world. Although millions of dollars worth of drugs are produced within our borders, millions more also come from other countries on boats, planes and in drug smugglers' suitcases. USAGE Drug use in the U.S. peaked in the late 1970's. Since then, drug use has declined or leveled-off among most age groups, but many anti-drug experts are worried the trend could start to rise again unless young people are taught how dangerous drugs can be. ARE WE WINNING THE WAR? Many believe the only way to win the war against drugs is to go beyond teaching that drug use is wrong, and make drugs more difficult and expensive to get. Many people are trapped in urban environments where selling drugs is the best or sometimes the only way to make money. Others turn to drugs as an easy way to "feel good" fast and escape from worries or problems that they don't know how to handle. It is a growing belief that the booming drug trade and high addiction rates are rooted in these deeper social problems and it is going to take a lot more than police crackdowns to solve them. WHAT DO YOU THINK? What is the best way to stop the drug trade and end addiction? Should some drugs be


legalized? Are teens becoming numb to anti-drug messages? FIGHTING DRUGS THROUGH THE MEDIA The government uses television, radio, movie trailers, the Internet, and celebrity spokespeople to deliver anti-drug messages. SAYING "NO" SINCE THE 1980S The White House started to take on the teenage drug problem in the 1980's with First Lady Nancy Reagan and her "Just Say No" campaign. Commercials such as "This Is Your Brain On Drugs" have been produced since 1987. "THE FORBIDDEN FRUIT PHENOMENON" Critics say the ads have the same problems that the anti-cigarette campaigns have. They say the ads create a "forbidden fruit phenomenon" tempting youths into using illicit drugs. These critics argue that the money would be better spent building healthy alternatives like school programs and community centers. What do your cadets think? MESSAGES IN YOUR SCHOOL Collect some of the anti-drug posters in your school. Show them to the class and discuss each: Are they effective? Is the type of appeal used going to impact a student? YOUR TURN: Ask the cadets how they would make an anti-drug ad? There are several elements that go into making an ad: First figure out what you want the commercial to say-- the message you want to send. What is the best way to say it? Do you need a super star to make your point? Do you want to tell a story? Would a positive story or a scary story be more effective? 1. What is the goal of the DEA? 2. What does DEA stand for? 3. What jurisdiction does the DEA oversea? 4. List three duties of a DEA agent? 5. List two qualifications you might need to become a DEA agent.


L21 U.S. MARSHALS SERVICE Let’s say a criminal steals a car in California, then decides to move to Texas, where he or she is caught stealing another car. The person is caught, convicted and sent to Huntsville, Texas to serve time in a jail. However, being quite the clever criminal, they escape from jail and are spotted in New Orleans. OVERVIEW: DISCUSS THE NATURE OF THE U.S. MARSHAL SERVICE. DISTRIBUTE THE CADET HANDOUT AND REVIEW THE RESPONSIBILITIES OF THE U.S. MARSHAL'S SERVICE. CONCLUDE BY EXPLORING THE APPREHENSION OF AN ACTUAL ESCAPED PRISONER. OBJECTIVE: CADETS WILL GAIN A BETTER UNDERSTANDING OF THE ROLE OF THE MARSHALS WITHIN OUR CRIMINAL JUSTICE SYSTEM -- WITH SPECIAL EMPHASIS ON THE EXTREME DANGERS THAT MARSHALS FACE WHEN APPREHENDING FUGITIVES. Now, have your cadets take out their Cadet Handout for this unit. Question: What law enforcement agency will probably be sent to apprehend them? The local police from Texas? The local authorities from Colorado or California? The U.S. Marshal, that’s who! As you may remember from “The Fugitive,” with Harrison Ford, the U.S. Marshals have primary jurisdiction for catching fugitives and escaped federal prisoners. The Marshals use both traditional methods and sophisticated technologies for fugitive investigations, including tactical equipment, electronic surveillance and aerial surveillance. Tactical equipment includes covert audio and video alarms and sensors; digital, narrowband, encrypted wireless communications; and radio and satellite communications equipment, such as tactical repeaters, base stations and portable tower trailers. WHAT IS THE PURPOSE OF THE US MARSHALS SERVICE? The U.S. Marshals Service is the nation’s oldest and most versatile federal law enforcement agency. Since 1789, U.S. Marshals have served the nation through a variety of vital law enforcement activities. The Marshals Service occupies a uniquely central position in the federal justice system. It is involved in virtually every federal law enforcement initiative. Approximately 4,000 Deputy Marshals and career employees perform the following nationwide, day-to-day missions:


