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CONFERENCE HANDBOOK MUN SUMMIT MANIPAL 2008 MUN Secretariat


INTRODUCTION Welcome to the Model United Nations Summit Manipal, 2008! After the resounding success of Summit 2007, we have come back again with a bigger and better conference this year. MUN Summit Manipal will be a three day long event with deliberations being conducted in five committees: The Security Council, The General Assembly, Office on Drugs and Crime, The Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC) and the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO). This handbook has been written with the hope that it shall act as a tool that shall help you through the conference. It will likely answer any questions you have about the conference – where to begin, what to do and how to do it. Please read it carefully. For further information and questions, please feel free to contact any of the following: Prateek N. Kumar

+91-9901727544

S. Ramanujan

+91-9916823774


RULES OF CONDUCT The Manipal MUN Secretariat reserves the right to dismiss any participant from the conference due to violation of any regulation. The Manipal Model UN Summit will enforce the following rules of conduct: Alcohol, Illegal Drugs, and Smoking Alcohol is prohibited at all times and in all places, including the residence and conference buildings. Any delegate caught in possession of alcoholic beverages will be barred from the conference and sent home immediately. Illegal drugs are prohibited. Any delegate caught in possession of illegal drugs will be barred from the conference and sent home immediately. Smoking is prohibited in all residence and conference buildings at all times. Delegation of Authority Delegates must obey instructions from any advisor or conference staff member, both inside and outside of committee sessions. Laptop/Cell Phone Policy Delegates are permitted to use laptops and PDAs during the Manipal Model UN Summit. The organizers shall not be held responsible for the loss or theft personal items and electronic gadgets. Name Badges Delegates, advisors, and staff are recommended to keep Name Badges visible at all times during the conference as the colour bands act as marks of identification.


DRESS CODE All delegates at the Manipal Model UN Summit must adhere to the dress code. Delegates must be attired in Western business dress. Delegates who are not dressed appropriately will be sent back. Below are some guidelines: (for females and males) Suits A suit always looks professional and is the best option. Be sure to keep suits clean and wrinkle-free. Tops No t-shirts. A blouse, sweater or button-down shirt of any kind is appropriate. Dresses are also appropriate as long as they are not revealing and adequate in length (follow the rules set for skirt length). Males must wear a collared/buttondown shirt. Bottoms No jeans or shorts. Slacks and suit-pants are acceptable. Skirts should not be more than 2 inches above the knee. Bottoms should have a subtle pattern; avoid loud designs. Slacks, preferably in dark colors, are appropriate. Shoes No sneakers. Think before you act! High-heeled shoes may look pretty, but they are also very painful and can make your MUN experience uncomfortable. When deciding on heels, use your discretion and tailor them to your pain tolerance. Loafers or other types of dress shoes are preferred. Hair Keep hair clean and tied back for a professional look. Mohawks may be fashionable and cool, but it is best to forgo the spikes and hair spray.


MODEL UN SKILLS This section is, by far, the most important section for delegates-to-be! Read this section very carefully. Also, remember that the techniques for action in a committee/council given here are only suggestive – they are not binding. Every delegate has his/her own style of interpreting and enacting them. Stick to the basics, but after that, as far as is possible, be the kind of delegate you want to be. Develop your own style – trust us, nothing works as well as originality and innovation in a Model UN. The executive board would prefer to see something creative and new than watch everyone enact the run-of-the-mill perfect delegate role. However, make sure this doesn’t cross limits. Respect everyone around and you and don’t offend anyone on purpose. Remember- profanity won’t get you anywhere. This section includes the basic necessities such as Background Guide Information, Guidelines for MUN research, Rules of Procedure (long form and short form), Public speaking skills, Committee Proceedings Chart and lastly, a Special Tips for First Timers page.

Preparation A three-ring binder or a specific Model UN folder will help you keep all information, including this Delegate Handbook and research information organized.

Sources for Research Delegates should locate the source of the paragraphs written and should research on the relevance of these to your own country. Some questions shall always be left unanswered, and some inferences won’t be drawn. It’s up to the delegates to figure these out. The purpose of the background guide is to allow you the kind of mindset that is required to work on the correct country stance.


RESEARCHING THE RIGHT WAY After you read your background guide, you should gather information in order to answer the guide’s questions and understand your country’s position. Most delegates use the Internet for about 80 percent of their research. However, you should not overlook the resources available in newspapers, journals and your local library. While conducting your research, try to keep in mind that a delegate’s primary goal is to represent his or her country as realistically as possible. To do so, you will need to conduct research in three different areas: 1) Your country and its positions, 2) The issues to be debated at the conference, and 3) The UN system, or as is the case here, your committee’s working.