Fugitive Investigations Protecting the Courts Prisoner Custody and Transportation Witness Security Asset Seizure Special Operations and Programs FUGITIVE INVESTIGATIONS The U.S. Marshals Service has primary jurisdiction nationwide in conducting and investigating matters involving escaped federal prisoners, probation, parole, bond default violators and warrants generated by Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) investigations and certain other related felony cases. In 2010, the Marshals apprehended more than 36,100 federal fugitives, clearing approximately 39,100 felony warrants. U.S. Marshals’ task forces combine the efforts of federal, state and local law enforcement agencies to locate and arrest the most dangerous fugitives. They also serve as the central point for agencies to share information on fugitive matters. The U.S. Marshals currently lead 75 district fugitive task forces and seven regional fugitive task forces dedicated to investigating violent crime and locating and apprehending wanted criminals. Marshals-led district task forces arrested 81,900 state and local fugitives in 2010, clearing approximately 108,200 state and local felony warrants. The seven regional fugitive task forces are located in New York/New Jersey, Capital area, Southeast, Florida/Caribbean, Gulf Coast, Great Lakes and Pacific Southwest. Marshals’ regional fugitive task forces closed more than 52,000 felony warrants by arrest, including 1,953 homicide warrants, in 2010. “15 MOST WANTED FUGITIVES” The Marshals Service has maintained its own "15 Most Wanted" fugitives list since 1983. The high-profile list includes America's most dangerous career criminals. Since the program began in 1983, 211 15 Most Wanted fugitives have been arrested. In 2010, the U.S. Marshals apprehended seven of them. PROTECTING THE COURTS US Marshals provide personal protection to federal judges, court officials, witnesses, and jurors. This means ensuring security and maintaining decorum within the courtroom itself, as well as personal protection for judicial officers, witnesses, and when warranted, jurors away


from the court facilities. The U.S. Marshals Service assumes custody of individuals arrested by all federal agencies and is responsible for the housing and transportation of prisoners from the time they are brought into federal custody until they are either acquitted or incarcerated. PRISONER CUSTODY Each day, the Marshals Service has in its custody over 27,000 detainees who are housed in federal, state and local jails throughout the nation. Individuals who are arrested or detained for violation of a federal statute must be brought before a magistrate or judge for an initial hearing. After the hearing, prisoners may be released or remanded into the custody of the Marshals Service to stand trial. If convicted, it is the Marshals Service's responsibility to deliver the prisoner to an institution to serve the imposed sentence. PRISONER TRANSPORTATION In 1995, the Justice Prisoner and Alien Transportation System (JPATS) was created. The merger created a more efficient and effective system for transporting prisoners and criminal aliens. Operated by the Marshals Service, JPATS is one of the largest transporters of prisoners in the world, handling hundreds of requests every day to move prisoners between judicial districts, correctional institutions and foreign countries. On average, more than 200,000 prisoner and alien movements a year are completed by the Marshals Service via coordinated air and ground systems. Most of these prisoners are transported aboard Service-owned aircraft and vehicles. Since 1984, the Marshals Service has acquired a fleet of aircraft that includes three Boeing 727s, a DC-9, several smaller jets and some turboprop airplanes. WITNESS SECURITY The United States Marshals Service provides for the security, health, and safety of government witnesses, and their immediate dependents, whose lives are in danger as a result of their testimony against organized crime, drug traffickers, terrorists and other major criminals. SPECIAL OPERATIONS AND PROGRAMS Additional missions have included the protection of athletes at the 1996 Olympic Games in Atlanta, the integration of schools and other institutions during the Civil Rights movements of the 1960s and the formation, in 1971, of the Special Operations Group (SOG), a force of highly trained and disciplined tacticians who handle terrorist and hostage situations and other volatile, emergency incidents. Gang Operations The U.S. Marshals Service targets violent fugitives with gang affiliations in support of the Department of Justice’s priority of fighting gang violence. The existing Marshals network of 82 task forces is used for gang operations. The Marshals arrested more than 4,800 gang members


in 2010. Task forces agency-wide participated in Operation Gang Surge, which identified areas of high gang violence in 2010. The operation produced a 288% increase in gang arrests over the previous quarter. Operation Triple Beam took place in Tulsa, OK, in August 2010 and involved more than 40 federal, state and local law enforcement officers. During this highly successful operation, 163 gang members were arrested and 46 firearms were seized. The Marshals Service is a key member of GangTECC, the National Gang Targeting, Enforcement & Coordination Center, an anti-gang task force created by the Attorney General. Financial Surveillance Financial surveillance is an investigative tool that identifies funds and assets used by fugitives to conduct criminal activity and avoid apprehension. Financial surveillance investigators are able to find and track a fugitive’s financial transactions as well as identify aliases and new identities. In 2010, Marshals financial surveillance investigators closed 1,101 warrants. Organized Crime Drug Enforcement Task Force The Marshals Service is one of seven federal agencies that are members of the Organized Crime Drug Enforcement Task Force, the main element of the Attorney General’s drug-supply reduction strategy. The task force targets major drug-trafficking and money-laundering organizations, works to eliminate the financial infrastructure of drug organizations and conducts nationwide investigations against all the related parts of the targeted organizations. When U.S. Marshals provide assistance pre-takedown, 95% of targets are arrested, compared to 65% when the Marshals are not involved. The Missile Escort Program is another responsibility of the Marshals Service. Deputy Marshals are specially trained to provide security and law enforcement assistance to the Department of Defense and the U.S. Air Force during the movement of nuclear warheads between military facilities. MARSHALS SERVICE PIONEERED AIR SECURITY In the wake of Sept. 11, 2001, the Sky Marshals Program (posting law enforcement officers on commercial aircraft) has gotten a lot of attention. And while deputy marshals are often mentioned as being involved, it's been nearly 40 years since the Marshals Service had anything to do with it. The very mention of sky marshals aboard commercial flights brings comfort to many air travelers, but it is the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) that currently maintains the program. From 1969-73, the Marshals Service did indeed manage the Sky Marshal Program. But the program had its roots before then.


In the 60’s, laws were passed governing "interference with flight crew members or flight attendants" and "carrying weapons aboard aircraft." The laws were enacted because of a rash of air piracy incidents on commercial jets in the 1960s. "The Middle East had erupted into chaos on several occasions, leaving no airline entirely safe," said David Turk, Marshals Service historian. The Marshals Service – specifically its Miami office in Southern Florida – developed an anti-air piracy program in October 1969. Inspector John Brophy became chief of a unit of five specialists bent on combating terror in the skies. Marshals would sit in the back of the plane and watch what was going on. Most of the sky marshals were meant to be covert in their work, so they wore no special attire. If not in the planes themselves, they were stationed around check-in counters and gates in 33 key airports around the country. The First Baggage Inspectors! The sky marshals also checked passengers' luggage for suspicious items. They performed the same security tasks that airport personnel does now in the aftermath of Sept. 11. An unblemished record The individuals with first-hand involvement of the Sky Marshals Program are proud of their accomplishments, knowing that they left behind a legacy of safe, commercial air travel. The agency ended its management of the Sky Marshal Program in 1973, when all airport security duties were transferred to the FAA. WANTED BY U.S. MARSHALS Not all fugitives are wrongly accused characters like Harrison Ford's Dr. Richard Kimball in “The Fugitive”. Most are dangerous criminals. Richard Vallee (below) is an actual fugitive wanted by the U.S. Marshall Service. Ask the cadets to track him down and apprehend him given the information provided. RICHARD VALLEE Murder of Government Witness ALIAS: SEX: RACE: DATE OF BIRTH: PLACE OF BIRTH: HEIGHT: WEIGHT: EYES: HAIR: SKINTONE:

Richard VALLEY Male White 11/10/57 Quebec 5'10" 200 LBS Blue Brown Medium


SCARS/TATTOOS: Unknown SSN: Unknown WARRANT ISSUED: Northern District of New York DATE OF WARRANT: August 28, 1996 WARRANT NUMBER: 520254318 Fugitive Facts: Hell's Angel (member of the Three Rivers, Quebec chapter.) Car bomb murdered government informant in Plattsburg, New York. VALLEE escaped from Canadian authorities while awaiting extradition to the U.S. His escape was effected with the assistance of armed associates. VALLEE is a member of a large-scale international cocaine smuggling organization. He is a demolitions expert with a violent criminal history. CONSIDERED ARMED AND DANGEROUS. DO NOT ATTEMPT TO APPREHEND THIS PERSON YOURSELF. REPORT ANY INFORMATION TO THE NEAREST USMS DISTRICT OFFICE. ASSIGNMENT: Where might he have found refuge? What groups would you question to learn his whereabouts? What types of criminal activity might he currently be linked to? Prepare of list of possible strategies for cornering Vallee. 1. What is the U.S. Marshals Service primary focus? 2. For whom does the U.S. Marshals Service provide protection? 3. What is JPATS? 4. Why were Marshals installed aboard aircraft? 5. In what type of investigation is the U.S. Marshals Service involved?

L22 SECRET SERVICE Whenever you see news coverage of the President or his family, you may notice the agents in suits in the background, many of them with small ear pieces and sunglasses. They always look serious, and seem to be looking everywhere all at once. They are Secret Service agents, and their job is to protect the President and his family. OVERVIEW:


DISCUSS THE RESPONSIBILITIES OF THE SECRET SERVICE. DISTRIBUTE THE CADET HANDOUT AND REVIEW THE ORGANIZATION, HISTORY AND DUTIES OF THE SECRET SERVICE. CONCLUDE BY PREPARING FOR A MOCK PRESIDENTIAL VISIT TO YOUR SCHOOL. OBJECTIVE: CADETS WILL LEARN TO APPRECIATE THE ROLE OF THE SECRET SERVICE. Now, have your cadets take out their Cadet Handout for this unit. Secret Service agents are like the wedding planners of secure Presidential travel. Whenever the President, Vice President, or their families travel anywhere outside of Washington, D.C., the Secret Service works with the host city and state law enforcement to jointly establish the security measures needed for total protection. The Secret Service facilitates keeping the President secure. And yes, agents do swear to “take a bullet” to protect the President. While Presidential safety is one of the responsibilities of the Secret Service, the department was originally established to deal with monetary issues. Secret Service offices deal with counterfeit money, forgery, credit card fraud, as well as cell phone fraud. So, if you have a cell phone, YOU’RE getting Secret Service protection, too! THE ORIGIN OF THE U.S. SECRET SERVICE The U.S. Secret Service, one of the nation's oldest federal investigative law enforcement agencies, was founded in 1865 as a branch of the U.S. Treasury Department. The original mission was to investigate counterfeiting of U.S. currency. It was estimated that one-third to one-half of the currency in circulation at that time was counterfeit. In 1901, following the assassination of President William McKinley in Buffalo, New York, the Secret Service was assigned the responsibility of protecting the President. Today, the Secret Service's mission is two-fold. PROTECTION OF THE PRESIDENT AND VICE PRESIDENT AND OTHERS By law, the Secret Service is authorized to protect the President, Vice President, President-elect, Vice President-elect, and their immediate family members; former Presidents and their spouses; minor children of a former President until the age of 16; major Presidential and Vice Presidential candidates (and within 120 days of the general election, their spouses) visiting foreign heads of government or heads of state; and others if authorized by the President. HOW DOES THE SECRET SERVICE "PROTECT" THE PRESIDENT? The Secret Service strives to maintain a safe environment for the President and other protectees. To accomplish this task, the Secret Service calls upon other federal, state and local agencies to assist on a daily basis. For example, when the President is at the White House, the Secret Service Uniformed Division, the Metropolitan Police Department, and the U.S. Park