Component One: Collecting Country Information First, delegates need to learn about their country so they may address the issues raised at the conference just as a real delegate from that country would at the United Nations. To represent your country accurately, start by answering the following questions: 1. What sort of government does your country have? 2. What types of ideologies influence your country’s government? 3. Which domestic issues might influence your country’s foreign policy? 4. What are some major events in your country’s history? 5. Which ethnicities, religions and languages can be found in your country? 6. Where is your country located and how does its geography affect its political relationships? 7. Which countries share a border with your country? 8. Which countries are considered allies of your country? 9. Which countries are considered enemies of your country? 10. What are the characteristics of your country’s economy? 11. What is your country’s Gross Domestic Product (GDP)? 12. When did your country become a member of the UN? 13. Does your country belong to any intergovernmental organizations outside the UN system (e.g.North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries(OPEC), etc.)? 14. Does your country belong to any regional organizations (e.g. European Union (EU), African Union(AU), Organization of American States (OAS), etc.)? 15. Does your country belong to any trade organizations or agreements (e.g. North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA))?


Finding information on your country • Look up the website of your country’ permanent mission to the UN (visit www.un.int). You can also call the mission directly to ask questions or request a position statement on an issue. • Find your country’s voting records and read speeches on the United Nations website. • Look at the CIA World Factbook for a general overview on your country as well as relevant statistics (www.cia.gov/cia/publications/factbook/index.html). The CIA World Factbook is produced by the United States Central Intelligence Agency (CIA). Would your country’s government agree with the way your country is characterized in the CIA World Factbook? • Check out news and media sources for recent developments in your country. • Read the US State Department report on your country (www.state.gov/countries). • Discuss your country with others who have represented it.

Component Two: Researching Conference Topics Your next task is to develop an understanding of the issues that will be debated at the conference. Here are some additional questions to help guide your issue research: 1. What is the problem? How does it affect your country? 2. What has your country done to combat the problem? 3. What are the various “sides” in the debate? 4. Which aspects of the issue are most important to your country? 5. If your country is not active in addressing the issue, in what other aspects can it be involved? 6. How will your country shape the debate at the conference? 7. What arguments will other countries make? 8. How do the positions of other countries affect your country’s position? 9. Is there evidence or are there statistics that might back-up your country’s position? 10. What, according to your country, is (are) the most globally viable solution(s)? Question 10 is probably the most important question out of all of these. As a delegate, you need to come prepared with a certain set of idea that your country believes can solve the problem, or at least steps that can be taken to control it. The basic aim that a committee has is to reach a consensus, and as an active delegate, it becomes essential for you to come up with relevant solutions.


Finding information on issues • Check out news and media sources for up-to-date developments on an issue. Ask at your community or university library. • Check out the UN Economic and Social Development page (www.un.org/esa), which has an index to some major issues as well as a list of UN agencies that address them. Also, through the United Nations Documentation Center (www.un.org/documents) you can find resolutions and voting records from the current and previous years. •Visit the websites of nongovernmental organizations (NGOs). NGOs are important players in the UN system, in part due to the valuable research and information they provide. Look for NGOs that address your topic. •Google it! Use your favorite search engine as extensively as possible. Read up on your topic as much as you can, for you never know which random fact or figure will give you the edge over your contemporaries. You can also log on to sites such as Wikipedia.com. Component Three: Information about your committee and the proceedings of the UN A good delegate must always be aware of the basic facts related to the committee/council he/she is in. Each committee has its own special characteristics. You must know the answers to following questions: •What is the strength of your committee/council/commission? •Is your committee a main organ of the UN? If not, which main organ is it a subsidiary organ of? (For e.g. The UNHRC or the UN Human Rights Council is a subsidiary organ of the UN General Assembly.) •Which other countries have a representation in your committee? (For reference, see the country matrix that has already been uploaded on this website) •Does your country have the same voting rights as all other countries? (For e.g. China, USA, UK, France and Russia have veto powers in the Security Council.) •Are there any special rules or procedures that apply to your committee? You must know the answers to all these questions before stepping into the council halls. If you cannot locate the answers anywhere, contact us at Manipal University on the numbers provided.


PUBLIC SPEAKING A good opening speech should: 1. Open with: "Thank you Mr./ Madame/ Honorable-Chair/President etc." 2. And include: • A brief introduction of your county's history on the topic; • The current situation of the topic; • The country's overall position on the topic/reason for position (e.g. religious ideologies); • The country's position in relation to its bloc, major powers, etc.; • Past actions taken by the UN and Member States to combat the problem; • Possible ideas or objectives for a resolution; • The Role of NGOs in combating the issue (if applicable); and • Whether there is room for negotiation. The details of the problems relevant your country are, however, limited to be a part of your first Speakers List speech, or your first day speeches. It being a dynamic form of debate, the discussion in council evolves from hour-to-hour. As the debate evolves, so do the speeches of the delegate. Depending upon what is going on the committee at a particular time, a good delegate would always use his/her speaking time to comment on the same. Another point to keep in mind is that you must use your speaking time judiciously. You must know when to stop. Crossing your time limit is not appreciated by your co-delegates or by your executive board. Lastly, do not be afraid of making mistakes. Everyone fumbles once in a while. If you think you’re forgetting something, take a moment to remember. Think about what you’re going to say before starting. If you make an error, just apologize and repeat the line correctly. Regardless of the number of mistakes you make, if what you have to say is substantial, people ARE going to listen to you. Be calm. Be confident.


RESOLUTIONS The final results of discussion, writing and negotiation are resolutions—a committee’s written suggestions for addressing a specific problem or issue. Resolutions, which are drafted by delegates and voted upon by the committee, normally require a simple majority to pass (except in the Security Council). Only Security Council resolutions can compel nations to take action. All other UN bodies use resolutions to make recommendations or suggestions for future action. Draft Resolutions Draft resolutions are all resolutions that have not yet been voted on. Delegates write draft resolutions alone or with others, but must always gain the support of a certain number of countries in the committee before submitting them to the dais (or committee staff). The Global Classrooms Model UN Conference requires signatures from 20 percent of the countries present in order to submit a draft resolution (this number will be announced at the beginning of each session). Only when the Director formally accepts the document and assigns it a number can it be referred to in formal debate. There are three main parts to a draft resolution: the heading, the preamble and the operative section. The heading shows the committee and topic along with the resolution number. It also lists the draft resolution’s sponsors and signatories (see below). Each draft resolution is one long sentence with sections separated by commas and semicolons. The subject of the sentence is the body making the statement (e.g. the General Assembly, Economic and Social Council or Security Council). The preamble and operative sections then describe the current situation and actions that the committee will take.

Preambulatory Clauses The preamble of a draft resolution states the reasons for which the committee is addressing the topic and highlights relevant past international actions. Each clause begins with a present participle (called a preambulatory phrase) and ends with a comma. Preambulatory clauses can include: • References to the UN Charter; • Citations of past UN resolutions or treaties on the topic under discussion; • Mentions of statements made by the Secretary-General or a relevant UN body or agency; • Recognition of the efforts of regional or nongovernmental organizations in dealing with the issue; and • General statements on the topic, its significance and its impact.


Operative Clauses Operative clauses identify the actions or recommendations made in a resolution. Each operative clause begins with a verb (called an operative phrase) and ends with a semicolon. Operative clauses should be organized in a logical progression, with each containing a single idea or proposal, and are always numbered. If a clause requires further explanation, bulleted lists set off by letters or roman numerals can also be used. After the last operative clause, the resolution ends in a period.

RESOLUTIONS Resolution Phrases Preambulatory Phrases Affirming Alarmed by Approving Aware of Bearing in mind Believing Confident Contemplating Convinced Declaring Deeply concerned Deeply conscious Deeply convinced Deeply disturbed Deeply regretting Desiring Emphasizing Expecting Expressing its appreciation Expressing its satisfaction Fulfilling


Fully alarmed Fully aware Fully believing Further deploring Further recalling Guided by Having adopted Having considered Having considered further Having devoted attention Having examined Having heard Having received Having studied Keeping in mind Noting with deep concern Noting with regret Noting with satisfaction Noting further Noting with approval Observing Reaffirming Realizing Recalling Recognizing Referring Seeking Taking into account Taking into consideration Taking note Viewing with appreciation Welcoming Operative Phrases Accepts Affirms Approves Authorizes Calls Calls upon Condemns


Confirms Congratulates Considers Declares accordingly Deplores Designates Draws the attention Emphasizes Encourages Endorses Expresses its appreciation Expresses its hope Further invites Further proclaims Further reminds Further recommends Further requests Further resolves Has resolved Notes Proclaims Reaffirms Recommends Regrets Reminds Requests Solemnly affirms Strongly condemns Supports Takes note of Transmits Trusts


Sponsors and Signatories Sponsors of a draft resolution are the principal authors of the document and agree with its substance. Although it is possible to have only one sponsor, this rarely occurs at the UN, since countries must work together to create widely agreeable language in order for the draft resolution to pass. Sponsors in effect control a draft resolution and only they can approve immediate changes. Signatories are countries that may or may not agree with the substance of the draft resolution but still wish to see it debated so that they can propose amendments.20 percent of the committee must be either sponsors or signatories to a draft resolution in order for it to be accepted. Amendments Draft resolutions can be modified after they have already been written through amendments. An amendment is a written statement that adds, deletes or revises an operative clause in a draft resolution. The amendment process is used to strengthen consensus on a resolution by allowing delegates to change certain sections. There are two types of amendments: A friendly amendment is a change to the draft resolution that all sponsors agree with. After the amendment is signed by all of the draft resolution’s sponsors and approved by the committee director or president, it will be automatically incorporated into the resolution. An unfriendly amendment is a change that some or all of the draft resolution’s sponsors do not support and must be voted upon by the committee. The author(s) of the amendment will need to obtain a required number of signatories in order to introduce it (usually 20 percent of the committee). Prior to voting on the draft resolution, the committee votes on all unfriendly amendments. Ultimately, resolutions passed by a committee represent a great deal of debate and compromise. They are the tangible results of hours if not days of Model UN debate. As a result, it is important to become familiar with the resolution process and practice drafting resolutions using the proper structure and wording.