Police patrol the streets and parks nearby. When the President travels, an advance team of Secret Service agents works with the host city and state law enforcement and public safety officials to jointly establish the security measures needed to protect him. WHAT TYPES OF CRIMES DOES THE SECRET SERVICE INVESTIGATE? The Secret Service has primary jurisdiction to investigate threats against Secret Service protectees; counterfeiting of U.S. currency or other U.S. Government obligations; forgery or theft of U.S. Treasury checks, bonds or other securities; credit card fraud; telecommunications fraud; computer fraud; identify fraud; and certain other crimes affecting federally-insured financial institutions. WHAT KIND OF TRAINING DO SECRET SERVICE AGENTS RECEIVE? Secret Service agents receive the finest law enforcement training in the world. New agent trainees are initially sent to the Federal Law Enforcement Training Center, Glynco, Georgia, where they are enrolled in the Criminal Investigator Training Program (CITP). This 9-week course, designed to train new federal investigators in such areas as criminal law and investigative techniques, provides a general foundation for the agency-specific training to follow. Upon successful completion of CITP, new agent trainees attend the 11-week Special Agent Training Course at the Secret Service Training Academy, Beltsville, Maryland. This course focuses on specific Secret Service policies and procedures associated with the dual responsibilities of investigations and protection. BRIEF HISTORY OF THE SECRET SERVICE 1865 - The Secret Service Division began on July 5, 1865 in Washington, D.C., to suppress counterfeit currency. Chief William P. Wood was sworn in by Secretary of the Treasury Hugh McCulloch. 1901 - Congress informally requested Secret Service Presidential protection following the assassination of President William McKinley. 1917 - Congress authorized permanent protection of the President's immediate family and made "threats" directed toward the President a federal violation. 1961- Congress authorized protection of former Presidents for a reasonable period of time. 1963 - Congress passed legislation for protection of Mrs. John F. Kennedy and her minor children for 2 years. (Public Law 83-195). 1968 - As a result of Robert F. Kennedy's assassination, Congress authorized protection of major Presidential and Vice Presidential candidates and nominees.


PROTECTING THE PRESIDENT The President of the United States is coming to visit your school in one week. The Junior Police Academy cadets have been asked by the Governor to prepare your school for a visit. It will be necessary for you, as a Secret Service Special Agent, to instruct your cadets to make ready your school for the visit. The President will be speaking to the entire school in the auditorium. List below all the preparations you will need to make your school environment safe for the President:

PRIOR TO VISIT: List of security preparations in the week prior to the President’s visit: ——————————————————————————————————— ——————————————————————————————————— ——————————————————————————————————— ——————————————————————————————————— DURING: List of security measures taken during the President’s visit: ——————————————————————————————————— ——————————————————————————————————— ——————————————————————————————————— ——————————————————————————————————— 1. What is the Secret Service? 2. What was the original mission of the Secret Service? 3. List three of the investigative duties of the Secret Service? 4. Who assists the Secret Service in protecting the President 5. Why is the Secret Service so important to our monetary system?


1

Phillip LeConte Apr 19, 2011 9:19 PM


L1 INTRODUCTION TO THE JUNIOR