Resolution Submission Process Step 1 One or more delegates write a draft resolution. The authors of a draft, also known as the sponsor(s), then get a required number of signatures, which equals 20 percent of the delegations present in the committee. After roll call for each meeting, the Chair will notify the delegates of the exact number of signatures needed Step 2 The sponsor(s) take the draft resolution to the Director, who approves the draft resolution only if: a. It is in the proper format, does not contain a substantial number of mistakes, and is legible if handwritten (delegates may not go to Conference Services for typing— they must use the draft resolution forms provided by the conference secretariat); b. It carries the required number of signatures; c. It is in character for the sponsor(s); d. Its subject matter and proposed actions are within the power of the respective committee; and e. There are no other draft resolutions circulating which are similar in substance. If any of those conditions are not met, the Director returns the draft resolution to the sponsor(s) explaining his or her reasons. Step 3 If the conditions outlined under step two are met, and the Director approves the document, he/she then assigns it a number and a priority and declares it as “tabled”. At this point, the document can now be referred to in speeches as a draft resolution. Step 4 The draft resolutions are put on display on the screen. Sponsor(s) are given the floor to introduce the document as a draft resolution. After the sponsors introduce the draft resolution, the Chair will entertain two points of information. Sponsors may also get on the speakers list and/or have time yielded to them in order to answer questions about the draft resolution. The discussion of the resolutions can also be done through moderated caucuses, by the Chair’s discretion. Final refinement of the draft resolution in regular debate occurs through friendly amendments, which are submitted by the sponsor(s) and automatically


incorporated into the text. Should there be significant changes at this time; the Director may decide to proceed again from Step 1. Voting After closure of debate, draft resolutions are voted upon in the order that they were received. At the MUN Summit Manipal 2008, more than one draft resolution can be passed by a committee.


SAMPLE RESOLUTION Resolution GA/3/1.1 General Assembly Third Committee Sponsors: United States, Austria and Italy Signatories: Greece, Tajikistan, Japan, Canada, Mali, the Netherlands and Gabon Topic: “Strengthening UN coordination of humanitarian assistance in complex emergencies� The General Assembly, Reminding all nations of the celebration of the 50th anniversary of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, which recognizes the inherent dignity, equality and inalienable rights of all global citizens, [use commas to separate preambulatory clauses] Reaffirming its Resolution 33/1996 of 25 July 1996, this encourages Governments to work with U.N. bodies aimed at improving the coordination and effectiveness of humanitarian assistance, Noting with satisfaction the past efforts of various relevant UN bodies and nongovernmental organizations, Stressing the fact that the United Nations faces significant financial obstacles and is in need of reform, particularly in the humanitarian realm, 1. Encourages all relevant agencies of the United Nations to collaborate more closely with countries at the grassroots level to enhance the carrying out of relief efforts; [use semicolons to separate operative clauses] 2. Urges member states to comply with the goals of the UN Department of Humanitarian Affairs to streamline efforts of humanitarian aid; 3. Requests that all nations develop rapid deployment forces to better enhance the coordination of relief efforts of humanitarian assistance in complex emergencies; 4. Calls for the development of a United Nations Trust Fund that encourages voluntary donations from the private transnational sector to aid in funding the implementation of rapid deployment forces; 5. Stresses the continuing need for impartial and objective information on the political, economic and social situations and events of all countries; 6. Calls upon states to respond quickly and generously to consolidated appeals for humanitarian assistance; and


7. Requests the expansion of preventive actions and assurance of post-conflict assistance through reconstruction and development. [end resolutions with a period]

FLOW OF DEBATE Role Call The Chairperson will announce each country’s name. After delegates hear their country, they should answer “present” or “present and voting”. Please remember that if you answer roll call with a “present and voting”, then you cannot abstain during voting on draft resolutions. Setting the Agenda When Model UN committees have more than one topic they can discuss, the body must set the agenda to begin working on one of these issues first. At this time, a delegate typically makes a motion, stating “The country of [country name] would like to raise a motion to place [topic area A] first on the agenda.” Some conferences will simply take a vote on this measure, but others will request delegates to speak in favor of and against the motion. The list of these speakers is called a “provisional speakers list.” Once all delegates on this list have addressed the committee, a vote is taken. Setting the agenda usually requires a simply majority vote. Debate Formal Debate Formal debate revolves around the speakers list. The Chair begins by asking all delegates who would like to speak to raise their placards. The Chair then chooses delegates to be placed on the speakers list. A country can only be on the speakers list once, but delegates may add their country again after they have addressed the committee. 1a. When the session begins, speeches focus on stating country positions and offering recommendations for action. 2a. After blocs have met, speeches focus on describing bloc positions to the entire body. 3a. Delegates now make statements describing their ideas to the committee. 4a. Delegates try to garner more support through formal speeches and invite others to offer their ideas. 5a. Delegates make statements supporting or disagreeing with specific draft resolutions. 6a. Delegates state any amendments they have created.


Informal Debate Informal debate is divided into moderated and unmoderated caucuses. During moderated caucuses, the Chair calls on delegates one-by-one so that each can address the committee in short speeches. During unmoderated caucuses, the committee breaks for a temporary recess so that delegates can meet with each other and discuss ideas. 1b. After several countries state their positions, the committee breaks for caucuses (often in blocs for now) to develop regional or group positions. 2b. Writing begins as countries work together to compose Draft resolutions. 3b. Countries and groups meet to gather support for specific ideas. 4b. Delegates finalize draft resolutions. 5b. Draft-resolution sponsors build greater support for their resolution and look to incorporate others’ ideas through friendly amendments.

Close of Debate Once the speakers list is exhausted, the committee automatically moves to voting. Also, once a delegate feels that his or her country’s position is clear to others and that there are enough draft resolutions on the floor, he or she may make a motion to proceed into voting procedure by moving for the closure of debate.

Voting Procedures Once a motion to close debate has been approved, the committee moves into voting procedure. Amendments are voted on first, then resolutions. Once all of the resolutions are voted on, the committee moves to the next topic on the agenda.


POINTS AND MOTIONS Motion or Point Description Vote to Pass Motion to suspend the meeting Suspending the meeting means calling for a moderated or unmoderated caucus. When moving to suspend the meeting, delegates should specify the purpose for and length of the suspension. This motion requires an immediate vote. Motion to adjourn meeting Adjourning the meeting ends the committee session until the next session, which may be held the following year. The motion is most commonly made to end a committee session for the purpose of lunch or dinner. It requires an immediate vote. Motion to table debate This motion must not be confused with the motion to adjourn the meeting. Tabling debate ends debate on the topic. Delegates can table debate, move on to another topic and return to the first topic at a later time. Two delegates must speak in favor of tabling debate and two speak against it. (Two-thirds majority required). Motion to close debate Closing debate allows the committee to move into voting procedure. Once a delegate feels that his or her country’s position has been made clear, that there are enough draft resolutions on the floor and that all other delegates are ready, he or she can move for the closure of debate. (Two-thirds majority required). Appeal to the chair’s decision This motion is made when a delegate feels that the chairperson has made an incorrect decision. The appeal must first be made in writing and is adjudicated by the Secretary General. Point of order Points of order are used either when delegates believe the chair has made an error in the running of the committee, or when they believe a factual error has been made .The clarification of these shall be done by the executive board


Point of Inquiry (also known as Point of Parliamentary Procedure) When the floor is open (i.e. no other delegate is speaking), a delegate may rise to a point of inquiry in order to ask the chairperson a question regarding the rules of procedure. (No vote required). Point of Personal Privilege Points of personal privilege are used to inform the chairperson of a physical discomfort a delegate is experiencing, such as the inability to hear another delegate’s speech. (No vote required) Point of Information After a delegate has given a speech in formal debate, he or she may yield time to points of information, or questions from other delegates concerning the speech or any other significant issue pertaining to that nation’s stand on the agenda at hand. (No vote required).


RULES OF PROCEDURE: SHORT FORM *Note: All procedural matters in committee are subject to the discretion of the Chairperson. The Chair may undertake any action that is not covered in the Rules of Procedure in order to facilitate the flow of debate at the conference. MOTION Adoption of agenda

SECOND REQUIRED Yes

DEBATABLE

INTERRUPT SPEAKER No

VOTE TO PASS

SPECIAL NOTES

Simple Majority

Used to set order of agenda

Yes

N.A.

Used when a delegate experiences personal discomfort Used when delegate wishes to point out procedural or factual errors. Used when delegate wishes to address a question regarding procedural matters Directed to other delegates for the purpose of asking questions related to speeches and draft resolutions Raised after a delegate speaks. Yields can be made to points of information,

Point of Personal Privilege

No

3 For 3 Against (based on discretion) No

Point of Order

No

No

Yes (Subject to change based on discretion)

N.A.

Point of No (Parliamentary) Inquiry

No

No

N.A.

Point of Information

No

No

No

N.A.

Yields

No

No

No

N.A.


Right of reply

No

No

No

N.A.

Appeal to Chair’s Decision

No

No

No

N.A.

Motion to suspend debate(caucus)

Yes

No

No

Simple Majority

Motion to table debate

Yes

2 For 2 Against

No

2/3 rd majority

Closure of debate

Yes

2 Against

No

2/3 rd majority

Motion to adjourn debate

Yes

No

No

Simple majority

another delegate or the Chair Used when delegate feels that someone has made a derogatory comment or remark. Must be submitted in writing to the Chair Made when delegate feels that the Chair has made an incorrect decision. Must be submitted in writing to the Chair Used in order to suspend debate for the purpose of moderated or unmoderated caucus of specified time duration Tables the current topic and move to next agenda item Ends debate and moves into voting procedure Ends the meeting/ council for the day.


RULES OF PROCEDURE: LONG FORM

I. INTRODUCTORY REMARKS Rule 1. Official and Working Language English shall be the official and working language of all committees during formal and informal debate. Rule 2. Decorum Delegates are to obey instructions given by the MUN Summit Manipal Conference Staff. Those who do not obey directions will be dismissed from the conference. II. SECRETARIAT Rule 3. Statements by the Secretariat The Secretary-General or his/her representative may make oral as well as written statements to any committee concerning any issue. Rule 4. General Functions of the Secretariat The Chairperson shall declare the opening and closing of each meeting and may propose the adoption of any procedural motions to which there is no significant objection. The Chair, subject to these rules, shall have complete control of the proceedings at any meeting and shall moderate discussion, announce decisions, rule on points or motions, and ensure and enforce the observance of these rules. The Chair may temporarily transfer his or her duties to another member of the committee staff. All procedural matters in committee are subject to the discretion of the Chair. The Chair may undertake any action that is not covered in the Rules of Procedure in order to facilitate the flow of debate at the conference. III. AGENDA Rule 5. Agenda The Secretary-General or his/her representative shall communicate the agenda to the delegates before the conference. Rule 6. Revision of the Agenda Additional items of an important and urgent nature may be placed on the agenda during a regular session by the Secretary-General, who may do so at his/her discretion. This is most common in the Security Council.


Rule 7. Adoption of the Agenda The first order of business for the committee shall be to adopt the agenda. The only motion in order at this time will be in the form of “The nation of [country name] moves that [topic area x] be placed first on the agenda.” i. The motion requires a second and is debatable. ii. A provisional speakers list shall be established with three people speaking for and three people speaking against the motion (speaking time for these remarks shall be one minute). iii. After the provisional speakers list is exhausted, the committee shall move into an immediate vote—a simple majority is required for the motion to pass. iv. A motion to proceed to the second topic area is in order only after the committee has adopted or rejected a resolution on the first topic area or debate has been tabled. v. In the event of a “crisis” or emergency, the Secretary-General or Deputy Secretary-General may call upon a committee to table debate on the current topic area so that the more urgent matter can be addressed. After a resolution has been addressed and voted upon, the committee will return to debate the tabled topic. If a resolution on the crisis topic fails, the committee may return to debate the tabled topic area only at the discretion of the Secretary-General or Deputy SecretaryGeneral.

IV. CONDUCT OF BUSINESS Rule 8. Speakers List The Chair shall open the speakers list for each topic to be discussed at the request of a delegate. Any delegate wishing to be added to the speakers list shall indicate so when asked by the Chair or shall submit a request in writing to the dais. Rule 9. Limitation of Speaking Time The Chair may limit the time allotted to each speaker. However, delegates can move to increase or decrease the speaking time, which will be voted upon by the


committee or council. When a delegate exceeds his or her allotted time, the Chair may call the speaker to order without delay. Rule 10. Speeches No delegate may address the body without permission from the Chair. The Chair may call a speaker to order if his/her remarks are not relevant to the subject under discussion. The Chair shall enforce the time limit as described by Rule 9. Rule 11. Yielding Time The delegate, who has been recognized by the Chair to address the body on a substantive issue, may yield any time after his or her speech. Yields may be made in three ways: to another delegate, to points of information (questions) or to the Chair. i. Yield to another delegate. His/her remaining time shall be given to another delegate. ii. Yield to points of information. Delegates shall be selected by the Chair to ask one question per speech. The Chair has the right to call order to any delegate whose question is, in the opinion of the Chair, not designed to elicit information. Answers to questions are limited to the time remaining in a delegate’s speech. iii. Yield to the Chair. Such a yield should be made if the delegate does not wish to yield his/her time to questions or to another delegate. The Chair shall then move on to the next speaker. iv. Once a delegate yields his/her time, the second delegate (the one who has been yielded to) may not yield any remaining time.

Rule 12. Right of Reply The Chair may recognize a Right of Reply only in instances of a grave personal insult. Rights of Reply must be submitted in writing to the Chair and may only be granted after a speech is finished. The Chair shall inform the Secretary-General of the circumstances surrounding the Right of Reply. No ruling on this matter is subject to appeal.


Rule 13. Appeal to the Chair’s Decision An appeal is made when a delegate feels that the Chair has made an incorrect ruling. The delegate must send a note to the dais, moving to appeal the Chair’s decision. The appeal will be taken to the Secretary-General who will decide if the appeal will be considered. Once the motion is acknowledged, the SecretaryGeneral will hear from both the delegate and the Chair before making a decision.

V. POINTS Rule 14. Point of Personal Privilege During the discussion of any matter, a delegate may raise a Point of Personal Privilege and the Chair shall immediately address the point. A Point of Personal Privilege must refer to a matter of personal comfort or safety and/or the wellbeing of the members of the committee. The Chair may refuse to recognize a Point of Personal Privilege if the delegate has not shown proper restraint and decorum, or if the point is dilatory in nature.

Rule 15. Point of Order During the discussion of any matter, a delegate may raise a Point of Order and the Chair shall immediately consider the request. A Point of Order must relate to the observance of the rules of the committee or to the way the Chair is exercising his or her power. A delegate raising a Point of Order may not speak on the substance of the matter under discussion. The Chair may refuse to recognize a Point of Order if the delegate has not shown proper restraint and decorum governing the use of such a right, or if the point is dilatory in nature. Rule 16. Point of Information (Question to Other Delegates) After a delegate gives a speech, and if the delegate yields his or her time to Points of Information, one Point of Information (a question) can be raised by delegates from the floor. The speaker will be allotted the remainder of his or her speaking time to address Points of Information. Points of Information are directed to the speaker and allow other delegations to ask questions in relation to speeches and resolutions. Rule 17. Point of Inquiry If there is no discussion on the floor, a delegate may raise a Point of Inquiry to request clarification on procedure. A Point of Inquiry may never interrupt a speaker.


VI. MOTIONS Rule 18. Suspend Debate (Motion to Caucus) Upon the recommendation of the Chair or any delegate, the committee may consider a motion to Suspend Debate for the purpose of a moderated or unmoderated caucus. This motion requires a majority vote. i. Moderated Caucus: The recommendation for a moderated caucus must include a time limit for delegate remarks and a time limit for the entire caucus (e.g. “The country of [country name] moves for a five-minute moderated caucus with a 30second speaking time.”). During moderated caucuses, the chair shall recognize delegates for remarks without the use of a speakers list and yields shall be out of order. ii. Unmoderated Caucus: The recommendation for an unmoderated caucus requires a time limit to be made (e.g. “The nation of [country name] moves for a 10-minute unmoderated caucus.”). Unmoderated caucuses allow delegates to have informal discussions. Rule 19. Motion to Table Debate During the discussion of any matter, the committee may consider a motion to table debate on the item under discussion at the recommendation of the Chair or any delegate. If the motion is seconded, two representatives may speak in favor of and two against the motion. Then, the motion shall immediately be put to a vote. A two-thirds majority is required for passage. If a motion to table debate is passed, the topic is considered tabled and no further actions or votes will be taken on it. A topic may be reintroduced to the committee so that debate can resume through the same process. The motion to resume debate on a tabled topic shall also require a two-thirds majority for passage. Rule 20. Closure of Debate A delegate may at any time move for the closure of debate on the item under discussion, after which debate will end and all draft resolutions and amendments will be put to an immediate vote. Permission to speak on the closure of debate shall be accorded only to two speakers opposing the closure, after which the motion shall be immediately put to a vote. This motion requires a two-thirds majority decision. Upon passage of this motion, the Chair shall declare the closure of debate and immediately move into voting procedure on the substantive proposals introduced and pending before the committee. The committee shall also close debate and move into voting procedure when the speakers list has been exhausted.


Rule 21. Adjournment of the Meeting During the discussion of any matter, a delegate may move to adjourn the meeting. Such a motion shall not be debated but shall be immediately put to a vote. After adjournment, the committee shall reconvene at its next regularly scheduled meeting time; adjournment of the final meeting shall adjourn the session. Rule 22. Order of Procedural Motions The motions below shall have precedence in the following order over all other proposals or motions before the committee: a) Point of Personal Privilege b) Point of Order c) Point of Inquiry d) Point of Information e) Introduction of a Draft Resolution f) Motion to Suspend Debate g) Motion to Table Debate h) Motion for Closure of Debate i) Motion to Adjourn the Meeting VII. RESOLUTIONS Rule 23. Submission of Draft Resolutions and Amendments Draft resolutions and amendments shall be submitted to the Director on the draft resolution forms given to delegates in committee. All submissions must have the proper number of signatures (20 percent of countries present in committee). The Chair may permit discussion and consideration of proposals and amendments once approved, even if the documents have not been circulated through the committee. Rule 24. Introducing Draft Resolutions Once the Director has approved a draft resolution and the draft resolution has been copied and distributed, a delegate may raise a motion to introduce the draft resolution. The motion is automatically approved and does not require a vote. The content of the introduction shall be limited to summarizing the operative clauses of the draft resolution. Such an introduction shall be considered procedural in nature, hence yields and comments are out of order. After the draft resolution is introduced, the Chair will allow two points of information at his/her discretion. Additional questions and comments regarding the resolution are encouraged to be raised through the speakers list and yields.


Rule 25. Amendments Both friendly and unfriendly amendments require the approval of the Chair. An amendment is considered friendly if all sponsors of the initial draft resolution are signatories of the amendment. Such an amendment is adopted automatically. Unfriendly amendments are a decision of the committee. An unfriendly amendment must have the approval of the Director and the signatures of 20 percent of the committee. Amendments to amendments are out of order. VIII. VOTING Rule 26. Methods of Decision All procedural decisions, except for the closure and adjournment of debate, shall be made by a simple majority of the delegations present. Delegations physically present in the committee may not abstain on procedural motions. Decisions on draft resolutions and amendments shall require a simple majority in favor. However, the passage of all resolutions and amendments in the Security Council requires nine affirmative votes and an affirmative vote or an abstention on the part of all permanent members (People’s Republic of China, France, Russian Federation, United States of America and United Kingdom). Rule 27. Voting Rights Each present delegation shall have one vote. Observing nations and nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) cannot vote on substantive matters. Each vote may be a Yes, No or Abstain. On procedural motions, members may not abstain. Members “present and voting� shall be defined as members casting an affirmative or negative vote (no abstentions) on all substantive votes. Rule 28. Conduct while in Voting Procedure After the Chair has announced the beginning of voting, no representative may enter or leave the room, nor shall any representative interrupt the voting except on a Point of Personal Privilege, Point of Inquiry or a Point of Order in connection with the actual conduct of the voting. Communication between delegates is strictly forbidden. A member of the staff will secure the doors during voting procedure.

Rule 29. Method of Voting Delegations may vote in favor of or against a proposal or may abstain from voting. The committee shall normally vote by show of placards, but any delegate may


request a roll-call vote on substantive matters. The roll-call vote shall be taken in alphabetical order of the English names of the countries present. During a roll-call vote, delegations may answer with an affirmative vote, a negative vote or an abstention (when appropriate), or they may pass. Delegations passing in the first round of voting will be called upon alphabetically in a second round, at which time they may only answer with an affirmative or negative vote. They cannot abstain from voting at this time. Delegations that appear to be voting out of policy, while casting an affirmative or negative vote, may reserve the right to explain their vote by Voting with Rights. Delegations must announce that they are Voting with Rights at the time they cast their vote. The Chair may permit delegations Voting with Rights to explain their votes after voting has concluded but before the decision has been announced. Rule 30. Order of Draft Resolutions If two or more draft resolutions relate to the same question, the committee shall vote on the resolutions in the order in which they have been submitted. Rule 31. Voting on Unfriendly Amendments During the voting procedure on a substantive proposal, unfriendly amendments to a resolution shall be voted on first. When two or more amendments are proposed to a resolution concurrently, the committee shall first vote on the amendment that creates the greatest change to the draft resolution, as deemed by the Chair, and then the amendment that creates the second greatest change to the resolution. This process continues until all amendments are voted upon. Where, however, the adoption of the amendment necessarily implies the rejection of another amendment (as decided by the Chair), the latter amendment shall not be put to a vote. If one or more amendments are adopted, the amended proposal shall then be voted upon. Amendment voting is a substantive procedure and adoption requires the simple majority consent of the delegations present. Rule 32. Passage of Resolutions If a vote does not result in a simple majority* in favor, the resolution shall be regarded as rejected. A simple majority requires 50 percent of the members present during the last roll-call, plus one. Example: 99 members present requires 49.5 (50 percent) + 1 = 50.5 = 51 affirmative votes. *Exceptions: The Security Council requires nine affirmative votes for the passage of resolutions and amendments. In addition to the nine affirmative votes, an affirmative vote or an abstention on the part of all permanent members (People’s Republic of China, France, Russian Federation,


United States of America and United Kingdom) is required for the passage of all resolutions and amendments.

IX. SUSPENSION OF THE RULES Rule 33. Suspension of the Rules These rules may only be suspended following a majority vote. Any motion to suspend the rules is subject to the Chair’s discretion.

Delegate Handbook  

Delegate handbook for prospective MUN participants

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